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THE 



HISTORY 



OF 



Holt % Atchison Counties, 



MISSOURI 



CONTAINING 



A HISTORY OF THESE COUNTIES, THEIR CITIES, TOWNS, ETC., ETC., 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF THEIR CITIZENS, GENERAL AND LOCAL STATISTICS, POR- 
TRAITS OF EARLY SETTLERS AND PROMINENT MEN, HISTORY OF 
MISSOURI, MAP OF HOLT AND ATCHISON COUNTIES, ETC. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



ST. JOSEPH, MO.: 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL COMPANY, 

1882. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, by 

O. P. WILLIAMS & CO., 

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 



ST. JOSEPH, MO.: 
- Joseph S TBAM P RINT1NG CoMPANYj p,.^ ^^ ^ 

1882. 

THE LIBRARY 

BRIGHAM YOUNG V! i # 

PROVO, UTAH 



.37 



T.63 



T. 62 







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PREFACE.J^e* 



What wonderful changes a few years have wrought in Northwest 
Missouri ! Less than forty-five years ago not a single white man dwelt 
within the present limits of Holt and Atchison Counties. Their soil 
had, doubtless, occasionally been pressed by the reckless hunter and 
daring adventurer, but their beautiful rolling prairies, their charming 
timber-fringed streams and enchanting groves were the homes of the 
antelope, the elk, the buffalo and the red man. How all has been 
changed by the hand of progress ! To-day the busy hum of industry 
everywhere resounds, and the voice of culture and refinement echo 
where once was heard the howl of the wild beast and war-whoop of the 
Indian. These have been years fraught with important events to the 
sons and daughters from the old firesides of Kentucky, Virginia, Ten- 
nessee, Ohio and Indiana and from the more distant homes beyond the 
Atlantic. The energy and bravery of these hardy pioneers and their 
descendants have made Holt -and Atchison Counties what they are. 
Their labors have caused the wilderness to " bud and blossom as the 
rose." and, to preserve the story of this wonderful change and to hand 
it down to posterity as a link in the history of the great State of which 
Holt and Atchison Counties form integral parts, has been the object of 
this book. While the publishers do not arrogate to themselves a degree 
of accuracy beyond criticism, they hope to have attained a large measure 
of exactness in the compilation and arrangement of the almost innum- 
erable incidents which are treated. These incidents have been gleaned 
from the memory and notes of the old settlers, and although an error 
may seemingly occur here and there, the reader must not hastily con- 
clude that the history is in fault, but rather test his opinion with that of 
others familiar with the facts. Among those whom we specially men- 
tion as having greatly assisted us in the preparation of this work are 



IV 



PREFACE. 



Hon. Thomas C. Dungan, Hon. L. R. Knowles, Hon. James Limbird, 
James Scott, Esq., Colonel Clarke Irvine and T. H. Parrish, of Holt 
County, and John D. Dopf, Cyrus N. VanPelt, Hon. J. P. Lewis, John W. 
Smith, M. L. Lee, R. W. Trimble. A. E. Wyatt, L. C. Christian, R. Lynn, 
John E. Spurlock, W. T. Buckham and D. A. Colvin, of Atchison County. 
It only remains for us to tender the people of Holt and Atchison 
Counties in general our thanks for the many courtesies extended to us' 
and our representatives during the preparation of these annals ; without 
their friendly aid, this history would have been left beneath the debris 
of time, unwritten and unpreserved. 

The Publishers. 



S&k 




■-*->-> if.- 



ICONTENTS^- 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



Page. 



CHAPTER I. 

LOUISIANA PURCHASE— 
Brief Historical Sketch. 



CHAPTER II. 

DESCRIPTIVE AND GEOGRAPHICAL— 
Name — Extent — Surface — Rivers — 
Timber — Climate — Prairies — Soils — 
Population by Counties ...... 14 

CHAPTER III. 

GEOLOGY OF MISSOURI- 

Classification of Rocks — Quarternary 
Formation — Tertiary — Cretaceous — 
Carboniferous — Devonian — Silurian 
— Azoic — Economic Geology — Coal 
— Iron — Lead — Copper- Zinc— Build- 
ing Stone — Marble — Gypsum — Lime 
Paints — Springs — Water Power . . 20 

CHAPTER IV. 

TITLE AND EARLY SETTLEMENTS— 
Title to Missouri Lands — Right of 
Discovery — Title of France and Spain 

— Cession to the United States — Ter- 
ritorial Changes — Treaties with In- 
dians—First Settlement — Ste. Gene- 
vieve and New Bourbon — St. Louis — 
When Incorporated — Potosi — St. 
Charles — Portage Des Sioux — New 
Madrid — St. Francois County — Perry 

— ississippi — Loutre Island — 
"Boone's Lick" — Cote Sans Dessein 
— Howard County--Some First Things 

— Counties — When Organized ... 26 

CHAPTER V. 



TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION— 

Organization 181 2— Council — House 
of Representatives — Wm. Clark First 
Territorial Governor — Edward Hemp- 
stead First Delegate — Spanish Grants 
— First General Assembly — Proceed- 
ings — Second Assembly — Proceedings 
— Population of Territory — Vote of 
Territory — Rufus Easton — Absent 
embers — Third Assembly— Proceed- 
ings — Application for Admission . . 



CHAPTER VI. 



Page. 



MISSOURI ADMITTED INTO THEUNION— 
Application of Missouri to be Admit- 
ted Into the Union — Agitation of the 
Slavery Question-"Missouri Compro- 
mise" — Constitutional Convention of 
1820— Constitution Presented to Con- 
gress — Further Resistance to Admis- 
sion — Mr. Clay and his Committee 
Make Report — Second Compromise— . 
Missouri Admitted 35 

CHAPTER VII. 

MISSOURI AS A STATE— 

First Election for Governor and Other 
State Officers— Senators and Repre- 
sentatives to General Assembly-Sher- 
iffs and Coroners— United States Sena- 
tors — Representatives in Congress-Su- 
preme Court Judges— Counties Organ- 
ized — Capital Moved to St. Charles — 
Official Record of Territorial and 
State Officers 40 

CHAPTER VIII. 

EARLY MILITARY RECORD— 

Black Hawk War — Mormon Difficul- 
ties — Florida War — Mexican War.. 46 

CHAPTER IX. 

CIVIL WAR IN MISSOURI— 

Fort Sumpter Fired Upon — CaT for 
75,000 Men — Gov. Jackson Refuses to 
Furnish a Man — U.S. Arsenal at Lib- 
erty Seized — Proclamation of Gov. 
Jackson— General Order No. 7— Leg- 
islature Convenes — Camp Jackson 
Organized — Sterling Price Appointed 
Major General — Frost's Letter to 
Lyon — Lyon's Letter to Frost — Sur- 
render of Camp Jackson — Proclama- 
tion of Gen. Harney — Conference 
Between Price and Harney — Harney 
Superceded by Lyon— Second Confer- 
ence — Governor Jackson Burns the 
Bridges Behind Him— Proclamation 
of Gov. Jackson — Gen. Blair Takes 
Possession of Jefferson City — Procla- 
mation of Lyon— Lyon at Springfield 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

— State Offices Declared Vacant — 
Gen. Fremont Assumes Command — 
Proclamation of Lieut. Gov. Rey- 
nolds — Proclamation of Jeff. Thomp- 
son and Gov. Jackson — Death of Gen. 
Lyon — Succeeded by Sturgis— Procla- 
mation of McCullough and Gamble 
— Martial Law Declared — Second 
Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson — 
President Modifies Fremont's Order — 
Fremont Relieved by Hunter — Proc- 
lamation of Price — Hunter's Order 
of Assessment — Hunter Declares 
Martial Law — Order Relating to 
Newspapers — Halleck Succeeds Hun- 
ter — Halleck's Order 81 — SimilarOr- 
der by Halleck — Boone County 
Standard Confiscated — Execution of 
Prisoners at Macon and Palmyra — 
Gen. Ewing's Order No. II — Gen. 
Rosecrans Takes Command — Massa- 
cre at Centralia — Death of Bill An- 
derson — Gen. Dodge Succeeds Gen. 
Rosecrans — List of Battles .... 5 1 

CHAPTER X. 
AGRICULTURE AND MATERIAL WEALTH— 
Missouri as an Agricultural State — 
The Different Crops — Live Stock — 
Horses and Mules — Milch Cows — 
Oxen and Other Cattle- Sheep—Hogs 
— Comparisons — Missouri Adapted to 
Live Stock — Cotton — Broom Corn 
and Other Products — Fruits — Berries 



Page. 
* — Grapes — Railroads — First Neigh of 
the "Iron Horse" in Missouri — 
Names of Railroads — Manufactures — 
Great Bridge ac Si. Louis 60 

CHAPTER XI. 

EDUCATION— 

Public School System — Public School 
System of Missouri — Lincoln Insti- 
tute — Officers of Public School Sys- 
tem — Certificates of Teachers — Uni- 
versity of Missouri — Schools — Col- 
leges — Institutions of Learning — Lo- 
cation — Libraries — Newspapers and 
Periodicals — Number of School 
Children — Amount Expended — Value 
of Grounds and Buildings — " The 
Press " 66 

CHAPTER XII. 

RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS- 

Baptist Church — Its History—Congre- 
gational — When Founded — Its His- 
tory — Christian Church — Its History 
— Cumberland Presbyterian Church — 
Its History — Methodist Episcopal 
Church — Its History — Presbyterian 
Church — Its History — Protestant 
Episcopal Church — Its History — 
United Presbyterian Church — Its 
History— Unitarian Church — Its His- 
tory — Roman Catholic Church — Its 
History 73 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 



CHAPTER I. 
PREFATORY— 

History of Holt County . . 



79 



CHAPTER II. 
PLATTE PURCHASE— 

The Platte Country — Correspondence 
in Reference Thereto — Meeting at 
Liberty, Missouri — Its Object — Me- 
morial — Efforts of Benton and Linn — 
Treaty with the loways, Sacs and Fox 
Indians 85 

CHAPTER III. 
GEOLOGY OF HOLT COUNTY - 

Location — Boundary — Area — Topog- 
raphy — Timber — Prairie — Soil — 
Streams — Coal — Grindstones — Lime- 
stone — Mineral Resources — Cement 
Works — Gold Mines 93 

CHAPTER IV. 

HOLT COUNTY ORGANIZED— 

Act Organizing Holt County — Terri 
tory of Neatawah — Hon. D. R. Holt 
— First County Court — Its Proceedings 
— Orders — Ferries — Townships Or- 
ganized — First Election — Report of 
Commissioners on County Seat — Sub- 
sequent Proceedings— Revenue — First 



Circuit Court— Its Proceedings— First 
Grand Jury— Indictments— First In- 
struments Recorded— Early Marriages. 100 



CHAPTER V. 

FIRST SETTLEMENTS— 



114 



CHAPTER VI. 



COUNTY AND TOWNSHIP SYSTEM- _ 
Government Surveys — Organization 
of Townships • ■ 1 17 

CHAPTER VII. 

BENTON TOWNSHIP— 

Boundaries— Physical Features— Ear- 
ly Settlers— Mineral Resources — Jack-' 
son's Point — First School — First 
Preacher — Mound City — Public 
School— Masonic Fraternity-Churches 
— Mills- Newspapers — Professional— 
R. R Facilities— Bank— Biographical. 125. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

BIGELOW TOWNSHIP— 

Bigelow Township Boundaries — Phy- 
sical Features — Early Settlers— First 
Mercantile Enterprise — Churches — 
Isaac Hays — Bigelow — Biographical. 190 



CONTENTS. 



Vll 



CHAPTER IX. 



Page. 



CLAY TOWNSHIP- 

Boundaries — Physical Features — 
Eaily Settlers— Whig Valley— Mait- 
land — Schools — Churches — Business 
Directory-.— Biographical 204 

CHAPTER X. 
FORBES TOWNSHIP— 

Boundaries — Physical Features — 
Streams— Early Settlers— First Preach- 
er — First Church Organized — First 
School— Other Early Settlers— First 
Physician — Buildings and People — 
Dallas- -West Union— Forbes — Edu- 
cational — Present Business — Shipping 
Station— Biographical 235 

CHAPTER XI. 
HICKORY TOWNSHIP— 

Hickory Township Boundaries — 
Early Settlers — Nickols' Grove — 
First School House — First Preacher — 
First Physician, Etc —First Mill— 
Dunkard Church — New Point — 
Churches — Water — Short Horns — 
Orchards — Biographical 261 

CHAPTER XII. 
LINCOLN TOWNSHIP— 

Boundaries — Physical Features — 
Early Settlers — Hemme's Landing — 
Corning — Tarkio Valley Branch — 
Mills and Elevators — Newspapers — 
Business Directory— Biographical . . 285 

CHAPTER XIII. 

LEWIS TOWNSHIP— 

Boundaries — Physical Features — 
Early Settlements — The First Church 
—First Distillery— First Post Office- 
Pioneer Merchants— William Banks — 
Banks' Spring — Manx Men— Daniel 
Zook — The Float Bridge — Populus 
Tremula — Road from Oregon to For- 
est City — Mills 304 

CHAPTER XIV. 
OREGON AND FOREST CITY— 

When Laid Out and Named Finley— 
Changed to Oregon — First and Sec- 
ond Sale of Lots — Special Act of 
Congress — Early Settlers — Baildings 
— County Court— First School — First 
Preacher — Physicians — Postmaster — 
Lightning — Mill — Churches — Secret 
Societies — Woman's Union — Literary 
Societies — Normal and Public Schools 
— Newspaper Enterprises — Improve- 
ments—Banks — Business — Mayors — 
Concluding Remarks — Postmasters — 
Forest City— Early Buildings— Schools 
— Hotel — Early Business — Brewery — 
Town Incorporated — Churches — Se- 
cret Orders — Banks — Newspapers — 
Mills and Manufactures — Present Bus 
iness— Original Settlers — Indian Bur- 
ial Ground — Shipping Interests — Bio- 
graphical 320 



Page. 



CHAPTER XV. 



LIBERTY TOWNSHIP— 

Boundaries— Physical Features— Early 
Settlers- -New Liberty Church — Bio- 
graphical 419 

CHAPTER XVI. 

NODAWAY TOWNSHIP— 

Nodaway Township — Physical Fea- 
tures — Early Settlers — Churches — 
Schools — Mills— Richville— Fruit- 
Early Pugilists — Timber — Biographi- 
cal 437 

CHAPTER XVII. 

UNION TOWNSHIP— 

Boundaries — Physical Features — Ear- 
ly Settlers-Defunct Towns— Churches 
— Craig — Churches and Societies — 
The Flood — When Town was Char- 
tered — Business Directory — Biograph- 
ical 45° 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND IMPROVEMENTS- 

First Court House — Second Court 

House — Third and Present Court 

House — Jails— Public Square- County 

Poor Farm 478 

CHAPTER XIX. 
HOLT COUNTY BENCH AND BAR— 

Hon. Henry S. Kelley — Daniel Zook, 
Esq— E. Van Buskirk— Hon. T. C. 
Dungan — Hon. Thomas H. Parrish — 
Hon. James Limbird — Charles W. 
Thomas, Esq.— L. R. Knowles, Esq. 
— Leigh H. Irvine— Samuel F.O'Fal- 
lon — Early Members of the Bar . . . 486 
CHAPTER XX. 
CRIMES— 

Trial of John Lawrence— Simero Trag- 
edy — Killing of John Taylor .... 493 
CHAPTER XXI. 

AGRICULTURAL INTERESTS— 

Cereal Production — Stock — Fruit — 
Nurseries — Vineyards — Sorghum — 
Fairs — Holt County Agricultural and 
Mechanical Society — Swamp Lands — 

People 5°4 

CHAPTER XXII. 

RAILROADS, SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES- 
Platte Country Railroad — Kansas City, 
St. Joseph and Council Bluffs Railroad 
— Nodaway Valley Branch — Tarkio 
Valley Branch— Shipments for 1881 — 
Railroad Meeting at Oregon — Public 
Schools — Pioneer School House — 
Number of Schools in the County — 
Enumeration for 1881 — Average Num- 
ber Attending — Number of Male and 
Female Teachers — Annual Distribu- 
tion — Principal of the Various School 
Funds — Fines and Penalties — Wages 
to Teachers — Expenses — School Com- 
missioners — Churches — Early M inis- 
ters — Bishop Marvin's Letter — First 
Sunday School 518 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 
FINANCIAL AND POLITICAL— 

■ •■•••••■•••• 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
OFFICIAL DIRECTORY— 



Page. 
. 528 
. 561 



CHAPTER XXV. 
GOLD SEEKERS OF 1849— 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

REMINISCENCES OF AN OLD PIONEER- 



Page. 
• S64 



573 



HISTORY OF ATCHISON COUNTY. 



CHAPTER I. 

ACT ORGANIZING THE COU-NTY OF ATCHI- 
SON- 
Biographical Sketch of General D. 

R. Atchison 585 

CHAPTER II. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES— 

Location — Boundary — Surface — 
Streams — Timber — Climate and 
Health— Rainfall— Prairie 588 

CHAPTER III. 

GEOLOGY OF ATCHISON COUNTY— 



595 



CHAPTER IV. 

FIRST COURTS ORGANIZED— 

County Court Organized — Its Pro- 
ceedings—The Circuit Court — Attor- 
neys — Grand Jurors — First Cases — 
Entries — Bills of Indictment — Con- 
veyances — Early Marriages 602 

CHAPTER V. 

FIRST SETTLEMENTS— 

Importance of First Beginnings — 
When and Where Commenced.. . . 610 
CHAPTER VI. 

PIONEER LIFE— 

Pioneers' Peculiarities — Conveniences 
and Inconveniences — The Historical 
Log Cabin — Agricultural Implements 
— Household Furniture — Pioneer 
Corn-Bread — Hand Mills and Homi- 
ny Blocks — Going to Mill — Trading 
Points — Bee-Trees — Shooting 
Matches and Quihings 617 

CHAPTER VII. 
ORIGINAL TOWNSHIPS— 



628 



VIII. 



CHAPTER 
BENTON TOWNSHIP— 

Topography — Bridges — Early Settle- 
ment — Ferries — Churches — Mills — 
Biographical 630 

CHAPTER IX. 
CLAY TOWNSHIP— 

Boundaries — Physical Aspect — 
Bridges — Millsaps, the Pioneer — Ear- 
ly Settlers — Mills — First Store — First 
Blacksmith — German Colony — Pio- 
neer School — Rock 
Blacksmith of Rock 
Hotel — First Livery 
Brewery — The Bank 
County — Municipal — Extension of 
Corporate Limits — Second Incorpora- 



Port — Pioneer 

Port — Pioneer 

Stable — City 

of Atchison 



tion — Incorporation as a City of the 
Fourth Class— County Officials— Ear- 
ly Churches — Methodist Episcopal 
Church South — Present Religious Or- 
ganizations — Christian Church — M is- 
sionary Baptist Church — German Lu- 
theran Church — Methodist Episcopal ■ 
Church — Old School Presbyterian 
Church — Public Schools of Rock Port 
—Rock Port College — North Star 
Lodge, A. F. and A. M — Zerubbabel 
R. A. C. — Adoniram Council, R. and 
S. M— I. O. O. F.— A. O. U. W.— 
Business of 1882 — Union City Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church — Pleas- 
ant Grove Christian Church — Bio- 
graphical 641 

CHAPTER X. 

CLARK TOWNSHIP— 

Boundaries — Topography — Bridges — 
Early Settlers — Schools — Churches — 
Irish Grove — Secret Orders — Milton — 
Fairfax — Churches — Secret Orders' — 
Schools — Incorporation — Business Di- 
rectory — Town Officers — Population 
of Fairfax — Nishnebotna — Business 
Directory — Early Settlers — Coal — Bi- 
ographical 721 

CHAPTER XL 

DALE TOWNSHIP— 

Boundaries and Organization — Topo- 
graphy — Timber — Bridges — Early 
Settlers — Dothan — Elk Dale — Schools 

— Churches — Biographical. . . . 755 

CHAPTER XII. 
LINCOLN TOWNSHIP— 

Boundaries — Topography — Timber — 
Bridges — Early Settlers — Churches 

— Westboro — Business Directory — 
Secret Orders — Churches — Schools — 
Population — Pioneers of the Town — 
Biographical 789 

CHAPTER XIII. 

NISHNEBOTNA TOWNSHIP— 

Topography — Bridge — The Flood — 
Early Settlement — Sonora Laid Out — 
Sonora Incorporated — Pioneer Mill — 
Dr.Wyatt — Business Enterprise — Pork 
Packing — Churches — Societies — Saw 
Mill — Yorktown — Watson — Postmas- 
ters — Churches — School House — In- 
corporation of Watson — Odd Fel- 
lows — Masonic — Business of 1882 — 
Shipping Interests — Biograpical . . 817 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



CHAPTER XIV. 



Page. 



POLK TOWNSHIP— 

Topography -Water Courses-Bridges- 
Early Settlers — Linden — First House 
— First Physician — First Blacksmith — 
Postmasters — Religious Organizations 
— Original Court House — Hotel — Odd 
Fellows — Linden of To Day — Neigh 
borhood of Linden — Mills — Country 
Churches — High Creek Baptist 
Church — Grange Hall — Biographical. 848 

CHAPTER XV. 
BUCHANAAN TOWNSHIP— 

Boundary — West Buchanan Township 
— Topographical Features — Bridges 
— The Pioneer and His Indian Prog- 
eny — Subsequent Early Settlers — El 
Paso — Sacramento City — Mills — First 
School — Churches and Religious Or- 
ganizations — The Great Overflow — 
Biographical S69 

CHAPTER XVI. 
TARKIO TOWNSHIP— 

Boundaries — Topography — Divided 
Into Precincts — Streams and Water 
Courses — Bridges — Early Settlers — 
Center Point— Tarkio — Incorporated 
— Business Directory — Town Officers 
— Shipments of Grain and Stock — 
Churches — Secret Orders — Bands — 
Halls — Hotels — Banks — Population 
and People — Christian City — Post 
Offices — Biographical 889 

CHAPTER XVII. 
TEMPLETON TOWNSHIP— 

Organization and Boundary — Physical 
Aspect — Bridges — Early Settlers — 
Mills — Churches — Phelps City- 
Churches — Schools — Banks — Depots 
— Secret Orders — Newspapers — Busi- 
ness Directory — Incorporation of 
Phelps City — Scott City — Kalamazoo 
— Langdon Post Office — Biographi- 
cal 942 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS— 

First Court House — Removal of the 
County Seat from Linden to Rock 
Port — Second Court House — Plans 
for a New Court House — Court Orders 
a Fire Proof Building — Petition Ask- 
ing to Build Court House — Election 
Ordered — Address of the Court — 
Proposition Defeated — Another Peti- 
tion Presented — Second Election Or- 
dered — Address of the Court — Result 
of Election — Conclusions — County 
Poor Farm 966 



Page. 
CHAPTER XIX. 
AGRICULTURE AND STOCK— 

Atchison as an Agricultural County — 
Corn — Wheat — Barley — Live Stock — 
Hogs — Cattle — Sheep — The People — 
Fruit Interest — Letter of R. Lynn — 
Atchison County Agricultural and Me- 
chanical Association — Officers and Di- 
rectors — Fairs — Sale of Lots — Patrons 
of Husbandry 989 

CHAPTER XX. 

NEWSPAPERS, RAILROADS, PUBLIC 
SCHOOLS, EARLY CHURCHES AND MIN- 
ISTERS— 

Rock Port Weekly Banner — Rock 
Port Herald--Missouri Express---Rock 
Port Weekly Sentinel — Rock Port 
News — Grangers' Advocate — Atchi- 
son Democrat — The Sun — The Dem- 
ocratic Mail — Atchison County Jour- 
nal — Real Estate Register — Phelps 
City Record — Tarkio Blade — Tarkio 
Republican — Fairfax Independent — 
Watson Times — Railroads — Quincy 
and Nebraska Railroad — Quincy, Mis- 
souri and Pacific — Kansas City, St. 
Joseph and Council Bluffs — Tarkio 
Valley — Wabash, St. Louis and Pa- 
cific — Taxes — Miles of Track — Grain 
and Stock — Public Schools — Enumer- 
ation — County, State and Township 
Funds — Superintende n t s — Early 
Churches and Ministers 998 

CHAPTER XXI. 
BENCH AND BAR— 

IOO9 

CHAPTER XXII. 
CRIMES, INCIDENTS, ACCIDENTS— 

Freeman Halsey — Daniel Lafollett — 
Murder of Captain S. A. Hunter — 
Robertson Hung by a Mob — Bill 
Lewis — A Mysterious Affair — Desper- 
ate Affray — High Winds and Storms 
— Earthquake 1016 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
FINANCIAL HISTORY— 

1023 

CHAPTER XXIV. * 
OFFICIAL DIRECTORY— 

1026 

CHAPTER XXV. 

BRIDGES, POST OFFICES, OLD SETTLERS, 
CALIFORNIA EMIGRANTS— 
IO30 

LITHOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS- 

John S. Dopf 689 

David Rankin 923 



History of Missouri. 



CHAPTER I. 
LOUISIANA PURCHASE. 

BRIEF HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The purchase of the vast territory west of the Mississippi River, by 
the United States, extending through Oregon to the Pacific coast and 
south to the dominions of Mexico, constitutes the most important event 
that ever occurred in the history of the nation. 

It gave to our republic additional room for that expansion and stu- 
pendous growth, to which it has since attained, in all that makes it 
strong and enduring, and forms the seat of an empire, from which will 
radiate an influence for good unequaled in the annals of time. In 1763, 
one hundred and eighteen years ago, the immense region of country, 
known at that time as Louisiana, was ceded to Spain by France. By a 
secret article, in the treaty of St. Ildefonso, concluded in 1800, Spain 
ceded it back to France. Napoleon, at that time, coveted the island of 
St. Domingo, not only because of the value of its products, but more 
especially because its location in the Gulf of Mexico would, in a military 
point of view, afford him a fine field, whence he could the more effec- 
tively guard his newly acquired possessions. Hence he desired this 
cession by Spain should be kept a profound secret until he succeeded in 
reducing St. Domingo to submission. In this undertaking, however, 
his hopes were blasted, and so great was his disappointment that he 
apparently became indifferent to the advantages to be derived to France 
from his purchase of Louisiana. 

In 1803 he sent out Laussat as prefect of the colony, who gave the 
people of Louisiana the first intimation that they had had, that they had 
once more become the subjects of France. This was the occasion of 
great rejoicing among the inhabitants, who were Frenchmen in their 

origin, habits, manners and customs. 

i 



10 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Mr. Jefferson, then President of the United States, on being in- 
formed of the retrocession, immediately dispatched instructions to 
•Robert Livingston, the American Minister at Paris, to make known to 
Napoleon that the occupancy of New Orleans, by his government, 
would not only endanger the friendly relations existing between the two 
nations, but, perhaps, oblige the United States to make common cause 
with England, his bitterest and most dreaded enemy, as the possession 
of the city by France would give her command of* the Mississippi, which 
was the only outlet for the produce of the Western States, and give her 
also control of the Gulf of Mexico, so necessary to the protection of 
American commerce. Mr. Jefferson was so fully impressed with the 
idea that the occupancy of New Orleans, by France, would bring about 
a conflict of interests between the two nations, which would finally cul- 
minate in an open rupture, that he urged Mr. Livingston, to not only 
insist upon the free navigation of the Mississippi, but to negotiate for 
the purchase of the city and the surrounding country. 

The question of this negotiation was of so grave a character to the 
United States that the President appointed Mr. Monroe, with full power, 
to act in conjunction with Mr. Livingston. Ever equal to all emergen- 
cies, and prompt in the cabinet, as well as in the field, Napoleon came to 
the conclusion that, as he could not well defend his occupancy of New 
Orleans, he would dispose of it, on the best terms possible. Before, 
however, taking final action in the matter, he summoned two of his min- 
isters, and addressed them as follows : 

" I am fully sensible of the value of Louisiana, and it was my wish 
to repair the error of the French diplomatists who abandoned it in 1763. 
I have scarcely recovered it before I run the risk of losing it ; but if I 
am obliged to give it up, it shall hereafter cost more to those who force 
me to part with it, than to those to whom I shall yield it. The English 
have despoiled France of all her northern possessions in America, and 
now they covet those of the South. I am determined that they shall not 
have the Mississippi. Although Louisiana is but a trifle compared to 
their vast possessions in other parts of the globe, yet, judging from the 
vexation they have manifested on seeing it return to the power of 
France, I am certain that their first object will be to gain possession of 
it. They will probably commence the war in that quarter. They have 
twenty vessels in the Gulf of Mexico, and our affairs in St. Domingo are 
daily getting worse since the death of LeClerc. The conquest of Lou- 
isiana might be easily made, and I have not a moment to lose in getting 
it out of their reach. I am not sure but that they have already begun an 
attack upon it. Such a measure would be in accordance with their 
habits ; and in their place I should not wait. I am inclined, in order to 
deprive them of all prospect of ever possessing it, to cede it to the 
United States, indeed, I can hardly say that I cede it, for I do not yet 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. II 

possess it ; and if I wait but a short time my enemies may leave me 
nothing but an empty title to grant to the republic I wish to conciliate. 
I consider the whole colony as lost, and I believe that in the hands of 
this rising power it will be more useful to the political and even com- 
mercial interests of France than if I should attempt to retain it. Let 
me have both your opinions on the subject." 

One of his ministers approved of the contemplated cession, but the 
other opposed it. The matter was long and earnestly discussed by them, 
before the conference was ended. The next day Napoleon sent for the 
minister who had agreed with him, and said to him : " The season for 
deliberation is over. I have determined to renounce Louisiana. I shall 
give up not only New Orleans, but the whole colony, without reserva- 
tion. That I do not undervalue Louisiana, I have sufficiently proved, as 
the object of my first treaty with Spain was to recover it. But though I 
regret parting with it, I am convinced it would be folly to persist in try- 
ing to keep it. I commission you, therefore, to negotiate this affair with 
the envoys of the United States. Do not wait the arrival of Mr. Monroe, 
but go this very day and confer with Mr. Livingston. Remember, 
however, that I need ample funds for carrying on the war, and I do 
not wish to commence it by levying new taxes. For the last century 
France and Spain have incurred great expense in the improvement 
of Louisiana, for which her trade has never indemnified them. Large 
sums have been advanced to different companies, which have never been 
returned to the treasury. It is fair that I should require repayment for 
these. Were I to regulate my demands by the importance of this terri- 
tory to the United States, they would be unbounded ; but, being obliged 
to part with it, I shall be moderate in my terms. Still, remember, I 
must have fifty millions of francs, and I will not consent to take 
less. I would rather make some desperate effort to preserve this fine 
country." 

That day the negotiations commenced. Mr. Monroe reached Paris 
on the 1 2th of April, and the two representatives of the United States, 
after holding a private interview, announced that they were ready to 
treat for the entire territory. On the 30th of April, 1803, eighteen days 
afterward, the treaty was signed, and on the 21st of October, of the same 
year, Congress ratified the treaty. The United States were to pay 
$11,250,000, and her citizens to be compensated for some illegal captures 
to the amount of $3,750,000, making in the aggregate the sum of 
$15,000,000, while it was agreed that the vessels and merchandise of 
France and Spain should be admitted into all the ports of Louisiana free 
of duty f jr twelve years. Bonaparte stipulated in favor of Louisiana, 
that it should be, as soon as possible, incorporated into the Union, and 
that its inhabitants should enjoy the same rights, privileges and immuni- 
ties as other citizens of the United States, and the clause giving to them 



12 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

these benefits, was drawn up by Bonaparte, who presented it to the 
plenipotentiaries with these words : " Make it known to the people of 
Louisiana, that we regret to part with them ; that we have stipulated for 
all the advantages they could desire ; and that France, in giving them 
up, has insured to them the greatest of all. They could never have pros- 
pered under any European government as they will when they become 
independent. But while they enjoy the privileges of liberty let them 
remember that they are French, and preserve for their mother country 
that affection which a common origin inspires." 

Complete satisfaction was given to both parties in the terms 
of the treaty. Mr. Livingston said : " I consider that from this 
day the United States takes rank with the first powers of Europe, and 
now she has entirely escaped from the power of England," and Bonaparte 
expressed a similar sentiment when he said : " By this cession of terri- 
tory I have secured the power of the United States, and given to 
England a maritime rival, who, at some future time, will humble her 
pride." These were prophetic words, for within a few years afterward 
the British met with a signal defeat, on the plains of the very territory 
of which the great Corsican had been speaking. 

From 1800, the date of the cession made by Spain, to 1803, when it 
was purchased by the United States, no change had been made by the 
French authorities in the jurisprudence of the Upper and Lower Louis- 
iana, and during this period the Spanish laws remained in full force as 
the laws of the entire province ; a fact which is of interest to those who 
would understand the legal history and some of the present laws of 
Missouri 

On December 20th, 1803, Gens. Wilkinson and Claiborne, who were 
jointly commissioned to take possession of the territory for the United 
States, arrived in the city of New Orleans at the head of the American 
forces. Laussat, who had taken possession but twenty days previously 
as the prefect of the colony, gave up his command, and the star-spangled 
banner supplanted the tri-colored flag of France. The agent of France, 
to take possession of Upper Louisiana from the Spanish authorities, was 
Amos Stoddard, captain of artillery in the United States service. He 
was placed in possession of St. Louis on the 9th of March, 1804, by 
Charles Dehault Delassus, the Spanish commandant, and on the follow- 
ing day he transferred it to the United States. The authority of the 
United States in Missouri dates from this day. 

Fi*om that moment the interests of the people of the Mississippi 
Valley became identified. They were troubled no more with the uncer- 
tainties of free navigation. The great river, along whose banks they 
had planted their towns and villages, now afforded them a safe and easy 
outlet to the markets of the world. Under the protecting aegis of a 
government, republican in form, and having free access to an almost 



H1STJRV OF MISSOURI. 13 

boundless domain, embracing in its broad area the diversified climates of 
the globe, and possessing a soil unsurpassed for fertility, beauty of 
scenery and wealth of minerals, they had every incentive to push on 
their enterprises and build up the land wherein their lot had been cast. 

In the purchase of Louisiana, it was known that a great empire had 
been secured as a heritage to the people of our country, for all time to 
come, but of its grandeur, its possibilities, its inexhaustible resources 
and the important relations it would sustain to the nation and the world, 
were never dreamed of by even Mr. Jefferson and his adroit and accom- 
plished diplomatists. 

The most ardent imagination never conceived of the progress, 
which would mark the history of the " Great West." The adventurous 
pioneer, who fifty years ago pitched his tent upon its broad prairies, or 
t'-'-eaded the dark labyrinths of its lonely forests, little thought that a 
mi ;hty tide of physical and intellectual strength would so rapidly flow 
l.i in his footsteps, to populate, build up and enrich the domain which 
he had conquered. 

Year after year, civilization has advanced further and further, until 

at length the mountains, the plains, the hills and the valleys, and even 

the rocks and the caverns, resound with the noise and din of busy 

millions. 

" I beheld the westward marches 
Of the unknown crowded nations. 
All the land was full of people, 
Restless, struggling, toiling, striving, 
Speaking many tongues, yet feeling 
But one heart- beat in their bosoms. 
In the woodland rang their axes, . 
Smoked their towns in all the valleys; 
Over all the lakes and rivers 
Rushed their great canoes of thunder." 

In 1804 Congress, by an act, passed in April of the same year, 
divided Louisiana into two parts, the " Territory of Orleans," and the 
"District of Louisiana," known as "Upper Louisiana." This district 
included all that portion of the old province, north of "Hope Encamp- 
ment," on the Lower Mississippi, and embraced the present State of 
Missouri, and all the western region of country to the Pacific Ocean, and 
all below the forty-ninth degree of north latitude not claimed by Spain. 

As a matter of convenience, on March 26th, 1804, Missouri was 
placed within the jurisdiction of the government of the Territory of 
Indiana, and its government put in motion by Gen. William H. Harrison, 
then governor of Indiana. In this he was assisted by Judges Griffin, 
Vanderberg and Davis, who established in St. Louis what were called 
Courts of Common Pleas. The District of Louisiana was regularly 
organized into the Territory of Louisiana by Congress, March 3d, 1805, 



14 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

and President Jefferson appointed Gen. James Wilkinson governor, and 
Frederick Bates secretary. The Legislature of the Territory was formed 
by Governor Wilkinson and Judges R. J. Meigs and John B. C. Lucas. 
In 1807 Governor Wilkinson was succeeded by Captain Meriwether 
Lewis, who had become famous by reason of his having made the expe- 
dition with Clark. Governor Lewis committed suicide in 1809, and 
President Madison appointed Gen. Benjamin Howard, of Lexington, 
Kentucky, to fill his place. Gen. Howard resigned October 25, 1810, to 
enter the war of 1812, and died in St. Louis, in 1814. Captain William 
Clark, of Lewis and Clark's expedition, was appointed governor in 18 10, 
to succeed Gen. Howard, and remained in office until the admission of 
the State into the Union. 

The portions of Missouri which were settled, for the purpose of local 
government, were divided into four districts. Cape Girardeau was the 
first, and embraced the territory between Tywappity Bottom and Apple 
Creek. Ste. Genevieve, the second, embraced the territory from Apple 
Creek to the Meramec River. St. Louis, the third, embraced the terri- 
tory between the Meramec and Missouri Rivers. St. Charles, the fourth, 
included the settled territory between the Missouri and Mississippi 
Rivers. The total population of these districts at that time was 8,670, 
including slaves. The population of the district of Louisiana, when 
ceded to the United States, was 10,120. 



CHAPTER II. 
DESCRIPTIVE AND GEOGRAPHICAL. 

NAME-EXTENT— SURFACE— RIVERS— TIMBER— CLIMATE— PRAIRIES— SOILS— POPULATION 
B"Y COUNTIES. 

NAME. 

The name Missouri, is derived from the Indian tongue and signifies 
muddy. 

EXTENT. 

Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa (from which it is separated 
for about thirty miles on the northeast by the DesMoines River), and on 
the east by the Mississippi River, which divides it from Illinois, Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, and on the west by the Indian Territory, and by 
the states of Kansas and Nebraska. The state lies (with the exception 
of a small projection between the St. Francis and the Mississippi Rivers, 
which extends to 36 ), between 36 30' and 40 36' north latitude, and 
between 12 2' and 18 51' west longitude from Washington. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 15 

The extreme width of the state east and west is about 348 miles ; 
Its width on its northern boundary, measured from its northwest corner 
along the Iowa line to its intersection with the DesMoines River, is about 
210 miles ; its width on its southern boundary is about 288 miles. Its 
average width is about 235 miles. 

The length of the state north and south, not including the narrow 
strip between the St. Francis and Mississippi Rivers, is about 282 miles. 
It is about 450 miles from its extreme northwest corner to its southeast 
corner, and from the northeast corner to the southwest corner it is about 
230 miles. These limits embrace an area of 65,350 square miles, or 
41,824,000 acres, being nearly as large as England, and the states of 
Vermont and New Hampshire. 

SURFACE. 

t 

North of the Missouri the state is level or undulating, while the por- 
tion south of that river (the larger portion of the state) exhibits a greater 
variety of surface. In the southeastern part is an extensive marsh, 
reaching beyond the state into Arkansas. The remainder of this portion, 
between the Mississippi and Osage Rivers, is rolling and gradually rising 
into a hilly and mountainous district, forming the outskirts of the Ozark 
Mountains. 

Beyond the Osage River, at some distance, commences a vast 
expanse of prairie land, which stretches away towards the Rocky Mount- 
ains. The ridges forming the Ozark chain extend in a northeast and 
southwest direction, separating the waters that flow northeast into the 
Missouri from those that flow southeast into the Mississippi River. 

RIVERS. 

No state in the Union enjoys better facilities for navigation than 
Missouri. By means of the Mississippi River, which stretches along her 
entire eastern boundary, she can hold commercial intercourse with the 
most northern territory and state in the Union ; with the whole valley of 
the Ohio ; with many of the Atlantic States, and with the Gulf of Mexico. 

"Ay, gather Europe's royal rivers all — 
The snow-swelled Neva, with an Empire's weight 
On her broad breast, she yet may overwhelm; 
Dark Danube, hurrying, as by foe pursued, 
Through shaggy forests and by palace walls, 
To hide its terrors in a sea of gloom ; 
The castled Rhine, whose vine-crowned waters 
The fount of fable and the source of song ; 
The rushing Rhone, in whose cerulean depths 
The loving sky seems wedded with the wave} 
The yellow Tiber, chok'd with Roman spoilt, 
* A dying miser shrinking 'neath his gold ; 

The Seine, where fashion glasses the fairest foi 
And Thames that bears the riches of the world ; 



ifl HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Gather their waters in one ocean mass, 

Our Mississippi rolling proudly on, 

Would sweep them from its path, or swallow up, 

Like Aaron's rod, these streams of fame and song." 

By the Missouri River she can extend her commerce to the Rocky 
Mountains, and receive in return the products which will come in the 
course of time, by its multitude of tributaries. 

The Missouri River coasts the northwest line of the state for about 
250 miles, following its windings, and then flows through the state, a lit- 
tle south of east, to its junction with the Mississippi. The Missouri 
River receives a number of tributaries within the limits of the state, the 
principal of which are the Nodaway, Platte, Loutre and Chariton from 
the north, and the Blue, Sniabar, Grand, Osage and Gasconade from the 
south. The principal tributaries of the Mississippi within the state are 
the Salt River, north, and the Meramec River, south, of the Missouri. 

The St. Francis and White Rivers, with their branches, drain the 
southeastern part of the state and pass into Arkansas. The Osage is 
navigable for steamboats for more than 275 miles. There are a vast 
number of smaller streams, such as creeks, branches and rivers, which 
water the state in all directions. 

TIMBER. 

Not more towering in their sublimity were the cedars of ancient 
Lebanon, nor more precious in their utility were the almug trees of 
Ophir, than the native forests of Missouri. The river bottoms are cov- 
ered with a luxuriant growth of oak, ash, elm, hickory, Cottonwood, linn, 
white and black walnut, and in fact all the varieties found in the Atlantic 
and Eastern States. In the more barren districts may be seen the white 
and pin oak, and in many places a dense growth of pine. The crab 
apple, pawpaw and persimmon are abundant, as also the hazel and pecan. 

CLIMATE. 

* The climate of Missouri is, in general, pleasant and salubrious. 
Like that of North America, it is changeable and subject to sudden and 
sometimes extreme changes of heat and cold ; but it is decidedly milder, 
taking the whole year through, than that of the same latitudes east of 
the mountains. While the summers are not more oppressive than they 
are in the corresponding latitudes on and near the Atlantic Coast, the 
winters are shorter, and very much milder, except during the month of 
February, and it has many days of pleasant sunshine. 

PRAIRIES. 

Missouri is a prairie state, especially that portion of it north and 
northwest of the Missouri River. These prairies, along the water 
courses, abound with the thickest and most luxurious belts of timber, 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. I? 

while the "rolling* prairies occupy the higher portions of the country, 
the descent generally to the forest or bottom lands being over stony 
declivities. Many of these prairies, however, exhibit a graceful, waving 
surface, swelling and sinking with an easy slope and a full, rounded out- 
line, equally avoiding the unmeaning, horizontal surface and the inter- 
ruption of abrupt or angular elevations. 

These prairies often embrace extensive tracts of land, and in one or 
two instances they cover an area of fifty thousand acres. During the 
spring and summer they are carpeted with a velvet of green and gaily 
bedecked with flowers of various forms and hues, making a most fasci- 
nating panorama of ever changing color and loveliness. To fully appre- 
ciate their great beauty and magnitude they must be seen. 

SOIL. 

The soil of Missouri is good, and of greac agricultural capabilities, 
but the most fertile portions of the state are the river bottoms, which 
are a rich alluvium, mixed in many cases with sand, the producing qual- 
ities of which are not excelled by the prolific valley of the famous Nile. 

South of the Missouri River there is a greater variety of soil, but 
much of it is fertile, and even in the mountains and mineral districts 
there are rich valleys, and about the sources of the White, Eleven 
Points, Current and Big Black Rivers the soil, though unproductive, fur- 
nishes a valuable growth of yellow pine. 

The marshy lands in the southeastern part of the state will, by a 
system of drainage, be one of the most fertile districts in the state. 

POPULATION BY COUNTIES IN 1870, 1 876, 1880. 



Adair ~i~7 • • 

Andrew . . . . 
Atchison . . . 
Audrain . . . 
•Barry .... 
Barton ... 

Bates 

Benton , . . 
Bollinger . . 
Boone .... 
Buchanan . . 
Butler .... 
Caldwell . . . 
Callaway . . . 
Camden . . . 
Cape Girardeau 
Carroll ... 
Carter .... 
Casa .... 



1870. 


1876. 


1880. 


11,449 


13 774 


15,190 


15.137 


14,992 


16,318 


8,440 


10,925 


14,565 


12,307 


15,157 


19,739 


«o,373 


11,146 


14,424 


5,o87 


6,900 


10,332 


15,960 


17,484 


25,382 


11,322 


11,027 


12,398 


8,162 


8,884 


11,132 


20,765 


3*»9 2 3 


25424 


35-109 


38,165 


49,824 


4,298 


4,3»3 


6,0 1 1 


H,390 


12,200 


13,654 


19,202 


25,257 


* 23,670 


6,108 


7,027 


7,269 


17.558 


17,891 


20,998 


17 445 


21,518 


23300 


1.455 


1.549 


2,168 


19,296 


18,069 


22,431 



18 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Cedar .. . ".""YTT' 9.474 9.9" 10,747 

Chariton '9.'36 23.294 25.224 

Christian 6,707 7,936 9,632 

Clark . . . I3.667 '4-549 '5, 6 3« 

Clinton I4063 13,698 16,073 

Cole • 10,292 14,122 15,519 

Cooper 20,692 21,356 21,622 

Crawford 7.9§ 2 9-391 10,763 

Dade 8,683 11,089 12,557 

Dallas • 8,383 8,073 9,272 

Daviess 14,4'Q 16,557 19. '74 

DeKalb 9.858 11,159 '3.343 

Dent • 6,357 7,401 10.647 

Douglas 3,915 6,461 7,753 

Dunkin 5,982 6,255 9,604 

Franklin 30,098 26,924 26,536 

Gasconade 10,093 11,160 ",153 

Gentry 11,607 12,673 I7,'88 

Greene 21.549 ■ 24,693 28,817 

Grundy 10,567 13,071 15,201 

Harrison 14,635 18,530 20,318 

Henry 17, 401 18,465 23,914 

Hickory 6,452 5,870 7,388 

Holt 11,652 13,245 15,510 

Howard 17,233 17,815 18,428 

Howell 4,218 6,756 8,814 

Iron 6,278 6,623 8,183 

Jackson . . , 55»°4I 54,045 82,328 

Jasper 14,928 29,384 32,021 

Jefferson 15,380 16,186 18,736 

Johnson 24,648 23,646 28,177 

Knox 10,974 12,678 13,047 

Laclede 9,380 9,845 11,524 

Lafayette. ••••• 22,624 22,204 25,761 

Lawrence 13,067 I3,°54 '7,5 8 5 

Lewis I5,"4 16,360 15,925 

Lincoln 15,960 16,858 '7,443 

Linn '5,9°6 18,110 20,016 

Livingston c( 16,730 18 074 20,205 

McDonald ••••• 5,226 6,072 7, 816 

Macon ••••• 23,230 25,028 26,223 

Madison , 5,849 8,750 8,866 

Maries 5,916 6.481 7,304 

Marion 23,780 22,794 24,837 

Mercer u,557 '3,393 '4.674 

Miller 6,616 8,529 9,807 

Mississippi 4,982 7,498 9,270 

Moniteau « 13,375 '3,o84 14 349 

Monroe I7,i49 '7,75' '9,075 

Montgomery 10,405 14,418 16,250 

M ° r gan • 8,434 9,529 10,134 

New Madrid ....•• 6,357 6,673 7,694 

Newton M.82I 16,875 18,948 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 19 

Nodaway. • • • '• TTV 14,751 23,196 29,560 

Oregon . . . . ,. # 3287 4,469 5J91 

Osage ••••••••••••• • 10,793 11,200 11,824 

Ozark 3,363 4,579 5,618 

Pemiscot 2,059 2,573 4,299 

Perry 9,877 11,189 "895 

Petti •• 18,706 23,167 27.285 

Phelps ...••• 10,506 9.9 T 9 12,565 

Pike • 23,076 22,828 26,716 

Platte 17,352 15.948 17,372 

Polk • 14,445 I3>467 15.745 

Pulaski 4,714 6,157 7,25° 

Putnam •••••••• H> 21 7 12,641 13,556 

Ralls 10,510 9,997 11,838 

Randolph ••••• 15 908 19,173 22 751 

Ray ■ 18,700 18,394 20,196 

Reynolds 3,756 4,716 5,722 

Ripley 3,175 3,913 5,377 

St. Charles ••••••• 21,304 21,821 23,060 

St. Clair • . . • 6,742 11,242 14,126 

St. Francois •••••••• 9.742 11,621 13,822 

Ste. Genevieve ......••••..•••... 8,384 9.409 10,309 

St. Louis* 351,189 . . . 31,888 

Saline 21,672 27,087 29,912 

Schuyler •••••••• 8,820 9,88i 10 470 

Scotland ....... 10,670 12,030 12,507 

Scott 7,317 7,312 8,58/ 

Shannon 2,339 3,236 3,441 

Shelby • 10,119 13,243 14,024 

Stoddard 8,535 Io,86S 13,432 

Stone 3,253 3,544 4,405 

Sullivan H,9°7 14,039 16,569 

Taney 4,407 6,124 5605 

Texas • • 9,618 10,287 12,207 

Vernon ••••• U,247 14.413 1937° 

Warren ....••••••• 9,673 10,321 10,806 

Washington ••••• •••• 11,719 13,100 12,895 

Wayne •••••••••***••• 6,068 7,006 9,097 

Webster • •••••••••••• I°,434 10,684 12,175 

Worth ••••• 5,004 7,164 8,208 

Wright 5,684 6,124 9,733 

City of St. Louis ..••••••••••••••• ... •**> 35°»5 22 

IJ2M95 «,547,030 2,168,804 

Males ...*••••••••••••••••• 1,127,424 

Females . . • • ••••• ••• . 1,041,380 

Native •••••• «,957,5 6 4 

Foreign •••••• 211,240 

White 2,023 568 

Coloredf. 145,236 



•St. Louis city and county separated in 1877. Population for 1876 not gives. 
f Including 92 Chinese, 3 half Chinese, and 96 Indians and hnlf-i 



20 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



CHAPTER III. 
GEOLOGY OF MISSOURI. 

CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS— QUATERNARY FORMATION-TERTIARY-CRETACEOUS— CAR- 
BONIFEROUS— DEVONIAN —SILURIAN— AZOIC— ECONOMIC GEOLOGY-COAL— IRON- 
LEAD — COPPER — ZINC— BUILDING STONE — MARBLE — GYPSUM — LIME — PAINTS — 
SPRINGS— WATER POWER. 

The stratified rocks of Missouri, as classified and treated of by Prof. 
G. C. Swallow, belong to the following divisions: I. Quaternary ; II. Ter- 
tiary ; III. Cretaceous ; IV. Carboniferous ; V. Devonian ; VI. Silurian ; 
VII. Azoic. 

The Quaternary formations are the most recent and the most val- 
uable to man ; valuable, because they can be more readily utilized. 

The Quaternary formation in Missouri, embraces the Alluvium, 30 
feet thick; Bottom Prairie, 30 feet thick; Bluff, 200 feet thick; and Drift, 
155 feet thick. The latest deposits are those which constitute the Allu- 
vium, and includes the soils, pebbles and sand, clays, vegetable mold, 
bog, iron ore, marls, etc. 

The Alluvium deposits cover an area, within the limits of Missouri, 
of more than four million acres of land, which are not surpassed for fer- 
tility by any region of country on the globe. 

The Bluff Prairie formation is confined to the lowlands, which are 
washed by the two great rivers which course our eastern and western 
boundaries, and while it is only about half as extensive as the Alluvial, 
it is equally as rich and productive." 

" The Bluff formation," says Professor Swallow, " rests upon the 
ridges and river bluffs, and descends along their slopes to the lowest 
valleys, the formation capping all the bluffs of the Missouri from Fort 
Union to its mouth, and those of the Mississippi from Dubuque to the 
mouth of the Ohio. It forms the upper stratum beneath the soil of all 
the high lands, both timber and prairies, of all the counties north of the 
Osage and Missouri, and also St. Louis, and the Mississippi counties on 
the south.. 

Its greatest development is in the counties on the Missouri River, 
from the Iowa line to Boonville. In some localities it is 200 feet thick. 
At St. Joseph it is 140 ; at Boonville 100 ; and at St. Louis, in St. 
George's quarry, and the Big Mound, it is about 50 feet ; while its greatest 
observed thickness in Marion County was only 30 feet." 

The Drift formation is that which lies beneath the Bluff formation, 
having, as Prof. Swallow informs us, three distinct deposits, to wit : 
"Altered Drift, which are strata of sand and pebbles, seen in the banks 
of the Missouri, in the northwestern portion of the state. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 21 

The Boulder formation is a heterogenous stratum of sand, gravel 
and boulder, and water- worn fragments of the older rocks. 

Boulder Clay is a bed of bluish or brown sandy clay, through which 
pebbles are scattered in greater or less abundance. It some localities in 
northern Missouri, this formation assumes a pure white, pipe-clay color." 

The Tertiary formation is made up of clays, shales, iron ores, sand- 
stone, and sands, scattered along the bluffs, and edges of the bottoms, 
reaching from Commerce, Scott County, to Stoddard, and south to the 
Chalk Bluffs in Arkansas. 

The Cretaceous formation lies beneath the Tertiary, and is composed 
of variegated sandstone, bluish-brown sandy slate, whitish-brown im- 
pure sandstone, fine white clay mingled with spotted flint, purple, red 
and blue clays, all being in the aggregate, 158 feet in thickness. There 
are no fossils in these rocks, and nothing by which their age may be 
told. 

The Carboniferous system includes the Upper Carboniferous or coal- 
measures, and the Lower Carboniferous or Mountain Limestone. The 
coal-measures are made up of numerous strata of sandstones, limestones, 
shales, clays, marls, spathic iron ores and coals. 

The Carboniferous formation, including coal-measures and the beds 
of iron, embrace an area in Missouri of 27,000 square miles. The varie- 
ties of coal found in the state are the common bituminous and cannel 
coals, and they exist in quantities inexhaustible. The fact that these 
coal measures are full of fossils, which are always confined to the coal 
measures, enables the geologist to point them out, and the coal beds con- 
tained in them. 

The rocks of the Lower Carboniferous formation are varied in color, 
and are quarried in many different parts of the state, being extensively 
utilized for building and other purposes. 

Among the Lower Carboniferous rocks is found the Upper Archi- 
medes Limestone, 200 feet; Ferruginous Sandstone, 195 feet; Middle 
Archimedes, 50 feet; St. Louis Limestone, 250 feet; Oolitic Limestone, 
25 feet; Lower Archimedes Limestone, 350 feet; and Encrinital Lime- 
stone, 500 feet. These limestones generally contain fossils. 

The Ferruginous Limestone is soft when quarried, but becomes hard 
and durable after exposure. It contains large quantities of iron, and is 
found skirting the eastern coal measures from the mouth of the Des 
Moines to McDonald County. 

The St. Louis Limestone is of various hues and tints, and very hard. 
It is found in Clark, Lewis and St. Louis Counties. 

The Lower Archimedes Limestone includes partly the lead-bearing 
rocks of Southwest Missouri. 

The Encrinital Limestone is the most extensive of the divisions of 
Carboniferous Limestone, and is made up of brown, buff, gray and white. 



22 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

In these strata are found the remains of corals and mollusks. This 
formation extends from Marion County to Greene County. The Devo- 
nian system contains: Chemung Group, Hamilton Group, Onondaga 
Limestone and Oriskany Sandstone. The rocks of the Devonian system 
are found in Marion, Ralls, Pike, Callaway, Saline and Ste. Genevieve 
Counties. 

The Chemung Group has three formations, Chouteau Limestone, 85 
feet ; Vermicular Sandstone and shales, 75 feet ; Lithographic Limestone, 
125 feet. 

The Chouteau Limestone is" in two divisions, when fully developed, 
and when first quarried is soft. It is not only good for building purposes 
but makes an excellent cement. 

The Vermicular Sandstone and shales are usually buff or yellowish 
brown, perforated with pores. 

The Lithographic Limestone is a pure, fine, compact, evenly-textured 
limestone. Its color varies from light drab to buff and blue. It is called 
"pot-metal," because under the hammer it gives a sharp, ringing sound. 
It has but few fossils. 

The Hamilton Group is made up of some forty feet of blue shales, 
and 170 feet of Crystalline limestone. 

Onondaga Limestone is usually a coarse, gray or buff crystalline, 
thick-bedded and cherry limestone. No formation in Missouri presents 
such variable and widely different lithological characters as the Onondaga. 

The Oriskany Sandstone is a light gray limestone. 

Of the Upper Silurian series there are the following formations : 
Lower Helderburg, 350 feet ; Niagara Group, 200 feet ; Cape Girardeau 
Limestone, 60 feet. 

The Lower Helderburg is made up of buff, gray and reddish cherry 
and argillaceous limestone. 

Niagara Group. The upper part of this group consists of red, yel- 
low and ash-colored shales, with compact limestones, variegated with 
bands and nodules of chert. 

The Cape Girardeau Limestone, on the Mississippi River near Cape 
Girardeau, is a compact, bluish-gray, brittle limestone, with smooth frac- 
tures in layers from two to six inches in thickness, with argillaceous 
partings. These strata contain a great many fossils. 

The Lower Silurian has the following ten formations, to wit : Hudson 
River Group, 220 feet ; Trenton Limestone, 360 feet ; Black River and 
Bird's Eye Limestone, 175 feet ; first Magnesian Limestone, 200 feet; Sac- 
charoidal Sandstone, 125 feet; second Magnesian Limestone, 250 feet ; 
second Sandstone, 115 feet; third Magnesian Limestone, 350 feet; third 
Sandstone, 60 feet; fourth Magnesian Limestone, 350 feet. 

Hudson River Group. There are three formations which Professor 
Swallow refers to in this group. These formation are found in the bluff 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 2$ 

above and below Louisiana, on the Grassy, a few miles northwest of 
Louisiana, and in Ralls, Pike, Cape Girardeau and Ste. Genevieve 
Counties. 

Trenton Limestone. The upper part of this formation is made up of 
thick beds of hard, compact, bluish-gray and drab limestone, variegated 
with irregular cavities, filled with greenish materials. 

The beds are exposed between Hannibal and New London, north of 
Salt River, and near Glencoe, St. Louis County, and are 75 feet thick. 

Black River and Bird's Eye Limestone is the same color as the Tren- 
ton Limestone. 

The first Magnesian Limestone cap the picturesque bluffs of the Osage 
in Benton and neighboring counties. 

The Saccharoidal Sandstone has a wide range in the state. In a 
bluff about two miles from Warsaw, is a very striking change of thickness 
of this formation. 

Second Magnesian Limestone, in lithological character, is like the first. 
The second Sandstone, usually of yellowish-brown, sometimes becomes 
a pure white, fine-grained, soft, sandstone, as on Cedar Creek, in Wash- 
ington and Franklin Counties. 

The third Magnesian Limestone is exposed in the high and pictur- 
esque bluffs of the Niangua, in the neighborhood of Bry's Spring. 

The third Sandstone is white and has a formation in moving water. 

The fourth Magnesian Limestone is seen on the Niangua and Osage 
Rivers. 

The Azoic rocks lie below the Silurian and form a series of silicious . 
and other slates, which contain no remains of organic life. 

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. 

Coal. — Missouri is particularly rich in minerals. Indeed, no state in 
the Union surpasses her in this respect. In some unknown age of the 
past — long before the existence of man, nature, by a wise process, made 
a bountiful provision for the time, when in the order of things it should 
be necessary for civilized man to take possession of these broad, rich 
prairies. As an equivalent for lack of forests she quietly stored away 
beneath the soil those wonderful carboniferous treasures for the use of 
man. 

Geological surveys have developed the fact that the coal deposits in 
the state are almost unnumbered, embracing all varieties of the best bit- 
uminous coal. The southeast boundary of the state has been ascertained 
to be one continuous coal field, stretching from the mouth of the Des 
Moines River, through Clark, Lewis, Scotland, Adair, Macon, Shelby, 
Monroe, Audrain, Callaway, Boone, Cooper, Pettis, Benton, Henry, St. 
Clair, Bates, Vernon, Cedar, Dade, Barton and Jasper, into the Indian 
Territory, and the counties on the northwest of this line contain more or 



24 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

less coal. Coal rocks exist in Rails, Montgomery, Warren, St. Charles, 
Moniteau, Cole, Morgan, Crawford and Lincoln, and during the past few 
years all along the lines of all the railroads in North Missouri, and along 
the western end of the Missouri Pacific, and on the Missouri River 
between Kansas City and Sioux City, has systematic mining opened up 
hundreds of mines in different localities. The area of our coal beds on the 
line of the southwestern boundary of the state alone embrace more than 
26,000 square miles of regular coal measures. This will give of workable 
coal, if the average be one foot, 26,800,000,000 tons. The estimates from 
the developments already made in the different portions of the state 
will give 134,000,000,000 tons. 

The economical value of this coal to the state, its influence in 
domestic life, in navigation, commerce and manufactures, is beyond the 
imagination of man to conceive. Suffice it to say, that in the possession 
of her developed and undeveloped coal mines, Missouri has a motive 
power which in its influence for good in the civilization of man is more 
than the gold of California. 

Iron. — Prominent among the minerals which increase the power and 
prosperity of a nation is iron. Of this ore Missouri has an inexhaustible 
quantity, and, like her coal fields, it has been developed in many portions 
of the state, and of the best and purest quality. It is found in great 
abundance in the counties of Cooper, St. Clair, Green, Henry, Franklin, 
Benton, Dallas, Camden, Stone, Madison, Iron, Washington, Perry, St. 
Francois, Reynolds, Stoddard, Scott, Dent, and others. The greatest 
deposit of iron is found in the Iron Mountain, which is two hundred feet 
high, and covers an area of five hundred acres, and produces a metal 
which is shown by analysis to contain from 65 to 69 per cent, of metallic 
iron. 

The ore of Shepherd Mountain contains from 64 to 67 per cent, of 
metallic iron. The ore of Pilot Knob contains from 53 to 60 per cent. 

Rich beds of iron are also found at the Big Bogy Mountain, and at 
Russell Mountain. This ore has in its nude state a variety of colors, 
from the red, dark red, black, brown, to a light bluish gray. The red 
ores are found in 21 or more counties of the state, and are of great com- 
mercial value. The brown hematite iron ores extend over a greater 
range of country than all the others combined ; embracing about 100 
counties, and have been ascertained to exist in these in large quantities. 

Lead. — Long before any permanent settlements were made in Mis- 
souri by the whites, lead was mined within the limits of the state, at 
two or three points on the Mississippi. At this time more than five hun- 
dred mines are opened, and many of them are being successfully worked. 
Tnese deposits of lead cover an area, so far as developed, of more than 
7,000 square miles. Mines have been opened in Jefferson, Washington, 
St. Francois, Madison, Wayne, Carter, Reynolds, Crawford, Ste. Gene- 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 2$ 

vieve, Perry, Cole, Cape Girardeau, Camden, Morgan and some other 
counties. 

Copper 2nd Zinc. — Several varieties of copper ore are found in Mis- 
souri. The copper mines of Shannon, Madison, and Franklin Counties 
have been known for years, and some of these have been successfully 
worked and are now yielding good results. 

Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Benton, 
Maries, Green, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds and 
Wright Counties. 

Zinc is abundant in nearly all the lead mines in the southwestern 
part of the state, and since the completion of the A. & P. R. R. a market 
has been furnished for this ore, which will be converted into valuable 
merchandise. 

Building Stone and Marble. — There is no scarcity of good building 
stone in Missouri. Limestone, sandstone and granite exist in all shades 
of buff, blue, red and brown, and are of great beauty as building material. 

Theie ire many marble beds in the state, some of which furnish 
very beautiful and excellent marble. It is found in Marion, Cooper, St. 
Louis and other counties. 

One of the most desirable of the Missouri marbles is in the third 
Magnesian Limestone, on the Niangua. It is fine grained, crystalline, 
silico-magnesian limestone, light drab, slightly tinged with peach blos- 
som, and clouded by deep flesh-colored shades. In ornamental archi- 
tecture it is rarely surpassed. 

Gypsum and Lime. — Though no extensive beds of gypsum have been 
disco /ered in Missouri, there are vast beds of the pure white crystalline 
variety on the line of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, on Kansas River, and 
on Gypsum Creek. It exists also in several other localities accessible 
by both rail and boat. 

All of the limestone formations in the state, from the coal measures 
to the fourth Magnesian, have more or less strata of very nearly pure 
carbonate of pure lime. 

Clays and Paints. — Clays are found in nearly all parts of the state 
suitable for making bricks. Potters' clay and fire clay are worked in 
many localities. 

There are several beds of purple shades in the coal measures which 
possess the properties requisite for paints used in outside work. Yellow 
and red ochres are found in considerable quantities on the Missouri 
River Some of these paints have been thoroughly tested and found 
fire-proof and durable. 

SPRINGS AND WATER POWER. 

No State is, perhaps, better supplied with cold springs ot pure water 
than Missouri. Out of the bottoms there is scarcely a section of land 

2 



26 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

but has one or more perennial springs of good water. Even where there 
are no springs good water can be obtained by digging from twenty to 
forty feet. Salt springs are abundant in the central part of the state, 
and discharge their brine in Cooper, Saline, Howard and adjoining coun- 
ties. Considerable salt was made in Cooper and Howard counties at an 
early day. 

Sulphur springs are also numerous throughout the state. The Cho- 
teau Springs in Cooper, the Monagaw Springs in St. Clair, the Elk 
Springs in Pike, and the Cheltenham Springs in St. Louis County, have 
acquired considerable reputation as salubrious waters, and have become 
popular places of resort. Many other counties have good sulphur 
springs. 

Among the Chalybeate springs the Sweet Springs on the Black- 
water, and the Chalybeate Spring in the University campus are, perhaps, 
the most popular of the kind in the State. There are, however, other 
springs impregnated with some of the salts of iron. 

Petroleum springs are found in Carroll, Ray, Randolph, Cass, Lafay- 
ette, Bates, Vernon and other counties. The variety called lubricating 
oil is the more common. 

The water power of the State is excellent. Large springs are par- 
ticularly abundant on the Meramec, Gasconade, Bourbeuse, Osage, N'ian- 
gua, Spring, White, Sugar and other streams. Besides these, there are 
hundreds of springs sufficiently large to drive mills and factories, and the 
day is not far distant when these crystal fountains will be utilized, and a 
thousand saws will buzz to their dashing music 



CHAPTER IV. 

TITLE AND EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 

TITLE TO MISSOURI LANDS-RIGHT OF DISCOVERY— TITLE OF FRANCE AND SPAIN — 
CESSION TO THE UNITED STATES — TERRITORIAL CHANGES —TREATIES WITH 
INDIANS— FIRST SETTLEMENT- STE. GENEVIEVE AND NEW BOURBON— ST. LOUIS— 
WHEN INCORPORATED— POTOSI-ST. CHARLES— PORTAGE DES SIOUX-NEW MADRID 
—ST. FRANCOIS COUNTY— PERRY— MISSISSIPPI— LOUTRE ISLANDS— '* BOONE'S LICK" 
—COTE SANS DESSEIN— HOWARD COUNTY-SOME FIRST THINGS— COUNTIES— WHEN 
ORGANIZED. 

The title to the soil of Missouri was, of course, primarily vested in 
the original occupants who inhabited the country prior to its discovery 
by the whites. But the Indians, being savages, possessed but few rights 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 27 

that civilized nations considered themselves bound to respect, so when 
they found this country in the possession of such a people, they claimed 
it in the name of the King of France by the right of discovery. It 
remained under the jurisdiction of France until 1763. 

Prior to the year 1763 the entire continent of North America was 
divided between France, England, Spain and Russia. France held all 
that portion that now constitutes our national domain west of the Mis- 
sissippi River, except Texas and the territory which we have obtained 
from Mexico and Russia. The vast region, while under the jurisdiction 
of France, was known as the "Province of Louisiana," and embraced the 
present State of Missouri. At the close of the "Old French War," in 
1763, France gave up her share of the continent, and Spain came into 
the possession of the territory west of the Mississippi River, while Great 
Britain retained Canada and the regions northward, having obtained 
that territory by conquest in the war with France. For thirty-seven 
years the territory now embraced within the limits of Missouri, remained 
as a part of the possession of Spain, and then went back to France by 
the treaty of St. Ildefonso, October 1st, 1800. On the 30th of April, 
1803, France ceded it to the United States in consideration of receiving 
$11,250,000 and the liquidation of certain claims held by citizens of the 
United States against France, which amounted to the further sum of 
$3,750,00, making a total of $ 1 5,000,000. It will thus be seen that France 
has twice, and Spain once, held sovereignty over the territory embracing 
Missouri, but the financial needs of Napoleon afforded our government 
an opportunity to add another empire to its domain. 

On the 31st of October, 1803, an act of Congress was approved, 
authorizing the President to take possession of the newly acquired ter- 
ritory, and provided for it a temporary government, and another act, 
approved March 26th, 1804, authorized the division of the "Louisiana 
Purchase," as it was then called, into two separate territories. All 
that portion south of the 33d parallel of north latitude was called the 
" Territory of Orleans," and that north of the said parallel was known as 
the " District of Louisiana," and was placed under the jurisdiction of 
what was then known as " Indiana Territory." 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1805, the "Dis- 
trict of Louisiana" was organized as the " Territory of Louisiana," with 
a territorial government of its own, which went into operation July 4th, 
of the same year, and it so remained until 1812. In this year the 
" Territory of Orleans " became the State of Louisiana, and the " Terri- 
tory of Louisiana " was organized as the " Territory of Missouri." 

This change took place under an act of Congress, approved June 
4th, 1812. In 1819 a portion of this territory was organized as "Arkan- 
sas Territory," and in 18 12 the State of Missouri was admitted, being a 
part of the former " Territory of Missouri." 



28 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

In 1836 the "Platte Purchase," then being a part of the Indian Ter- 
ritory, and now composing the counties of Atchison, Andrew, Buchanan, 
Holt, Nodaway, and Platte, was made by treaty with the Indians, and 
added to the state. It will be seen then that the soil of Missouri be- 
longed 

First — To France with other territory. 

Second — In 1768, with other territory it was ceded to Spain. 

Third — October 1st, 1800, it was ceded with other territory from 
Spain back to France. 

Fourth — April 30th, 1803, it was ceded with other territory by 
France to the United States. 

Fifth — October 31, 1803, a temporary government was authorized 
by Congress for the newly acquired territory. 

Sixth — October 1, 1804, it was included in the "District of Louis- 
iana," and placed under the territorial government of Indiana. 

Seventh — July 4, 1805, it was included as a part of the "Territory 
of Louisiana," then organized with a separate territorial government. 

Eighth — June 4, 1812, it was embraced in what was then made the 
"Territory of Missouri." 

Ninth — August 10, 1821, it was admitted into the Union as a state. 

Tenth — In 1836 the "Platte Purchase" was made, adding more ter- 
ritory to the state. 

The cession by France, April 30, 1803, vested the title in the United 
States, subject to the claims of the Indians, which it was very justly the 
policy of the government to recognize. Before the government of the 
United States could vest clear title to the soil in the grantee it was 
necessary to extinguish the Indian title by purchase. This was done 
accordingly by treaties made with the Indians at different times. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 

The name of the first white man who set foot on the territory now 
embraced in the State of Missouri is not known, nor is it known at what 
precise period the first settlements were made. It is, however, gener- 
ally agreed that they were made at Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon, 
tradition fixing the date of these settlements in the autumn of 1735- 
These towns were settled by the French from Kaskaskia and St. Philip 
in Illinois. 

St. Louis was founded by Pierre Laclede Liguest, on the 15th of 
February, 1764. He was a native of France, and was one of the members 
of the company of Laclede, Liguest, Antoino Maxant & Co., to whom 
a royal charter had been granted, conf rm'ng the privilege of an exclu- 
sive trade with the Jndians of the Missouri as far north as St. Peter's 
River. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 29 

While in search of a trading post he ascended the Mississippi as far 
as the mouth of the Missouri, and finally returned to the present town site 
of St. Louis. After the village had been laid off he named it St. Louis, 
in honor of Louis XV, of France. 

The colony thrived rapidly by accessions from Kaskaskia and other 
towns on the east side of the Mississippi, and its trade was largely in- 
creased by many of the Indian tribes, who removed a portion of their 
peltry trade from the same towns to St. Louis. It was incorporated as 
a town on the 9th day of November, 1809, by the court of Common 
Pleas of the district of St. Louis; the town trustees being Auguste Chou- 
teau, Edward Hempstead, Jean F. Cabanne, Wm. C. Carr and Wm. 
Christy, and incorporated as a city December 9, 1822. The selection 
of the town site on which St. Louis stands was highly judicious, the spot 
not only being healthful and having the advantages of water transpor- 
tation unsurpassed, but surrounded by a beautiful region of country, rich 
in soil and mineral resources. St. Louis has grown to be the fifth city 
in population in the Union, and is to-day, the great centre of internal 
commerce of the Missouri, the Mississippi and their tributaries, and, 
with its railroad facilities, it is destined to be the greatest inland city of 
the American continent. 

The next settlement was made at Potosi, in Washington County, 
in 1765, by Francis Breton, who, while chasing a bear, discovered the 
mine near the present town of Potosi, where he afterward located. 

One of the most prominent pioneers who settled at Potosi, was 
Moses Austin, of Virginia, who, in 1773, received by grant from the 
Spanish government, a league of land now known as the "Austin Sur- 
vey." The grant was made on the condition that Mr. Austin would 
establish a lead mine at Potosi and work it. He built a palatial resi- 
dence, for that day, on the brow of the hill in the little village, which 
■was, for many years, known as "Durham Hall." At this point the first 
shot-tower and sheet-lead manufactory were erected. 

Five years after the founding of St. Louis the first settlement made 
in Northern Missouri was made at or near St. Charles, in St. Charles 
County, in 1769. The name given to it, and which it retained till 1784, 
was Les Petites Cotes, signifying Little Hills. The town site was located 
by Blanchette, a Frenchman, surnamed LeChasseur, who built the first 
fort in the town and established there a military post. 

Soon after the establishment of the military post at St. Charles, the 
■old French village of Portage des Sioux was located on the Mississipi, 
just below the mouth of the Illinois river, and at about the same time a 
Kickapoo village was commenced at Clear Weather Lake. The present 
town site of New Madrid, in New Madrid County, was settled in 1781, 
•by French Canadians, it then being occupied by Delaware Indians. The 
place now known as Big River Mills, St. Francois County, was settled in 



30 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

1796, Andrew Baker, John Alley, Francis Starater and John Andrews each 
locating claims. The following year a settlement was made in the same 
county, just below the the present town of Farmington, by the Rev. Wm. 
Murphy, a Baptist minister from East Tennessee. In 1796, settlements 
were made in Perry County by emigrants from Kentucky and Pennsyl- 
vania ; the latter locating in the rich bottom lands of Bois Brule, the 
former generally settling in the "Barrens," and along the waters of Saline 
Creek. 

Bird's Point, in Mississippi County, opposite Cairo, 111., was settled 
August 6, 1800, by John Johnson, by virtue of a land grant from the com- 
mandant under the Spanish Government. Norfolk and Charleston, in 
the same county, were settled respectively in 1800 and 1801. Warren 
county was settled in 1801. Loutre Island, below the present town of 
Herman, in the Missouri River, was settled by a few American families 
in 1807. This little company of pioneers suffered greatly from the floods, 
as well as from the incursions of thieving and blood-thirsty Indians, and 
many incidents of a thrilling character could be related of trials and 
struggles had we the time and space. 

In 1807 Nathan and Daniel Boone, sons of the great hunter and pio- 
neer, in company with three others, went from St. Louis to "Boone's 
Lick," in Howard County, where they manufactured salt, and formed the 
nucleus of a small settlement. 

Cote Sans Dessein, now called Bakersville, on the Missouri River, in 
Callaway County, was settled by the French in 1801. This little town 
was considered at that time as the " Far West" of the new world. During 
the war of 18 12, at this place many hard-fought battles occurred between 
the whites and Indians, wherein woman's fortitude and courage greatly 
assisted in the defense of the settlement. 

In 1810 a colony of Kentuckians, numbering one hundred and fifty 
families, immigrated to Howard County, and settled in the Missouri River 
bottom, near the present town of Franklin. 

Such, in brief, is the history of some of the early settlements of Mis- 
souri, covering a period of more than half a century. 

These settlements were made on the water courses ; usually along 
the banks of the two great streams, whose navigation afforded them 
transportation for their marketable commodities and communication 
with the civilized portion of the country. 

They not only encountered the gloomy forests, settling as they did, 
by the river's brink, but the hostile incursion of savage Indians, by whom 
they were for many years surrounded. 

The expedients of these brave men who first broke ground in the 
territory have been succeeded by the permanent and tasteful improve- 
ments of their descendants. Upon the spots where they toiled, dared 
and died, are seen the comfortable farm, the beautiful village and thrifty 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. SI 

city. Churches and school houses greet the eye on every hand ; rail- 
roads diverge in every direction, and indeed, all the appliances of a higher 
civilization are profusely strewn over the smiling surface of the state. 

Culture's hand 
Has scattered verdure o'er the land ) 
And smiles and fragrance rule serene, 
Where barren wild usurped the scene. 

SOME FIRST THINGS. 

The first marriage that took place in Missouri was April 20, 1766, in 
St. Louis. 

The first baptism was performed in May, 1776, in St. Louis. 

The first house of worship (Catholic), was erected in 1775, at St. 
Louis. 

The first ferry established in 1805, on the Mississippi River, at St. 
Louis. 

The first newspaper established in St. Louis (Missouri Gazette) in 
1808. 

The first postoffice was established in 1804, in St. Louis — Rufus 
Easton, postmaster. 

The first Protestant church erected at Ste. Genevieve, in 1806— 
Baptist. 

The first bank established, (Bank of St. Louis), in 18 14. 

The first market house opened in 181 1, in St. Louis. 

The first steamboat on the Upper Mississippi was the General Pike, 
Capt. Jacob Reid ; landed at St. Louis, 18 17. 

The first board of trustees for public schools appointed in 18 17, St. 
Louis. 

The first college built, (St. Louis College), in 18 17. 

The first steamboat that came up the Missouri River as high as 
Franklin was the Independence, in 1819; Capt. Nelson, master. 

The first court house erected in 1823, in St. Louis. 

The first cholera appeared in St. Louis in 1832. 

The first railroad convention held in St. Louis, April 20, 1836. 

The first telegraph lines reached East St. Louis, December 20, 1847. 

The first great fire occurred in St. Louis, 1849. 



j2 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

CHAPTER V. 
TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION. 



ORGANIZATION 1812-COUNCIL-HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES— WM. CLARK FIRST TER- 
RITORIAL GOVERNOR— EDWARD HEMPSTEAD FIRST DELEGATE— SPANISH GRANTS 
—FIRST GENERAL ASSEMBLY-PROCEEDINGS-SECOND ASSEMBLY— PROCEEDINGS- 
POPULATION OF TERRITORY -VOTE OF TERRITORY — RUFUS EASTON- ABSENT 
MEMBERS— THIRD ASSEMBLY-PROCEEDINGS— APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION. 



Congress organized Missouri as a territory July 4, 18 12, with a Gov- 
ernor and General Assembly. The Governor, Legislative Council and 
House of Representatives exercised the legislative power of the terri- 
tory, the Governor's vetoing power being absolute. 

The Legislative Council was composed of nine members, whose 
tenure of office lasted five years. Eighteen citizens were nominated by 
the House of Representatives to the President of the United States, 
from whom he selected, with the approval of the Senate, nine Council- 
lors to compose the Legislative Council. 

The House of Representatives consisted of members chosen every 
two years by the people, the basis of representation being one member 
for every five hundred white males. The first House of Representatives 
consisted of thirteen members, and, by act of Congress, the whole num- 
ber of Representatives could not exceed twenty-five. 

The judicial power of the territory was vested in the Superior and 
Inferior Courts, and in the Justices of the Peace ; the Superior Court 
having three judges, whose term of office continued four years, having 
original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases. 

The Territory could send one delegate to Congress. Governor 
Clark issued a proclamation, October 1st, 1812, required by Congress, 
reorganizing the districts of St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, Cape 
Girardeau and New Madrid into five counties, and fixed the second Mon- 
day in November following for the election of a delegate to Congress, 
and the members of the Territorial House of Representatives. 

William Clark, of the expedition of Lewis and Clark, was the first 
Territorial Governor, appointed by the President, who began his duties 
in 1813. 

Edward Hempstead, Rufus Easton, Samuel Hammond and Matthew 
Lyon were candidates in November for delegates to Congress. 

Edward Hempstead was elected, being the first Territorial Delegate 
to Congress from Missouri. He served one term, declining a second, 
and was instrumental in having Congress to pass the act of June 13, 18 12, 
which he introduced, confirming the title to lands which were claimed 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 33 

by the people by virtue of Spanish grants. The same act confirmed to 
the people " for the support of schools," the title to village lots, out-lots or 
common field-lots, which were held and enjoyed by them at the time of 
the cession of 1803. 

Under the act of June 4, 1812, the first General Assembly held its 
session in the house of Joseph Robidoux, on the 7th of December, 1812. 
The names of the members of the House were : 

St. Charles. — John Pitman and Robert Spencer. 

St. Louis. — David Music, Bernard G. Farrar, William C. Carr and 
Richard Clark. 

Ste. Genevieve. — George Bullet, Richard S. Thomas and Isaac 
McGready. 

Cape Girardeau. — George F. Bollinger and Spencer Byrd. 

New Madrid. — John Shrader and Samuel Phillips. 

John B. C. Lucas, one of the Territorial Judges, administered the oath 
of office. William C. Carr was elected Speaker and Andrew Scott, Clerk. 

The House of Representatives proceeded to nominate eighteen per- 
sons from whom the President of the United States, with the Senate, was 
to select nine for the Council. From this number the President chose 
the following : 

St. Charles. — James Flaugherty and Benjamin Emmons. 

St. Louis. — August Choteau, Sr. and Samuel Hammond, 

Ste. Genevieve. — John Scott and James Maxwell. 

Cape Girardeau. — William Neely and Joseph Cavenor. 

New Madrid. — Joseph Hunter. 

The Legislative Council, thus chosen by the President and Senate, 
was announced by Frederick Bates, Secretary and Acting-Governor of 
the Territory, by proclamation, June 3, 1813, and fixing the first Monday 
in July following as the time for the meeting of the Legislature. 

In the meantime the duties of the executive office were assumed by 
William Clark. The Legislature accordingly met as required by the 
Acting-Governor's proclamation, in July, but its proceedings were never 
officially published. Consequently but little is known in reference to 
the workings of the first Territorial Legislature of Missouri. 

From the imperfect account, published in the Missouri Gazette, of 
that day, a paper which had been in existence since 1808, it is found 
that laws were passed regulating and establishing weights and measures , 
creating the office of sheriff; providing the manner for taking the census , 
permanently fixing the seats of justice, and an act to compensate its 
own members. At this session laws were also passed defining crimes 
and penalties ; laws in reference to forcible entry and detainer ; estab- 
lishing Courts of Common Pleas ; incorporating the Bank of St. Louis 
and organizing a part of Ste. Genevieve County into the county of 
Washington. 



34 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

The next session of the Legislature convened in St. Louis, Decem- 
ber 6, 1813. George Bullet, of Ste. Genevieve county, was Speaker elect, 
Andrew Scott, clerk, and William Sullivan, doorkeeper. Since the 
adjournment of the former Legislature several vacancies had occurred, and 
new members had been elected to fill their places. Among these was 
Israel McGready, from the county of Washington. 

The president of the legislative council was Samuel Hammond. No 
journal of the council was officially published, but the proceedings of the 
House are found in the Gazette. 

At this session of the Legislature many wise and useful laws were 
passed, having reference to the temporal as well as the moral and spirit- 
ual welfare of the people. Laws were enacted for the suppression of 
vice and immorality on the Sabbath day ; for the improvement of pub- 
lic roads and highways ; creating the offices of auditor, treasurer and 
county surveyor ; regulating the fiscal affairs of the Territory and fixing 
the boundary lines of New Madrid, Cape Girardeau, Washington and St. 
Charles Counties. The Legislature adjourned on the 19th of January, 
18 14, sine die. 

The population of the territory as shown by the United States 
census in 18 10, was 20,845. The census taken by the Legislature in 18 14 
gave the territory a population of 25,000. This enumeration shows the 
county of St. Louis contained the greatest number of inhabitants, and 
the new county of Arkansas the least — the latter having 827, and the 
former 3,149. 

The candidates for delegate to Congress were Rufus Easton, Samuel 
Hammond, Alexander McNair and Thomas F. Riddick. Rufus Easton 
and Samuel Hammond had been candidates at the preceding election. 
In all the counties, excepting Arkansas, the votes aggregated 2,599, °f 
which number Mr. Easton received 965, Mr. Hammond 746, Mr. NcNair 
853, and Mr. Riddick (who had withdrawn previously to the election) 35. 
Mr. Easton was elected. 

The census of 18 14, showing a large increase in the population of the 
territory, an apportionment was made increasing the number of repre- 
sentatives in the territorial Legislature to twenty-two. The General 
Assembly began its session in St. Louis, December 5, 18 14. There were 
present on the first day twenty Representatives. James Caldwell of Ste. 
Genevieve county was elected speaker, and Andrew Scott, who had been 
clerk of the preceding assembly, was chosen clerk. The president of the 
council was William Neely, of Cape Girardeau County. 

It appears that James Maxwell, the absent member of the council, 
and Seth Emmons, member elect of the House of Representatives, were 
dead. The county of Lawrence was organized at this session, from the 
western part of New Madrid County, and the corporate powers of St. 
Louis were enlarged. In 181 5 the territorial Legislature again began its 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 35 

session. Only a partial report of its proceedings are given in the 
Gazette. The county of Howard was then organized from St. Louis and 
St. Charles Counties, and included all that part of the state lying north 
of the Osage and south of the dividing ridge between the Mississippi and 
Missouri Rivers. 

The next session of the territorial Legislature commenced its ses- 
sion in December, 1816. During the sitting of this Legislature many 
important acts were passed. It was then that the "Bank of Missouri" 
was chartered and went into operation. In the fall of 18 17 the " Bank of 
St. Louis" and the "Bank of Missouri" were issuing bills. An act was 
passed chartering lottery companies, chartering the academy at Potosi, 
and incorporating a board of trustees for superintending the schools in 
the town of St. Louis. Laws were also passed to encourage the "killing 
of wolves, panthers and wild-cats." 

The territorial Legislature met again in December, 18 18, and 
among other things, organized the counties of Pike, Cooper, Jefferson, 
Franklin, Wayne, Lincoln, Madison, Montgomery, and three counties in 
the southern part of Arkansas. It 18 19 the Territory of Arkansas was 
formed into a separate government of its own. 

The people of the Territory of Missouri had been, for some time, 
anxious that their territory should assume the duties and responsibilities 
of a sovereign state. Since 1812, the date of the organization of the 
territory, the population had rapidly increased, many counties had been 
established, its commerce had grown into importance, its agricultural 
and mineral resources were being developed, and believing that its 
admission into the Union as a state would give fresh impetus to all these 
interests and hasten its settlement, the territorial Legislature of 18 18-19 
accordingly made application to Congress for the passage of an act 
authorizing the people of Missouri to organize a state government 



CHAPTER VI. 

APPLICATION OP MISSOURI TO BE ADMITTED INTO THE UNION-AGITATION OF THK 

SLAVERY QUESTION-" MISSOURI COMPROMISE "-CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 
OF i8jo— CONSTITUTION PRESENTED TO CONGRESS-FURTHER RESISTANCE TO 
ADMISSION— MR. CLAY AND HIS COMMITTEE MAKE REPORT— SECOND COMPROMISE 
—MISSOURI ADMITTED. 

With the application of the territorial Legislature of Missouri for 
her admission into the Union commenced the real agitation of the 
slavery question in the United States. 



36 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Not only was our National Legislature the theatre of angry discus- 
sions, but everywhere throughout the length and breadth of the Repub- 
lic the "Missouri Question" was the all-absorbing theme. The political 
skies threatened, 

" In forked flashes, a commanding tempest," 

Which was liable to burst upon the nation at any moment. Through 
such a crisis our country seemed destined to pass. The question as to 
the admission of Missouri was to be the beginning of this crisis, which 
distracted the public counsels of the nation for more than forty years 
afterward. 

Missouri asked to be admitted into the great family of states. 
"Lower Louisiana," her twin sister territory, had knocked at the door of 
the Union eight years previously, and was admitted, as stipulated by 
Napoleon, to all the rights, privileges and immunities of a state, and in 
accordance with the stipulations of the same treaty, Missouri now sought 
to be clothed with the same rights, privileges and immunities. 

As what is known in the history of the United States as the "Mis- 
souri Compromise," of 1820, takes rank among the most prominent 
measures that had up to that day engaged the attention of our National 
Legislature, we shall enter somewhat into its details, being connected as 
they are with the annals of the state. 

February ijt/i, i8ip. — After the House had resolved itself into a 
committee of the whole on the bill to authorize the admission of Mis- 
souri into the Union, and after the question of her admission had been 
discussed for some time, Mr. Tallmadge, of New York, moved to amend 
the bill by adding to it the following proviso : 

"And Provided, That the further introduction of slavery or involun- 
tary servitude be prohibited, except for the punishment of crime, whereof 
the party shall have been duly convicted, and that all children born 
within the said state, after the admission thereof into the Union, shall 
be free at the age of twenty-five years." 

As might have been expected, this proviso precipitated the angry 
discussion which lasted for nearly three years, finally culminating in the 
Missouri Compromise. All phases of the slavery question were presented, 
not only in its moral and social aspects, but as a great constitutional 
question, affecting Missouri and the admission of future states. The pro- 
viso, when submitted to a vote, was adopted — 79 to 67, and so reported 
to the House. 

Hon John Scott, who was at that time a delegate from the Territory 
of Missouri, was not permitted to vote, but as such delegate, he had the 
privilege of participating in the debates which followed. On the 16th 
day of February the proviso was taken up and discussed. After several 
speeches had been made, among them one by Mr. Scott and one by the 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 37 

author of the proviso, Mr. Tallmadge, the amendment or proviso was 
divided into two parts, and voted upon. The first part of it, which 
included all to the word "convicted," was adopted — 87 to j6. The 
remaining part was then voted upon, and also adopted, by 82 to 78. By 
a vote of 97 to 56 the bill was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading. 

The Senate Committee, to whom the bill was referred, reported the 
same to the Senate on the 10th of February, when that body voted first 
upon a motion to strike out of the proviso all after the word "convicted," 
which was carried by a vote of 32 to 7. It then voted to strike out the 
first entire clause, which prevailed — 22 to 16, thereby defeating the 
proviso. 

The House declined to concur in the action of the Senate, and the 
bill was again returned to that body, which in turn refused to recede from 
its position. The bill was lost, and Congress adjourned. This was most 
unfortunate for the country. The people having been wrought up to 
fever heat over the agitation of the question in the national councils, 
now became intensely excited. The press added fuel to the flame, and 
the progress of events seemed rapidly tending to the downfall of our 
nationality. 

A long interval of nine months was to ensue before the meeting of 
Congress. That body indicated by its vote upon the "Missouri ques- 
tion" that the two great sections of the country were politically divided 
upon the subject of slavery. The restrictive clause, which it was sought 
to impose upon Missouri as a condition of her admission, would in all 
probability be one of the conditions of the admission of the Territory of 
Arkansas. The public mind was in a state of great doubt and uncer- 
tainty up to the meeting of Congress, which took place on the 6th of 
December, 1819. The memorial of the Legislative Council and House 
of Representatives of the Missouri Territory, praying for admission into 
the Union, was presented to the Senate by Mr. Smith, of South Carolina. 
It was referred to the Judiciary Committee. 

Some three weeks having passed without any action thereon by the 
Senate, the bill was taken up and discussed by the House until the 19th 
of February, when the bill from the Senate for the admission of Maine 
was considered. The bill for the admission of Maine included the "Mis- 
souri question " by an amendment, which reads as follows : 

"And be it further enacted, That in all territory ceded by France to 
the United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies north of 
thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes, north latitude, (excepting such 
part thereof as is) included within the limits of the state, contemplated 
by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the 
punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been convicted, shall 
be and is hereby forever prohibited : Provided always. That any person 
escaping into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed, 



38 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

in any state or territory of the United States, such fugitive may be law- 
fully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or 
service as aforesaid." 

The Senate adopted this amendment, which formed the basis of the 
" Missouri Compromise," modified afterward by striking out the words, 
"excepting only such part thereof? 

The bill passed the Senate by a vote of 24 to 20. On the 2d day of 
March the House took up the bill and amendments for consideration, 
and by a vote of 134 to 42 concurred in the Senate amendment, and the 
bill, being passed by the two Houses, constituted section 8, of " An Act 
to authorize the people of the Missouri Territory to form a Constitution 
and State Government, and for the admission of such state into the 
Union on an equal footing with the original states, and to prohibit 
slavery in certain territory." 

This act was approved March 6, 1820. Missouri then contained fif- 
teen organized counties. By act of Congress the people of said state 
were authorized to hold an election on the first Monday, and two suc- 
ceeding days thereafter in May, 1820, to select representatives to a state 
convention. This convention met in St. Louis on the 12th of June, fol- 
lowing the election in May, and concluded its labors on the 19th of July, 
1820. David Barton was its president, and Wm. G. Pettis, secretary. 
There were forty-one members of this convention, men of ability and 
statesmanship, as the admirable constitution which they framed amply 
testifies. Their names and the counties represented by them are as 
follows : 

Cape Girardeau. — Stephen Byrd, James Evans, Richard S. Thomas, 
Alexander Buckner and Joseph McFerron. 

Cooper.— Robert P. Clark, Robert Wallace, Wm. Lillard. 

Franklin. — John G. Heath. 

Howard.— Nicholas S. Burkhart, Duff Green, John Ray, Jonathan 
S. Findley, Benj. H. Reeves. 

Jefferson. — Daniel Hammond. 

Lincoln. — Malcolm Henry. 

Montgomery. — Jonathan Ramsey, James TalbotL 

Madison. — Nathaniel Cook. 

New Madrid. — Robert S. Dawson, Christopher G. Houts. 

Pike. — Stephen Cleaver. 

St. Charles. — Benjamin Emmons, Nathan Boone, Hiram H. Baber. 

Ste. Genevieve.— John D. Cook, Henry Dodge, John Scott, R. T. Brown. 

St. Louis.— David Barton, Edward Bates, Alexander McNair, Wm. 
Rector, John C. Sullivan, Pierre Choteau, Jr., Bernard Pratte, Thomas 
F. Riddick. 

Washington — John Rice Jones, Samuel Perry, John Hutchings. 

Wayne. — Elijah Bettis. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 39 

On the 13th of November, 1820, Congress met again, and on the 6th 
of the same month Mr. Scott, the delegate from Missouri, presented to 
the House the constitution as framed by the convention. The same 
was referred to a select committee, who made thereon a favorable report. 

The admission of the state, however, was resisted, because it was 
claimed that its constitution sanctioned slavery, and authorized the 
Legislature to pass laws preventing free negroes and mulattoes from 
settling in the state. The report of the committee to whom was referred 
the Constitution of Missouri was accompanied by a preamble and reso- 
lutions, offered by Mr. Lowndes, of South Carolina. The preamble and 
resolutions were stricken out. 

The application of the state for admission shared the same fate in 
the Senate. The question was referred to a select committee, who, on 
the 29th of November, reported in favor of admitting the state. The 
debate which followed continued for two weeks, and finally Mr. Eaton, 
of Tennessee, offered an amendment to the resolution, as follows : 

" Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as 
to give the assent of Congress to any provision in the Constitution of 
Missouri, if any such there be, which contravenes that clause in the 
Constitution of the United States which declares that the citizens of 
each state shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citi- 
zens in the several states." 

The resolution, as amended, was adopted. The resolution and pro- 
viso were again taken up and discussed at great length, when the com- 
mittee agreed to report the resolution to the House. 

The question on agreeing to the amendment, as reported from the 
committee of the whole, was lost in the House. A similar resolution 
afterward passed the Senate, but was again rejected in the House. Then 
it was that the great statesman and pure patriot, Henry Clay, of Ken- 
tucky, feeling that the hour had come when angry discussion should 
cease : 

"With grave 
Aspect he rose, and in his rising seem'd 
A pillar of state ; deep on his front engraven 
Deliberation sat and public care ; 
And princely counsel in his face yet shone 
Majestic" * • * * * 

proposed that the question of Missouri's admission be referred to a com- 
mittee consisting of twenty-three persons, (a number equal to the number 
of states then composing the Union,) to be appointed to act in conjunction 
with a committee of the Senate to consider and report whether Missouri 
should be admitted, etc. 

The motion prevailed, the committee was appointed and Mr. Clay 
made its chairman. The Senate selected seven of its members to act 



40 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

with the committee of twenty-three, and the 26th of February the fol- 
lowing report was made by that committee: 

"Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled : That Missouri shall be 
admitted into the Union, on an equal footing with the original states, in 
all respects whatever, upon the fundamental condition that the fourth 
clause, of the twenty-sixth section of the third article of the Constitu- 
tion submitted on the part of said state to Congress, shall never be con- 
strued to authorize the passage of any law, and that no law shall be 
passed in conformity thereto, by which any citizen of either of the states 
in this Union shall be excluded from the enjoyment of any of the privi- 
leges and immunities to which such citizen is entitled, under the Con- 
stitution of the United States ; Provided, That the Legislature of said 
state, by a solemn public act, shall declare the assent of the said state 
to the said fundamental condition, and shall transmit to the President 
of the United States, on or before the fourth Monday in November next, 
an authentic copy of the said act ; upon the receipt whereof, the Presi- 
dent, by proclamation, shall announce the fact ; whereupon, and without 
any further proceeding on the part of Congress, the admission of the 
said state into the Union shall be considered complete." 

This resolution, after a brief debate, was adopted in the House, and 
passed the Senate on the 28th of February, 1821. 

At a special session of the Legislature held in St. Charles, in June 
following, a solemn public act was adopted, giving its assent to the con- 
ditions of admission, as expressed in the resolution of Mr. Clay. August 
10th, 1821, President Monroe announced by proclamation the admission 
of Missouri into the Union to be comolete. 



CHAPTER VII. 
MISSOURI AS A STATE. 

FIRST ELECTION FOR GOVERNOR AND OTHER STATE OFFICERS-SENATORS AND REF* 
RESENTATIVES TO GENERAL ASSEMBLY-SHERIFFS AND CORONERS — UNITED 
STATES SENATORS— REPRESENTATIVES IN CONGRESS— SUPREME COURT JUDGES- 
COUNTIES ORGANIZED— CAPITAL MOVED TO ST. CHARLES-OFFICIAL RECORD OF 
TERRITORIAL AND STATE OFFICERS. 

By the Constitution adopted by the Convention on the 19th of July, 
1820, the General Assembly was required to meet in St. Louis on the 
third Monday in September of that year, and an election was ordered to 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 41 

be held on the 28th of August for the election of a Governor and other 
state officers, Senators and Representatives to the General Assembly, 
Sheriffs and Coroners, United States Senators and Representatives in 
Congress. 

It will be seen that Missouri had not as yet been admitted as a 
State, but in anticipation of that event and according to the provisions 
of the constitution the election was held, and the General Assemby con- 
vened. 

William Clark (who had been Governor of the territory) and Alex- 
ander McNair were candidates for Governor. McNair received 6,576 
votes, Clark 2,556, total vote of the state 9,132. There were three can- 
didates for Lieutenant Governor, to wit : William H. Ashley, Nathaniel 
Cook and Henry Elliot. Ashley received 3,907 votes, Cook 3,212, Elliot 
931. A Representative was to be elected for the residue of the Six- 
teenth Congress and one for the Seventeenth. John Scott, who was at 
the time territorial delegate, was elected to both Congresses without 
opposition. 

The General Assembly elected in August met on the 19th Septem- 
ber, 1820, and organized by electing James Caldwell, of Ste. Genevieve, 
Speaker, and John McArthur, Clerk; William H. Ashley, Lieutenant 
Governor, President of the Senate ; Silas Bent, President pro tern. 

Matthias McKirk, John D. Cook and John R. Jones were appointed 
Supreme Judges, each to hold office until sixty-five years of age. 

Joshua Barton was appointed Secretary of State ; Peter Didier, State 
Treasurer; Edward Bates, Attorney General, and William Christie, 
Auditor of Public Accounts. 

David Barton and Thomas H. Benton were elected by the General 
Assembly to the United States Senate. 

At this session of the Legislature the counties of Boone, Callaway, 
Chariton, Cole, Gasconade, Lillard, Percy, Ralls, Ray and Saline were 
organized. 

We should like to give in detail the meetings and proceedings of 
the different Legislatures which followed, the elections for Governors 
and other state officers, the elections for Congressmen and United 
States Senators, but for want of space we can only present in a condensed 
form the official record of the territorial and state officers. 

OFFICIAL RECORD — TERRITORIAL OFFICERS. 

Governors. — Frederick Bates, Secretary and Acting-Governor, 
1812-13; William Clark, 1813-20. 

OFFICERS OF STATE GOVERNMENT. 

Governors. — Alexander McNair, 1820-24; Frederick Bates, 1824-25; 
Abraham J. Williams vice Bates, 1825; John Miller vice Bates, 1826-28; 



42 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

John Miller, 1828-32; Daniel Dunklin, 1832-36, resigned, appointed Sur- 
veyor General United States.; Lilburn W. Boggs vice Dunklin, 1836 ; 
Lilburn W. Boggs, 1836-40; Thomas Reynolds, 1840, died 1844; M. M. 
Marmaduke vice Reynolds — John C. Edwards, 1844-48 ; Austin A. King, 
1848-52; Sterling Price, 1852-56; Trusten Polk, 1856-57, resigned; 
Hancock Jackson vice Polk, 1857; Robert M. Stewart vice Polk, 1857-60 ; 
C. F. Jackson, i860, office vacated by ordinance ; Hamilton R. Gamble 
vice Jackson, Governor Gamble died 1864; Williard P. Hall, 1864, vice 
Gamble; Thomas C. Fletcher, 1864-68; Joseph W. McClurg, 1868-70; 

B. Gratz Brown, 1870-72; Silas Woodson, 1872-74; Charles H. Hardin, 
1874-76; John S. Phelps, 1876-80; Thomas T. Crittenden, 1880, and is 
now Governor. ' 

Lieutenant-Governors. — William H.Ashley, 1820-24; Benjamin A. 
Reeves, 1824-28; Daniel Dunklin, 1828-32; Lilburn W. Boggs, 1832-36; 
Franklin Cannon, 1836-40; M. M. Marmaduke, 1840-44; James Young, 
1844-48-60; Thomas C. Reynolds, 1860-61; Williard P. Hall, 1861-64- 
George Smith, 1864-68 ; Edward O. Stanard, 1868-70; Joseph J. Gravelv, 
1870-72; Charles P. Johnson, 1872-74; Norman J. Colman, 1874-76; 
Henry C. Brockmeyer, 1876-80; Robert Campbell, 1880, and is the pres- 
ent incumbent. 

Secretaries of State. — Joshua Barton, 1820-21 ; William G. Pettis, 
1821-24; Hamilton R. Gamble, 1824-26; Spencer Pettis, 1826-28; P. H. 
McBride, 1829-30; John C. Edwards, 1830, term expired 1835, re-ap- 
pointed 1837, resigned 1837; Peter G. Glover, 1837-39; James L. Miner, 
1839-45; F. H. Martin, 1845-49; Ephraim B. Ewing, 1849-52; John M. 
Richardson, 1852-56; Benjamin F. Massey, 1856-60, re-elected i860, for 
four years; Mordecai Oliver, 1861-64; Francis Rodman, 1864-68, re- 
elected 1868, for two years; Eugene F. Weigel, 1870-72, re-elected 1872, 
for two years; Michael K. McGrath, 1874, and is the present incumbent. 

State Treasurers. — Peter Didier, 1820-21 ; Nathaniel Simonds, 1821- 
28 ; James Earickson, 1829-33 ; John Walker, 1833-38 ; Abraham McClel- 
lan, 1838-43 ; Peter G. Glover, 1843-51 ; A. W. Morrison, 1851-60; Geo. 

C. Bingham, 1862-64; William Bishop, 1864-68; William Q. Dallmeyer, 
1868-70; Samuel Hays, 1872; Harvey W. Salmon, 1872-74; Joseph W. 
Mercer, 1874-76; Elijah Gates, 1876-80; Phillip E. Chappel, 1880, and 
present incumbent. 

Attorneys General. — Edward Bates, 1 820-2 1 ; RufusEaston, 1821-26; 
Robert W. Wells, 1826-36; William B. Napton, 1836-39; S. M. Bay, 
1839-45; B. F. Stringfellow, 1845-49; William A. Roberts, 1849-51; 
James B. Gardenhire, 1851-56; Ephraim W. Ewing, 1856-59; James P. 
Knott, 1859-61; Aikman Welsh, 1861-64; Thomas T. Crittenden, 1864; 
Robert F. Wingate, 1864-68; Horace P. Johnson, 1868-70; A. J. Baker, 
1870-72; Henry Clay Ewing, 1872-74; John A. Hockaday, 1874-76; 
Jackson L. Smith, 1 876-80; Mclntire, 1880, and present incumbent. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 43 

Auditors of Public Accounts. — William Christie, 1820-21; William 
V. Rector, 1821-23; Elias Barcroft, 1823-33; Henry Shurlds, 1833-35; 
Peter G. Glover, 1835-37; Hiram H. Baber, 1837-45 ; William Monroe, 
1845; J. R. McDermon, 1845-48; George W. Miller, 1848-49; Wilson 
Brown, 1849-52; William H. Buffington, 1852-60; William S. Moseley, 
1860-64; Alonzo Thompson, 1864-68; Daniel M. Draper, 1868-72; Geo. 
B. Clark, 1872-74; Thomas Holladay, 1874-80; John Walker, 1880, and 
present incumbent. 

Judges of Supreme Court. — Matthias McKirk, 1822-41 ; John D. 
Cooke, 1822-23; John R. Jones, 1822-24; Rufus Pettibone, 1823-25; 
George Tompkins, 1824-45 ; Robert Walsh, 1825-37; John C. Edwards, 
1837-39; William Scott, appointed 1841 till meeting of General Assem- 
bly, in place of M. McKirk resigned, re-appointed 1843 i P- H. McBride, 
1845 ; William B. Napton, 1849-52; John F. Ryland, 1849-51 ; John H. 
Birch, 1849-51 ; William Scott, John F. Ryland and Hamilton R. Gamble 
elected by the people 185 1 for six years; Gamble resigned 1854; Abiel 
Leonard elected to fill vacancy of Gamble ; William B. Napton (vacated 
by failure to file oath), William Scott and John C. Richardson (resigned), 
elected August, 1857, f° r si x years; E. B. Ewing, 1859, to ^ Richard- 
son's resignation ; Barton Bates appointed 1862 ; W. V. N. Bay appointed 
1862; John D. S. Dryden, appointed 1862; Barton Bates, 1863-65; W. 
V. N. Bay, elected 1863 ; John D. S. Dryden, elected 1863 ; David Wag- 
ner, appointed 1865 ; Wallace L. Lovelace, appointed 1865 ; Nathaniel 
Holmes, appointed 1865; Thomas J. C. Fagg, appointed 1866; James 
Baker, appointed 1868; David Wagner, elected 1868-70; Philemon 
Bliss, 1868-70; Warren Currier, 1868-71 ; Washington Adams, appointed 
1 87 1 to fill Currier's place, who resigned; Ephraim B. Ewing, elected 
1872; Thomas A. Sherwood, elected 1872; W. B. Napton, appointed 
1873, * n place of Ewing, deceased; Edward A. Seins, appointed 1874, in 
place of Adams, resigned; Warwick Hough, elected 1874; William B. 
Napton, elected 1874-80; John E. Henry, 1876-86; Robert Ray suc- 
ceeded William B. Napton in 1880; Elijah H. Norton, appointed in 
1876— elected in 1878. 

United States Senators. — T. H. Benton, 1820-50; D. Barton, 1820- 
30; Alex. Buckner, 1830-33; L. F. Linn, 1833-43; D. R. Atchison, 
1843-55; H. S. Geyer, 1851-57; Jas. M. Green, 1857-61; T. Polk, 1857* 
63 ; Waldo P. Johnson, 1861 ; R.obt. Wilson, 1861 ; B. Gratz Brown, 1863, 
for unexpired term of Johnson; J. B. Henderson, 1863-69; Chas. D. 
Drake, 1867-70; Carl Schurz, 1869-75; D. F. Jewett, 1870, in place of 
Drake, resigned; F. P. Blair, 1871-77; L. V. Bogy, 1873; F. M. Cock- 
rell, 1875-81 ; re-elected 1881 ; Geo. C. Vest, 1879. 

Representatives to Congress. — Jno. Scott, 1820-26: Ed. Bates, 1826- 
28; Spencer Pettis, 1828-31 ; Wm. H. Ashley, 1831-36; John Bull, 1832- 
34; Albert G. Harrison, 1834-39; Jno. Miller, 1836-43; John Jameson. 



44 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



tR 39-44, re-elected 1846 for two years; Jno. C. Edwards, 1840-42; Jas. 
M. Hughes, 1842-44; Jas. H.Relfe, 1842-46; Jas. B. Bowlin, 1842-50; 
Gustavus M. Boner, 1842-44; Sterling Price, 1844-46; Wm. McDaniel, 
1846; Leonard H. Sims, 1844-46; John S. Phelps, 1844-60; Jas. S. Green, 
1846-50, re-elected 1856, resigned; Willard P. Hall, 1846-53; Wm. V. 
N. Bay, 1848-61; John F. Darby, 1850-53; Gilchrist 'Porter, 1850-57; 
John G. Miller, 1850-56 ; Alfred W. Lamb, 1852-54; Thos. H. Benton, 
1852-54; Mord&sai Oliver, 1852-57; Jas. J. Lindley, 1852-56; Samuel 
Caruthers, 1852-58; Thomas P. Akers, 1855, to fill unexpired term of J. 
G. Miller ; Francis P. Blair, Jr., 1856, re-elected i860, resigned ; Thomas 
L. Anderson, 1856-1860; James Craig, 1856-60; Samuel H. Woodson, 
1856-60; John B. Clark, Sr., 1857-61 ; J. Richard Barrett, i860; John W. 
Noel, 1858-63; James S. Rollins, 1860-64; Elijah H. Norton, 1860-63; 
John W. Reid, 1860-61; William A. Hall, 1862-64; Thomas L. Price, 
1862, in place of Reid, expelled; Henry T. Blow, 1862-66; Sempronius 
T. Boyd, elected in 1862, and again in 1868, for two years; Joseph W. 
McClurg, 1862-66; Austin A. King, 1862-64; Benjamin F. Loan, 1862-69; 
John G. Scott, 1863, in place of Noel, deceased; John Hogan, 1864-66; 
Thomas F. Noel, 1864-67; John R. Kelsoe, 1864-66; Robt. T. Van 
Horn, 1864-71 ; John F. Benjamin, 1864-71 ; George W. Anderson, 
1864-69; William A. Pile, 1866-68; C. A. Newcomb, 1866-68; Joseph E. 
Gravely, 1866-68 ; James R. McCormack, 1866-73 ; John H. Stover, 1867, 
in place of McClurg, resigned; Erastus Wells, 1868-82; G. A. Finklin- 
burg, 1868-71; Samuel S. Burdett, 1868-71; Joel F. Asper, 1868-70; 
David P. Dyer, 1868-70; Harrison E. Havens, 1870-75 ; Isaac C. Parker, 
1870-75; James G. Blair, 1870-72; Andrew King, 1870-72; Edwin O. 
Stannard, 1872-74; William H. Stone, 1872-78; Robert A. Hatcher, 
elected 1872; Richard P. Bland, 1872; Thomas Crittenden, 1872-74; Ira 
B. Hyde, 1872-74; John B. Clark, 1872-78; John M. Glover, 1872 ; Aylett 
H. Buckner, 1872; Edward C. Kerr, 1874-78; Charles H. Morgan, 1874; 
John F. Phelps, 1874; B. J. Franklin, 1874; David Rea, 1874; Rezin A. 
DeBoet, 1874; Anthony Ittner, 1876; Nathaniel Cole, 1876; Robert A. 
Hatcher, 1876-78; R. P. Bland, 1876-78; A. H. Buckner, 1876-78 ; J. B. 
Clark, Jr., 1876-78; T. T. Crittenden, 1876-78; B. J. Franklin, 1876-78; 
Jno. M. Glover, 1876-78; Robert A. Hatcher, 1876-78; Chas. H. Morgan, 
1876-78; L. S. Metcalfe, 1876-78; H. M. Pollard, 1876-78; David Rea, 
1876-78; S. L. Sawyer, 1878-80; N. Ford, 1878-82; G. E. Rothwell, 
1878-82; John B. Clark, Jr., 1878-82; W. H. Hatch, 1878-82; A. H. 
Buckner, 1878-82; M. L. Clardy, 1878-82; R. G. Frost, 1878-82; L. H. 
Davis, 1878-82; R. P. Bland, 1878-82; J. R. Waddill, 1878-80; T. Allen, 
1880-82; R. Hazeltine, 1880-82; T. M. Rice, 1880-82; R. T. Van Horn, 
1880-82, 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



45 



COUNTIES— WHEN ORGANIZED. 



Adair .«••• January 29, 1841 

Andrew January 29 1841 

Atchison ........ January 14, 1845 

Audrain ........ December 17, 1836 

Barry January 5, 1835 

B.irton December 12, 1 835 

Bates January 29, 1S41 

Benton January 3, 1835 

Bollinger March 1, 1851 

Boone November 16, 1820 

Buchanan February 10, 1839 

Butler February 27, 1849 

Caldwell ....... December 26, 1836 

Callaway November 25 1820 

Camden January 29, 1841 

Cape Girardeau October 1, 18 1 2 

Carroll January 3, 1833 

Carter March 10, 1859 

Cass. ,......:. September 14, 1835 

Cedar February 14 1845 

Chariton ....... November 16, 1820 

Christian March 8, i860 

Clark December 15, 1818 

Clay January 2, 1822 

Clinton ......... January 15, 1833 

Cole November 16, 1820 

Cooper December 17, 1818 

Crawford January 23, 1829 

Dade .......... January 29, 1841 

Dallas . December 10, 1844 

Daviess December 29, 1836 

DeKalb February 25, 1845 

Dent February 10, 185 1 

Douglas October 19, 1857 

Dunklin February 14, 1845 

Franklin December 1 1, 1818 

Gasconade November 25, 1820 

Gentry ......... February 12, 1841 

Greene January 2, 1833 

Grundy January 2, 1843 

Harrison February 14, 1845 

Henry December 13, 1834 

Hickory February 14, 1845 

Holt .......... February 15, 1841 

Howard January 23, 1816 

Howell March 2, 1857 

Iron February 17, 1857 

Jackson December 15, 1826 

Jasper January 29, 1841 

Jefferson December 8, 1818 

Tohnson . December 13, 1834 



Knox February 14, 1845 

Laclede February 24, 1849 

Lafayette November 16, 1820 

Lawrence February 25, 1845 

Lewis January 2, 1833 

Lincoln December 14, 181 8 

Linn January 7, 1837 

Livingston January 6, 1837 

McDonald March 3, 1849 

Macon January 6, 1837 

Madison December 14, 1818 

Maries March 2, 1855 

Marion December 23, 1826 

Mercer February 14, 1845 

Miller February 6, 1837 

Mississippi February 14, 1845 

Moniteau . February 14, 1845 

Monroe January 6, 1831 

Montgomery December 14, 1818 

Morgan ......... January 5, 1833 

New Madrid October I, 1812 

Newton December 31, 1838 

Nodaway February 14, 1845 

Oregon February 14 1845 

Osage January 29 1841 

Ozark ......... January 29, 1841 

Pemiscot February 19, 1861 

Perry November 16, 1820 

Pettis January 26, 1833 

Phelps ........ November 13, 1857 

Pike December 14, 1818 

Platte December 31, 1838 

Polk March 13. 1835 

Pulaski December 15, 1818 

Putnam ........ February 28, 1845 

Ralls ........ November 16, 1820 

Randolph ........ January 22, 1829 

Ray ......... November 16, 1820 

Reynolds February 25, 1845 

Ripley January 5, 1833 

St. Charles . October 1, 1812 

St. Clair . . .• January 29, 1841 

St. Francois December 19, 1821 

Ste. Genevieve October 1, 1812 

St. Louis October 1, 1812 

Saline . November 2$, 1820 

Schuyler February 14, 1845 

Scotland January 29, 1841 

Scott December 28, 1821 

Shannon ........ January 29, 1841 

Shelby January 2, 1835 



4 6 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

COUNTIES— when ORGANIZED.— Continued. 



Stoddard January 2, 1835 

Stone February 10, 185 1 

Sullivan February 16, 1845 

Taney January 16, 1837 

Texas February 14, 1835 

Vernon February 17, 1851 



Warren January 5, 1833 

Washington August 2.1, 1813 

Wayne December 11, 1818 

Webster March 3,1855 

Worth February 8, 1861 

Wright. •••«••• .January 29, 1S41 



CHAPTER VIII. 



EARLY MILITARY RECORD. 



BLACK HAWK WAR-MORMON DIFFICULTIES-FLORIDA WAR— MEXICAN WAR. 

On the 14th day of May, 1832, a bloody engagement took place 
between the regular forces of the United States, and a part of the Sacs, 
Foxes and Winnebago Indians, commanded by Black Hawk and 
Keokuk, near Dixon's Ferry, in Illinois. 

The Governor (John Miller) of Missouri, fearing these savages would 
invade the soil of his state, ordered Major-General Richard Gentry to 
raise one thousand volunteers for the defense of the frontier. Five com- 
panies were at once raised in Boone County, and in Callaway, Mont- 
gomery, St. Charles, Lincoln, Pike, Marion, Ralls, Clay and Monroe 
other companies were raised. 

Two of these companies, commanded respectively by Captain John 
Jaimison, of Callaway, and Captain David M. Hickman, of Boone County, 
were mustered into service in July for thirty days, and put under com- 
mand of Major Thomas W. Conyers. 

This detachment, accompanied by General Gentry, arrived at Fort 
Pike on the 15th of July, 1832. Finding that the Indians had not crossed 
the Mississippi into Missouri, General Gentry returned to Columbia, 
leaving the fort in charge of M-ajor Conyers. Thirty days having expired, 
the command under Major Conyers was relieved by two other com- 
panies under Captains Sinclair Kirtley, of Boone, and Patrick Ewing, 
of Callaway. This detachment was marched to Fort Pike by Col. Austin 
A. King, who conducted the two companies under Major Conyers home. 
Major Conyers was left in charge of the fort, where he remained until 
September following, at which time the Indian troubles, so far as Mis- 
souri was concerned, having all subsided, the frontier forces were mus- 
tered out of service. 

Black Hawk continued the war in Iowa and Illinois, and was finally 
defeated and captured in 1833. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 47 

MORMON DIFFICULTIES. 

In 1832, Joseph Smith, the leader of the Mormons^ and the chosen 
prophet and apostle, as he claimed, of the Most High, came with many 
followers to Jackson County, Missouri, where they located and. entered; 
several thousand acres of land. 

The object of his coming so far west— upon the very outskirts of 
civilization at that time — was to more securely establish his church,, 
and the more effectively to instruct his followers in its peculiar tenets 
and practices. 

Upon the present town site of Independence the Mormons located 
their "Zion" and gave it the name of "The New Jerusalem." They pub 
lished hei»e the Evening Star, and made themselves generally obnox- 
ious to the Gentiles, who were then in the minority, by their denunciatory 
articles through their paper, their clannishness and their polygamous- 
practices. 

Dreading the demoralizing influence of a paper which seemed to be 
inspired only with hatred and malice toward them, the Gentiles threw 
the press and type into the Missouri river, tarred and feathered one of 
their bishops, and otherwise gave the Mormons and their leaders to 
understand that they must conduct themselves in an. entirely different 
manner if they wished to be let alone. 

After the destruction of their paper and press they became furiously 
incensed, and sought many opportunities for retaliation. Matters con- 
tinued in an uncertain condition until the 31st of October, 1833, when a 
deadly conflict occurred near Westport, in which two Gentiles and one 
Mormon were killed. 

On the 2d of November following the Mormons were overpowered, 
and compelled to lay down their arms and agree to leave the country 
with their families by January 1st, on the condition that the owner 
would be paid for his printing press. 

Leaving Jackson County, they crossed the Missouri and located in 
Clay, Carroll, Caldwell and other counties, and selected in Caldwell 
County a town site, which they called "Far West," and where they 
entered more land for their future homes. 

Through the influence of their missionaries, who were exerting 
themselves in the East and in different portions of Europe, converts had 
constantly flocked to their standard, and "Far West" and other Mormon 
settlements rapidly prospered. 

In 1837 they commenced the erection of a magnificent temple, but 
never finished it. As their settlements increased in numbers they 
became bolder in their practices and deeds of lawlessness. 

During the summer of 1838 two of their leaders settled in the town 
of DeWitt, on the Missouri River, having purchased the land, from an 



48 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Illinois merchant. DeWitt was in Carroll County, and a good point 
from which to forward goods and immigrants to their town — Far West. 

Upon its being ascertained that these parties were Mormon leaders, 
the Gentiles called a public meeting, which was addressed by some of 
the prominent citizens of the county. Nothing, however, was done at 
this meeting, but at a subsequent meeting, which was held a few days 
afterward, a committee of citizens was appointed to notify Colonel 
Hinkle (one of the Mormon leaders at DeWitt), what they intended to do. 

Col. Hinkle, upon being notified by this committee, became indig- 
nant, and threatened extermination to all who should attempt to molest 
him or the Saints. 

In anticipation of trouble, and believing that the Gentiles would 
attempt to force them from DeWitt, Mormon recruits flocked to the town 
from every direction, and pitched their tents in and around the town in 
great numbers. 

The Gentiles, nothing daunted, planned an attack upon this encamp- 
ment, to take place on the 21st day of September, 1838, and, accordingly, 
one hundred and fifty men bivouacked near the town on that day. A 
conflict ensued, but nothing serious occurred. 

The Mormons evacuated their works and fled to some, log houses, 
where they could the more successfully resist the Gentiles, \vho had in 
the meantime returned to their camp to await reinforcemencs. Troops 
from Howard, Ray and other counties came to their assistance, and 
increased their number to five hundred men. 

Congreve Jackson was chosen Brigadier General ; Ebenezer Price, 
Colonel ; Singleton Vaughn, Lieutenant Colonel, and Sarchel Woods, 
Major. After some days of discipline, this brigade prepared for an 
assault, but before the attack was commenced Judge James Earickson 
and William F. Dunnica, influential citizens of Howard County, asked 
permission of General Jackson to let them try and adjust the difficulties 
without any bloodshed. 

It was finally agreed that Judge Earickson should propose to the 
Mormons that, if they would pay for all the cattle they had killed 
belonging to the citizens, and load their wagons during the night and be 
ready to move by ten o'clock next morning, and make no further attempt 
to settle in Howard County, the citizens would purchase at first cost their 
lots in DeWitt and one or two adjoining tracts of land. 

Col. Hinkle, the leader of the Mormons, at first refused all attempts 
to settle the difficulties in this way, but finally agreed to the proposition. 

In accordance therewith, the Mormons, without further delay, loaded 
up their wagons for the town of Far West, in Caldwell County. Whether 
the terms of the agreement were ever carried out on the part of the cit- 
izens, is not known. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI 49 

The Mormons had doubtless suffered much and in many ways — the 
result of their own acts — but their trials and sufferings were not at an 

end. 

In 1838 the discord between the citizens and Mormons became so 
great that Governor Boggs issued a proclamation ordering Major General 
David R. Atchison to call the militia of his division to enforce the laws. 
He called out a part of the First Brigade of the Missouri state militia, 
under command of General A. W. Doniphan, who proceeded to the seat 
of war. General John B. Clark, of Howard County, was placed in com- 
mand of the militia. 

The Mormon forces numbered about 1,000 men, and were led by G. 
W. Hinkle. The first engagement occurred at Crooked River, where 
one Mormon was killed. The principal fight took place at Haughn's 
Mills, where eighteen Mormons were killed and the balance captured, 
some of them being killed after they had surrendered. Only one militia- 
man was wounded. 

In the month of October, 1838, Joe Smith surrendered the town of 
Far West to General Doniphan, agreeing to his conditions, viz : That 
they should deliver up their arms, surrender their prominent leaders for 
trial, and the remainder of the Mormons should, with their families, 
leave the State. Indictments were found against a number of these 
leaders, including Joe Smith, who, while being taken to Boone County 
for trial, made his escape, and was afterward, in 1844, killed at Carthage, 
Illinois, with his brother Hyrum. 

FLORIDA WAR. 

In September, 1837, the Secretary of War issued a requisition on 
Governor Boggs, of Missouri, for six hundred volunteers, for service in 
Florida against the Seminole Indians, with whom the Creek nation had 
made common cause under Osceola. 

The first regiment was chiefly raised in Boone County by Colonel 
Richard Gentry, of which he was elected Colonel ; John W. Price, of 
Howard County, Lieutenant Colonel ; Harrison H. Hughes, also of 
Howard, Major. Four companies of the Second regiment were raised 
and attached to the First. Two of these companies were composed of 
Delaware and Osage Indians. 

October 6, 1837, Colonel Gentry's regiment left Columbia for the 
seat of war, stopping on the way at Jefferson barracks, where they were 
mustered into service. 

Arriving at Jackson barracks, New Orleans, they were from thence 
transported in brigs across the Gulf to Tampa Bay, Florida. General 
Zachary Taylor, who then commanded in Florida, ordered Colonel 
Gentry to march to Okee-cho-bee Lake, one hundred and thirty-five 
miles inland by the route traveled. Having reached the Kissimmee 



50 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

River, seventy miles distant, a bloody battle ensued in which Colonel 
Gentry was killed. The Missourians, though losing their gallant leader, 
continued the fight until the Indians were totally routed, leaving many 
of their dead and wounded on the field. There being no further service 
required of the Missourians, they returned to their homes in 1838. 

MEXICAN WAR. 

Soon after Mexico declared war against the United States, on the 
8th and 9th of May, 1846, the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma were fought. Great excitement prevailed throughout the country. 
In none of her sister states however, did the fires of patriotism burn 
more intensely than in Missouri. Not waiting for the call for volunteers, 
the "St. Louis Legion" hastened to the field of conflict. The Legion 
was commanded by Colonel A. R. Easton. During the month of May, 
1846, Governor Edwards, of Missouri, called for voluoteers to join the 
"Army of the West," an expedition to the Santa Fe — under command 
of General Stephen W. Kearny. 

Fort Leavenworth was the appointed rendezvous for the volunteers. 
By the 18th of June, the full complement of companies to compose the 
First Regiment had arrived from Jackson, Lafayette, Clay, Saline, Frank- 
lin, Cole, Howard and Callaway Counties. Of this regiment A. W. Don- 
iphan was made Colonel ; C. F. Ruff, Lieutenant-Colonel, and William 
Gilpin, Major. The battalion of light artillery from St. Louis, was com- 
manded by Captains R. A. Weightman and A. W. Fischer, with Major 
M. L. Clark as field officer; battalions of infantry from Platte and Cole 
Counties, commanded by Captains Murphy and W. Z. Augney, respect- 
ively, and the " Laclede Rangers," from St. Louis, by Captain Thomas B. 
Hudson, aggregating, all told, from Missouri, 1,658 men. In the summer 
of 1846 Hon. Sterling Price resigned his seat in Congress, and raised one 
mounted regiment, one mounted extra battalion, and one extra battalion 
of Mormon infantry to reinforce the "Army of the West." Mr. Price was 
made Colonel, and D. D. Mitchell, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

In August, 1847, Governor Edwards made another requisition for one 
thousand men, to consist of infantry. The regiment was raised at once. 
John Dougherty, of Clay County, was chosen Colonel, but before the regi- 
ment marched the President countermanded the order. 

A company of mounted volunteers was raised in Ralls County, com- 
manded by Captain Wm. T. Lalfland. Conspicuous among the engage- 
ments in which the Missouri volunteers participated in Mexico we're 
the battles of Brazito, Sacramento, Canada, El Embudo, Taos and Santa 
Cruz de Rosales. The forces from Missouri were mustered out in 1848, 
and will ever be remembered in the history of the Mexican war, for 

"A thousand glorious actions that might claim 
Triumphant laurels, and immortal fame." 



HISTORY OF Ml SOURL 51 

CHAPTER IX. 

CIVIL WAR IN MISSOURI. 



ffOKT SUMTER FIRED UPON-CALL TOR 75,000 MEN— GOV. JACKSON REFUSES TO FUR- 
NISH A MAN— U. S. ARSENAL AT LIBERTY, MO., SEIZED— PROCLAMATION OF GOV- 
ERNOR JACKSON — GENERAL ORDER NO. 7- LEGISLATURE CONVENES — CAMP 
JACKSON O r GANIZED— STERLING PRICE APPOINTED MAJOR-GENERAL— FROST'S 
LETTER TO 1 YON— LVON'S LETTER TO FROST— SURRENDER OF CAMP JACKSON- 
PROCLAMATION OF GEN HARNEY-CONFERENCE BETWEEN PRICE AND HARNEY- 
HARNEY SUl'ERSEDED BY LYON— SECOND CONFERENCE— GOV. JACKSON BURNS 
THE BRIDGES BKHIND HIM -PROCLAMATION OF GOV. JACKSON— GEN. BLAIR TAKES 
POSSESSION OF JEFFERSON CITY— PROCLAMATION OF LYON— LYON AT SPRINGFIELD 
—STATE OFFICES DECLARED VACANT— GEN. FREMONT ASSUMES COMMAND-PRO- 
CLAMATION OF LIEUT. GOV. REYNOLDS — PROCLAMATION OF JEFF. THOMPSON 
AND GOV. JACKSON— DEATH OF GEN. LYON— SUCCEEDED BY STURGIS— PROCLAMA- 
TION OF M'CULLOCH AND GAMBLE — MARTIAL LAW DECLARED— SECOND PRO- 
CLAMATION OF JEFF. THOMPSON— PRESIDENT MODIFIES FREMONT'S ORDER— FRE- 
MONT RELIEVED BY HUNTER— PROCLAMATION OF PRICE— HUNTER'S ORDER OF 
ASSESSMENT — HUNTER DECLARES MARTIAL LAW — ORDER RELATING TO NEWS- 
PAPERS-HALLECK SUCCEEDS HUNTER-HALLECK'S ORDER 81-SIMILAR ORDER BY 
HALLECK -BOONE COUNTY STANDARD CONFISCATED-EXECUTION OF PRISONERS 
AT MACON AND PALMYRA— GEN. EWING'S ORDER NO. 11— GEN. ROSECRANS TAKES 
COMMAND— MASSACRE AT CENTRALIA-DEATH OF BILL ANDERSON— GEN. DODGE 
SUCCEEDS GEN. ROSECRANS-LIST Or BATTLES. 

■ 

M Lastly stood war— 

With visage grim, stern looks, and blackly hued, 
****** * 

Ah ! why will kings forget that they are men ? 
And men that they are brethren ? Why delight 
In human sacrifice ? Why burst the ties 
Ot nature, that should knit their souls together 
In one bond of amity and love?" 

Fort Sumter wss fired upon April 12, 1861. On April 15th, President 
Lincoln issued a proclamation, calling for 75,000 men, from the militia 
of the several states, to suppress combinations in the Southern States 
therein named. Simultaneously therewith the secretary of war sent a 
telegram to all the governors of the states, excepting those mentioned 
in the proclamation, requesting them to detail a. certain number of 
militia to serve for three months, Missouri's quota being four regiments. 

In response to this telegram Gov. Jackson sent the following answer: 

Executive Department of Missouri, 
Jefferson City, April 17, 1861. 
To the Hon. Simon Cameron, 

Secretary of War, Washington, D. C: 

Sir: Your dispatch of the 15th inst., making a call on Missouri 

for four regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. 

There can be, I apprehend, no doubt but thase men are intended to form 

a part of the President's army to make war upon the people of the 



52 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

seceded states. Your requisition, in my judgment, is illegal, unconsti- 
tutional, and cannot be complied with. Not one man will the State of 
Missouri furnish to carry on such an unholy war. 

C. F. JACKSON, 

Governor of Missouri, 

April 21, 1861. U. S. Arsenal at Liberty was seized by order of 
Governor Jackson. 

April 22, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation convening 
the Legislature of Missouri in May following, in extra session, to take 
into consideration the momentuous issues, which were presented, and 
the attitude to be assumed by the state in the impending struggle. 

On the 22nd of April, 1861, the Adjutant-General of Missouri issued 
the following military order : 

Headquarters Adjutant-General's Office, Mo., 
Jefferson City, April 22, 1861. 
{General Order No. 7.) 

I. To attain a greater degree of efficiency and perfection in organi- 
zation and discipline, the commanding officers of-th: several military 
districts in this state, having four or more legally erg mized companies 
therein, whose armories are within fifteen miles of eacn other, will assem- 
ble their respective commands at some place to be by them severally 
designated, on the 3rd of May, and to go into an encampment for a 
period of six days as provided by law. Captains of companies not organ- 
ized into battalions, will report the strength of their companies immedi- 
ately to these headquarters, and await further orders. 

II. The quartermaster-general will procure and issue to quarter- 
masters of districts, for these commands not now provided for, all nec- 
essary tents and camp equipage, to enable the commanding officers 
thereof to carry the foregoing orders into effect. 

III. The Light Battery now attached to the Southwest Battalion, 
and one company of mounted riflemen, including all officers and soldiers 
belonging to the First District, will proceed forthwith to St. Louis and 
report to Gen. D. M. Frost for duty. The remaining companies of said 
battalion will be disbanded for the purpose of assisting in the organiza- 
tion of companies upon that frontier. The details in the execution of 
the foregoing are intrusted to Lieutenant-Colonel John S. Bowen, com- 
manding the battalion. 

IV. The strength, organization and equipment of the several com- 
panies in the districts will be reported at once to these headquarters, 
and district inspectors will furnish all information which may be servic- 
able in ascertaining the condition of state forces. 

By order of the Governor. 

WARWICK HOUGH, 

Adjutant-General of Missouri. 

May 2, 1861. The Legislature convened in extra session. Many 
acts were passed among which was one to authorize the Governor to 
purchase or lease David Ballantine's foundry, at Boonville, for the man- 
ufacture of arms and munitions of war ; to authorize the governor to 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 53 

appoint one major-general ; to authorize the governor, when in his opinion 
the security and welfare of the state required it, to take possession 
of the railroad and telegraph lines of the state ; to provide for the organ- 
ization, government and support of the military forces ; to borrow one 
million of dollars to arm and equip the militia of the state to repel 
invasion and protect the lives and property of the people. An act was 
also passed creating a "Military Fund," to consist o( all the money then 
in the treasury or that might thereafter be received from the one-tenth 
of one per cent, on the hundred dollars, levied by act of November, 1857, 
to complete certain railroads ; also the proceeds of a tax of fifteen cents 
on the hundred dollars of the assessed value of the taxable property of 
the several counties in the state, and the proceeds of the two mill tax, 
which had been theretofore appropriated for educational purposes. 

May 3, 1861. "Camp Jackson" was organized. 

May 10, 1861. Sterling Price appointed major-general of state 
guard. 

May 10, 1861. General Frost, commanding "Camp Jackson," 
addressed General N# Lyon, as follows: 

Headquarters Camp Jackson, Missouri Militia. 

May 10, 1861. 

Capt. N. Lyon, Commanding United States Troops in and about St. 

Louis Arsenal: 

Sir : — I am constantly in receipt of information that you contem- 
plate an attack upon my camp, whilst I understand that you are impressed 
with the idea that an attack upon the arsenal and United States troops 
is intended on the part of the Militia of Missouri. I am greatly at a 
loss to know what could justify you in attacking citizens of the United 
States, who are in lawful performance of their duties, devolving upon 
them under the constitution in organizing and instructing the militia of 
the state in obedience to her laws, and, therefore, have been disposed to 
doubt the correctness of the information I have received. 

I would be glad to know from you personally whether there is any 
truth in the statements that are constantly pouring into my ears. So 
far as regards any hostility being intended toward the United States, 
or its property or representatives by any portion of my command, or, as 
far as I can learn, (and I think I am fully informed,) of any other part of 
the state forces, I can positively say that the idea has never been enter- 
tained. On the contrary, prior to your taking command of the arsenal, 
I proffered to Mayor Bell, then in command of the very few troops con- 
stituting its guard, the services of myself and all my command, and, if 
necessary, the whole power of the state, to protect the United States 
in the full possession of all her property. Upon General Harney taking 
command of this department, I made the some proffer of services to him, 
and authorized his Adjutant General, Captain Williams, to communicate 
the fact that such had been done to the War Department. I have had 
no occasion since to change any of the views I entertained at the time, 
neither of my own volition nor through the orders of my constitutional 
commander. 



54 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

I trust that after this explicit statement that we may be able, by 
fully understanding each other, to keep far from our borders the misfor- 
tunes which so unhappily affect our common country. 

This communication will be handed you by Colonel Bowen, my 
Chief of Staff, who will be able to explain anything not fully set forth in 
the foregoing. 

I am, sir, very respectfully your obedient servant, 

iRIGADIER GENERAL D. M. FROST, 

Commanding Camp Jackson, M. V. M. 

May 10, 1861. General Lyon sent the following to General Frost : 

Headquarters United States Troops, 
St. Louis, Mo., May 10, 1861. 

General D. M. Frost, Commanding Camp Jackson: 

SrR : — Your command is regarded as evidently hostile toward the 
Government of the United States. 

It is, for the most part, made up of those Secessionists who have 
openly avowed their hostility to the general government, and have been 
plotting at the seizure of its property and the overthrow of its authority. 
You are openly in communication with the so-called Southern Confed- 
eracy, which is now at war with the United States, and you are receiv- 
ing at your camp, from the said Confederacy and under its flag, large 
supplies of the material of war, most of which is known to be the prop- 
erty of the United States. These extraordinary preparations plainly 
indicate none other than the well-known purpose of the Governor of this 
state, under whose orders you are acting, and whose communication to 
the Legislature has just been responded to by that body in the most 
unparalleled legislation, having in direct view hostilities to the general 
government and co-operation with its enemies. 

In view of these considerations, and of your failure to disperse in 
obedience to the proclamation of the President, and of the imminent 
necessities of state policy and warfare, and the obligations imposed upon 
me by instructions from Washington, it is my duty to demand, and I do 
hereby demand of you an immediate surrender of your command, with 
no other conditions than that all persons surrendering under this com- 
mand shall be humanely and kindly treated. Believing myself prepared 
to enforce this demand, one-half hour's time before doing so will be 
allowed for your compliance therewith. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

N. LYON, 

Capt. 2d Infantry, Commanding Troops. 

May 10, 1861. Camp Jackson surrendered and prisoners all released 
excepting Capt. Emmet McDonald, who refused to subscribe the parole. 

May 12, 1861. Brigadier General Wm. S. Harney issued a procla- 
mation to the people of Missouri, saying, "he would carefully abstain 
from the exercise of any unnecessary powers," and only use " the military 
force stationed in this district in the last resort to preserve peace." 

M. L y 14, 1861. General Harney issued a second proclamation. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 55 

May 21, 1 86 1. General Harney held a conference with General 
Sterling Price, of the Missouri State Guards. 

May 31, 1 86 1. General Harney superseded by General Lyon. 

June ii, 1861 A second conference was held between the national 
and state authorities in St. Louis, which resulted in nothing. 

June 11, 1861. Governor Jackson left St. Louis for Jefferson City, 
burning the railroad bridges behind him, and cutting telegraph wires. 

June 12, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation calling 
into active service 50,000 militia, " to repel invasion, protect life, prop- 
erty, etc." 

June 15, 1861. Colonel F P. Blair took possession of the state capi- 
tal, Governor Jackson, General Price and other officers having left on 
the 13th of June for Boonville. 

June 17, 1861. Battle of Boonville took place between the forces of 
General Lyon and Colonel John S. Marmaduke. 

June 18, 1861. General Lyon issued a proclamation to the people 
of Missouri. 

July 5, 1 861. Battle at Carthage between the forces of Genera] 
Sigel and Governor Jackson. 

July 6, 1861. General Lyon reached Springfield. 

July 22, 1861. State convention met and declared the offices of 
Governor, Lieutenant Governor and Secretary of State vacated. 

July 26, 1 861. General John C. Fremont assumed command of the 
Western Department, with headquarters in St. Louis. 

July 31, 1 86 1. Lieutenant Governor Thomas C. Reynolds issued a 
proclamation at New Madrid. 

August 1, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation at 
Bloomfield. 

August 2, 1861. Battle of Dug Springs, between Captain Steele's 
forces and General Rains. 

August 5, 1 86 1. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation at New 
Madrid. 

August 5, 1861. Battle of Athens. 

August 10, 1861. Battle of Wilson's Creek, between the forces 
under General Lyon and General McCulloch. In this engagemeet Gen- 
eral Lyon was killed. General Sturgis succeeded General Lyon. 

August 12, 1861. McCulloch issued a proclamation, and soon left 
Missouri. 

August 20, 1861. General Price issued a proclamation. 

August 24, 1861. Governor Gamble issued a proclamation calling 
for 32,000 men for six months, to protect the property and lives of the 
citizens of the state. 

August 30, 1861. General Fremont declared martial law, and 
declared that the slaves of all persons who should thereafter take an 
active part with the enemies of the Government should be free. 



56 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

September 2, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation 
in response to Fremont's proclamation. 

September 7, 1861. Battle at Drywood Creek. 

September II, 1861. President Lincoln modified the clause in Gen- 
eral Fremont's declaration of martial law, in reference to the confiscation 
of property and liberation of slaves. 

September 12, 1861. General Price begins the attack at Springfield 
on Colonel Mulligan's forces. ' 

September 20, 1861. Colonel Mulligan with 2,640 men surrendered. 

October 25, 1861. Second battle at Springfield. 

November 2, 1861. General Fremont succeeded by General David 
Hunter. 

November 7, *86i. General Grant attacked Belmont. 

November 9, 1861. General Hunter succeeded by General Halleck, 
who took command on the 19th of same month, with headquarters in St. 
Louis. 

November 27, 1861. General Price issued proclamation calling for 
50,000 men, at Neosho, Missouri. 

December 12, 1861. General Hunter issued his order of assessment 
upon certain wealthy citizens in St. Louis, for feeding and clothing Union 
refugees. 

December 23-25, 1861. Declared martial law in St. Louis and the 
country adjacent, and covering all the railroad lines. 

March 6, 1862. Battle at Pea Ridge between the forces under Gen- 
erals Curtis and Van Dorn. 

January 8, 1862. Provost Marshal Farrar, of St. Louis, issued the 
following order in reference to newspapers : 

Office of the Provost Marshal, 
General Department of Missouri, 
St. Louis, January 8, 1862. 

{General Order No. 10.) 

It is hereby ordered that from and after this date the publishers of 
newspapers in the State of Missouri, (St. Louis city papers excepted), 
furnish to this office, immediately upon publication, one copy of each 
issue, for inspection. A failure to comply with this order will render the 
newspaper liable to suppression. 

Local Provost Marshals will furnish the proprietors with copies of 
this order, and attend to its immediate enforcement. 

BERNARD G. FARRAR, 
Provost Marshal General. 

January 26, 1862. General Halleck issued order (No. 18) which for* 
bade, among other things, the display of Secession flags in the hands of 
women or on carriages, in the vicinity of the military prison in McDow- 
ell's College, the carriages to be confiscated and the offending women to 
be arrested. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 57 

February 4, 1862. General Halleck issued another order similar to 
Order No. 18, to railway companies, and to the professors and directors 
of the State University at Columbia, forbidding the funds of the institu- 
tion to be used "to teach treason or to instruct traitors." 

February 20, 1862. Special Order No. 120 convened a military com- 
mission, which sat in Columbia, March following, and tried Edmund J. 
Ellis, of Columbia, editor and proprietor of the Boone County Standard, 
for the publication of information for the benefit of the enemy, and 
encouraging resistance to the United States Government. Ellis was 
found guilty, was banished during the war from Missouri, and his print- 
ing materials confiscated and sold. 

April, 1862. General Halleck left for Corinth, Mississippi, leaving 
General Schofield in command. 

June, 1862. Battle at Cherry Grove between the forces under 
Colonel Joseph C. Porter and Colonel H. S. Lipscomb. 

June, 1862. Battle at Pierce's Mill between the forces under Major 
John Y. Clopper and Colonel Porter. 

July 22, 1862. Battle at Florida. 

July 28, 1862. Battle at Moore's Mill. 

August 6, 1862. Battle near Kirksville 

August II, 1862. Battle at Independence. 

August 16, 1862. Battle at Lone Jack. 

September 13, 1862. Battle at Newtonia. 

September 25, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners were executed at 
Macon by order of General Merrill. 

October 18, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners executed at Palmyra 
by order of General McNeill. 

January 8, 1863. Battle at Springfield between the foces of General 
Marmaduke and General E. B. Brown. 

April 26, 1863. Battle at Cape Girardeau. 

August — , 1863. General Jeff. Thompson captured at Pocahontas, 
Arkansas, with his staff. 

August 25, 1863. General Thomas Ewing issued his celebrated 
Order No. 11, at Kansas City, Missouri, which is as follows: 

Headquarters District of the Border, 
Kansas City, Mo., August 25, 1863. 

(" General Order No. //.") 

First. — All persons living in Cass, Jackson and Bates Counties, Mis- 
souri, and in that part of Vernon included in this district, except those 
living within one mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman's Mills, 
Pleasant Hill and Harrisonville, and except those in that part of Kaw 
Township, Jackson County, north of Brush Creek and west of the Big 
Blue, embracing Kansas City and Westport, are hereby ordered to remove 
from their present places of residence within fifteen days from the date 
hereoi 



58 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Those who, within that time, establish their loyalty to the satisfac- 
tion of the commanding officer of the military station nearest their 
present places of residence, will receive from him certificates stating the 
fact of their loyalty, and the names of the witnesses by whom it can be 
shown. All who receive such certificate will be permitted to remove to 
any military station in this district, or to any part of the State of Kansas, 
except the counties on the eastern borders of the state. All others shall 
remove out of this district. Officers commanding companies and detach- 
ments serving in the counties named, will see that this paragraph is 
promptly obeyed. 

Second. — All grain and hay in the field, or under shelter, in the dis- 
trict from which the inhabitants are required to remove, within reach of 
military stations, after the 9th day of September next, will be taken to 
such stations and turned over to the proper officer there, and report of 
the amount so turned over made to district headquarters, specifying the 
names of all loyal owners and the amount of such produce taken from 
them. All grain and hay found in such district after the 9th day of Sep- 
tember next, not convenient to such stations, will be destroyed. 

Third. — The provisions of General Order No. 10, from these head- 
quarters, will at once be vigorously executed by officers commanding in 
the parts of the district, and at stations not subject to the operations of 
paragraph First of this Order — and especially in the towns of Independ- 
ence, Westport and Kansas City. 

Fourth — Paragraph 3, General Order No. 10, is revoked as to all who 
have borne arms against the government in the district since August 20, 
1863. 

By order of Brigadier-General Ewing. 

H. HANNAHS, Adjutant. 

October 12-13, 1863. Battle of Arrow Creek. 

January, 1864. General Rosecrans takes command of the depart- 
ment. 

September, 1864. Battle at Pilot Knob, Harrison and Little Mor- 
ceau River. 

September 27, 1864. Massacre at Centralia, by Captain William 
Anderson. 

October 5, 1864. Battle at Prince's Ford and James Gordon's farm. 

October 15, 1864. Battle at Glasgow. 

October 20, 1864. Battle at Little Blue Creek. 

October 27, 1864. Capt. Anderson killed. 

December — , 1864. General Rosecrans relieved, and General 
Dodge appointed to succeed him. 

Nothing occurred specially, of a military character, in the state, 
after December, 1864. We have, in the main, given the facts as they 
occurred, without comment or entering into details. Many of the 
minor incidents and skirmishes of the war have been omitted because 
of our limited space. 

It is utterly impossible, at this date, to give the names and dates of 
all the battles fought in Missouri during the civil war. It will be found, 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 59 

however, that the list given below, which has been arranged for conven- 
ience, contains the prominent battles and skirmishes which took place 

within the State : 

Potosi, May 14, 1861. 
Booneville, June 17, 1861. 
Carthage, July 5, 1861. 
Monroe Station, July 10, 1861. 
Overton's Run, July 17, 1861. 
Dug Spring, August 2, 1861. 
Wilson's Creek, August 9, 1861. 
Athens, August 5, 1861. 
Moreton, August 20, 1861 
Bennett's Mills, September — , 1861. 
Dry wood Creek, September 7, 1861. 
Norfolk, September 10, 1861. 
Lexington, September 12-20, 1861. 
Blue Mills Landing, September 17, l86l* 
Glasgow Mistake, September 20, 1861. 
Osceola, September 25, 1861. 
Shanghai, October 13, 1861. 
Lebanon, October 13, 1861. 
Linn Creek, October 15, 1861. 
Big River Bridge, October 15, 186L 
Fredericktown, October 21, 1861. 
Springfield, October 25, 1861. 
Belmont, November 7, 1861. 
Piketon, November 8, 1861. 
Little Blue, November 10, 1861. 
Clark's Station, November 11, 1861. 
Zion Church, December 28, 1861. 
Silver Creek, January 15, 1862. 
New Madrid, February 28, 1862. 
Pea Ridge, March 6, 1862. 
Neosho, April 22, 1862. 
Rose Hill, July 10, 1862. 
Chariton River, July 30, 1862. 
Cherry Grove, June — , 1862. 
Pierce's Mill, June — , 1862. 
Florida, July 22, 1862. 
Moore's Mill, July 28, 1862. 
Kirksville, August 6, 1862. 
Compton's Ferry, August 8, 1862. 
Yellow Creek, August 13, 1862, 



60 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Independence, August II, 1862. 
Lone Jack, August 16, 1862. 
Newtonia, September 13, 1862. 
Springfield, January 8, 1863. 
Cape Girardeau, April 29, 1863. 
Arrow Rock, October 12 and 13, 1863. 
Pilot Knob, September — , 1864. 
Harrison, September — , 1864 
Moreau River, October 7, 1864. 
Prince's Ford, October 5, 1864. 
Glasgow, October 15, 1864. 
Little Blue Creek, October 20, 1864. 
Albany, October 27, 1864. 
Near Rocheport, September 23, 1864, 
Centralia, September 27, 1864. 



CHAPTER X. 

AGRICULTURE AND MATERIAL WEALTH. 

MISSOURI AS AN AGRICULTURAL STATE— THE DIFFERENT CROPS-LIVE STOCK- HQI&tfr 
MULES-MILCH COWS-OXEN AND OTHER CATTLE— SHEEP- HOGS— COMPARISONS- 
MISSOURI ADAPTED TO LIVE STOCK— COTTON— BROOM-CORN AND OTHER PRO? 
DUCTS- FRUITS — BERRIES— GRAPES — RAILROADS— FIRST NEIGH OF THE " IROH 
HORSE" IN MISSOURI— NAMES OF RAILROADS— MANUFACTURES— GREAT BRIDGE 
AT ST. LOUIS. 

Agriculture is the greatest among all the arts of man, as it is the 
first in supplying his necessities. It favors and strengthens population ; 
it creates and maintains manufactures ; gives employment to navigation, 
and furnishes materials to commerce. It animates every species of indus- 
try, and opens to nations the safest channels of wealth. It is the strong- 
est bond of well-regulated society, the surest basis of internal peace, and 
the natural associate of correct morals. Among all the occupations and 
professions of life there is none more honorable, none more independent 
and none more conducive to health and happiness. 

"In ancient times the sacred plow employ' d 
The kings, and awful fathers of mankind ; 
And some, with whom compared, your insect tribes 
Are but the beings of a summer's day, 
Have held the scale of empire, ruled the storm 
Of mighty war with unwearied hand, 
Disdaining little delicacies, seized 
The plow and greatly independent livedo" 






HISTORY OF MISSOURL 6l 

As an agricultural region, Missouri is not surpassed by any state in 
the Union. It is indeed the farmer's kingdom, where he always reaps 
an abundant harvest. The soil, in many portions of the state, has an 
open, flexible structure, quickly absorbs the most excessive rains, and 
retains moisture with great tenacity. This being the case it is not so 
easily affected by drouth. The prairies are covered with sweet, luxuri- 
ant grass, equally good for grazing and hay ; grass not surpassed by the 
Kentucky blue grass — the best of clover and timothy in growing and 
fattening cattle. This grass is now as full of life-giving nutriment as it 
was when cropped by the buffalo, the elk, the antelope and the deer, 
and costs the herdsman nothing. 

No state or territory has a more complete or rapid system of nat- 
ural drainage, or a more abundant supply of pure, fresh water, than 
Missouri. Both man and beast may slake their thirst from a thousand 
perennial fountains, which gush in limpid streams from the hillsides and 
wend their way through verdant valleys and along smiling prairies, 
varying in size as they onward flow, from the diminutive brooklet to the 
giant river. 

Here nature has generously bestowed her attractions of climate, 
soil and scenery to please and gratify man while earning his bread in 
the sweat of his brow. Being thus munificiently endowed, Missouri 
offers superior inducements to the farmer, and bids him enter her broad 
domain and avail himself of her varied resources. 

We present here a table showing the product of each principal crop 
in Missouri for 1878. 

Indian Corn •*••• 93,062,000 bushels 

Wheat 20,196000 " 

Rye 732,000 «« 

Oats 19,584 000 " 

Buckwheat 46,400 *» 

Potatoes 5,415,000 u 

Tobacco 23023,000 pounds 

Hay 1,620,000 tons 

There were 3,522,000 acres in corn; wheat, 1,836,000; rye, 48,800; 
oats, 640,000 ; buckwheat, 2,900 ; potatoes, 72,200 ; tobacco, 29,900 ; hay; 
850,000. Value of each crop: corn, $24,196,224; wheat, $13,531,320; 
rye, $300,120 ; oats, $3,325,120 ; buckwheat, $24,128 ; potatoes, $2,057,- 
700; tobacco, $1,151,150; hay, $10,416,600. 

Average cash value of crops per acre, $7.69 ; average yield of corn 
per acre, 26 bushels ; wheat, 1 1 bushels. 

Next in importance to the com crop in value is the live stock. The 
following table shows the number of horses, mules and milch cows in 
the different states for 1S79 : 



62 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



STATES. HORSES. 

Maine •••••••••••••• 81,700 



MULES, 



New Hampshir 
Vermont . . . 
Massachusetts 
Rhode Island 
Connecticut . . 



57,100 

77400 

131,000 

1 6, 200 

S3.500 



New York ••... 898,000 11,800 

New Jersey H4>5°° 14,400 

Pennsylvania ............. 614 500 24,900 

Delaware • 19,900 4,000 

Maryland 108,600 11,300 

Virginia 208 700 30,600 

North Carolina 144,200 74,000 

South Carolina 59, 6o ° 51,5°° 

Georgia 119,200 97,200 

Florida 22,400 11,900 

Alabama 112,800 III, 700 

Mississippi . 97, 200 100,000 

Louisiana . . , • • • 79. 3°° 80,700 

Texas • 618,000 180,200 . 

Arkansas 180,500 89,300 

Tennessee 329 700 99,700 

West Virginia 122,200 2,400 

Kentucky 386,900 117,800 

Ohio 772,700 26,700 

Michigan 333, 8 oo 4,300 

Indiana 688,800 61,200 

Illinois 1,100,000 138,000 

Wisconsin 384,400 8,700 

Minnesota 247,300 7,000 

Iowa 770,700 43,400 

Missouri 627,300 191,900 

Kansas 265,000 50,000 

Nebraska 157,200 13,600 

California , 173,000 25,700 

Oregon 109,700 3,500 

Nevada, Colorado, and Territories 250,000 25,700 

It will be seen from the above table that Missouri is the fifth state 
in the number of horses ; fifth in number of milch cows, and the lead- 
ing state in number of mules, having 11,700 more than Texas, which 
produces the next largest number. Of oxen and cattle Missouri pro- 
duced in 1879, 1,632,000, which was more than any other state pro- 
duced excepting Texas, which had 4,800,000. In 1879, Missouri raised 
2,817,600 hogs, which was more than any other state produced excepting 
Iowa. The number of sheep was 1,296,400. The number of hogs packed 
in 1879 by the different states is as follows : 



MTLcH COWS. 
169,100 

98,100 
217,800 
16070O 

22,000 

116,500 

1,446,200 

152,200 

828,400 

23,200 
100,500 
236,200 
232,300 
131,300 
273,100 

70,000 
2I5',200 
188,000 
110,900 

544,500 
187,700 

245.700 
130,500 
237,200 
714,100 
416 9OO 
439,200 
702,400 
477,300 
278 900 
676,200 
516,200 
321,900 
127,600 
459,600 
112,400 
423 600 



STATES. NO. 

Ohio 932,878 

Indiana 622,321 

Illinois 3,214,896 

Io wa 569,763 



STATES. NO. 

Missouri . . • • 965,839 

Wisconsin . » 472,108 

Kentucky . 212,412 



HISTORY OF MISSOU . 63 

Average weight per head for each state : 

gTATKS. POUNDS. STATES. POUNDS. 

Ohio . • • 210.47 Missouri. . . . . ........ 213.32 

Indiana 19380 Wisconsin 220 81 

Illinois 225.71 Kentucky 210. 1 1 

Iowa 211.98 

From the above, it will be seen that Missouri annually packs more 
hogs than any other state, except Illinois, and that she ranks third in 
the average weight. 

We see no reason why Missouri should not be the foremost stock- 
raising state of the Union. In addition to the enormous yield of corn 
and oats upon which the stock is largely dependent, the climate is well 
adapted to their growth and health. Water is not only inexhaustible, 
but everywhere convenient. The ranges for stock are boundless, afford- 
ing for nine months of the year, excellent pasturage of nutritious wild 
grasses, which grow in great luxuriance upon her thousand prairies. 

Cotton is grown successfully in many counties of the southeastern 
portions of the state, especially in Stoddard, Scott, Pemiscott, Butler, 
New Madrid, Lawrence and Mississippi. 

Sweet potatoes are produced in abundance and are not only sure 
but profitable. 

Broom corn, sorghum, castor beans, white beans, peas and hops, 
thrive well, and all kinds of garden vegetables are produced in great 
abundance and are found in the markets during all seasons of the year. 
Fruits of every variety, including the apple, pear, peach, cherries, apricots 
and nectarines are cultivated with great success, as are also the straw- 
berry, gooseberry, currant, raspberry and blackberry. 

The grape has not been produced with that success that was at first 
anticipated, yet the yield of wine for the year 1879 was nearly half a 
million gallons. Grapes do well in Kansas, and we see no reason why 
they should not be as surely and profitably grown in a similar climate 
and soil in Missouri, and particularly in many of the counties north and 
east of the Missouri River. 

RAILROADS. 

Twenty-nine years ago the neigh of the "iron horse" was heard for 
the first time within the broad domain of Missouri. His coming pres- 
aged the dawn of a brighter and grander era in the history of the state. 
Her fertile prairies and more prolific valleys would soon be of easy access 
to the oncoming tide of immigration, and the ores and minerals of her 
hills and mountains would be developed and utilized in her manufactur- 
ing and industrial enterprises. 

Additional facilities would be opened to the marts of trade and 
commerce; transportation from the interior of the state would be secured; 



64 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

a fresh impetus would be given to the growth of her towns and cities, 
and new hopes and inspirations would be imparted to all her people. 

Since 1852, the initial period of railroad building in Missouri, between 
four and five thousand miles of track have been laid ; additional roads 
are now being constructed and many others in contemplation. The 
state is already supplied with railroads which thread her surface in all 
directions, bringing her remotest districts into close connection with St. 
Louis, that great centre of western railroads and inland commerce. 
These roads have a capital stock aggregating more than one hundred 
millions of dollars, and a funded debt of about the same amount. 

The lines of railroads which are operated in the state are the fol- 
lowing : 

Missouri Pacific — chartered May 10th, 1850 ; the St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain & Southern Railroad, which is a consolidation of the Arkansas 
Branch ; the Cairo, Arkansas & Texas Railroad ; the Cairo & Fulton 
Railroad ; the St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern Railway ; the St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railway ; the Chicago, Alton & St. Louis Rail- 
road ; the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad ; the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas Railroad ; the Illinois, Missouri & Texas Railroad ; the Kansas 
City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs Railroad ; the Keokuk & Kansas City 
Railway Company ; the St. Louis, Salem & Little Rock Railroad Com- 
pany ; the Missouri & Western ; the St. Louis, Keokuk & Northwestern ; 
the St. Louis, Hannibal & Keokuk Railroad ; the Missouri, Iowa & 
Nebraska Railway ; the Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad ; the Chi- 
cago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway ; the Burlington & Southwestern 
Railroad ; the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad and the St. 
Joseph & Des Moines. 

MANUFACTURES. 

The natural resources of Missouri especially fit her for a great man- 
ufacturing state. She is rich in soil ; rich in all the elements which sup- 
ply the furnace, the machine shop and the planing mill ; rich in the mul- 
titude and variety of her gigantic forests ; rich in her marble, stone and 
granite quarries ; rich in her mines of iron, coal, lead and zinc ; rich in 
strong arms and willing hands to apply the force ; rich in water power 
and river navigation ; and rich in her numerous and well built railroads, 
whose numberless engines thunder along their multiplied trackways. 

Missouri contains over fourteen thousand manufacturing establish- 
ments, 1,965 of which are using steam and give employment to 80,000 
hands. The capital employed is about $100,000,000, the material annu- 
ally used and worked up amounts to over $150,000,000 and the value of 
the products put upon the markets $250,000,000, while the wages paid 
are more than $40,000,000. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 65 

The leading manufacturing counties of the state are St. Louis, Jack- 
son, Buchanan, St. Charles, Marion, Franklin, Green, Lafayette, Platte, 
Cape Girardeau and Boone. Three-fourths, however, of the manufactur- 
ing is done in St. Louis, which vs now about the second manufacturing 
city of the Union. Flouring mi/Is produce annually about $38,194,000; 
carpentering, $18,763,000; me a': packing, $16,769,000; tobacco, $12,496,- 
000; iron and castings, $12,000,000; liquors, $11,245,000; clothing, 
10,022,000; lumber, $8,652,000; bagging and bags, $6,914,000, and many 
other smaller industries in proportion. 

GREAT BRIDGE AT ST. LOUIS. 

Of the many public improvements which do honor to the state and 
reflect great credit upon the genius of their projectors, we have space 
only to mention the great bridge at St. Louis. 

This truly wonderful structure is built of tubular steel, the total 
length of which, with its approaches, is 6,277 feet, at a cost of nearly 
$8,000,000. The bridge spans the Mississippi from the Illinois to the 
Missouri shore, and has separate railroad tracks, roadways and foot 
paths. In durability, architectural beauty and practical utility, there is, 
perhaps, no similar piece of workmanship that opproximates it. 

The structure of Darius upon the Bosphorus ; of Xerxes upon the 
Hellespont; of Caesar upon the Rhine; and Trajan upon the Danube, 
famous in ancient history, were built for military purposes, that over 
them might pass invading armies with their munitions of war, to destroy 
commerce, to lay in waste the provinces, and to slaughter the people. 

But the erection of this was for a higher and nobler purpose. Over 
it are coming the trade and merchandise of the opulent East, and thence 
are passing the untold riches of the West. Over it are crowding legions 
of men, armed not with the weapons of war, but the implements of 
peace and industry ; men who are skilled in all the arts of agriculture, 
of manufacture and of mining ; men who will hasten the day when St. 
Louis shall rank in population and importance second to no city on the 
continent, and when Missouri shall proudly fill the measure of greatness, 
to which she is naturally so justly entitled. 



66 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



CHAPTER XL 



EDUCATION. 



PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM-PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM OF MISSOURI— LINCOLN INSTITUTE- 
OFFICERS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM— CERTIFICATES OF TEACHERS— UNIVERSITY 
OF MISSOURI-SCHOOLS— COLLEGES -INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING— LOCATION- 
LIBRARIES - NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS — NO. OF SCHOOL CHILDREN — 
AMOUNT EXPENDED— VALUE OF GROUNDS AND BUILDINGS— " THE PRESS." 



The first constitution of Missouri provided that " one school or more 
shall be established in each township, as soon as practicable and neces- 
sary, where the poor shall be taught gratis." 

It will be seen that even at that early day (1820), the framers of 
the constitution made provision for at least a primary education for the 
poorest and the humblest, taking it for granted that those who were 
able would avail themselves of educational advantages which were not 
gratuitous. 

The establishment of the public school system in its essential feat- 
ures was not perfected until 1839, during the administration of Governor 
Boggs, and since that period the system has slowly grown into favor, 
not only in Missouri, but throughout the United States. The idea of a 
free or public school for all classes was not at first a popular one, espe- 
cially among those who had the means to patronize private institutions 
of learning. In upholding and maintaining public schools, the oppo- 
nents of the system felt that they were not only compromising their 
own standing among their more wealthy neighbors, but that they were 
to some extent bringing opprobrium upon their children. Entertaining 
such prejudices they naturally thought that the training received in pub- 
lic schools could not be otherwise than defective, hence many years of 
probation passed before the popular mind was prepared to appreciate 
the benefits and blessings which spring from these institutions. 

Every year only adds to their popularity, and commends them the 
more earnestly to the fostering care of our State and National Legisla- 
tures, and to the esteem and favor of all classes of our people. 

We can hardly conceive of two grander and more potent promoters 
of civilization than the free school and the free press. They would 
indeed seem to constitute all that was necessary to the attainment of 
the happiness and intellectual growth of the republic, and all that was 
necessary to broaden, to liberalize, and to instruct. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 6 7 

" Tit education forms the common mind | 
****** 

For noble youth there is nothing so meet 
As learning is, to know the good from ill ; 
To know the tongues, and perfectly indite, 
And of the laws to have a perfect skill, 
Things to reform as right and justice will, 
For honor is ordained for no cause 
But to see right maintained by the laws. 

All the states of the Union have in practical operation the public 
school system, governed in the main by similar laws, and not differing 
materially in the manner and methods by which they are taught, but 
none have a wiser, a more liberal and comprehensive machinery of 
instruction than Missouri. Her school laws since 1839 have undergone 
many changes, and always for the better, keeping pace with the most 
enlightened and advanced theories of the most experienced educators 
of the land. But not until 1875, when the new constitution was adopted, 
did the present admirable system of public instruction go into effect 

Provisions were made not only for white, but for children of African 
descent, and are a part of the organic law, not subject to the caprices 
of unfriendly legislatures, or the whims of political parties. The Lincoln 
Institute, located at Jefferson City, for the education of colored teachers, 
receives an annual appropriation from the General Assembly. 

For the support of the public schools, in addition to the annual 
income derived from the public school fund, which is set apart by law, 
not less than twenty-five per cent, of the state revenue, exclusive of the 
interest and sinking fund, is annually applied to this purpose. 

The officers having in charge the public school interests are the 
State Board of Education, the State Superintendent, County Superin- 
tendent, County Clerk and Treasurer, Board of Directors, City and 
Town School Board and teacher. The State Board of Education is 
composed of the State Superintendent, the Governor, Secretary of State 
and the Attorney General, the executive officer of this board being the 
State Superintendent, who is chosen by the people every four years. His 
duties are numerous. He renders decisions concerning the local appli- 
cation of school law; keeps a record of all the school funds and annually 
distributes the same to the counties ; supervises the work of county 
school officers ; delivers lectures ; visits schools ; distributes educational 
information ; grants certificates of higher qualifications and makes an 
annual report to the General Assembly of the condition of the schools. 

The County Superintendents are also elected by the people for two 
years. Their work is to examine teachers, to distribute blanks and 
make reports. County clerks receive estimates from the local directors 
and extend them upon the tax-books. In addition to this they keep the 
general records of the county and township school funds, and return an 



68 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

annual report of the financial condition of the schools of their county to 
the State Superintendent. School taxes are gathered with other taxes 
by the county collector. The custodian of the school funds belonging to 
the schools of the counties is the county treasurer, except in counties 
adopting the township organization, in which case the township trustee 
discharges these duties. 

Districts organized under the special law for cities and towns are 
governed by a board of six directors, two of whom are selected annually 
on the second Saturday in September, and hold their office for three 
years. 

One director is elected to serve for three years in each school dis- 
trict at the annual meeting. These directors may levy a tax not exceed- 
ing forty per cent, on the one hundred dollars valuation, provided such 
annual rates for school purposes may be increased in districts formed of 
cities and towns, to an amount not to exceed one dollar on the hundred 
dollars valuation ; and in other districts to an amount not to exceed 
sixty-five cents on the one hundred dollars valuation, on the condition 
that a majority of the voters who are tax payers, voting at an election 
held to decide the question, vote for said increase. For the purpose of 
erecting public buildings in school districts, the rates of taxation thus 
limited, may be increased when the rate of such increase and the pur- 
pose for which it is intended shall have been submitted to a vote of the 
people, and two-thirds of the qualified voters of such school district vot- 
ing at such election shall vote therefor. 

Local directors may direct the management of the school in respect 
to the choice of teachers and other details, but in the discharge of all 
important business such as the erection of a school house or the exten- 
sion of a term of school beyond the constitutional period, they simply 
execute the will of the people. The clerk of this board may be a 
director. He keeps a record of the names of all the children and youth 
in the district between the ages of five and twenty-one ; records all busi- 
ness proceedings of the district, and reports to the annual meeting, to 
the County Clerk and County Superintendents. 

Teachers must hold a certificate from the State Superintendent or 
County Commissioner of the county where they teach. State certificates 
are granted upon personal written examinations in the common branches, 
together with the natural sciences and higher mathematics. The holder 
of such certificate may teach in any of the public schools of the state 
without further examination. Certificates granted by County Commis- 
sioners are of two classes, with two grades in each class. Those issued 
for a longer term than one year belong to the first class, and are suscep- 
tible of two grades, differing both as to length of time and attainments. 
Those issued for one year may represent two grades, marked by qualifi- 
cation alone. The township school fund arises from a grant of land by 






HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 69 

the general government, consisting of section sixteen in each Congres- 
sional township. The annual income of the township fund is appropri- 
ated to the various townships, according to their respective proprietary 
claims. The support from the permanent funds is supplemented by 
direct taxation laid upon the taxable property of each district. The 
greatest limit of taxation for the current expenses is one per cent.; the 
tax permitted for school house building cannot exceed the same amount. 

Among the institutions of learning, and ranking, perhaps, the first 
in importance, is the State University, located at Columbia, Boone 
County. When the state was admitted into the Union, Congress granted 
to it one entire township of land (46,080 acres) for the support of a 
"Seminary of Learning." The lands secured for this purpose are among 
the best and most valuable in the state. These lands were put upon 
the market in 1832 and brought $75,000, which amount was invested in the 
stock of the old Bank of the State of Missouri, where it remained and 
increased by accumulation to the sum of $100,000. In 1839, by an act 
of the General Assembly, five commissioners were appointed to select a 
site for the State University, the site to contain at least fifty acres of 
land in a compact form, within two miles of the county seat of Cole, 
Cooper, Howard, Boone, Callaway or Saline. Bids were let among the 
counties named, and the county of Boone having subscribed the sum of 
$117,921, some $18,000 more than. any other county, the State Univer- 
sity was located in that county, and on the 4th of July, 1840, the corner- 
stone was laid with imposing ceremonies. 

The present annual income of the university is nearly $65,000. 
There are still unsold about 200,000 acres of land from the grant of 
1862. The donations to the institutions connected therewith amount to 
nearly $400,000. This university, with its different departments, is 
opened to both male and female, and both sexes enjoy alike its 
rights and privileges. Among the professional schools, which form a 
part of the university, are the Normal, or College of Instruction in 
Teaching ; the Agricultural and Mechanical College ; the School of 
Mines and Metallurgy ; the College of Law ; the Medical College, and 
Department of Analytical and Applied Chemistry. Other departments 
are contemplated and will be added as necessity requires. 

The following will show the names and locations of the schools and 
institutions of the state as reported by the Commissioner of Education 
in 1875. 

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. 

Christian University Canton. 

St. Vincent's College Cape Girardeau. 

University of Missouri Columbia. 

Central College Fayette, 



70 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Westminster College Fulton. 

Lewis College Glasgow. 

Pritchett School Institute Glasgow. 

Lincoln College Greenwood. 

Hannibal College Hannibal. 

Woodland College Independence. 

Thayer College Kidder. 

LaGrange College LaGrange. 

William Jewell College.' Liberty. 

Baptist College Louisiana. 

St. Joseph College St. Josoph. 

College of Christian Brothers St. Louis. 

St. Louis Uni versity St. Louis. 

Washington University St. Louis. 

Drury College Springfield. 

Central Wesleyan College Warrenton. 

FOR SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION OF WOMEN. 

St. Joseph Female Seminary St. Joseph. 

Christian College Columbia. 

Stephens' College Columbia. 

Howard College Fayette. 

Independence Female College Independence. 

Central Female College .Lexington. 

Clay Seminary Liberty. 

Ingleside Female College Palmyra. 

Linden Wood College for Young Ladies St. Charles. 

Mary Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 

St. Louis Seminary St. Louis. 

Ursuline Academy St. Louis. 

FOR SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

Arcadia College Arcadia. 

St. Vincent's Academy Cape Girardeau. 

Chillicothe Academy Chillicothe. 

Grand River College. Edinburgh. 

Marionville College Institute Marionville. 

Palmyra Seminary Palmyra. 

St. Paul's College Palmyra. 

Van Rensselaer Academy Rensselaer. 

Shelby High School Shelbyville. 

Stewartsville Male and Female Seminary Stewartsville. 

SCHOOLS OF SCIENCE.. 

Mo. Agricultural and Mechanical College (University of Mo.). Columbia. 

Schools of Mines and Metallurgy (Universy of Missouri) Rolla. 

Polytechnic Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. J\ 

SCHOOLS OF THEOLOGY. 

St. Vincent's College (Theological Department) Cape Girardeau 

Westminster College (Theological School) Fulton 

Vardeman School of Theology (William Jewell College) Liberty- 
Concordia College St. Louis 

SCHOOLS OF LAW. 

Law School of the University of Missouri Columbia 

Law School of the Washington University. St. Louis 

SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE. 

Medical College, University of Missouri Columbia 

College of Physicians and Surgeons . St. Joseph 

Kansas City College of Physicians and Surgeons Kansas City 

Hospital Medical College , St. Joseph 

Missouri Medical College St. Louis 

Northwestern Medical College St. Joseph 

St. Louis Medical College St. Louis 

Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri St. Louis 

Mo. School of Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children, St. Louis 

Missouri Central College St. Louis 

St. Louis College of Pharmacy St. Louis 



LARGEST PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 



St. Vincent's College Cape Girardeau .... 5>5°° 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School Cape Girardeau. . . . 1,225 

University of Missouri Columbia 10,000 

Athenian Society Columbia * . 1,200 

Union Literary Society Columbia 1,200 

Law College Columbia 1,000 

Westminster College Fulton 5,000 

Lewis College Glasgow 3,000 

Mercantile Library Hannibal 2,219 

Library Association Independence 1,100 

Fruitland Normal Institute Jackson 1,000 

State Library Jefferson City 1 3,000 

Fetterman's Circulating Library Kansas City 1,300 

Law Library Kansas City 3,ooo 

Whittemore's Circulating Library Kansas City 1,000 

North Missouri State Normal School Kirksville 1,050 

William Jewell College Liberty 4,000 

St. Paul's College Palmyra 2,000 

Missouri Schools of Mines and Metallurgy. . .Rolla 2,478 

St. Charles Catholic Library St. Charles 1,716 

Carl Fuelling's Library St. Joseph 6,000 

Law Library St. Joseph 2,000 

Public School Library St. Joseph 2,500 



72 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Wool worth & Colt's Circulating Library St. Joseph 4,000 

Academy of Science St. Louis 2,744 

Academy of Visitation St. Louis 4,000 

College of the Christian Brothers St. Louis 22,000 

Deutsche Institute , St. Louis 1,000 

German Evang. Lutheran, Concordia College . . St. Louis 4,800 

Law Library Association St. Louis 8,000 

Missouri Medical College St. Louis 1,000 

Mrs. Cuthbert's Seminary (Young Ladies). . .St. Louis 1, 500 

Odd Fellows Library St. Louis 4,000 

Public School Library St. Louis 40,097 

St. Louis Medical College St. Louis 1 , 100 

St. Louis Mercantile Library St. Louis 45,000 

St. Louis Seminary - , St. Louis 2,000 

St. Louis Turn Verein St. Louis 2,000 

St. Louis University St. Louis 17,000 

St. Louis University Libraries St. Louis 8,000 

Ursuline Academy St. Louis 2,000 

Washington University St. Louis 4,500 

St. Louis Law School St. Louis 3,000 

Young Men's Sodality St. Louis 1,327 

Library Association . Sedalia 1 ,500 

Public School Library Sedalia 1,015 

Drury College Springfield 2,000 

IN 1 88a 
Newspapers and periodicals •••••••••■ 48 1 

CHARITIES. 

State Asylum for Deaf and Dumb Fulton. 

St. Bridget's Institution for Deaf and Dumb St. Louis. 

Institution for the Education of the ^lind St. Louis. 

State Asylum for Insane Fulton. 

State Asylum for the Insane St. Joseph. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

Normal Institute Bolivar. 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School Cape Girardeau. 

Normal School (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

Fruitland Normal Institute Jackson. 

Lincoln Institute (for colored) Jefferson City. 

City Normal School ' St. Louis. 

Missouri State Normal School Warrensburg. 

IN 1878. 

Estimated value of school property. • $ r >3 21 >399 

Total receipts for public schools 4,207,617 

Total expenditures 2,406, 1 30 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 73 

NUMBER OF TEACHERS. 

Male teachers, 6,239 ; average monthly pay $36.36 

Female teachers, 5,060 ; average monthly pay 21.09 

NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS. 

The fact that Missouri supports and maintains four hundred and 
seventy-one newspapers and periodicals shows that her inhabitants are 
not only a reading and reflecting people, but that they appreciate "The 
Press," and its wonderful influence as an educator. The poet has well 
said ; 

But mightiest of the mighty means, 
On which the arm of progress leans, 
Man's noblest mission to advance, 
His woes assuage, his weal enhance, 
His rights enforce, his wrongs redress- 
Mightiest of mighty is the Press. 



CHAPTER XII. 
RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 

BAPTIST CHURCH— ITS HISTORY— CONGREGATIONAL— WHEN FOUNDED— ITS HISTORY- 
CHRISTIAN CHURCH— ITS HISTORY— CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— ITS 
HISTORY — METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH — ITS HISTORY - PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH-ITS HISTORY— PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH— ITS HISTORY— UNITED 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— ITS HISTORY— UNITARIAN CHURCH-ITS HISTORY— RO- 
MAN CATHOLIC CHURCH— ITS HISTORY. 






The first representatives of religious thought and training who pene- 
trated the Missouri and Mississippi Valleys were Pere Marquette, La Salle, 
and others of Catholic persuasion, who performed missionary labor among 
.the Indians. A century afterward came the Protestants. At that early 
period 

"A church in every grove that spread 
Its living root above their heads," 

constituted for a time, their only house of worship, and yet to them 

I*' No temple built with hands could vie 
In glory with its majesty." 
In the course 01 time the seeds of Protestantism were scattered along 
the shores of the two great rivers which form the eastern and western 
boundaries of the state, and still a little later they were sown upon her 
hillsides and broad prairies, where they have since bloomed and blos- 
somed as the rose. 



74 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

BAPTIST CHURCH. 

The earliest anti-Catholic religious denomination of which there is 
any record, was organized in Cape Girardeau County in 1806, through 
the efforts of Rev. David Green, a Baptist, and a native of Virginia. In 
1816 the first association of Missouri Baptists was formed, which was 
composed of seven churches, all of which were located in the southeast- 
ern part of the state. In 18 17 a second association of churches was 
formed, called the Missouri Association, the name being afterwards 
changed to St. Louis Association. 1834 a general convention of all the 
churches of this denomination was held in Howard County, for the pur- 
pose of effecting a central organization, at which time was commenced 
what is now known as the "General Association of Missouri Baptists." 

To this body is committed the state mission work, denominational 
education, foreign missions and the circulation of religious literature. 
The Baptist Church has under its control ^ number of schools and col- 
leges, the most important of which is WilK. Jewell College, located at 
Liberty, Clay County. As shown by the annual report for 1875, there 
were in Missouri at that date, sixty-one associations, one thousand four 
hundred churches, eight hundred and twenty-four ministers and eighty- 
nine thousand six hundred and fifty church members. 

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

The Congregationalists inaugurated their missionary labors in the 
state in 18 14. Rev. Samuel J. Mills, of Torringford, Connecticut, and 
Rev. Daniel Smith, of Bennington, Vermont, were sent west by the Mas- 
sachusetts Congregational Home Missionary Society during that year, 
and in November, 18 14, they preached the first regular Protestant ser- 
mons in St. Louis. Rev. Salmon Giddings, sent out under the auspices 
of the Connecticut Congregational Missionary Society, organized the 
first Protestant church in the city, consisting of ten members, constituted 
Presbyterian. The churches organized by Mr. Giddings were all Presby- 
terian in their order. 

No exclusively Congregational church was founded until 1852, when 
the First Trinitarian Congregation?l Church of St. Louis was organized. 
The next church of this denomination was organized at Hannibal, in 
1S59. Then followed a Welsh church in New Cambria, in 1864, and 
after the close of the war fifteen churches of the same order were formed 
in different parts of the state. In 1866 Pilgrim Church, St. Louis was 
organized. The General Conference of Churches of Missouri was formed 
in 1865, which was changed in 1868 to General Association In 1866 
Hannibal, Kidder and St. Louis District Associations were formed, and 
following these were the Kansas City and Springfield District Associa- 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 75 

tions. This denomination in 1875 had 70 churches, 41 ministers, 3,363 
church members, and had also several schools and colleges and one 
monthly newspaper. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

The earliest churches of this denomination were organized in Cal- 
laway, Boone and Howard Counties, some time previously to 1829. The 
first church was formed in St. Louis in 1836, by Elder R. B. Fife. The 
first state Sunday school convention of the Christian Church was held 
in Mexico, in 1876. Besides a number of private institutions this 
denomination has three state institutions, all of which have an able corps 
of professors and have a good attendance of pupils. It has one religious 
paper published in St. Louis, The Christian, which is a weekly publica- 
tion and well patronized. The membership of this church now numbers 
nearly one hundred thousand in the state and is increasing Rapidly. It 
has more than five hundred organized churches, the greater portion of 
which are north of the Missouri River. 

CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

In the spring of 1820 the first Presbytery of this denomination west 
of the Mississippi, was organized in Pike County. This Presbytery 
included all the territory of Missouri, Western Illinois and Arkansas, 
and numbered only four ministers, two of whom resided at the time in 
Missouri. There are now in the state twelve Presbyteries, three Synods, 
nearly three hundred ministers and over twenty thousand members. 
The Board of Missions is located at St. Louis. They have a number of 
High Schools and two monthly papers published at St. Louis. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

In 1806, Rev. John Travis, a young Methodist minister, was sent out 
to the Western Conference, which then embraced the Mississippi Valley, 
from Green County, Tennessee. During that year Mr. Travis organized 
a number of small churches. At the close of his conference year he 
reported the result of his labors to the Western Conference, which was 
held at Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1807, and showed an aggregate of one hun- 
dred and six members and two circuits, one called Missouri and the 
other Meramec. In 1808 two circuits had been formed, and at each suc- 
ceeding year the number of circuits and members constantly increased, 
until 18 1 2, when what was called the Western Conference was divided 
into the Ohio and Tennessee Conferences, Missouri falling into the Ten- 
nessee Conference. In 18 16 there was another division when the Mis- 
souri Annual Conference was formed. In 1810 there were four traveling 



76 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

preachers, and in 1820 fifteen traveling preachers, with over two thousand 
members. In 1836 the territory of the Missouri Conference was again 
divided when the Missouri Conference included only the state. In 1840 
there were seventy-two traveling preachers, 177 local ministers and 13,992 
church members. Between 1840 and 1850 the church was divided by the 
organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 1850 the 
membership of the M. E. Church was over 25,000, and during the succeed- 
ing ten years the church prospered rapidly. In 1875 the M. E. Church 
reported 274 church edifices and 34,156 members; the M. E. Church 
South reported 443 church edifices and 49,588 members. This denom- 
ination has under its control several schools and colleges and two weekly 
newspapers* 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The Presbyterian church dates the beginning of their missionary 
efforts in the state as far back as 18 14, but the first Presbyterian Church 
was not organized until 18 16, at Bellevue settlement, eight miles from 
St. Louis. The next churches were formed in 18 16 and 1817, at Bon- 
homme, Pike County. The first Presbyterian Church was organized in 
St. Louis in 18 17, by Rev. Salmon Gidding. The first Presbytery was 
organized 1817, by the Synod of Tennessee, with four ministers and four 
churches. The first Presbyterian house of worship (which was the first 
Protestant) was commenced in 1819 and completed in 1826. In 1820 a 
mission was formed among the Osage Indians. In 183 1, the Presbytery 
was divided into three : Missouri, St. Louis and St. Charles. These 
were erected with a synod, comprising eighteen ministers and twenty- 
three churches. 

The church was divided in 1838, throughout the United States. In 
i860 the rolls of the Old and New School Synods together showed 109 
ministers and 146 churches. In 1866 the Old School Synod was divided 
on political questions springing out of the war — a part forming the Old 
School or Independent Synod of Missouri, who are connected with the 
General Assembly South. In 1870 the Old and New School Presbyterians 
united, since which time this Synod has steadily increased until it now 
numbers more than 12,000 members, with more than 220 churches and 
150 ministers. 

This Synod is composed of six Presbyteries and has under its con- 
trol one or two institutions of learning and one or two newspapers. 
That part of the original Synod which withdrew from the General 
Assembly remained an independent body until 1874, when it united with 
the Southern Presbyterian Church. The Synod in 1875 numbered 80 
ministers, 140 churches and 9,000 members. It has under its control 
several male and female institutions of a high order. The St. Louis 
Presbyterian, weekly paper, is the recognized organ of the Synod. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 77 

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

The missionary enterprises of this church began in the state in 
1818, when a parish was organized in the city of St. Louis. In 1828 an 
agent of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society visited the city, 
who reported the condition of things so favorably that Rev. Thomas 
Horrell was sent out as a missionary, and in 1825 he began his labors in 
St. Louis. A church edifice was completed in 1830. In 1836 there were 
five clergymen of this denomination in Missouri, who had organized 
congregations in Booneville, Fayette, St. Charles, Hannibal and other 
places. In 1840, the clergy and laity met in convention, a diocese was 
formed, a constitution and canons adopted, and in 1844 a Bishop was 
chosen, he being the Rev. Cicero S. Hawks. 

Through the efforts of Bishop Kemper, Kemper College was founded 
near St. Louis, but was afterward given up on account of pecuniary 
troubles. In 1847, the Clark Mission began and in 1849 the Orphans 
Home, a charitable institution was founded. In 1865, St. Luke's Hospital 
was established. In 1875, there were in the city of St. Louis, twelve 
parishes and missions and twelve clergymen. This denomination has 
several schools and colleges and one newspaper. 

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

This denomination is made up of the members of the Associate and 
Associate Reformed churches of the Northern states, which two bodies 
united in 1858, taking the name of United Presbyterian Church of North 
America. Its members were generally bitterly opposed to the institu- 
tion of slavery. The first congregation was organized at Warrensburg, 
Johnson County, in 1867. It rapidly increased in numbers and had, in 
1875, ten ministers and five hundred members. 

UNITARIAN CHURCH. 

This church was formed in 1834, by Rev. W. G. Eliot, in St. Louis. 
The churches are few in number throughout the state, the membership 
being probably less than 300, all told. It has a mission house and free 
school, for poor children, supported by donations. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

The earliest written record of the Catholic Church in Missouri 
shows that Father Watrin performed ministerial services in Ste. Gene- 
vieve in 1760, and in St. Louis in 1766. In 1770 Father Meurin erected 
a small log church in St. Louis. In 1818 there were in the state four 
chapels, and for Upper Louisiana, seven priests. A college and semin- 



7£ HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

ary were opened in Perry County about this period for the education of 
the young, being the first college west of the Mississippi river. In 1824 
a college was opened in St. Louis, which is now known as the St. Louis 
University. In 1826, Father Rosatti was appointed Bishop of St. Louis, 
and, through his instrumentality, the Sisters of Charity, Sisters of St. 
Joseph and of the Visitation were founded, besides other benevolent 
and charitable institutions. In 1834 he completed the present Cathedral 
Church. Churches were built in different portions of the state. In 1847 
St. Louis was created an arch-diocese, with Bishop Kenrick, Arch- 
bishop. 

In Kansas City there are five parish churches, a hospital, a convent 
and several parish schools. In 1868 the northwestern portion of the 
state was erected into a separate diocese, with its seat at St. Joseph, and 
Right-Reverend John J. Hogan appointed Bishop. There were, in 1875, 
in the city of St. Louis, 34 churches, 27 schools, 5 hospitals, 3 colleges, 
7 orphan asylums and 3 female protectorates. There were also 105 
priests, 7 male and 13 female orders, and 20 conferences of St. Vincent 
de Paul, numbering 1,100 members. In the diocese, outside of St. Louis, 
there is a college, a male protectorate, 9 convents, about 120 priests, 150 
churches and 30 stations. In the diocese of St. Joseph there were, in 
1875,21 priests, 29 churches, 24 stations, 1 college, I monastery, 5 con- 
vents and 14 parish schools. 

THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS. 

Instruction preparatory to ministerial work is given in connection 
with collegiate study, or in special theological courses, at : 

Central College, (M. E. South) Fayette 

Central Wesleyan College (M. E. Church) Warrenton 

Christian University (Christian) Canton 

Concordia College Seminary (Evangelical Lutheran) .St. Louis 

Lewis College (M. E. Church) Glasgow 

St. Vincent's College (Roman Catholic) Cape Girardeau 

Vardeman School of Theology (Baptist) Liberty 

The last is connected with William Jewell College. 




STATE HIGHWAYS AND COUNTY AID ROADS CORRECTED TO APRIL I 1946 



JUN23 1955 
GENERAL HIGHWAY MAP 

HOLT COUNTY 

MISSOURI 

PnCPARED BY THC 

HIGHWAY PLANNING DEPARTMENT 
MISSOURI STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT 

IN COOPERATION WITH THC 

PUBLIC ROADS ADMINISTRATION 
FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY 

KALI 



1946 



STATE LINE (WOlCATlOtl KTNtCN THC STATE OF MlllOUMl 
AND THE STATE OF KANSAS IS THE CHANNEL OF THC 
MDSOUfli MIVEf) AS SMOWN ON UNITED STATES CNSINfEN 

OEHNTMENT CHANTS. '•«• • i*«T 



+ 



+ 



GENERAL HIGHWAY MAP HOLT COUNTY MISSOURI 44 



HISTORY 



OF 



HOLT! ATCHISON COUNTIES. 



CHAPTER I. 

PREFATORY. 

Two score years have passed since the first white settlements were 
made within the bounds of that territory, now known as Holt and 
Atchison Counties, Missouri. 

Previous to that time the uncivilized aborigines roamed the prairies 
wild and free, unfettered by the restraint of common or statutory law, 
and uncircumscribed by township boundaries. The transformation 
which has taken place, in the physiognomy of the country alone, is 
beyond the comprehension of the finite mind ; luxuriant groves where 
were the wide stretching prairies; cultivated fields where was the prim- 
eval forest ; orchards, vineyards and gardens where waved the tall 
prairie grass. So marked has been the change in the physical features 
of the country, that there has been a decided change in the climatology. 
The elements themselves, seem to have taken notice of this change, and 
have governed themselves accordingly. While the annual rainfall and 
the mean annual temperature remain about the same, in quantity, they 
are now entirely different in quality, and although imperceptible and 
independent of man's will, they have, nevertheless, come under the 
same civilizing power, which has changed the wilderness into a fruitful 
land. 

The great change which has taken place in the development of the 
material resources of the country, is more noticeable, as man can more 
readily discern the changes which take place, by detail, in his own circum- 
scribed field of activity, than he can those grand revolutions in the 
boundless domain of nature. The changes which have occurred in the 
social, moral and intellectual conditions are still more marked, mind,, 
being more swift to act on mind than on matter. 




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80 HISTORY OF HOLT AND ATCHISON COUNTIES. 

These changes can best be estimated by the institution of a brief 
comparison : 

Then the material resources of the country consisted simply in the 
streams of water, which quenched the thirst of the aborigine, wherein 
was found the fish which he ate, and upon which floated his frail canoe ; 
the forest where he procured his fuel, material for the construction of 
his rude weapons, and which sheltered the game which afforded him a 
meagre and uncertain sustenance. Such were the material resources* 
made available to the owner of the soil. The social condition of the 
people was scarcely more advanced than is that of certain orders of the 
lower animals, whose social attainments are comprehended in their 
ability to unite for mutual offense or defense. In intellect and morals, 
the original proprietors of the soil, were somewhat above the brute, but 
still on the lowest round of the ladder. 

Now the material resources of the country include in their number 
the soil, with every useful and ornamental product known to the temper- 
ate zone ; the forest, with every species for manufacture known to the 
civilized world. The water in the streams, and the currents of air above 
us, are alike trained to do man's bidding, while from the depths of the 
earth, beneath our feet, is brought forth the hidden wealth, which was 
hoarded by the turmoil of ages. Cities with their thousands of people, 
a country with its thousands of inhabitants, while in city and country 
the lofty spires of churches and school houses are evidences of a moral, 
intelligent and reflecting people. 

All this change has been brought about by the incoming of a new 
people — the pale face — from the far off east and south, and that, too, 
within the space of half a century. History furnishes no parallel to the 
rapid development of this western country; it has been a chain whose 
links were ever recurring surprises, and among the astonished, there 
are none more so than those whose throbbing brains have planned, and 
whose busy hands have executed the work. 

Almost a century ago, a friend of America, although an Englishman, 
in language almost prophetic, wrote : 

" Westward the course of empire takes its way, 
The four first acts already prist, 
The fifth shall close the diama of the day ; 
Time's noblest < ffering is the last." 



o 



The settlement of the New World, alluded to by the writer, has, as 
a whole, fully met the conditions of that prophecy, but not till the past 
half a century did the onward march of empire culminate in the settle- 
ment of Northwest Missouri. With the exception of a few mining 
towns in the gold regions of California, and the silver districts of Col- 
orado, nothing has been like it before, and will not be exceeded in time 



HISTORY OF HOLT AND 'ATCHISON COUNTIES. 8 1 

to come. This has not been by accident. All kinds of material devel- 
opment follow recognized and well established laws, and in nothing does 
this fact more reveal itself than in the settlement of a country. Who- 
ever has made it his business to study the "Great Northwest," as it has 
unfolded itself in history, during the last three decades, has doubtless 
met with ever returning wonders. The story of its unparalleled growth 
and almost phenomenal development, has so often been repeated, that 
it has become a common place platitude ; but a careful study of the 
country will suggest questions which have thus far not been answered, 
and cannot be. Why, for instance, have some sections filled up so 
rapidly, and certain cities sprung up, as if by magic, while others, seem- 
ingly no less favored by nature, are still in the first stages of develop- 
ment ? These questions cannot in all cases be answered, but whoever 
has studied the matter carefully, cannot fail to have discovered a law of 
growth, which is as unvarying as any law of nature. 

The two leading factors in the problem of municipal growth are, 
location and character of first settlers. The location of Holt and 
Atchison Counties was most favorable, and what is true of these coun- 
ties is true of the entire state. More than half of the state is surrounded 
by two of the most renowned water courses of the world, and one can 
readily see that it possesses advantages enjoyed by no other state in the 
Union. These conditions, so favorable to the past and future develop- 
ment of the country, are beautifully illustrated by an ingenious little 
poem, entitled " Two Ancient Misses," written by a gentleman who has 
won 'a wide-spread reputation at the bar. We here quote it, as it well 
illustrates our point, and is of sufficient merit to be preserved : 

" TWO ANCIENT MISSES. 

" I know two ancient misses 
Who ever onward go, 
From a cold and rigid northern clime, 
Through a land of wheat, and corn, and wine, 
To the southern sea, where the fig and the lime, 
And the golden orange grow. 

" In graceful curves they wind about, 
Upon iheir long and lonely route 

Among the beauteous hills ; 
They never cease their onward step, 
Though night and day they're dripping wet, 
And oft with sleet and snow beset, 
And sometimes with the chills. 

" The one is a romping, dark brunette, 
As fickle and gay as any coquette; 
She glides along by the western plains, 
And changes her bed each time it rains ; 
Witching as any dark-eyed houri, 
This romping, wild brunette, Missouri. 
6 



82 HISTORY OF HOLT AND ATCHISON COUNTIES. 

" The other is placid, mild and fair. 
With a gentle, sylph-like, quiet air, 
And voice as sweet as soft guitar ; 
She moves along the vales and parks 
Where naiads play ^Ejlian harps — 
Nor ever go by fits and starts — 
No fickle coquette of the city, 
But gentle, constant Mississippi 

" [ love the wild and dark brunette 
Because she is a gay coquette; 
Her, too, I love of quiet air, 
Because she's gentle, true and fair ; 
Land of my birth ! the east and west, . 
Embraced by these is doubly blest — 
'Tis hard to tell which I love best. 

In entering upon the work before us — the work of writing the 
history of Holt and Atchison Counties, we have not underestimated the 
difficulty and importance of the task. The chief difficulty lies in the 
fact, that the events to be treated of, while they have to do with the 
past, are so intimately interwoven with the present, that they are prop- 
erly a part of it. The writer of history, as a general thing, deals wholly 
with the affairs of past generations, and his aim is to pause when he 
arrives at that realm bounded by the memory of men now living. The 
whole field of our investigation lies this side of that boundary line, as 
there are a few who will, doubless, peruse this work, who, from the first, 
have witnessed and taken part in the events we shall attempt to narrate. 

While there are a few who came to Holt County as early as 1838, 
its permanent settlement did not properly begin until 1841, the date of 
its organization. The permanent settlement of Atchison County did 
not commence until 1845. Assuming the years 1841 and 184S, to be the 
beginning of the history proper of these two counties, there have elapsed ) 
in the first instance, but forty-one years, and in the second, but thirty- 
seven. Some of the first settlers, who were here at the dates mentioned, 
still live within the limits of the counties. And such, while they have 
grown prematurely old in body, by reason of the hardships and priva- 
tions incident to a life of more than ordinary activity and trial, have not 
grown old in spirit. Each one of such knows the history of the county, 
and, be it said, with due reverence for their hoary heads and bended 
forms, each one knows the history of his county better than any one 
else. Such readers are very uncharitable critics, and a work of this 
kind, absolutely accurate in all its details and particulars, were it within 
the scope of human possibility to make such a work, would undoubtedly 
be pronounced by many well meaning and honest persons faulty and 
untrustworthy. This results from the fact, that the periods above men- 
tioned, though not long periods in the history of the world, constitute a 



HISTORY OF HOLT AND ATCHISON COUNTIES. 83 

long time in the life of an individual. Events occurring forty years ago 
we think we know perfectly well, when the fact is we know them very 
imperfectly. This is proved and illustrated by the reluctancy and hesi- 
tation manifested invariably by old settlers, when called upon to give 
the details of some early transaction ; the old settler usually hesitates 
before giving a date, and after having finally settled down upon the year 
and the month when a certain event occurred, will probably hunt you 
up in less than a day, and request the privilege of correcting the date. 
In the meantime, you have found another old settler, who was an eye 
witness of the act in question, and the date he will give you does not 
correspond with the first date, nor with the corrected date, as given by 
the first old settler. There are some marked exceptions, but as a rule, 
the memory of the old settler is not trustworthy ; his ideas of the gen- 
eral outlines are usually comparatively correct, but no one who has the 
grace to put the proper estimate upon his mental faculties, when impaired 
by age and weakened by the many infirmities of years, will trust it to 
the arbitrament of questions of particulars and details. The stranger 
who comes into the county with none of the information which those 
possess who have resided here for years, works at a great disadvantage 
in many respects. He does not at first know whom to consult, or where 
to find the custodians of important records. He possesses, however, 
•one great advantage, which more than makes up for this ; he enters 
upon his work with an unbiased mind ; he has no friends to reward, and 
no enemies to punish ; his mind is not preoccupied and prejudged by 
reports which may have incidentally come into his possession while 
transacting the ordinary affairs of business; and when, in addition to this, 
he is a person whose business is to collect statements and weigh facts of 
history, he is much better qualified for the task, and to discriminate 
between statements, seemingly of equal weight, than those who either 
immediately or remotely are interested parties, and whose regular 
■employment lies in other fields of industry. This is true, even though 
the former be a total stranger and the latter have become familiar with 
men and things by many years of intercourse and acquaintanceship. 
He is best judge and best juror who is totally unacquainted with both 
plaintiff and defendant, and he is best qualified to arbitrate between 
conflicting facts of history who comes to the task without that bias 
which is the price one must pay for acquaintanceship and familiarity. 
The best history of France was written by an Englishman, and the 
most authentic account of American institutions was written by a 
Frenchman, and it remained for an American to write the only authentic 
history of the Dutch Republic. 

The American people are much given to reading, but the character 
of the matter read is such, that, with regard to a large proportion of them, 
it may truthfully be said that " truth is stranger than fiction." Espec- 



84 HISTORY OF HOLT AND ATCHISON COUNTIES. 

ially is this the case in respect to those facts of local history belonging 
to their own immediate county or neighborhood. This is perhaps not 
so much the fault of the people, as a neglect on the part of the. book 
publishers. Books, as a rule, are made to sell, and in order that a book 
may have a large sale, its matter must be of such a general character 
as to be applicable to general rather than special conditions — to the 
nation and state rather than to county and township. Thus it is, that 
no histories heretofore published pertain to matters relating to county 
and neighborhood affairs, for such books, in order to have a sale over a 
large section of country, must necessarily be very voluminous and con- 
tain much matter of no interest to the reader. 

After having given a synopsis of the history of the state, which is 
as brief as could well be, we shall then enter upon the history of Holt 
County, giving its physical features, its geology, its organization, its 
pioneer times, settlement of the different townships, its political and 
financial history, its schools, churches, railroads, manufactures, public 
buildings, newspapers, enterprises, citizens, agriculture, and, in fact, 
everything that pertains to the history of the county. We shall then 
take up the history of Atchison County, treating of it in form and man- 
ner and as fully as we do that of Holt, and, if we mistake not, the his- 
tory of these two counties, which are a part and parcel of the Platte 
Purchase, settled so nearly at the same time — the latter preceding that 
of the former but four years in the date of its organization — will be 
replete with interest, not only to the remaining few of the old pioneers 
now living, but to their descendants. 

The compiler of a county history has a task which may seem to be 
comparatively easy, and the facts which come within the legitimate 
scope of the work may appear commonplace when compared with 
national events ; the narration of the peaceful events attending the con- 
quests of industry as — 

" Westward the course of empire takes its way," 

may seem tame when compared with accounts of battles and sieges. 
Nevertheless, the faithful gathering, and the truthful narration of facts, 
bearing upon the early settlement of these two counties, and the dangers, 
hardships and privations encountered by the early pioneers, engaged in 
advancing the standards of civilization, is a work of no small magnitude, 
and the facts thus narrated are such as may challenge the admiration 
and arouse the sympathy of the reader, albeit they have nothing to do 
with the feats of arms. 

We shall conclude the history of each township with a biographical 
directory, the value of which will increase with years. 






HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 



CHAPTER II. 

PLATTE PURCHASE. 

THE PLATTE COUNTRY-CORRESPONDENCE IN REFERENCE THERETO - MEETING AT 
LIBERTY, MISSOURI-ITS OBJECT— MEMORIAL— EFFORTS OF BENTON AND LINN- 
TREATY WITH THE IOWAYS, SACS AND FOX INDIANS. 

Holt and Atchison Counties being a portion of the territory origin- 
ally included in the Platte Purchase, a short history, detailing how, when, 
and through whom, the purchase of this territory was accomplished, 
will doubtless be of interest to citizens of the counties. 

For several years, prior to the acquisition of the Platte Purchase by 
the United States Government, the people of Missouri desired its annex- 
ation. By moving the Indians, and possessing this territory now con- 
stituting the counties of Platte, Buchanan, Andrew, Holt, Nodaway and 
Atchison, some of the richest, best timbered, and best watered lands in 
the state, would be opened for settlement. The state would then have 
a natural boundary line (the Missouri River) between the whites and 
the Indians, and the people having already located in the counties con- 
tiguous to this territory on the east, could avail themselves of the trans- 
portation facilities afforded by the Missouri River, without being 
compelled to cross the Indian territory. In pursuance of these objects, 
the Hon. L. F. Linn, then a United States Senator, from Missouri, in 
January, 1835, addressed H. Ellsworth, Esq,, the following communica- 
tion : 

Washington, January 23, 1835. 

Sir : It has long been desired by the people of Missouri to have 
annexed to the state that portion ot territory lying between her western 
boundary and the great river, Missouri, for the purpose of preventing 
the location of an annoying Indian population, and for the purpose of 
having points on the river to receive their supplies and ship their pro- 
ductions, within a moderate distance from the homes of those inhabitants 
residing along that line of the frontier. 

The location of the Pottawatomies, by the treaty of Chicago, on this 
territory, interposes a barrier to the attainment of these objects, so 
important to the welfare and tranquility of the inhabitants of the north- 
ern and western counties. Will you be so good as to furnish me your 



86 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

opinion as to the propriety of ratifying that treaty, and the danger of 
collision between the two races, from placing the Indians between the 
white population and the river Missouri. 

Very respectfully, 
H. Ellsworth, Esq. L. F. LINN. 

The following is the answer of Mr. Ellsworth : 

Washington, January 27, 1835. 

SIR : Yours of the 23d instant, requesting my opinion as to the 
propriety of ratifying the Chicago treaty, and the danger of collision 
that will probably arise from placing the Indians between the white 
population and the river Missouri, at the northwest section of the state, 
was received this morning. In reply, I hasten to observe that the small 
strip of land lying between the Missouri River and the State of Missouri, 
is, compared with the country lying north of the state line, an unfavor- 
able location for the Indian tribes. 

In the fall of 1833, I held a council with the Ioways and the little 
band of Sacs and Foxes living on this strip, who complained of the great 
difficulty attending their present situation, on account of the contiguity 
and encroachments of white men in the state, and all the chiefs desired 
me to make a treaty for their removal to land lying north of the state 
line. Not being authorized to make this treaty, I did not attempt it, 
but have recommended the subject to the favorable consideration of" the 
government. 

I have understood that the Pottawatomies are willing to receive 
other land, in equal amount, for that lying south of the north line of Mis- 
souri extended. If this can be done I have no doubt it would be advan- 
tageous to all the parties concerned. The government would realize 
the value of land, but more especially the Pottawatomies would have an 
excellent location, one far less likely to be interrupted by the encroach- 
ment of white neighbors. The State of Missouri might hereafter be 
accommodated with a good natural boundary, several excellent water 
privileges, and additional landings on the navigable waters of Missouri 
for one hundred and forty miles. The ratification of the Chicago treaty 
will prevent the future disposal of this narrow strip to Missouri. Hence 
I conceive it highly important that the Pottawatomies should make an 
exchange of part of the lands embraced within the original treaty. It 
may be proper to state that; from the concurrent testimony of all per- 
sons residing on the Missouri, as well as from a personal view from the 
opposite side of the river, the location of the Pottawatomies north of 
the land in question, will give them a rich and fertile tract, equal to that 
of any tribe already migrated. 

It ought to be noticed that the general expectation that the Chicago 
treaty would be modified, has emboldened many squatters to enter upon 
the lands in question, in hopes of fixing their future residence. I have, 
therefore, no hesitation in giving an opinion as to the expediency of 
altering the Chicago treaty, so as to confine the Pottawatomies north of 
the little strip now wanted by the State of Missouri. 

Having given this opinion, permit me to say that I believe it prac 
ticable, with little expense or delay, to remove the Indians now on this 
strip of land, and to extinquish any remaining right in the red men fos 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 87 

hunting or other privileges, and this removal and extinguishment I 
would respectfully recommend before the state jurisdiction is extended 
to the waters of the Missouri. 

Yours, most respectfully, 

HENRY ELLSWORTH. 
HON. L. F. LINN, Senator. 

At the same time the Hon. L. F. Linn wrote to Maj. John Dough- 
erty, Indian Agent, for information concerning the geography and topo- 
graphy of the country embraced in the " Platte Purchase," and in three 
days thereafter received the following answer : 

Washington, January 26, 1835. 

Sir : Your communication of the 23d instant, containing certain 
queries touching the slip of land lying between the western boundary 
line of the State of Missouri and the Missouri River has been received. 

I assure you it will afford me great pleasure to furnish the answers 
called for, and in the order in which you have proposed the questions. 

1st. The length of the strip of land referred to is, on its east line, 
one hundred miles long ; the west line, following the meanders of the 
Missouri River, is about one hundred and fifty miles in length, to a 
point on said river due west from the northwest corner of the state, the 
average breadth being about fifteen miles. 

, 2d. I feel no hesitation in stating (and this without the fear of con- 
tradiction) that the location of Indians upon this territory would be 
attended with the most ruinous effects ; It would alike be injurious to 
the Indians and whites; take, for example, the Ioways, who now reside 
upon the upper end of this strip — they are a poor, drunken, miserable 
set of beings, dwindling away to nothing, quarreling among themselves, 
killing each other, and in constant broils with their white neighbors. 
Those evils would be greatly increased were the Indians located all the 
way down this strip of land, between the white settlements and the 
Missouri River to the mouth of the Kansas River, where it becomes 
narrow and the white population more dense. 

3d. The inconvenience to our citizens would be incalculable, if 
those along the western line of the state were compelled to transport 
their productions to the mouth of the Kansas River for shipment ; some 
of them residing within eight or ten miles of steamboats passing every 
day, would be obliged to haul everything for market over a new country 
one hundred miles. 

4th. There is a great deficiency of water power and springs in the 
northern counties of the State of Missouri, whilst the strip of land you 
have reference to abounds with numerous flush running springs and 
creeks, with great falls, well calculated for mills or other water works. 

5th. The country north of the State of Missouri, reaching from the 
Mississippi to the Missouri River, and extending north between four and 
five hundred miles, is well timbered, interspersed with fine rich prairies, 
and abounds with numerous large, bold running streams, coming in 
from the high lands between these two great rivers ; in short, the whole 
country is well adapted to agricultural purposes, with a fine climate, and 
exceedingly healthy. 



88 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

In reply to your 6th question, I deem it sufficient to refer to the 
answer under the second query. The peace and tranquility of both 
whites and Indians require that this long strip of land should be attached 
to the State of Missouri ; and I cannot suppose that any gentlemen as 
well acquainted with its locality as I am, would entertain a different 
opinion, or dissent from the views herein expressed. 

With great respect, I have the honor to be 
Your obedient servant, 

JNO. DOUGHERTY, 
Hon. L. F. Linn, Senate U. S. Indian Agent. 

As early as 1834-5, two years before the removal of the Indians, 
the narrow strip of land between the western boundary of the state and 
the Missouri River began to be settled by white men. So numerous 
were these settlers that the United States Government sent a military 
force from Fort Leavenworth to remove them. What proportion of 
these daring frontiersmen had located in this territory wecannot deter- 
mine, but the number must have been considerable, as will be seen from 
the following letter from Hon. L. F. Linn to Hon. John Forsyth, Secre- 
tary of State : 

Saint Genevieve, August 10, 1835. 

Sir : I take the liberty of enclosing you a copy (perhaps imperfect, 
from having mislaid the original), of a letter dated May 14, to the Sec- 
retary of War, on a subject of much interest to the people of this state. 
To this communication no answer has been received. May I tax your 
kindness by asking that you will read the letter, and give the subject 
your friendly attention in any way you may deem advisable. I feel that 
there is a propriety in endeavoring to obtain your assistance, knowing 
the state you so long represented in Congress with such distinguished 
credit,* has been greatly annoyed by an Indian population. I hear an 
order has come from the War Department to remove the families who 
have settled on the Indian lands lying between our western boundary 
and the Missouri River, by military force. 

You know the independent and daring, character of our frontier 
population, and, knowing you will easily believe that this step is not to 
be accomplished without violence and much distress, as the families are 
two or three hundred in number. The accompanying diagram will at a 
glance show you what we want, and at the same time the utter useless- 
ness of this portion of country for Indian purposes. 

The long absence of Governor Cass, and multiplicity of business 
since his return, may have caused him to lose sight of my letter. His 
order has caused much sensation in the northern part of the state, and 
for the present ought to be suspended. Yours truly, 

Hon. John Forsyth, L. F, LINN. 

Secretary of State. 

In the summer of 1835, there was held a regimental militia muster 
at Dale's farm, three miles from the town of Liberty, in Clay County. 
After the morning parade, and during the recess for dinner, a mass 
meeting of the citizens present was addressed, among others, by General 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 89 

Andrew S. Hughes, who came to Clay from Montgomery County, Ken- 
tucky, in 1828, and who soon afterward was appointed Indian agent by 
President John Quincy Adams. At this meeting he proposed the acqui- 
sition of the Platte Country, and the measure met with such hearty 
approval that a committee was at once' appointed to make an effort to 
accomplish it. The committee was composed of William T. Wood, now 
judge of the Lexington Circuit ; David R. Atchison, ex-United States 
Senator ; A. W. Doniphan, a distinguished lawyer and hero of the Mex- 
ican War ; Peter H. Burnett, afterward one of the supreme judges of 
California, and Edward M. Samuel, afterward president of the Commer- 
cial Bank in St. Louis- — all of them at that time residents of Clay 
County. Subsequently an able memorial to Congress was drafted by 
Judge Wood, embracing the facts and considerations in behalf of the 
measure, which, after being signed by the committee, was forwarded to 
the senators and representatives at Washington from Missouri. 

Following the prayer of this memorial, in 1836, a bill was introduced 
in Congress by Thomas H. Benton, and zealously supported by his col- 
league, Senator Linn, which provided for the extension of the then 
existing boundary of the state, so as to include the triangle between the 
existing line and the Missouri River, then a part of the Indian Terri- 
tory, now comprising the counties of Atchison, Andrew, Buchanan, 
Holt, Nodaway and Platte. The difficulties encountered were three 
fold : 1. To make still larger a state which was already one of the larg- 
est in the Union. 2. To remove Indians from a possession which had 
just been assigned to them in perpetuity. 3. To alter the Missouri 
Compromise line in relation to slave territory, and thereby convert free 
soil into slave soil. Notwithstanding these difficulties, the two first 
mentioned serious and the last formidable, the act was passed and the 
treaties negotiated, and in 1837, the Indians removed west of the Mis- 
souri River, thus adding to the state a large body of the richest land in 
the world. 

During the fall of 1835, after the meeting held at the regimental 
muster above referred to, General Andrew S. Hughes wrote to Hon. L. 
F. Linn in reference to a treaty with the Ioways and Sacs of his agency. 
His letter is as follows : 

Ioway Sub-Agency, September 3, 1835. 

Sir : I have written a hasty scrawl to you. It might be well to pub- 
lish your letter to show to the people what you are doing. I send this 
to St. Genevieve, not exactly knowing where to find you. I give you 
liberty to do just as you may think proper with my letter. 

All letters addressed to me, I wish directed to the " Elm Grove 
Post Office, Clay County, Missouri. This is most convenient to me. 
When I hear from you I will write again. I desire to see you before 
you go east. 






90 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

A treaty can be made with the Ioways of my agency and Sacs, 
without expense to the government, or any other unnecessary pomp 
and parade, as has heretofore been the case. Colonel Dodge could 
make treaty with the Indians as a part of his official duty. They are 
near his post, and I should have no objections to render any assistance 
that might be asked of me. Believe me, your sincere friend, 

ANDREW S. HUGHES. 

To Hon. Lewis F. Linn. 

The treaty which was negotiated with the Sacs and Fox Indians, 
whereby Missouri extended her western boundary line, is as follows : 

ARTICLES OF A TREATY 

made and concluded at Fort Leavenworth, o w n the Missouri River, 
between William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, on the part of 
the United States, of the one part, and the undersigned, chiefs, warriors 
and counsellors of the Ioway tribe, and the band of Sacs and Foxes of 
the Missouri (residing west of the State of Missouri) in behalf of their 
respective tribes, of the other part. 

ARTICLE i. By the first article of the treaty of Prairie du Chien, 
held the 15th of July, 1830, with the confederate tribes of the Sacs and 
Foxes, Ioways, Omahaws, Missourias, Ottoes and Sioux, the country 
cededto the United States by that treaty is to be " assigned and allotted, 
under the President of the United States, to the tribes living thereon, or 
to such other tribes as the President may locate thereon for hunting and 
other purposes." And whereas, it is further represented to us, the chiefs, 
warriors and counsellors of the Ioways and Sacs and Fox band afore- 
said, to be desirable that the lands lying between the State of Missouri 
and the Missouri River should be attached to and become a part of the 
said state, and the Indian title thereto should be extinguished ; but that, 
notwithstanding, as these lands compose a part of the country embraced 
by the provisions of said first article of the treaty aforesaid, the stipula- 
tions thereof will be strictly observed, until the assent of the Indians 
interested is given to the proposed measure. 

Now we, the chiefs, warriors and counsellors of the Ioways and Mis- 
souri bands of Sacs and Foxes, fully understanding the subject, and well 
satisfied from the local position of the lands in question, that they can 
never be made available for Indian purposes, and that an attempt to 
place an Indian population on them must inevitably lead to collision 
with the citizens of the United States ; and further, believing that the 
extension of the state line in the direction indicated, would have a happy 
effect, by presenting a natural boundary between the whites and the 
Indians ; and willing, moreover, to give the United States a renewed 
evidence of our attachment and friendship, do hereby, for ourselves and 
on behalf of our respective tribes (having full power and authority to this 
effect) forever cede, relinquish and quit-claim to the United States, all 
our right, title and interest, of whatever nature, in and to the land lying 
between the State of Missouri and the Missouri River, and do freely and 
fully exonerate the United States from any guarantee, condition or lim- 
itation, expressed or implied, under the treaty of Prairie du Chien, afore- 
said or otherwise, as to the entire and absolute disposition of the said 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 91 

lands ; fully authorizing the United States to do with the same whatever 
shall seem expedient or necessary. 

As a proof of the continued friendship and liberality of the United 
States toward the Ioways and band of Sacs and Foxes of the Missourias, 
and as an evidence of the same entertained for the good will manifested 
by said tribes to the citizens and Government of the United States, as 
evinced in the preceding cession or relinquishment, the undersigned, 
William Clark, agrees, on behalf of the United States, to pay as a pres- 
ent to the said Ioways and band of Sacs and Foxes $7,500 in money, the 
receipt of which they hereby acknowledge. 

Article 2. As the said tribes of Ioways and Sacs and Foxes have 
applied for a small piece of land south of the Missouri for a permanent 
home, on which they can settle, and request the assistance of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States to place them on the land, in a situation 
at least equal to that they now enjoy on the lands ceded by them, 
Therefore, I, William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, do further 
agree on behalf of the United States, to assign to the Ioway tribes and 
Missouri band of Sacs and Foxes, the small strip of land on the south 
side of the Missouri River, lying between the Kickapoo northern boun- 
dary line and the Grand Nemaha River, and extending from the Mis- 
souri back and westwardly with the said Kickapoo line and the Grand 
Nemaha, making four hundred sections, to be divided between the said 
Ioways and the Missouri band of Sacs and Foxes, the lower half to the 
Sacs and Foxes, the upper half to the Ioways. 

Article 3. The Ioways and Missouri band of Sacs and Foxes, fur- 
ther agree that they will move and settle on the lands assigned them in 
the above article as soon as arrangements can be made, and the under- 
signed, William Clark, in behalf of the United States, agrees that, as 
soon as the above tribes have selected a site for their villages, and places 
for their fields, and moved to them, to erect for the Ioways five comfort- 
able houses ; to enclose and break up for them two hundred acres of 
ground ; to furnish them with a farmer, blacksmith, schoolmaster and 
interpreter, as long as the President of the United States deems proper ; 
to furnish them with such agricultural implements as may be necessary, 
for five years ; to furnish them with rations for one year, commencing at 
the time of their arrival at their new home ; to furnish them with one ferry- 
boat ; to furnish them with one hundred cows and calves, and five bulls, and 
one hundred stock hogs, when they require them ; to furnish them with 
a mill, and assist in removing them, to the extent of five hundred dollars. 
And to erect for the Sacs and Foxes, three comfortable houses ; to 
enclose and break up for them two hundred acres of land ; to furnish 
them with a farmer, blacksmith, schoolmaster and interpreter, as long as 
the President of the United States shall deem proper ; to furnish them 
with such agricultural implements as may be necessary, for five years ; 
to furnish them with rations for one year, commencing at the time of 
their arrival at their new home ; to furnish them with one ferryboat ; to 
furnish them with one hundred cows and calves, and five bulls; one hun- 
dred stock hogs, when they require them ; to furnish them with a mill, 
and to assist in removing them to the extent of four hundred dollars. 

ARTICLE 4. This'treaty shall be obligatory on the tribes, parties 
hereto, from and after the date hereof, and on the United States, from 
and after its ratification by the Government thereof. 



9 2 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 



Done and signed and sealed at Fort Leavenworth, on the Missouri, 
this seventeenth day of September, eighteen hundred and thirty-six, 
and of the independence of the United States the sixtv-first. 

WILLIAM CLARK, 
Superintendent Indian Affairs. 



IOWAYS : 



Mo-HOS-CA (or White Cloud), 
Nau-CHE-NING (or No Heart), 
Wa-che-mo-NE (or the Orator), 
MAN-O-MONE (or Pumpkin), 
Ne-O-MO-NE (or Raining Cloud), 



Ne-wan-thaw-chu (Hair Shed- 

der), 
Cha-tau-the-ne (Big Bull), 
CONGU (or Plumb), 
Cha-ta-thaw (Buffalo Bull), 



Wau-THAW-CA-BE-CHU (one' that Man-haw-ka (or Bunch of Arrows.) 
eats rats.) 

SACS AND FOXES.: 

Ca-HA-QUA (Red Fox), Pe-SHAW-CA (Bear), 

Pe-CAW-MA (Deer), NE-BOSH-CA-NA (Wolf), 

Ke-SQUI-IN-a (Deer), Ne-SAW-AN-QUA (Bear), 

QUA-CO-OUSI-SI (Wolf), Se-QUIL-i-a (Deer), 

As-KE-pa-ke- KA-AS- A (Green Wa-PE-SA (Swan), 

Lake), No-CHA-TAW-WA-TA-SA (Star), 

Can-CA-CAR-MACK (Bald Headed Se-A-SA-ho (Sturgeon), 

Eagle), Pe-a-chim-a-car-mack, Jr., (Bald 

Headed Eagle). 

WITNESSES : 



S. W. Kearny, Jr., 
John Dougherty, 
A. S. Hughes, 
George R. H. Clark, 
William Duncan, 
Joseph V. Hamilton, 



H. Robidou, Jr., 
William Bowman, 
jeffry dorion, 
Peter Constine, ■ 
Jacques Mette, 
Louis M. Davidson. 



X6 sg&i t»x 



CHAPTER III. 

GEOLOGY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

LOCATION-BOUNDARY— AREA— TOPOGRAPH Y-TIMBER- PRAIRIE— SOIL— STREAMS— COAL 
GRINDSTONES — LIMESTONE - MINLRAL RESOURCES — CEMENT WORKS - GOLD 
MINKS. 

Holt County is located in the Northwestern portion of the state, 
and is separated from Iowa by Atchison County. It is nearly the same 
parallel as Philadelphia and Sacramento, and about the same meridian 
as Lake of the Woods and Galveston. 

BOUNDARY — AREA. 

It is bounded on the north by Atchison and Nodaway Counties, on 
the east by Nodaway and Andrew Counties, on the south by Kansas, 
and on the west by Kansas and Nebraska, from which it is separated by 
the Missouri River, and has an area of 434 square miles. It has ten 
municipal, four full congressional, and nineteen fractional congressional 
townships. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

The Missouri River bottoms occupy considerably more than one- 
third of the area of the county, and above township sixty, they are at 
least ten miles in width. Southward they are narrower, converging 
gradually towards the southern boundary line of the county. The 
bluffs attain a height of from one hundred and twenty-five to two hun- 
dred feet, with occasional intervals of low hills. After leaving the Mis- 
souri bluffs, about two miles, the country becomes less hilly, and soon 
passes into a beautiful rolling country. From the mouth of the Noda- 
way River, for ten miles north, the adjacent hills are high and the sur- 
face of the land is broken. 

The hills in the northeast part* of the county are low and gently 
undulating. Near Squaw Creek, Davis Creek and Tarkio, the hills have 
gradual slopes, with often marshy bases, leading into the adjacent nar- 
row bottoms. By the burrowing of gophers, the bottoms of Squaw 
Creek and a few other streams are rendered dangerous for horses to 
pass over, and their banks are so steep and marshy as to render them, 
almost impassable, as far up as their sources. 



94 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 



TIMBER. 



Soutla of Oregon the country consists mostly of timbered land. 
Near the streams in the northern part of the county, but few trees are 
seen, and they are generally either of small growth or shrubs. On the 
banks is sometimes a fringe of willow, white maple, American elm, box 
elder, greenbrier, grape and cormus. On the bottoms, black walnut, 
honey locust, coralberry, chokeberry, red and American elm, wahoo, 
sumach, cormus and gooseberry occur. 

The following is a list of trees and shrubs in Holt County : Crab- 
apple, white ash, prickly ash, blackberry, bladdernut, buckeye, box-el- 
der, buttonbush, blackberry, chokecherry, coffeetree, cottonwood, Amor- 
pha canescens, Am. fruticosa, coralberry, cormus sericea, cormus csperifo- 
lia gooseberry, hackberry, hazel, shellbark hickory, thick shellbark hick- 
ory, pignut hickory, ironwood, honey locust, white maple, mulberry, lin- 
den, chinquepin oak, sarsaparilla, burr oak, rock-chestnut oak, scarlet oak, 
red oak, pin oak, pawpaw, American plum, rose, rosa lucida, redbud, 
sycamore, sumach, poison oak, thorn, black walnut, redroot and wahoo. 
The Missouri bottoms afford an excellent supply of good timber. 

PRAIRIE. 

' About one-third of the county is prairie— fully one-half of the 
Missouri bottom is prairie. The main prairie districts of the county 
are to be found, as a general thing, in Benton, Union, Liberty, Clay, 
Nodaway and Lincoln, and present an undulating surface, rather roll- 
ing, but admirably adapted to tillage, and being productive in the high- 
est degree. 

SOIL. 

Poor land is scarcely known in Holt County; the broken hills near 
the rivers are sometimes poor, and on the prairie between Squaw Creek 
and the Tarkio the soil is rather thin. Between Big and Little Tarkio, 
in township sixty-three, the soil is rich, and lies well for cultivation, 
excepting a broken strip, three-quarters of a mile in width, lying along 
the blufts. A rich belt, one-quarter of a mile to one mile in width, of 
gently sloping land connects the bluffs and extends from the north line 
of township sixty-two, to the north line of township fifty-nine. The 
" bluff" washed from the hills above is the principal ingredient in this 
soil. This land slopes off gently, and is capable of producing fine 
crops, and the steep hillsides, which have often thirty to forty degrees 
ascent, produce crops of corn and wheat. 

South of Oregon, and lying between the Missouri bluffs and Noda- 
way River, the soil is based on the bluff aid disintegrated limestone. 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 95 

The very broken country does not exceed a mile in width, while beyond 
the rich, hilly, black-oak land extends for several miles. Then we have 
rich prairies and thicket land. The southern portion is suitable for 
most crops. The upland prairies, toward the north and northeast of the 
county, are high, rolling and rich, with fertile, beautiful valleys between 
the hills. The bluff knobs, seem to have been left by Nature for vine- 
yards. 

' STREAMS. 

The streams and water courses are numerous, veining the surface of 
the county, in almost every direction, and furnishing an ample supply of 
water in ordinary seasons for all purposes. 

Big Tarkio rises in Montgomery County, Iowa, a distance of more 
than one hundred and fifty miles, enters Holt County within a few miles 
of the northwestern corner, and flows through the Great Bottom and 
empties into the Missouri River near its intersection with Oiler's Base 
Line. 

Little Tarkio rises in the central part of Atchison County, enters 
Holt County, about eight miles east of the northwest corner of the 
county, and enters the Missouri bottom, about one mile east of Craig, 
thence meandering through the bottom, enters what is now known as 
the slough, about half a mile north of Forest City. This stream form- 
erly emptied into the Missouri River, about fifteen miles below its pres- 
ent mouth, but the changes made by that treacherous stream cut it off 
opposite Forest City twenty years ago. 

Squaw Creek rises in the southern part of Atchison County, and 
flowing in a southwesterly direction, enters the Missouri bottom two 
miles north of Mound City, and thence continuing in a more southerly 
course, it flows into the Little Tarkio, near Bigelow. Its principal trib- 
utaries are Ross Branch, Hog Branch, Donan's Branch and Porter's 
Branch. 

Davis Creek rises in the northeastern part of the county, flows 
southwest and empties into Squaw Creek. Pierson's Branch, Kinsey 
Creek, Luckhardt's Branch, Mill Creek, Easter Branch, Hardin's Branch, 
Nicholl's Creek, Hickory Creek, Hog Creek, Higley Creek and Rolling 
Fork, are all small water courses, running in different directions through 
the county, constituting a great net-work in that system of drainage 
which renders Holt County one of the best watered and best farming 
districts in the state.' 

The Nodaway River is the largest stream touching the county, 
excepting the Missouri. The Nodaway rises in Iowa, and flows along 
the eastern border of the county, affording the finest water power in 
Northwest Missouri. In fact, many of the streams above mentioned, 
furnished excellent mill sites, which have been utilized from the days 



96 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

of the pioneer to the present time (1882). The Nodaway was, when 
first discovered, considered a navigable stream. During the year 1871, 
a steamboat, of light draft, ascended several miles above its mouth, but 
its course is too tortuous and narrow to admit of successful navigation. 

LAKES. 

There are in the county a number of lakes, among which are 
Impassable Lake, Tarkio, Wallace and Lovelady Lakes, which generally 
abound in fish and water-fowl. 

COAL. 

Mr. A. Kunkell.'on Mill Creek, near Oregon, says that he found a 
four foot vein of good coal at the depth of 665 feet. Whether it can be 
found at this depth in paying quantities is extremely problematical. 
Professor G. C. Broadhead, who made a geological survey of the county 
in 1872, says, in his report of that survey, "that the first workable seam 
of coal in the county is 1,170 feet below the surface." He intimates 
that the seam of Lexington coal could be reached aj this depth. 

GRINDSTONES. 

The sandstone quarry, at Forest City, although rather soft, affords 
a useful material for making grindstones ; it is a tolerably coarse- 
grained drab, or gray, sandstone, somewhat micaceous ; is easily quar- 
ried and works free. It is used for cappings, and door and window fac- 
ings, and makes beautiful mantles and jambs. 

QUARRIES OF LIMESTONE. 

There are very many good quarries near Forest City, and for six 
miles southeast ; also on Mill Creek, Brockman's Branch and Nicholl's 
Creek. The texture of the stone is often fine grained. No. 84, occur- 
ring about five miles southeast of Forest City, and on Brockman's 
Branch, would look well polished. 

THE MINERAL RESOURCES 

of Lewis Township are, as yet, in a crude and undeveloped state. There 
is, however, no doubt in the minds of those who have, with any degree 
of intelligence, investigated the matter, that the rugged hills of the bluff 
region abound in valuable, if not precious deposits of mineral. Daniel 
Kunkel claims to have discovered, about 1874-5, at a depth of 600 feet, a 
vein of excellent coal, in his mill near Oregon. About the year 1875 an 
interest in this character of enterprise was developed on the part of cer- 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 97 

tain progressive citizens of Holt County, and a result of this effort is 
thus graphically described in the St. Joseph Morning Herald of August 
or September, 1875, by a correspondent of that able journal, whose 
descriptive letters, in those days, rendered the paper as interesting as a 
first-class magazine : " There yet remained another object of interest, 
and source of revenue to the neighborhood, and determined to do the 
sights of this part of Holt, we started up' the bluff along the railroad 
track for the purpose of examining the Cement Works that have been 
recently established about two and a-half miles south by west of Oregon. 
Following our indefatigable guide, we again mounted the rocky wood- 
land bluff, and toiled onward to the. newly discovered quarries, whence 
is excavated the peculiar petrous formation from which a valuable quality 
of cement is prepared. Having inspected the quarry and its surround- 
ings, we again started on our tour of exploration. One remarkable fea- 
ture of our expedition was that, go in what direction we might, we never 
were more than two and a-half or three miles from Oregon. We 
at last reached the works. The building is a spacious and lofty frame 
structure, erected some six years ago, at a cost of about $5,000, for the 
purpose of an elevator, and was fitted up in good style, with powerful 
engine, etc. But either for want of the necessary means, enterprise, or 
some other requisite, the Oregon Elevator Company, as it was styled, 
failed, and the building remained idle till about a year ago, when it was 
sold, at sheriff's sale, and became, with all its fixtures, the property of 
James B. Payne, one of the present parties in the cement factory. The 
machinery includes, with other appliances, a run of burrs, and was, for 
some time, used for grinding corn. The new enterprise inaugurated 
here by Messrs. Rhodes & Payne, promises to be a complete success, and 
is regarded by the skeptics in the county as a more tangible source of 
remuneration than the gold mine. William Baskins, of Oregon, is gen- 
eral agent for this cement, and is now prepared to fill all orders. The 
kiln is capable of burning rock enough in one day to furnish fifty barrels 
of cement, and the mill can be readily made to grind the same amount 
in twelve hours. Mr. Rhodes is a practical plasterer, and has been pros- 
pecting for the past two years for cement rock. It appears that he has 
discovered two qualities of this mineral, both of which he has manufac- 
tured. One of them produces a darker colored cement than the other. 
Their several properties have not yet been fully tested, but the lighter 
colored product is said by competent judges to surpass in quality the St. 
Louis, and to be little inferior to the celebrated Louisville Cement. 
There are seven and a-half acres of ground attached to the works." 

This cement continued to be made here for some time, and found a 
ready market, but the company being financially unable to compete with 
wealthy eastern manufacturers who had determined to break down, at 
all hazards, this young enterprise, the same was ultimately suspended. 



98 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

GOLD MINES. 

During the summer of 1875, a considerable interest, if not excite- 
ment, was caused in Holt County, in consequence of the alleged dis- 
covery of gold in the neighborhood of Oregon. That gold, in a very 
limited quantity, was found in this locality, is believed by many disin- 
terested parties, who are men of intelligence in the community. Others, 
however, who were never present at the mines, or who failed to see any 
gold taken out while there, denounce the whole thing as a preposterous 
humbug. 

The same interesting correspondent thus refers to the gold discovery 
of that region : 

" Blundering and stumbling amid rocks and the fallen debris of 
forest monarchs, that had lived their day in a forgotten generation, we 
gained, at last, the summit of a bluff range, far below the steep declivity 
of which the murmur of a swollen stream warned us of our proximity to 
the auriferous region. Guided by the sound, we soon gained the brink 
of this water course, which proved to be Swank Branch. Following the 
course of this stream, a few minutes walk brought us in full view of the 
gloomy portal leading to the mysterious cavern, which is said to con- 
tain the rich deposits of gold for which this, till recently, wild and 
unoccupied locality is becoming renowned. 

"Approaching, we discovered the arch of the tunnel to be low, less 
than six feet to the summit, narrow and, as we afterwards discovered, 
this mine , is unsupported through its entire length of 230 feet by any- 
thing save the strength developed in the cohesive properties of the soil. 

"The aspect of the locality was singularly weird and solitary, and 
no sound save the tramp of our footsteps on the debris of the mine con- 
tributed to break the loneliness of the scene. A smothered and rumb- 
ling echo from the mouth of the mine alone responded to our shout ; 
and, concluding the place deserted, we wandered off in a westerly 
direction, around the base of the bluff, when a small house appeared in 
view, from the inmates of which we learned, on approaching, that work 
had been abandoned in the tunnel we had observed, and that the hands 
were engaged in the new mine above. We accordingly returned, passed 
beyond the entrance of the long tunnel, and arrived at the second, which 
presented from its more elevated arch a rather more inviting appear- 
ance, and revealing in the dim and distant perspective the feeble glim- 
mer of a light. Guided by this beacon, we descended a gradual slope, 
ninety-five feet into the bowels of the bluff. The temperature without 
was exceedingly warm, and by the time we had reached the extremity 
of this tunnel, the atmosphere was oppressively damp and chilly, and, 
as there was nothing to look at but the end of a hole, with one man dig- 
ging dirt that did not seem to our inexperienced eyes to have anything 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 99 

in it but dirt, and another wheeling it out, we beat a hasty retreat into 
daylight and sunshine. Returning to the residence of Mr. Levi Crouser, 
one of the proprietors of the mines, we were favored by that gentleman 
with an opportunity of viewing several rich and beautiful specimens of 
quartz and wire gold, taken from the first mine. 

" These, we were informed by Mr. Crouser, were pronounced by Dr. 
Hays, of Boston, the celebrated assayist, to be the richest specimens 
that had come under his observation. Mr. C. also showed us several 
minerals said to be ruby and sapphire of unusual richness. We were 
also shown a remarkable fossil, evidently the tooth and gum of some 
strange animaL The first tunnel, on which work is at present suspended, 
slopes with a gradual descent two hundred and thirty feet to the bed 
rock. About the middle of this subterranean gallery, a singular pit was 
encountered, the aperture or rather the apertures, for there are several 
of them, ramifying from the main orifice at various angles, and to, as yet, 
unsounded depths. This is unmistakably the crater of a volcano, extinct 
probably thousands, perhaps millions of years before Crouser & Co. 
began to bore for gold or anything else." 

"The location of the mine is near the waters of Swank Branch, a 
tributary of Tarkio Creek, and is about two and a half miles due south 
of Oregon. It is owned by a joint stock company, consisting of Levi 
Crouser, John H. Mclntyre and J. Ham. 

"The first discovery was made by Mr. Mclntyre, in digging a well 
near the site of the mine, about two years ago. They immediately 
began to prospect ; and the success which has since crowned their 
efforts seems to be highly encouraging. There are at present five men 
employed in the mine." 

Such was the report in the fall of 1875. No one, it seems, so far, 
has grown rich from the yield of the mines, which have passed into the 
hands of their present (1882) owner, Ira B. Stocking, at one time a jew- 
eler and watchmaker of Oregon. 




CHAPTER IV. 

HOLT COUNTY ORGANIZED. 



ACT ORGANIZING HOLT COUNTY— TERRITORY OF NEATAWAH - HON. D. R. HOLT— FIRST 

COUNTY COURT-ITS PROCEEDINGS-ORDERS-FERRIES- TOWNSHIPS ORGANIZED 

—FIRST ELECTION— REPORT OF COMMISSIONERS ON COUNTY SEAT-SUBSEQUENT 

PROCEEDINGS — REVENUE— FIRST CIRCUIT COURT— ITS PROCEEDINGS — FIRST 

GRAND JURY — INDICTMENTS -FIRST INSTRUMENTS RECORDED — EARLY MAR- 
RIAGES. 

The original act organizing the county of Holt reads as follows : 

" That portion of territory included within the following described 
limits, to wit: Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the 
Missouri River, at a point where the range line dividing ranges thirty- 
six and thirty-seven would intersect the same ; thence north with said 
range line to the middle of the main channel of the Nodaway River; 
thence up the middle of the main channel of said river, to the northern 
boundary line of the state ; thence west with said boundary line, to the 
middle of the main channel of the Missouri River; thence down said 
river, in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the place of begin- 
ning, shall be called Holt, in honor of David R. Holt, Esq., late repre- 
sentative from Platte County, any law to the contrary notwithstanding." 

This act was approved February 15, 1841. On January 29, 1841, 
some seventeen days previously to the passage of the act we have given 
above, the legislature had erected the same territory into the county of 
Nodaway, hence the words " any law to the contrary notwithstanding." 

The present boundaries of Holt County are as follows : 

'Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Missouri 
River, at a point where the line dividing ranges thirty-six and thirty- 
seven, extended, would intersect the same ; thence south with said 
range line to the middle of the main channel of the Nodaway River ; 
thence up the middle of the main channel of said river, to the line of 
Atchison County ; thence west with said line to the middle of the main 
channel of the Missouri River; thence down the middle of the main 
channel thereof, to the beginning." 

Holt County, when first formed, embraced Atchison County ; that 
part of Nodaway lying west of Nodaway River, and extended north ten 
miles into the state of Iowa — Missouri claiming jurisdiction over a strip 
of country ten miles wide along the southern line of Iowa — the dispute 
concerning the boundary line, not at that date having been settled. 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 10 1 

In January, 1841, all that part of Holt County lying north of a line, 
running from a point on the Missouri River, opposite the house of H. 
Wallace (now known as the G. Schulte place), to the main crossing of 
the Big Tarkio, about a mile above Craig, thence northeasterly to the 
state line, was cut off by the legislature, and named Allen County, but 
left under the jurisdiction of Holt County Court, in the same manner as 
the territory of Neatawah had been attached to Buchanan County. 
February 14, 1845, Allen County was abolished, Atchison and Nodaway 
were organized, and Holt County was thus reduced to its present 
limits. 

The first act naming and defining the boundaries of Nodaway 
County, approved January 29, 1841, directed the circuit and county 
courts of that county to be held at the dwelling house of William Thorp, 
until the permanent seat of justice could be established, or until the 
county court otherwise ordered. That act also named Travis Finley, of 
Clay County, Edward Smith, of Clinton County, and John A. Wil- 
• liams, of Daviess County, commissioners to select the permanent seat 
of justice, and after the passage of the act organizing the same terri- 
tory into Holt County (the name simply being changed from Nodaway 
to Holt), the parties named as commissioners in the act organizing 
Nodaway County, proceeded in due course of time to select the perma- 
nent seat of justice. . 

TERRITORY OF NEATAWAH. 

This territory contained about 3,200 square miles, and extended 
ten miles north of the present state line, between Iowa and Missouri; 
embracing the counties of Andrew, Holt, Atchison and Nodaway, so 
that the Buchanan County Court held jurisdiction over a country almost 
as large as the combined states of Rhode Island and Delaware. The 
territory of Neatawah was abolished in 1841. 

HON. DAVID R. HOLT. 

Shakespeare intimates that there is nothing in a name, but a name 
sometimes means a great deal. In many instances it indicates, in a meas- 
ure, the character of the people who settle the county, and who have 
given to it its distinctive characteristics. Names are sometimes given 
by accident. In this instance, however, the county did not receive its 
name by accident, but the christening took place, after mature delibera- 
tion and by general consent. In order that our readers may know some- 
thing of the man after whom the county was named, we will here present 
of him a brief biographical sketch : 

Hon. David Rice Holt was born in Virginia in about the year 1805. 
He was both a minister of the gospel and a physician, and had attained 
an enviable standing in each. He was a minister of the Presbyterian 



102 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Church (Old School), in which he was reared. He moved from Virginia 
to Saline County, Missouri, between i830and 1834. Soon after the Platte 
Purchase was opened for settlement Dr. Holt came to Platte County, 
where he located on wild and unsurveyed land. Soon after his arrival 
in Platte the county was organized. The first election for a member of 
the Legislature occurred in August, 1840. Under the most favorable 
circumstances, new counties generally, require much local legislation, 
and especially was this the case in Platte County. Hence the people of 
that county, fully realizing their wants, and wishing to send a man of 
superior legislative ability, instinctively turned to Dr. Holt as the only 
proper person for the emergency. The Constitution of Missouri at that 
time prohibited ministers of the gospel from serving as members of the 
Legislature. This rendered the position of the doctor extremely 
unpleasant. Upon the one hand, he disliked to refuse the importunities 
of his countrymen, who thought him to be the only person in their midst 
who could bring order out of confusion ; and upon the other, he regretted 
the idea of severing his connection with the pulpit. He finally, however, 
yielded to their solicitations, and was elected to the Legislature without 
opposition, in 1841.* Although the doctor had no legislative experience, 
he was at once selected as one of the three members of a committee, 
from the Upper and Lower House, whose duty it was to settle the accounts 
of the Auditor and Treasurer before the meeting of the Legislature. The 
session had scarcely commenced before the doctor was taken sick, and 
after lingering some two weeks it became apparent to him and his friends 
that he could not live. His wife was written to, and although she left 
her home promptly, horseback, — about the only possible mode of travel 
in those days — she did not reach Jefferson City until the day of his death. 
He was buried on the 20th of December, 1840, in the State Cemetery, 
with appropriate honors, and Gen. A. W. Doniphan, who was at the same 
time a member of the Legislature and a friend of the doctor, announced 
his death to the Assembly. He married a Miss White, a sister of Cap- 
tain John H. White, who once represented, respectively, the counties of 
Platte and Andrew. She was an accomplished and beautiful woman. 
The doctor was nearly or quite six feet in height ; perfectly erect ; cast 
in the mould of admirable proportions, and active in his movements. 
He was a ripe scholar, a graceful and fluent speaker, possessed a clear, 
bright face, sparkling and brilliant eyes — especially when speaking in the 
pulpit or on the rostrum. He was fair and manly in debate, his bearing 
was courteous, and his social qualities were of the highest order. His 
attainments were great and varied. He devoted much time to his two 
professions, yet never lost his taste for the ancient or modern classics 
and general literature. He was deeply versed on all subjects in the range 
of polite erudition and scholarship, and a man of untiring energy and of 
indomitable will. 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. IO3 

COUNTY ORGANIZATION. 

March 24, 1841, the first County Court of Holt County convened at 
the house of William Thorp, on the northwest quarter section 12, town- 
ship 59, range 33, now (1882) in Lewis Township, "adjoining the west 
line of Forbes Township, and owned by the heirs of James Stephenson. 

Harrison G. Noland, James Crowley and Joshua Adkins then and 
there produced from his Excellency, Thomas Reynolds, Governor of the 
State of Missouri, their several commissions appointing them Justices 
of the Holt County Court, together with the oath of office therein 
endorsed, which were ordered to be certified for record. These com- 
missions were dated " City of Jefferson, February 16, 1841." The record 
of the proceedings of that day sets forth that the oath of office was 
subscribed and sworn to by these parties, before William Thorp, Jr., 
Justice of the Peace. 

The first order of the court passed, on its organization, was the 
appointment of Harrison G. Noland president of the same. At this 
meeting Bayless B. Grigsby was appointed clerk pro tern, and, before its 
adjournment, clerk until the legal termination of said office. His secu- 
rities were William Thorp, Jr., and G. B. Thorp. The*second order was 
the enrollment of John W. Kelley, as attorney, to practice in said court. 

On the same day, it was " ordered that Joshua Horn and Josiah 
Shelton be granted a grocer's license, to be kept at their residence, for 
six months next ensuing, by paying a state tax thereon of ten dollars." 
The court, on that day, further ordered that R. M. Barkhurst be granted 
a license to keep a ferry across the Nodaway River, at the rapids thereof, 
for the space of twelve months, without paying tax thereon, at the fol- 
lowing rates, to wit : For crossing a man, 6\ cents ; for crossing a man 
and horse, I2§ cents ; for crossing a two-horse wagon and team, empty, 
27h cents ; for crossing a two-horse wagon and team, loaded, 75 cents ; 
for crossing a six-horse wagon and team, empty, 50 cents ; for crossing 
a six-horse wagon and team, loaded, $1 ; for crossing loose horses and 
•cattle, each, 3 cents ; for crossing hogs and sheep, each head, ij cents. 

It was then and there further " ordered that Green B. Thorp be and 
is hereby appointed assessor for Holt County for the year 1841." It is 
further recorded that the said G. B. Thorp forthwith entered into bond 
with Wm. Thorp, as his security, in the penal sum of $500, conditioned 
according to law, which bond was approved by the court. It was finally 
"'ordered that the sheriff advertise at three of the most public places in 
the county, that the County Court of Holt County will meet at Wil- 
liam Thorp's, on the second Thursday in April next. Whereupon the 
first session of the county court adjourned till the above specified day 
and date. H. G. NOLAND, 

B. B. Grisby, Clerk. JOSHUA ADKINS, 

JAMES CROWLEY." 



104 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

At the special adjourned term of the Holt County Court, begun and 
held at the house of William Thorp, in Holt County, Missouri, on the 
second Thursday of April, 1841 (judges and clerk as above), it was 
ordered that the county be divided into three municipal townships, to wit: 

Nodaway Township. — Beginning at the mouth of Nodaway River, 
and thence up said river to the point of intersection with range line 
dividing ranges thirty-seven and thirty-eight ; thence south with said 
range line to the Missouri River; thence to the point of beginning 
with the Missouri. 

It will be thus -seen that Nodaway Township included, originally, 
a strip of territory not more than six miles in width near its base or 
southern limits, and tapering more or less gradually, narrowed to a 
point where the Nodaway River touches the range line of thirty-seven 
and thirty-eight, in Atchison County, fifteen or sixteen miles north of 
the present (1882) northern boundary of Holt County, and thus embrac- 
ing a strip of country now included within the limits of Nodaway 
County. 

Lewis Township — Beginning at the middle of the main channel of 
the Missouri River where the range line between thirty-seven and 
thirty-eight intersects said river; thence north to the northern boundary 
of the county ; thence west to the High Bridge Creek ; thence down 
said creek to the Missouri River, thence down the Missouri River to the 
point of beginning. 

Nishnebotna Township, also organized at this term of court, 
included a strip of territory between the Nishnebotna and Missouri 
Rivers from the mouth of the former to the northern limits of the 
state, and consequently comprised no part of the territory embraced 
within the present area of Holt County, which area at the original 
organization of the county, included only the townships of Lewis and 
Nodaway. Out of these two, with various modifications, from time to 
time, have been erected the present (1882) townships, ten in number, of 
Lincoln, Union, Liberty, Clay, Bigelow, Benton, Hickory, Nodaway, 
Forbes and Lewis, which latter for the convenience of election purposes, 
is divided into two precincts, known as East and West Lewis. 

The following extraordinary enactment of this potent and astute 
court at this, its second term, will doubtless be read with astonishment: 

" Ordered, that the act concerning groceries, etc., passed by the 
legislature in the year 1829, shall not extend to nor be in force in Noda- 
way County" 

It would seem that these wise judges were not only state rights 
men, but believed in the application of the cardinal principles of their 
political creed to county organizations. At this term Robert H. Rus- 
sell was appointed allotting justice for Lewis Township. 






HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 105 

FIRST ELECTION. 



In May, 1841, occurred the first election of justices of the peace in 
Holt County, with the following result : In Lewis Township : John 
Gibson and Gallatin Adkins ; John Lewis was, at the same time, elected 
constable of Lewis Township. 

Abraham Brown and James C. Templeton were elected justices for 
Nodaway Township. 

John R. Jackson and Jacob McKissock were elected justices, and 
James Handley, constable for Nishnebotna Township, then a part of 
Holt, but, as before stated, included in what is now Atchison County. 

June 14, 1841, the county court, which had heretofore assembled at 
William Thorp's, convened at the residence of Gilbert Ray, two and a 
half miles east of the site of the present town of Oregon. At this 
term Joseph Brenard was granted a license to keep a ferry across the 
Nishnebotna River, at his residence thereon, for the space of twelve 
months, by paying a tax of two dollars. At this term of court was 
rendered by the county seat commissioners, as fully set forth under the 
caption of " Oregon," their report on the same. At the same term, 
David Templeton was appointed County Surveyor of Holt County, to 
hold office till the legal termination of the same ; and William P. Steph- 
enson was appointed administrator of the estate of Blank Stephenson, 
deceased. This was the first appointment of the kind in the county. 

REPORT OF COMMISSIONERS ON COUNTY SEAT. 

"June 23D, 1841. 

" In pursuance of an act passed by the last Missouri Legislature, 
appointing the undersigned as commissioners to select a permanent 
seat of justice for Holt County, and in pursuance also of an order of the 
county court of Holt County, made at the May Term, 1841, designating 
the 7th day of June then next ensuing, and requiring the undersigned 
to assemble on that day, at the house of Mrs. Jackson, to make said loca- 
tion ; and, whereas, John A. Williams, one of the undersigned, assembled 
at said place and time, and no other commissioners having appeared, 
he, the said John A. Williams, adjourned until the 21st day of June 
(this instant), when the undersigned commissioners convened, and hav- 
ing been first duly sworn according to law, proceeded to discharge the 
duties devolving on them, according to the act of the legislature, and 
the requisitions of the order of the county court. After having made 
an examination for a suitable site whereon to locate a permanent seat 
of justice for said county, we have selected the following quarter section 
of land, for said county seat, lying in range 38, township 60, and the 
east half of the southeast quarter of section 27, and the west half of the 
southwest quarter of section 26, which said seat of justice is to be 
known and called " Finley." Given under our hands this 23d day of 
June, 1841. "JOHN A. WILLIAMS, 

"EDWARD SMITH, 
"TRAVIS FINLEY." 



106 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

It appears that the action of the commissioners above referred to, 
in locating the quarter for the town site on two separate sections, was in 
violation of an established precedent, if not statutory provision restrict- 
ing the same to one section, and in consequence involved the county in 
no little embarrassment. The east eighty included a portion of a quar- 
ter section preempted by Roland Burnett, and the west eighty of another 
section by Larkin. Packwood. 

At the September term of the county court, which was convened at 
the residence of Gilbert Ray, September 15, 1841, it was "Ordered by the 
court that the commissioner for the seat of justice for this county, pro- 
ceed to lay off said seat of justice into lots, eighty feet in front and one 
hundred and fifty feet in length, and squares containing eight lots, with 
an avenue sixty feet wide, and one alley fourteen feet in width, making 
four streets, two nortk and south and two east and west, one of which 
on each side of the public square, each eighty feet wide ; all other streets 
to be sixty feet wide ; the stake stuck by the judges to be the center of 
of the public square. Provided, that he divide into lots, avenues and 
alleys, from the said public square east, only one square, south two, west 
two, and north two squares, and that he make to this court, at its next 
session, a report of his proceedings, making a plat of the town." 

" Ordered, that the commissioner advertise in ten most public places 
in Holt, five in Andrew, and five in Buchanan County, a sale of lots in 
the county seat of Holt County, on the 21st day of October, 1841, on the 
following terms : One-tenth in hand, and the balance in three semi- 
annual installments." 

At the October term following, it was ordered by the county court 
"that the commissioner be authorized and required to make the public 
square of said county seat at or near the stake now stuck." The commis- 
sioner referred to was John Thorp, who had resigned the office of deputy 
clerk of the Holt County Court, at the July, 1841, term of the same, and 
accepted the position of county seat commissioner. 

It appears that, previously to the above mentioned order of sale, the 
county court, at its July term, had ordered the first sale of lots in the 
cojjnty seat, to take place September 1, 1841. 

At the August term, 1841, of the county court, James Kimsey was 
nominated to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Joshua 
Adkins, the first official to resign an office in the county. 

At the September term, 1841, county court met at the residence of 
G. Ray, Judges Noland, Crowley and Kimsey on the bench. The latter 
produced his commission from his Excellency, Thomas Reynolds, Gov- 
ernor of the State, and was duly sworn. At this term the following 
orders were made and recorded : 

" It is considered by the court that five hundred dollars is necessary 
to be raised for defraying the expenses of the county for the present 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 107 

year, and that on all subjects of taxation the county tax shall exceed the 
state tax one hundred per cent., and on all licenses, ferries excepted, the 
county tax shall exceed that of the state one hundred per cent.; on 
ferries the county and state tax shall be the same." 

"Ordered, that R. M. Barkhurst be required to enter into bond as 
Collector of Holt County, in the sum of one thousand dollars." 

" Ordered, that Gilbert Ray be appointed Treasurer of Holt County." 

The following rather original order closed the proceedings of this 
term of the court : 

'•Ordered that, whereas it is the opinion of this court, that as the 
county is poor and thinly settled, it is not the interest of this county 
that the grand jurors thereof should be paid. It is therefore ordered 
that no compensation shall be paid to the grand jurors of this county." 

At the October term of 1841, held at the residence of Gilbert Ray, 
the Collector of Holt County made the following settlement, to wit : 

Received on ferry license . $ 2 00 

For County 2 00 

Merchants' license, state tax 26 12^ 

County tax 5 2 2 5 

Total : $82 371 

RICHARD M. BARKHURST, Collector. 

Court then adjourned to meet at the house of Larkin Packwood, 
October 21, 1841. 

At the January term, 1842, R. M. Barkhurst presented his delinquent 
list for taxes during the year 1841, which amounted to $15.50 state tax, 
and $31.02 to the county. At the February term, 1842, it was ordered 
"that the Courts of Record be hereafter held at Rachel Jackson's in this 
county." 

At the same term, " Gilbert Ray, Treasurer, comes into court and 
makes settlement for the preceding year, and has a balance of twenty- 
five cents on hand. He is therefore charged with the same." The Sher- 
iff also comes into court and makes settlement for county tax on the tax 
book for 1841, and is charged with the sum of two hundred and sixty-six 
dollars and twenty-three and three-quarters cents. 

CIRCUIT COURT. 

The first term of the circuit court, within and for the County of 
Holt, was held at the house of William Thorp, commencing on the 4th 
day of March, A. D. 1841. The record in reference thereto, is as follows : 

" March Term, 1841. 
"At a circuit court, held for the County of Holt, in the State of Mis- 
souri, at the house of William Thorp, in said county, on Thursday, the 



108 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

4th day of March, 1841, was present, the Hon. David R. Atchison, 
who presented a commission from His Excellency, Thomas Reynolds, 
Governor of this State, appointing him judge of the twelfth judicial 
circuit, which commission, together with the testimonials thereon 
endorsed, are ordered to be recorded, which are in the following words 
and figures, to wit : 

The State of Missouri. 
To all who shall see these presents, greeting: 

Know ye, that it having been certified to me, that the Senate of 
Missouri has advised and consented to the nomination of David R. 
Atchison, as Judge of the Twelfth Judicial Circuit, now, therefore, in 
the name and on behalf of the State of Missouri, I, Thomas Reynolds, 
Governor thereof, do hereby commission him judge of the aforesaid cir- 
cuit, and do authorize and empower him to discharge the duties of said 
office, according to law. In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the great seal of the State of Missouri, to be affixed at 
Jefferson City, this first day of February, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and forty-one, of the independence of the United 
States the sixty-fifth, and of this state the twenty-first. 

By the Governor, 

James L. Minor, Sec'y of State. THOMAS REYNOLDS." 

ENDORSED. — I, David R. Atchison, do solemnly swear, that I will 
support the constitution of the United States, and the constitution of 
this state, and faithfully demean myself in the office of Judge of the 
Twelfth Judicial Circuit, in the State of Missouri. 

DAVID R. ATCHISON. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, a justice of the peace, in and 
for Clay County, in the State of Missouri, this 13th day of February, in 
the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and forty-one. 

ABRAHAM SHAFER, J. P. 

General Andrew S. Hughes was appointed clerk pro tern, and Wil- 
liam Thorp was appointed sheriff. Peter H. Burnett had received the 
appointment of prosecuting attorney from the governor. 

• The names of the first grand jurors were : Joshua Adkins, Isaac 
Massic, Gilbert Ray, George Drane, Harman G. Noland, Green B. 
Thorp, B. B. Grigsby, R. H. Russell, Thomas Crowley, Roland Burnett, 
John Gibson, John Russell, John Starrill, James Kimsey, Henry Holder, 
John Morgan and David Jones. Harman G. Noland was foreman. Of 
this body, R. H. Russell, now (1882) judge of the probate court of Holt 
County, and Roland Burnett, both residents of the town of Oregon, 
alone survive. 

The first bills of indictment were the following: 

" The State of Missouri against Joseph Roberts for trading with 
Indians," The same against Henry Casner for robbery. 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. IO9 

The first case that was called and tried in court (on motion), was 
the State of Missouri against Jonas Casner, who was under a recogniz- 
ance to keep the peace. The grand jurors having no further business 
before them, were discharged from further service. 

On the 6th of March, 1841, Andrew S. Hughes resigned his office 
of clerk pro tern, of the Circuit Court, which resignation was accepted ; 
and, thereupon, Bayless B. Grigsby was appointed Clerk of the Circuit 
Court of Holt County, to hold his office till his successor should be 
elected and qualified. The said B. B. Grigsby then took the oath 
required by law and entered and acknowledged two several bonds, with 
Harman G. Noland, Rowland Burnett and John Gibson as securities. 
One of these was in the penalty of $5,000 conditioned for the faithful 
performance of his duties as Circuit Clerk of Holt County, and the other 
in the penalty of $1,500 conditioned for the faithful performance of his 
duties as Recorder of Holt County. Both of these being inspected by 
the court, were approved, and ordered to be certified for record in the 
office of the Secretary of State. 

June 24, 1841, Circuit Court met at the house of Gilbert Ray, such 
being the place designated by Holt County Court for holding courts of 
record till the place should by law be changed. D. R. Atchison, Judge; 
R. M. Barkhurst, Sheriff, and Bayless B. Grigsby, Clerk. The commis- 
sioners report having selected a location for county seat, which they 
name Finley. 

At this term of court, on motion of Peter H. Burnett, prosecuting 
attorney for Holt County, Prince L. Hudgens, James B. Gardenhire, 
Benjamin Hays, Edwin Toole, James S.Thomas, Solomon S. Leonard, 
Lansford M. Hastings, Frederick Greenough, James Baldwin, John M. 
Young, Christopher P. Brown, Elias P. West, and Theodore D. Wheaton, 
were ordered enrolled as attorneys of the Holt Circuit Court. 

Richard M. Barkhurst's bond as sheriff of Holt County, conditioned 
in the sum of $5,000, for the faithful performance of the duties of said 
office, with Gilbert Ray, James C. Templeton, John Robinson, and Abra- 
ham Brown as securities, approved. 

The first case that came up for trial was the State vs. Joseph Roberts 
on indictment found by the grand jury at the (first) March term for trading 
with the Indians. The sheriff who, it appears, failed to find the defend- 
ant, feeling himself under the necessity of using some Latin term and 
not clearly comprehending the meaning of any, perhaps intending to 
convey the idea non est, made a return in the case of " nolle prosequi.'' 

In the case of the State vs. Henry Casner, the court awarded an 
alias capias to Carroll County. 

The clerk of the court was ordered, at this term, to certify to the 
Secretary of State that there were four townships in the county and 
that there was not, within the limits of the same, a single volume of the 



I IO HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

laws of Missouri. It must be borne in mind that the limits of the 
county, at this period, included, besides its present area, the whole 
extent of what is now Atchison County. 

The second grand jury empaneled served at the June term of 1841, 
and consisted of John M. Briggs, Job Carter, Elias Davidson, Smith 
Mclntyre, Benjamin Davidson, William Stephenson, John Blair, Jeremiah 
Baldwin, Holdin, Nathan Robinson, Riley H. Roland, Zedekiah Davis, 9 
Benjamin Marlow, Thomas Keeny, Abijah Duncan, Jacob Davis, and I 
James Miller. John M. Briggs was chosen foreman. The following 
indictments were found by this body : The State vs. Joseph Roberts 
for trading with an Indian ; the State vs. David Templeton charged 
with assault with intent to kill. (Templeton was tried at the October 
term following and acquitted.) State vs. Seriah Stevens and Perry 
Curtis, for forgery ; State vs. George Comegy, for peddling without 
license, also State vs. James and William for same offense ; and State 
vs. Charles Bennett, for selling goods without license. This, the second 
grand jury, seems to have been a little more fortunate than its prede- 
cessor, for we find an order of court granting them, for their services, 
fifty dollars and twenty cents. 

The first petit jury in Holt County were empanneled at the October 
term of the Circuit Court, which met, pursuant to adjournment, at the 
house of Gilbert Ray, three and a half miles east of the present town of 
Oregon, on a farm now owned by Mrs. Springer. 

The jury consisted of George Borchers, the pioneer merchant, 
Samuel G. Vest, William H. Cunningham, John Sweare, Jessie Carroll, 
John Olfrey, Jacob Tarwater, Abraham Keeney, Silas Pearce, Francis 
Cassada, Wm. P. Braden and Thomas Ferguson. The first case tried by 
this jury was that of the State vs. Josiah Roberts for trading with the 
Indians. The trial resulted in the acquittal of the prisoner. 

FIRST RECORDS. 

The first instrument recorded is a chattel mortgage, and is as fol- 
lows : 

This indenture, made and entered into by and between Tolbert 
Bass, of the county of Holt and State of Missouri, of the first part, and 
Henry Holder, of the county and state aforesaid, of the other part, wit- 
nesseth : That the said Tolbert Bass, of the first part, for and in con- 
sideration of the sum of thirty-one dollars and eighty-one cents, to him 
in hand paid, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, hath bar- 
gained, sold and conveyed, and doth bargain, sell and convey, by these 
presents, unto the said Henry Holder, of the second part, the following 
property, to wit : One roan mare 'and colt ; one yoke of oxen and 
wagon, and one cow and calf, to hold, have and to hold the same, to 
the said Henry Holder, his heirs, executors, administrators and assigns, 
and to his and their own proper use and behoof, forever. But the above 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. I IT 

is made and entered into, and this conveyance is to have effect upon this 
condition : That if the said Tolbert Bass, his executors and administra- 
tors or assigns, shall and do, well and truly pay, or .cause to be paid 
unto the said Henry Holder, his executors, administrators or assigns, 
the full sum of thirty-one dollars and eighty-one cents, on or before the 
25th day of December, eighteen hundred and forty-two, agreeable to an 
obligation of the said Tolbert Bass, for the sum of thirty-one dollars and 
eighty-one cents, dated 21st October, 1841, then and in such case these 
presents, and every matter and thing herein mentioned and contained 
shall cease, determine and be utterly void, anything herein contained 
to the contrary notwithstanding, as witness my hand and seal, this 20th 
day of October, 1841. TOLBERT BASS. 

Attest : B. B. Grigsby. 

Filed October 20, 1841. B. B. GRIGSBY, Recorder. 

The second instrument is a lease. 

This indenture made the 24th day of December, 1841, between Jon- 
athan Keeney, of the County of Holt, and State of Missouri, of the one 
part, and Lazarus Philips and Jeremiah Philips, of the same county and 
state, of the other part, witnesseth, that the said Jonathan Keeney, for 
the consideration hereinafter mentioned, hath devised, granted and 
leased unto the said L. and J. Philips, the farm and the improvements 
thereon, on which the said J. Keeney now resides, together with the dis- 
tillery and all the appurtenances attached thereto, two wagons and three 
yoke of oxen, two plows and three hoes, and fifty head of hogs. The 
said J. Keeney also agrees to aid and assist, as a hand on the farm, and 
to have the washing done for the said L. and J. Philips. The said 
Keeney has given possession of the above farm, improvements, distillery 
and appurtenances, wagons, &c, above specified, to the said L. and J. 
Philips, which they are to have the peaceable and quiet possession of,, 
and all the profits and increase of the farm, distillery and stock. They 
are also to have and to hold until the first day of March, 1843. The said 
L. and J. Philips, for the above consideration, bind themselves, their 
heirs and administrators, to pay on the first day of March, 1843, to the 
said Jonathan Keeney, his heirs, executors and administrators, the sum 
of three thousand dollars, good and lawful money of the State of Mis- 
souri. They also bind themselves to keep and hold in their possession, 
all of the above specified property, nor are they to part with any portion 
of it, without the consent of all the parties hereto bound. They are also- 
bound to furnish for the maintenance of the said J. Keeney and his fam- 
ily, whatever is necessary for their support, out of the proceeds arising 
from the farm and stock above described. The said L. and J. Philips 
bind themselves to make a good and substantial fence, commencing at 
the northeast corner of said Keeney's cornfield, and running east with 
the bluff, until it strikes the Tarkio. They are also to put up two tobacco- 
houses, each eighteen by twenty feet square, and they are to make other 
necessary fencing, such as lots for the keeping of stock in, &c. The said 
L. and J. Philips bind and obligate themselves to be faithful, diligent and 
attentive to the stock, farm and distillery, and to give due attention to 
preserve them from injury. It is further agreed and stipulated between 
the parties, that at the expiration of the above lease, to wit : On the first 
day of March, 1843, if the above named L. and J. Philips shall well and 



112 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

truly pay unto the said Jonathan Keeney the above named sum of three 
thousand dollars, then all the above described property, together with 
the profits and increase that shall have arisen therefrom, are to become 
and be the property of them, the said L. and J. Philips. But if the said 
L. and J. Philips should make default, and fail to make the above pay- 
ment at the time they therein bind themselves to do, then the farm, 
improvements, distillery and its appurtenances, and the other property 
above described, reverts and becomes the property of Jonathan Keeney, 
together with the one-half of all the profits and proceeds which may 
have arisen from it during the above period, and the other and remain- 
ing half of the profits and increase, shall become and be the property of 
L. and J. Philips. The said Jonathan Keeney has received, and hereby 
acknowledges the receipt of eighteen dollars in hand, paid him, by the 
said L. and J. Philips, which is to be deducted out of the amount of the 
above three thousand dollars, when the same becomes due. 

In witness whereof, the parties have hereunto set their hands and 
seals, the day and year first above written. 

JONATHAN KEENEY, 
LAZARUS PHILIPS, 
JEREMIAH PHILIPS. 
Signed, sealed and acknowledged in presence of us. 

JOHN W. KELLEY, 
ROBERT NOCHETT. 
Filed the 5th day of January, 1842. 

B. B. GRIGSBY, Clerk. 
By H. LlNVlLLE, D. P. 

EARLY MARRIAGES. 

Cupid, the God of Love, whose universal sway over the hearts and 
affections of mankind, has been commensurate with the history of our 
race, early manifested his presence among the pioneers of Holt County, 
as will be seen from the following verbatim copies of a few of the earlier 
marriages. 

John A. Benson to Miss Kimsey. — This is to certify that on the 
18th day of April, 1841, the rites of matrimony were solemnized by the 

undersigned, between John A. Benson and Kimsey, both of the 

County of Holt, and State of Missouri. G. B. THORP, 

July 7, 1841. An ordained minister. 

Certificate : 

STATE OF MISSOURI, ) 
County of Holt. f * 

I, Bayless B. Grigsby, Recorder of the County of Holt, aforesaid, do 
certify that the foregoing marriage was duly recorded by me on the 7th 
day of July, 1841. BAYLESS B. GRIGSBY, Recorder. 

This is to certify that on the 25th day of July, 1841, John M. Briggs 
and Elizabeth Follen were joined together in the holy state of matri- 
mony by the undersigned, an ordained minister of the gospel. Given 
under my hand this 9th day of August, 1841. G. B. THORP. 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 113 

STATE OF MISSOURI, 



County of Holt. 



Lawfully married by me, the undersigned Justice' of the Peace, of 
Nishnebotna Township, Mr. William Barret, to Miss Mary Jane Jones, 
daughter of David Jones. JACOB McKISSICK, J. P. 

November 17th, 1841. 

STATE OF MISSOURI, 



County of Holt. 

November, the 25th day, 1841. 
This day William Grissum and Jane Ellen Roberts were married, 
according to law, by me, John Stewart, one of the justices of the peace 
in and for said county. 

To the Circuit Clerk of Holt County, Missouri : 

This is to certify that on the ninth day of December, 1841, in the 
presence of R. H. Barkhurst and I. Kelley, esquire, I solemnized the 
rites of matrimony between Cain Owen and Mary Nichols, all of Holt 
County, Mo. Given under my hand this 9th day of December, 1841. 

THOMAS B. RUBLE, 
Ordained elder in the M. E. Church. 

STATE OF MISSOURI, ) 
County of Holt. f ss ' 

Mrs. Permelia Walton was married to Absalom Taylor, on the 19th 
•dav of December, 1841, both of the County of Holt. Solemnized accord- 
ing to law by JOHN STEWART, J. P. 

STATE OF MISSOURI, ) 
County of Holt. f ss ' 

Know all men by these presents that I, John Gibson, within and 
for the county aforesaid, have this day joined together in the holy state 
-of matrimpny, Crittenden A. Root and Phebe Ann Baldwin, of the 
county and state aforesaid. Given under my hand this 18th day of 
January, 1842. JOHN GIBSON, Justice of the Peace. 

Holt County, Missouri. 

Married on the 19th of February, A. D. 1842, William Hicks and 
Elizabeth Clark, by J. W. TAYLOR, Minister. 

STATE OF MISSOURI, ) c 
County of Holt. j ss " 

Know all men by these presents that I, John Gibson, J. P., within 
and for the county aforesaid, have this day joined together in the holy 
state of matrimony Manson B. Noland and Sewrena Barnes, of the 
county and state aforesaid. Given under my hand this 19th day of 
May, 1842. JOHN GIBSON, J. P. 

For the year 1841 there were recorded seven marriages. The mar- 
riages for 1881 numbered about one hundred. 

8 



CHAPTER V. 

FIRST SETTLEMENTS. 

Scarcely had the Indian left the haunts, whither he had roamed for 
so many years — the undisputed possessor of that territory now known 
as Holt County — before the adventurous pioneer, came crowding upon 
his receding footsteps. Its wide undulating prairies, over which the 
red man had chased the buffalo, the elk and the deer, were now right 
speedily to be turned by the plowshare to the sun-light of Heaven, and 
the numerous streams, wherein he slaked his thirst, and whence he pro- 
cured a portion of his sustenance, were to be utilized in the propulsion 
of myriad wheels and buzzing saws. Its forests, which had echoed 
only to the savage warhoops, or to the roar of wild beasts, were soon to 
resound with the stroke of the woodman's ax, and the din of civiliza- 
tion. Its hills and valleys, where stood the fragile wigwam, were soon 
to be dotted over with the more enduring and stately habitations of 
man. Its physiognomical features, which had been cast in the mold of 
ceaseless ages, were soon to take on a more comely appearance, at the 
hands of a people with new thoughts and grander purposes of living. 
The aborigine had run his course ; the time had come, in the wisdom of 
the powers that be, when he must take up his line of march toward the 
setting sun, where it is hoped he found a hunting ground, no less genial 
and no less happy. That portion of the Platte Purchase, which was the 
most accessible to the emigrant, was the first to be settled. Nor did it 
require a long series of years to do this, for the tide of immigration 
which began to pour itself into Platte County in the spring of 1837,. 
increased with such momentum, that, before the lapse of the year 1838, 
it had in a great measure, overspread the county of Platte, had passed 
through the counties of Buchanan and Andrew, and was rapidly rolling 
onward in its course, through Holt, Atchison and Nodaway. There 
never had been anything like it in the history of the country. The 
information which had been obtained of the Platte Purchase had trav- 
eled eastward with the rapidity of the steamboat. The richness of its 
soil, the salubrity of its climate, the number and importance of its 
water courses, had all been presented in glowing colors to the inhabit- 
ants who resided east of the Mississippi ; its fame going beyond the 
Ohio, and even crossing the Alleghanies. The enthusiasm inspired by 
these reports was but a little less than that enkindled in the minds of 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. I I 5 

men, upon the receipt of the news of the discovery of gold in Califor- 
nia. All who could and were so inclined, were eager to test the truth 
of what they had heard, and the result was that thousands of emigrants 
left their homes in the east, during the spring and fall of 1837 and 1838, 
destined for the Platte Purchase, hoping and believing that the land to 
which they were coming would be to them a Canaan, wherein they 
could with perfect confidence cast their lots for the remainder of life. 

True, a few were disappointed, and returned again to their former 
homes, or sought newer fields beyond the Rocky Mountains, but the 
great majority of those who came hither and planted their vine and fig- 
tree at an early day remained, many of whom are still living, and are 
now (1882) enjoying the fruits of their early struggles and privations. 

Whence came the early settlers of Holt County ? When did they 
come ? Who were they ? These are questions which naturally suggest 
themselves to all who are anxious to learn the beginning of their coun- 
try's history, for no country can have a history without first having a 
settlement. With the date, therefore, of its first settlement, begins its 
history. The student searching for the origin of things, is never satis- 
fied with the result of his investigation until he has prosecuted his 
explorations abinitio. In this way, he is made acquainted with what 
would otherwise be to him the secret causes which produced or had 
wrought out certain conditions or results. 

The character of the first settlers, have much to do with the subse- 
quent growth and development of the country, hence we perceive the 
significance and bearing of the beginning. 

Among the older states, Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee, were, 
perhaps, more largely represented in the early settlement of the Platte 
Purchase than all others combined, and many of its present inhabitants, 
although natives of other states, trace their ancestry back to the states 
above named. In the settlement of Holt County, however, the first 
pioneers were from the state of Indiana, whence they came in the early 
spring of 1838. These were Peter and Blank Stephenson, from Parke 
County, Indiana. These men settled about five miles southeast of the 
present town of Oregon, on section 7, in township 59, range 37. In the 
spring of 1838 Judge R. H. Russell, John Sterrett, John' Russell and 
James Kee, left Indiana for the Platte Purchase. Judge Russell pro- 
ceeded by steamboat to Clay County, Missouri, where he remained, cul- 
tivating a crop of corn until the month of August, when he was joined 
by the others, who had come overland. The whole party then came to 
Holt County and settled in the same neighborhood where Blank and 
Peter Stephenson lived. Judge Russell, who is still living in Oregon, 
says that the Stephensons had put in a small crop of corn, and when he 
arrived in Holt County, and stopped at Stephenson's cabin, they gave 
him roasting ears. 



Il6 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

The first postmaster in the county was Judge R. H. Russell. The 
post office was at Thorp's Mill, and was kept in Judge Russell's house. 
Thorp's Mill was called after one John Thorp, who built the first mill on 
Mill Creek, about two miles southeast of Oregon. 

John Baldwin came also from Parke County, Indiana, in the fall of 
1839, an d settled on section 18, township 55, range 37. George Mcln- 
tyre came in the fall of 1839, and located on section 5, same congres- 
sional township. Smith Mclntyre came at the same time and settled 
on the same section. John M. Briggs, the Widow Jackson and family, 
were other early settlers of this part of the county, in 1840. 

Roland Burnett, (brother of Peter H. Burnett, once prosecuting 
attorney of this judicial circuit, and now one of the most eminent and 
most wealthy citizens of California), Harmon G. Noland, John Gibson, 
and others, settled in the vicinity of Oregon in 1839. Burnett estab- 
lished a claim on what afterwards became the town site of Oregon, but 
it was subsequently decided that the county possessed the title, and Mr. 
Burnett moved to the farm north of town. 

The Blairs and Baldwins were the earliest settlers of Benton Town- 
ship. John M. Blair, with his sons, Uriah and James, reached Holt 
County April 12th, 1839, and locating near the bluff line south of Mound 
City, on section 20, township 61, range 38. The Blairs came from Indi- 
ana, about 1827, went to Pike County, Illinois, subsequently to Iowa, 
and came to Holt County, as stated above, in 1839. John M. Blair died 
in the summer of 1849, on Carson River, at the foot of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains, while en route to California, with an expedition from Holt 
County. James and Uriah Blair are still citizens of the county. Jere- 
miah Baldwin, his brother, Daniel Baldwin, and his son, Lambert Bald- 
win, settled, in the fall of 1839, in the neighborhood of the Blairs. John 
Hughes and son, also named John, were settled, in 1839, in the neighbor- 
hood of the Blairs and Baldwins, and additional settlements were made 
in the same locality in 1840. The Sharps, W. A. and Abraham, settled 
Sharp's Grove, in the locality of Craig, in 1841, and about the same time 
Robert and John Nickols gave their name to Nickol's Grove, in the east- 
ern part of the county. German settlers were the first to begin the 
improvement of the extreme northwestern part. John H. Roselius was 
the pioneer, and Henry Dankers, Henry Peters and Andrew Buck, fol- 
lowed soon after. The descendants of these men are generally living 
in that part of the county, and are among our most influential citizens. 

Whig Valley, where the political sentiments of the inhabitants seem 
to have been so marked as to leave a record in the name of the locality, 
was first settled by Theodore Higley, who gave the name of that once 
great party to the beautiful and fertile valley which he settled. 



CHAPTER VI 



COUNTY AND TOWNSHIP SYSTEM— GOVERNMENT SURVEYS-ORGANIZATION OF TOWN- 
SHIPS. 



Before proceeding any further, we deem it proper to give some 
explanations of the county and township system and government sur- 
veys, as so much depends in business and civil transactions upon county 
limits and county organizations. 

COUNTY AND TOWNSHIP SYSTEM. 

With regard to the origin of dividing individual states into county 
and township organizations, which, in an important measure, should have 
the power and opportunity of transacting their own business and gov- 
erning themselves, under the approval of, and subject to, the state and 
general government, of which they both form a part, we quote from 
Elijah M. Haines, who is considered good authority on the subject. 

In his " Laws of Illinois, relative to Township Organizations," he 
says : "The county system originating with Virginia, whose early set- 
tlers soon became large landed proprietors, aristocratic in feeling, living 
apart in almost baronial magnificence, on their own estates, and owning 
the laboring part of the population. Thus the materials for a town were 
not at hand, the voters being thinly distributed over a great area. 

"The county organization, where a few influential men managed 
the whole business of a community, retaining their places almost at 
their pleasure, scarcely responsible at all, except in name, and permitted 
to conduct the county concerns as their ideas or wishes might direct, 
was moreover consonant with their recollections or traditions of the 
judicial and social dignities of the landed aristocracy of England, in 
descent from whom the Virginia gentlemen felt so much pride. In 1834, 
eight counties were organized in Virginia, and the system extending 
throughout the state, spread into all the Southern States, and some of 
the Northern States ; unless we except the nearly similar division into 
'districts' in South Carolina, and that into 'parishes ' in Louisiana, from 
the French laws. 

"Illinois, which, with its vast additional territory, became a county 
of Virginia, on its conquest by General George Rogers Clark, retained 
the county organization, which was formerly extended over the state by 



Il8 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

the constitution of 1818, and continued in exclusive use under the con- 
stitution of 1848. 

" Under this system, as in other states adopting it, most local busi- 
ness was transacted by those commissioners in each county who consti- 
tuted a county court, with quarterly sessions. 

"During the period ending with the constitution of 1847, a large 
portion of the state had become filled up with a population of NewEng-' 
land birth or character, daily growing more and more compact and dis- 
satisfied with the comparatively arbitrary and inefficient county system. 
It was maintained by the people that the heavy populated districts 
would always control the election of the commissioners to the disadvan- 
tage of the more thinly populated sections — in short, that under that 
system 'equal and exact justice' to all parts of the county could not 
be secured. 

" The township system had its origin in Massachusetts, and dates 
back to 1635. 

" The first legal enactment concerning this system provided that, 
whereas, ' particular townships have many things which concern only 
themseles, and the ordering of their own affairs, and disposing of busi- 
ness in their own town,' therefore, ' the freemen of every township, or 
a majority part of them, shall only have power to dispose of their own 
lands and woods, with all the appurtenances of said town, to grant lots, 
and to make such orders as may. concern the well-ordering of their own 
towns, not repugnant to the laws and orders established by the general 
court. 

" They might, also, (says Mr. Haines) impose fines of not more than 
twenty shillings, and ' choose their own particular officers, as constables, 
surveyors for the highways and the like.' 

"Evidently this enactment relieved the general court of a mass of 
municipal details, without any danger to the power of that body in con- 
trolling general measures of public policy. 

" Probably, also, a demand from the freemen of the towns was felt 
for the control of their own home concerns. 

" The New England colonies were first governed by a general court 
or legislature, composed of a governor and a small council, which court 
consisted of the most influential inhabitants and possessed and exercised 
both legislative and judicial powers, which were limited only by the 
wisdom of the holders. 

" They made laws, ordered their execution by officers, tried and 
decided civil and criminal causes, enacted all manner of municipal reg- 
ulations, and, in fact, did all the public business of the colony." 

Similar provisions for the incorporation of towns were made in the 
first constitution of Connecticut, adopted in 1639, and the plan of town- 
ship organization, as experience proved its remarkable economy, effi- 






HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 1 19 

ciency and adaptation to the requirements of a free and intelligent 
people, became universal throughout New England, and went westward 
with the immigrants from New England into New York, Ohio and other 
Western States. 

Thus we find that the vahaable system of county, township and town 
organizations had been thoroughly tried and proven long before there 
was need of adopting it in Missouri or any of the broad region west. of 
the Mississippi River. But as the new country began to be opened, and 
as eastern people began to move westward across the mighty river, and 
form thick settlements along its western bank, the territory, and state, 
and county and township organizations soon followed in quick succes- 
sion, and those different systems became more or less improved, accord- 
ing as deemed necessary by the experience, and judgment and demands 
of the people, until they have arrived at the present stage and advance- 
ment and efficiency. In the settlement of the Territory of Missouri, the 
Legislature began by organizing counties on the Mississippi River. As 
each new county was formed it was made to include under legal jurisdic- 
tion all the country bordering west of it, and required to grant to the 
actual settlers electoral privileges and an equal share of the county gov- 
ernment with those who properly lived in the geographioal limits of the 
county. 

The counties first organized along the eastern borders of the state 
were given for a short time jurisdiction over the lands and settlements 
adjoining each on the west, until these localities became sufficiently 
settled to support organizations of their own. 

GOVERNMENT SURVEYS. 

No person can intelligently understand the history of a country 
without at the same time knowing its geography, and in order that a 
clear and correct idea of the geography of Holt County may be obtained 
from the language already used in defining different localities and pieces 
of land, we insert herewith the plan of Government surveys as given in 
Mr. E. A. Hickman'* Property Map of Jackson County, Missouri : 

Previous to the formation of our present Government, the eastern 
portion of North America consisted of a number of British colonies, the 
territory of which was granted in large tracts to British noblemen. By 
treaty of 1783, these grants were acknowledged as valid by the colonies. 
After the Revolutionary war, when these colonies were acknowledged 
" Independent States," all public domain within their boundaries was 
acknowledged to be the property of the colony within the bounds of 
which said domain was situated. 

Virginia claimed all the northwest territory, including what is now 
known as Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois. 
After a meeting of the representatives of the various states to form a 



120 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Union, Virginia ceded the northwest territory to the United States Gov- 
ernment. This took place in 1784; then all this northwest territory- 
became Government land. It comprised all south of the lakes and east 
of the Mississippi River and north and west of the states having definite 
boundary lines. This territory had been known as New France, and 
had ben ceded by France to England in 1768. In the year 1803, Napo- 
leon Bonaparte sold to the United States all territory west of the Mis- 
sissippi River and north of Mexico, extending to the Rocky Mountains. 
While the public domain was the property of the colonies, it was 
disposed of as follow : Each individual caused the tract he desired to 
purchase to be surveyed and platted. A copy of the survey was then 
filed with the register of lands, when, by paying into the state or colonial 
treasury an agreed price, the purchaser received a patent for the land. 
This method of disposing of public lands made lawsuits numerous, owing 
to different surveys often including the same ground. To avoid these 
difficulties, and effect a general measurement of the territories, the 
United States adopted the present mode or system of land surveys, a 
description of which we give as follows : 

In an unsurveyed region a point of marked and changeless topo- 
graphical features is selected as an initial point. The exact latitude and 
longitude of this point is ascertained by astronomical observation, and a 
suitable monument of iron or stone to perpetuate the position. Through 
this point a true north and south line is run, which is called a Principal 
Meridian. This principal meridian may be extended north and south 
any desired distance. Along this line are placed, at distances of one- 
half mile from each other, posts of wood or stone, or mounds of earth. 
These posts are said to establish the line, and are called section and 
quarter-section posts. Principal meridians are numbered in the order 
in which they are established. Through the same initial point from 
which the principal meridian was surveyed, another line is now run and 
established by mile and half-mile posts, as before, in a true east and west 
direction. This line is called the Base Line, and like the principal meri- 
dian, may be extended indefinitely in either direction. These lines form 
the basis of the survey of the country into townships and ranges. Town- 
ship lines extend east and west, parallel with the base line, at distances 
of six miles from the base line and from each other, dividing the country 
into strips six miles wide, which strips are called townships. Range 
lines run north and south, parallel to the principal meridian, dividing the 
country into strips six miles wide, which strips are called ranges. Town- 
ship strips are numbered from the base line and range strips are num- 
bered from the principal meridian. Townships lying north of the base 
line are " townships north," those on the south are " townships south." 
The strip lying next the base line is township one, the next one to that 
township two, and so on. The range strips are numbered in the same 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 



121 



manner, counting from the principal meridian east or west, as the case 
may be. 

The township and range lines thus divide the county into six-mile 
squares. Each of these squares is called a Congressional township. All 
north and south lines north of the equator approach each other as they 
extend north, finally meeting at the north pole ; therefore, north and 
south lines are not literally parallel. The east and west boundary lines 
of any range being six miles apart in the latitude of Missouri or Kansas, 
would, in thirty miles, approach each other 2.9 chains, or 190 feet. If, 
therefore, the width of the range when started from the base line is made 
exactly six miles, it would be 2.9 chains too narrow at the distance of 
thirty miles, or five townships north. To correct the width of ranges 
and keep them to the proper width, the range lines are not surveyed in 
a continuous straight line, like the principal meridian, entirely across 
the state, but only across a limited number of townships, usually five, 
where the width of the range is corrected hy beginning a new line on the 
side of the range most distant from the principal meridian, at such a 
point as will make the range its correct width. All range lines are cor- 
rected in the same manner. The last and west township line on which 
these corrections are made are called correction lines, or standard par- 
allels. The surveys of the State of Missouri were made from the fifth 
principal meridian, which runs through the state, and its ranges are 
numbered from it. The State of Kansas is surveyed and numbered from 
the sixth. Congressional townships are divided into thirty-six square 
miles, called sections, and are known by numbers, according to their 
positions. The following diagram shows the order of numbers and the 
sections in a Congressional township : 



-2 — 



-10- 



-11- 



-18- 



-]8- 



-16- 



-15- 



-14- 



-13- 



-19- 



-20- 



-21- 



-22- 



-23- 



— 30- 



-29- 



-28- 



-26- 



-25- 



-31 — 



-32- 



-33- 



-34- 



•35- 



-36- 



122 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 



Sections are divided into quarters, eighths and sixteenths, and are 
described by their position in the section. The full section contains 
640 acres, the quarter 160, the eighth 80, and the sixteenth 40. In the 
following diagram of a section the position designated by a is known as 
the northwest quarter ; i is the northeast quarter of the northeast quar- 
ter ; d would be the south half of the southeast quarter, and would 
contain 80 acres. 



Sec- post 



Y x Sec post. 



Sec. post. 









A Sec. 


post. 


Sec. post 


a 
rbo acres 


h 


i 


y x Sec. post 


J 


g 




b 


c 


e 


Sec. post. 


d 



]4, Sec. post. 



Congressional townships, as we have seen, are six mile squares of 
land, made by the township and range lines, while civil or municipal 
townships are civil divisions, made for purposes of government, the one 
having no reference to the other, though similar in name. On the 
county map we see both kinds of townships — the congressional, usually 
designated by numbers and in squares ; the municipal or civil township, 
by name and in various forms. 

By the measurement thus made by the Government the courses and 
distances are defined between any two points. St. Louis is in township 
44 north, range 8 east, and Independence is in township 49 north, range 
32 west ; how far, then, are Kansas City and St. Louis apart on a direct 
line ? St. Louis is forty townships east — 240 miles — and five townships 
south — thirty miles ; the base and perpendicular of a right-angled tri- 
angle, the hypothenuse being the required distance. 

ORGANIZATION OF TOWNSHIPS. 



The " townships," as the term is used in common phraseology, in 
many instances, is widely distinguished from that of " town," though 
many persons persist in confounding the two. " In the United States, 
many of the states are divided into townships of five, six, seven, or per- 
haps ten miles square, and the inhabitants of such townships are vested 
with certain powers for regulating their own affairs, such as repairing 
roads and providing for the poor. The township is subordinate to the 
county." A "town" is simply a collection of houses, either large or 
small, and opposed to " country." 



HISTQRY OF HOLT COUNTY. 1 23 

The most important features connected with this system of town- 
ship surveys should be thoroughly understood by every intelligent 
farmer and business man ; still there are some points connected with 
the understanding of it, which need close and careful attention. The 
law which established this system required that the north and south 
lines should correspond exactly with the meridian passing through that 
point ; also, that each township should be six miles square. To do this 
would be an utter impossibility, since the figure of the earth causes the 
meridians to converge toward the pole, making the north line of each 
township shorter than the south line of the same township. To obviate 
the errors which are, on this account, constantly occurring, correction 
lines are established. They are parallels bounding a line of townships 
on the north, when lying north of the principal base ; on the south line 
of townships when lying south of the principal base, from which the 
surveys, as they are continued, are laid out anew ; the range lines again 
starting at correct distances from the principal meridian. In Michigan 
these correction lines are repeated at the end of every tenth township, 
but in Oregon they have been repeated with every fifth township. The 
instructions to the surveyors have been that each range of townships 
should be made as much over six miles in width on each base and cor- 
rection line as it will fall short of the same width where it closes on to 
the next correction line north ; and it is further provided that in all 
cases where the exterior lines of the township shall exceed or shall not 
extend six miles, the excess of deficiency shall be specially noted, and 
added to or deducted from the western or northern sections or half 
sections in such township, according as the error may be in running the 
lines Irom east to west, or from south to north. In order to throw the 
excess of deficiencies on the north and on the west sides of the town- 
ship, it is necessary to survey the section lines from south to north, on 
a true meridian, leaving the result in the north line of the township to 
be governed by the convexity of the earth, and the convergency of the 
meridians. 

Navigable rivers, lakes and islands are " meandered " or surveyed 
by the compass and chain along the banks. "The instruments employed 
on these surveys, besides the solar compass, are a surveying chain 
thirty-feet long, of fifty links, and another of smaller wire, as a stand- 
ard to be used for correcting the former as often at least as every other 
day, also eleven tally pins, made of steel, telescope, targets, tape meas- 
ure, and tools for marking the lines upon trees or stones. In surveying 
through the woods, trees intercepted by the line are marked with two 
•chips or notches, one on each side; these are called sight or line trees. 
Sometimes other trees in the vicinity are blazed on two sides quartering 
toward the line ; but if some distance from the line the two blazes 
should be near together on the side facing the line. These are found to 



124 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 






be permanent marks, not only recognizable for many years, but carry- 
ing with them their own age by the rings of growth around the blaze 
which may at any subsequent time be cut out and counted as years ; 
and the same are recognized in courts of law as evidence of the date of 
the survey. They cannot be obliterated by cutting down the trees or 
otherwise, without leaving evidence of the act. Corners are marked 
upon trees if found at the right spots, or else upon posts set in the 
ground, and sometimes a monument of stones is used for a township 
corner, and a single stone for section corner ; mounds of earth are 
made where there are no stones nor timber. At the corners the four 
adjacent sections are designated by distinct marks cut into a tree, one 
in each section. These trees, facing the corner, are plainly marked 
with the letters B. T. (bearing tree) cut into the wood. Notches cut 
upon the corner posts or trees indicate the number of miles to the out 
lines of the township, or if on the boundaries of the township, to the 
township corners." 





CHAPTER VII. 

BENTON TOWNSHIP. 

OUNDARIES— PHYSICAL FEATURES-EARLY SETTLERS-MINERAL RESOURCES —JACK- 
SON'S POINT— FIRST SCHOOL— FIRST PREACHER— MOUND CITY-PUBLIC SCHOOL- 
MASONIC FRATERNITY— CHURCHES— MILLS— NEWSPAPERS -PROFESSIONAL-R. R. 
FACILITIES— BANK— BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Benton Township, which originally extended northward to the 
outh boundary of Atchison County, was reduced to its present limits 
>y the organization, on the 17th day of June, 1874, of Lincoln Town- 
hip, which forms its entire northern boundary in a distance of eight 
niles. On the east it is bounded by Clay and Hickory Townships, on 
he south by Lewis and Bigelow Townships, and on the west by Bigelow 
md Union Townships. It constitutes one of the larger municipal divis- 
ons of the county, including in its area fifty entire sections. 

■ 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

« 

Benton Township affords considerable diversity of surface. The 
jluff range entering the same in the northeast corner of section 21, 
ownship 62, range 39, (which section is in the northwest corner of the 
ownship), extends in a southeasterly direction through Mound City, 
ind onward, in nearly the same course, to the northeast corner of sec- 
ion 20, township 61, range 38, where it bends in a southwesterly direc- 
tion to the dividing line between Bigelow and Benton Townships, 
between section 36 of the former and section 31 of the latter. From a 
point at the foot of the bluff, where stands the town of Mound City, 
extends the wide expanse of level, bottom land, stretching westward to 
a distance often miles, nine of which run through Bigelow Township to 
the Missouri River. An area amounting to about sixteen square miles 
cf the territory of Benton Township is included in this bottom. To the 
eastward, beyond these bluffs, extends the high, rolling prairie, diversi- 
fied, in the neighborhood of the streams which vein its surface, with 
groves of valuable timber. In common with the general face of the 
county, Benton Township, both in its upland and lowland districts, is 
well watered. Kimsey Creek enters its borders from Hickory Town- 
ship (which here bounds it on the east), in section 15, and flows in a 
nearly due southerly direction, entering Lewis Township in section 4 of 



126 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY, 

the same. Hugh's Creek rises in the south part of section 10, and flow- 
ing in a southwesterly and northwesterly direction through six sections, 
spreads out from section 18, over the Missouri River bottom. Its aver- 
age width is eight or ten links. This stream runs near John Blair's 
residence, in section 20, township 61, range 38. The said John Blair 
settled there in 1839, and, in 1849, started to California and died on the 
way. George Blair, (long since dead), lived on the northeast quarter of 
section 20. 

The south fork of Davis Creek heads in section 26, near the south- 
west corner of Clay Township, and flowing in a southwesterly and wes- 
terly direction, unites at Mound City with the main stream of the same, 
near the northwest corner of section 6, township 61, range 38. The 
north fork of Davis Creek heads near the north line of section 10, 
township 62, range 38, in Liberty Township, and flowing in a southwes- 
terly direction through four sections of Benton Township, unites, at 
Mound City, with the south fork of Davis Creek, which here becomes 
the main stream of that affluent, flowing thence one and a-half miles 
westward into Squaw Creek. 

Little Tarkio enters Benton Township in section 21, township 62, 
range 39, at the northeast corner of the southwest 80 of said section, 
a farm now (1882) owned by William McKell. It flows through four or 
five sections of the township, generally in an easterly and southerly 
direction, and enters Bigelow Township in section 3, township 61, range 
39. The Little Tarkio, in its course through this township, is about 
100 links wide. 

Squaw Creek, with its west branch, enters Benton Township, in 
section 23, township 62, range 39, and flows in a southerly and westerly 
direction through portions of five sections, entering Bigelow- Township 
in section 2, township 61, range 39. 

There formerly existed in section 1, in the western part of Benton 
Township, and in sections n, 12, 13, 14 and 2, of Bigelow Township, 
adjoining, a body of water known as Shallow Lake. It was formed by 
Davis Creek, which now flows into Squaw Creek in section 1, township 
61, range 39, as above stated. The water of this lake has, long since, 
been absorbed. There stood, many years ago, on the southwest quarter 
of section 18, township 61, of range 38, where was formerly a small lake, 
a steam saw mill. Both the lake and mill have passed out of existence. 

EARLY SETTLERS. 

The first white man to make his home within the limits of what is 
now Benton Township was John N. Blair, originally from Indiana. He 
settled the farm in section 20, township 61, range 38, where he arrived 
April 12, 1839. In the same year came George Blair to the same locality. 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 27 

The Blairs on leaving Indiana, moved to Pike County, Illinois, in 1827 ; 
in 1836, to Iowa; thence back to Pike County, Illinois; and, in the 
spring of 1839, to the Platte Purchase settling as above stated. It is 
claimed that John N. Blair erected on this farm in Benton Township the 
first frame house built in the county. John N. Blair died on Carson 
River, at the foot of the Sierra, Nevada Mountains, while on his way to 
California, in 1849- George Blair, as before stated, also died years ago. 

James and Uriah Blair, sons of John N. Blair, still (1882) reside on 
the place originally settled by their father below the present town of 
Mound City, and are recognized as representative citizens of the 
county. 

In the fall of 1839 came, also from Indiana, Jeremiah and Daniel 
Baldwin, who settled in the neighborhood of the Blairs. John R. Bald- 
win, a son of the pioneer Daniel, is still living in the township, as is also 
Daniel Baldwin, Jr., a son of Jeremiah Baldwin. John Hughes, from 
Illinois, arrived in the fall of 1839, an d settled the farm now (1882} 
owned by Washington Hutton, in section 28, township 61, range, 38, four 
and a half miles south and two miles east of Mound City. 

William Holloway, John Holloway and Henry Holloway, from Indi- 
ana, in 1840, also settled in the same locality. In the same year, John 
Hughes, Sr., the father of John Hughes, above mentioned, settled the 
Kimsey Farm. In the spring of 1840, Judge John Kimsey came from 
Clay County, Missouri, and purchased the improvements of John 
Hughes, Jr. He continued to live on the place till 1846, when he moved 
to Oregon. 

Judge Kimsey, who was at one time on the county bench, was the 
second blacksmith who worked at his trade in Holt County, and the 
[first of his calling to locate within the present limits of Benton Town- 
ship. His shop, in 1840, stood in the southeast quarter section 21, 
township 61, range 38, two miles east and four miles south of Mound 
City. He also worked at Jackson's Point. The original Kimsey Farm 
is in southeast quarter section 21, and southwest quarter section 22, and 
is now (1882) owned by Samuel Glick. It lies within one-fourth of a 
mile of Kimsey Creek, which derived its name from John Kimsey, a son 
of the judge. In 1840, J. Bawn settled the place afterwards owned by 
Mosher, to whom he sold the land. — — South, who went to Oregon in 
1846, settled, in 1840, the place now (1882) owned by the Widow Beeler. 
In the same year, John Benson settled the farm afterwards owned by 
Strother Moore, a noted stock dealer. This farm is three-fourths of a 
mile south ot Mound City. He (Benson) was killed in California, in 
1844. Claiborne F. Parmer settled, in 1841, on a place now owned by 
Jonathan Andes. In 1840, William Mobly, a native of the State of 
Maine, who afterwards moved to Oregon, where he died, settled half a. 
mile north of the site of Mound City. In the same year, settled in the 



128 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY, 

neighborhood John dinger, who subsequently moved to California ; and 
also the widow Ellison. 

A noted character, by the name of William Walker, also arrived in 
1840, and made his home not a great distance from the present site of 
Mound City. He was popularly known as " Hog Walker," from his suc- 
cess in acquiring property in swine. It is narrated of this enterprising 
settler, who counted his hogs by the dozen, that he was in the habit of 
fencing in any sow with a litter of pigs he happened to find in the wild 
bottoms. These he took care to mark, and they, of course, became his 
property. He, at one time, is said to have claimed seventy dozen hogs 
and pigs. 

About the same period, a similarly enterprising settler by the name 
of John Walker, located in the neighborhood. He soon achieved the 
distinction of " Cow Walker," a cognomen by which he was universally 
distinguished in the country. It is said that Cow Walker, who was 
always on the hunt of a stray cow, was dreaded by the herders in the 
bottoms who often had charge of thousands of cattle which, in those 
days, were wintered on the rushes which there grew luxuriantly. 

Among other early settlers of the township were Jacob Mosher, who 
came in 1842, and died thirty years after. Andrew Mackoy, from Ohio, 
and Washam came in 1843. Andrew Meyer, now (1882) a representative 
citizen of the township, came in 1843. William Gady, in the same year, 
made a claim adjoining the site of Mound City, but subsequently 
abandoned it. Henry Swimiller came in 1846. 

Among the noted settlers of Benton Township, was Levi Dodge, now 
(1882) a prominent citizen of the town of Mound City. Mr. Dodge, who 
is a native of the State of Maine, moved thence to Ohio, in an early day, 
thence to Clinton County, Missouri, and, in the fall of 1850, to what is 
now Benton Township, Holt County, Missouri, where he settled on sec- 
tion 26, township 62, range 39, a farm now owned by John Shrautz. 

In 18^3, the settlers to the eastward of the Nodaway River, and 
those in the territory of Benton Township, in Holt County, were as 
ignorant of each other as though a sea rolled between them. The first 
settler to make tracks across this territory was Levi Dodge, in the 
summer of 1853. The course which he marked across these prairies and 
streams afterwards became the regular beaten road. 

. The farm north of Mound City, now (1882) owned by Ed. Gillis, was 
settled in 1848 by William Marshall, who afterwards sold it to a man by 
the name of Brown. 

David Worsham, about 1841, located on Davis Creek, southeast of 
Mound City. This stream was so named from a man by the name of 
Davis, who was the first settler on its banks. 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 29 

THE MINERAL RESOURCES 

of Benton Township are, as yet, scarcely determined, and, though no 
very positive evidence exists of the presence of valuable deposits of coal, 
it is confidently believed by many that this mineral underlies a consid- 
erable portion of this section of the count}'. 

In 1871, Henry Kunkel, in prospecting for mineral on the north 
branch of Davis Creek encountered, at a distance of forty-one feet below 
the level, a stream of water which flowed out above the surface of the 
ground in the manner of an artesian well. An investigation of the 
component elements of the water of this fountain proved it highly 
valuable as a remedial agent in many diseases. The well subsequently 
became a place of popular resort, and has since continued to enjoy an 
uninterrupted prosperity. 

The following is an analysis made by Professor Charles Williams, of 
Rolla, Missouri, of one gallon of this water : 

Chloride of Sodium 0,684,290 gra 

Sulphate of Soda 5,207,067 gra 

Sulphate of Potassa 0,925,686 gra 

Sulphate of Lime 0,459,595 gra 

Carbonate of Lime 6,912,480 gra 

Carbonate of Magnesia 2,646,414 gra 

Carbonate Protoxide Iron 0,575,015 gra 

Carbonate Protoxide Manganese 0,009,433 gra 

Aluminia 0,268, 163 gra 

Silicic Acid 0,766,390 gra 

Organic Matter 3,452,425 gra 



ns 
ns 
ns 
ns 
ns 
ns 
ns 
ns 
ns 
ns 
ns 



Total Solids 24,907,138 

Total Solids found by Evaporator 21,950,895 

The fountain is on the southwest forty of the southeast quarter of 
section 29, township 62, range 38, one and a half miles northeast of Mound 
City, and is the property of John W. Ogle, who built the hotel and made 
the other improvements on the premises. 

To the Pool of Siloam, in the Town of Mound City, reference will be 
found under that head. 

About 1875, General George Hall, of St. Joseph, erected machinery 
at the edge of the bluff at Mound City and undertook to bore for coal, or 
any other solid or fluid mineral he might chance to encounter. As soon 
as he reached the level of the Missouri, however, the water flowed in 
faster than his engine could pump it out, and the enterprise was abandoned. 
The idea of the existence of coal at this point has since been generally 
ridiculed. 

JACKSON'S POINT. 

In 1840 a man by the name of Thomas Ferguson settled at the 

mouth of the south fork of Davis Creek, where the same debouches into 

9 



130 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

the north fork of that stream, on the northeast quarter of section 6, town- 
ship 61, range 38. He built, at the foot of thebluff at this point, a double 
log cabin, in which he entertained the traveling public. Ferguson had 
purchased this claim from a man bythe name of Davis, after whom Davis 
Creek was named. About 1844 or 1845 he (Ferguson) sold the place to 
Andrew P. Jackson. This was, for years after, called Jackson's Point, 
and was, at one period, one of the widest known localities of the Platte 
Purchase. Jackson's Point was a stage station on the great line of 
coaches which, in that early day, carried the mail between St. Joseph and 
Council Bluffs at that period, called Cainsville. This line was originally 
started by a company of Mormons, who afterwards sold out to Frost, the 
great overland mail contractor. This was, up to the period of the build- 
ing of the Kansas City Railroad, the regular mail route between these 
two points. The first post-office established within the limits of what is 
now Benton Township was located here and called Jackson's Point Post 
Office. This was in a very early day (about 1844). A. P. Jackson was 
the first postmaster. In 1855 this post-office was moved across Davis 
Creek, to the single store which then stood on the site of what is now 
Mound City. This was kept by a man by the name of Galen Crow, and 
the name of the post-office was changed to North Point. 

To return, however, to Jackson Point. Aside from the Jackson House,, 
which was spacious, and, for that day, well kept, the Point was a noted 
camping place during the period of the Mormon and California emigra- 
tion, as the neighborhood abounded in excellent wood and water. The 
road, for miles above and below, were, from day's end to day's end, 
white with the wagon sheets of the westward bound emigrant trains. 

In 1853, Jackson sold out to Galen Crow and moved to California. 
Ten years after H. S. Busick became, by purchase, the owner of the 
property. In 1870, he sold the place to Jacob Grosbeck, the present 
(1882) proprietor. The building which is still a prominent landmark 
near the foot of the bluff, a few hundred yards south of the limits of 
Mound City, is a large, well appearing double two-story frame building 
with a brick rear extension. The whole was built as early as 1844. The 
frame portion of the house was almost entirely reconstructed by Mr. 
Grosbeck, the present proprietor. 

FIRST SCHOOL. 

It seems to be a question as to who was the first teacher to pursue 
his calling in Benton Township. By some of the old settlers it is 
claimed that an eastern man by the name of Latty, as early as 1842, 
taught a school one-fourth of a mile east of the present public school 
building which stands on land now owned by 'Squire Young. The 
primitive school house was a log cabin fourteen feet square. By others. 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 131 

it is maintained that the first school in the township was not taught 
until 1844, and that the original teacher was Professor John Collins, a 
noted instructed of youth in that early day. His school house was one 
and a half miles northwest of Mound City, at the foot of the bluff, on a 
farm first settled by the pioneer Edward Dodge, the father of Levi 
Dodge, the proprietor of the Pool of Siloam in Mound City. 

FIRST PREACHER. 

The first to preach the gospel in Benton Township was the Rev. E. 
Marvin, of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He preached his first ser- 
mon in this township, at the residence of J. N. Blair below Mound City. 
This was very soon after the arrival of the first settlers. Marvin was 
then a very young man, just starting in the work of the ministry. He 
afterwards achieved a national reputation as Bishop Marvin. 

Rev. Dr. G. B. Thorp, of the Hard Shell Baptist Church, was the 
second minister of the gospel to preach within the limits of Benton 
Township. He was also among the earliest to practice medicine in that 
locality. 

No section of Holt County has settled up and improved more 
rapidly than has Benton Township in the past few years. A majority 
of the farmers are men of intelligence and progressive spirit. Excel- 
lent and well kept roads traverse its surface in all directions, and the 
general character of recent farm improvements is above the average. 
In common with other portions of the county, excellent and well 
appointed school buildings appear in every district. 

The raising of cattle and of swine, as well as the culture of bees 
engage the attention of many. Of the former, Edward Gillis, two miles 
and a half north of Mound City, has a fine herd of twenty thoroughbred 
short horn cattle and sixty or seventy head of high grades. He was 
the first to introduce the former character of cattle into this township. 

MOUND CITY. 

• As early as 1852 there stood on the east boundary of the present 
town of Mound City a log cabin in which was run a blacksmith shop by 
E. Porter Forbes. This was the first house to stand on the site of the 
town, which was laid out five years after. Mr. Forbes, who now (1882) 
resides on the southeast quarter of section 19, township 72, range 38, 
two and a-half miles north of Mound City, thus enjoys the distinction ot 
being the original blacksmith of the place. 

The town of Mound City, which is located in the southern part of 
section 31, township 62, range 38, and in the northern part of section 6, 
township 61, range 38, on the waters of Davis Creek, at the base and on 



132 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

the slope of the bluff, range which traverses the county from northwest 
to southeast, is the only trading point in the township, and is an enter- 
prising and rapidly progressing business centre. 

In 1855 Galen Crow put up a building in which he opened a stock of 
goods. This stood on what was the corner of several lots when the 
town was laid out, and occupied a portion of the lot on which stands the 
rear of Hamsher's building, in the second story of which is the present 
(1882) Masonic Hall, on the northeast corner of State and Main 
Streets. Crow, who had purchased Jackson's Point, then moved the 
postoffice across the creek to his recently established store and called 
the postoffice North Point. The postoffice continued to be so called 
until April 1, 1872, when its name was changed to Mound City. Soon 
after starting his store at this place Galen Crow sold out to Gaines & 
Strickler. 

On the 18th of February, 1857, the property having previously 
passed into the hands of William A. Jones, a merchant of Oregon, a town 
which was laid out on the north side of Davis Creek, embracing a por- 
tion of the present town of Mound City, was incorporated by the Gen- 
eral Assembly under the name of Mound City. The company included 
William Jones, Galen Crow, Ira Peter, George E. Glass, John Burnett, B. 
F. Ruftner, C. J. Holly and James Foster. Galen Crow was elected 
president of the company, and George E. Glass secretary. On the 22d 
of May, 1857, the town company met for the first time and organized 
under their charter. About this time Gaines & Strickler closed out their 
business, and Galen Crow put up another store building. This was on 
the west side of State Street, a few doors north of Main, on a lot on 
which now (1882) stands the furniture store of William Dean. Here, in 
partnership with D. Jones, he sold goods under the firm name of Crow & 
Jones. 

At the first public sale of lots in Mound City, which.occurred May 
25. 1857, forty-two were sold, at prices ranging from $180, paid by F. 
Ruffner, for lot 1, in block 3, to $22, the price paid by George P. Ter- 
hune for lot 6, in block 42. 

The first residence erected on the town site, after it was laid out, 
was a small frame building on State Street, afterwards enlarged, and 
now (1882) owned and occupied by Captain W. W. Frazer. This was in 
1857. In August, of the same year, was erected the first school build- 
ing in the town. This was a small frame. It stands on lot 12, in blocks, 
on the northwest corner Fifth and Mill Streets. The building was after- 
wards converted into a dwelling, and is now (1882) owned and occupied 
as such by George Bennett, druggist. In the same fall, the town com- 
pany contributed a bonus of several hundred dollars, and induced Abso- 
lom Hoover to erect, in the east part of the town site, a steam saw mill. 
This was the first mill put up within the present limits of Benton Town- 






BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 33 

ship, and was operated several successive years, till it was moved to the 
bottom. The last meeting of the stockholders of the town of Mound 
City occurred May 4th, i860. 

At the period of the breaking out of the civil war, the place did 
not contain above a dozen houses, and there seemed then little prospect 
of its ever becoming what it is to-day (1882), the commercial as well as 
the geographical center of Holt County. 

Galen Crow, the founder of the town, was afterwards sheriff of the 
county and representative from the same to the state legislature. At the 
breaking out of the civil war, be followed Governor Claib Jackson, as a 
member of the lower house, to Arkansas, and is now a resident of Austin, 
Texas. He was a man who ranked high in the estimation of the people, 
as an accurate business man and upright citizen. 

The town of Mound City almost lost its existence during the period 
of the civil war, and was not revived till several years after. In 1870, 
when John H. Glenn, of Whig Valley, secured a controlling interest in 
the town, the business of the same included two small general stores, 
one of which was kept by A. N. Glenn and Major Dill, and the 
other by Hurd Brothers. There was also, at that time, a blacksmith 
shop in the place, kept by a man by the name of McChristian. H. 
Hershbeger also had a harness shop. This included the entire business 
of the town at that period. There was no house of public entertain- 
ment in the place till 1872, when the Landsdown House, on Savannah, 
between Fourth and Fifth Streets, was opened by Stephen Landsdown. 
The building is a two story frame, with a Mansard roof. Its remote 
location from the business center rendered it unpopular, and the pur- 
pose for which it was designed was subsequently abandoned. 

Mound City languished till the spring of 1873, when a sudden 
impetus seemed to be given to the enterprise of the place, and the 
I boom," so to speak, has been ever since steadily kept up. In that year 
W. T. Hiatt, who also ran a transfer between Bigelow and Mound City, 
started the first livery stable in the town, and Davis & Crannell opened 
the first exclusive hardware store. The style of this firm soon after 
became Crannell, Bates & Co. The first man who ever sold drugs in 
Mound City, was Dr. B. Meek, a graduate of St. Louis Medical College, 
and the oldest established physician in the place, having been located 
there since 1857. He opened his drug store in 1858, and continued to 
sell until the breaking out of the civil war. The first to sell lumber in 
the town were J. H. Glenn & Co., who commenced in 1871. R. C. Glenn 
& Co., put up, on State Street, in 1875, a spacious two story brick building 
in which they have since continued to sell drugs. This was the first 
cast-iron front put up in the county. There was no store exclusively 
devoted to the sale of family groceries till Creswell & Gordon opened 
their house in 1881. 



134 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Mound City was without a regular graded school till 1874, when a 
handsome two-story brick building was erected on Nebraska Street on a 
commanding elevation overlooking the business quarter of the town, and 
a wide expanse of surrounding country. The structure included two 
rooms below and one above, besides the halls, and was completed at a 
cost of $4,000. In the fall of 1881, the school edifice was enlarged by a 
two-story front addition ninety-three by thirty-two feet, affording five 
new class rooms, besides halls, cloak rooms, etc., above and below. 
These additions when entirely completed will cost over five thousand 
dollars. The first board of directors of this school were W. W. Frazer, 
Milton Herron, George Gillis, M. Houston, Wingate King and James 
Johnson. The school opened in September, 1874, with Nelson Carr, 
Principal, assisted by Miss Mary L. Austin. September, 1875, the 
teachers were E. A. Welty, Principal, assisted by Miss Fanny Soper and 
Mrs. I. M. Bacon. 

September, 1876, L. M. May was Principal, assisted by Mrs. I. M. 
Bacon and Miss Jose Wilkinson. 

September, 1877, Professor Samuel P. Ruley was Principal, assisted 
by Miss Jose Wilkinson. 

September, 1878, the teachers were Samuel P. Ruley, Principal, 
assisted by Miss Sallie C. Bennett and Mrs. I. M. Bacon. 

September, 1879, W. R. Burton was Principal, assisted by Miss Sallie 

C. Bennett and Mrs. I. M. Bacon. 

September, 1880, Professor W. F. Drake was Principal, and Miss Sal- 
lie C. Bennett and Mrs. I. M. Bacon assistants. 

September, 1881, the teachers were Professor W. F. Drake, Miss 
Sallie C. Bennett, Mrs. I. M. Bacon and Miss Lomira Herron. 

The present (1882) board of directors include G. H. Carpenter, Pres- 
ident ; W. M. Hamsher, Secretary ; M. M. Smith, Treasurer. The other 
members are J. B. Denney, John F. Davis and W. T. Hiatt. 

The enrollment of the school includes two hundred and seventy- 
nine pupils. 

MASONIC. 

Mound City Lodge, No. 294, A. F. and A. M. was set to work U. D. 
from the Grand Lodge of the State of Missouri, January 25, 1868, with 

D. P. Ballard, W. M.; John Schrautz, S. W.; Samuel See, J. W.; Dr. B. 
Meek, Treasurer ; William Hoblitzell, Secretary ; N. Browning, S. D.; 
James Wilson, J. D., and M. D. Merrett, S. and Tyler. 

October 15, 1868, a charter was granted by Grand Master John D. 
Vincil, with the above mentioned officers. On the 26th of December 
following the first election under this charter was held, with the follow- 



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BENTON TOWNSHIP. 135 

ing result : D.P. Ballard, W. M.; Henry S. Buzick, S. W.; John Schrautz, 
J. W.; Dr. B. Meek, Treasurer ; William Hoblitzell, Secretary ; N. Brown- 
ing, S. D.; G. M. Dodge, J. D.; Mark Strickler, S. and Tyler. 

December, 1869, the election resulted as follows : D. P. Ballard, W. 
M.; N. Browning, S. W.; Ed Gillis, J. W., William Hoblitzell, Treasurer ; 
John Schrautz, Secretary; G. M. Dodge, S. D.; M. Houston, J. D.; M. 
Strickler, S. and Tyler. 

December 31, 1870, the following were elected : Napoleon Brown- 
ing, W. M.; Ed. Gillis, S. W.; G. M. Dodge, J. W.; John W. Bridgeman, 
Sr., Treasurer ; John Schrautz, Secretary; D. P. Ballard, S. D.; Hamilton 
Dill, J. D.; T. H. Heard, S. and Tyler. 

December, 1871, the following officers were chosen : N. Browning, 
W. M.; William Hoblitzell, S. W.; J. D. Jones, J. W.; J. W. Bridgeman, 
Sr., Treasurer; Dr. J. M. Tracy, Secretary; G. M. Dodge, S. D.; James 
Wilson, J. D.; M. Strickler, Steward and Tyler. 

December, 1872, the election was as follows : G. M. Dodge, W. M. 
George H. Trook, S. W.; J. M. Tracy, J. W.; John Schrautz, Treasurer 
Edward Gillis, Secretary; William Andes, S. D.; J. F. Bridgeman, J. D. 
J. L. Nicholson, Steward and Tyler. 

December, 1873, the following were elected : N. Browning, W. M.: 
William Andes, S. W.; J. F. Bridgeman, J. W.; John Schrautz, Treasurer ; 
Edward Gillis, Secretary ; G. M. Dodge, S. D.; G. Erwin, J. D.; George 
H. Trook, Steward and Tyler. 

December 26, 1874, the following were elected : Samuel P. Jewell, 
W. M.; Edward Gillis, S. W.; N. Browning, J. W.; John W. Bridgeman, 
Treasurer ; George H. Trook, Secretary ; G. M. Dodge, S. D.; W. H. R. 
Dean, J. D.; George L. Nicholson, Tyler. 

December, 1875, the following were chosen : N. Browning, W. M.; 
Edward Gillis, S. W.; G. M. Dodge, J. W.; Eli Meek, Treasurer; W. M. 
Hamsher, Secretary; W. C. Andes, S. D.; A. Crannell.J. D.; George L. 
Nicholson, Tyler ; F. T. Nichols and George H. Trook, Seniorand Junior 
Stewards. 

December 27, 1876, were elected: J. S. Hart, W. M.; Ed. Gillis, S. W.; 
W. M. Hamsher, J. W.; John Schrautz, Treasurer ; E. D. McCoy, Secre- 
tary ; A. Crannell, S. D.; George L. Nicholson, J. D.; Albert Clark, Tyler ; 
Levi Gillis and H. Dill, Stewards. 

December 27, 1877, the following were elected : M. M. Smith, W. 
M.; J. S. Hart, S. W.; E. A. Welty, J. W.; John Schrautz, Treasurer ; 
Edward Gillis, Secretary; Charles Corsaut, S. D.; P. S. Durham, J. D.; 
G. M. Dodge and H. Dill, Stewards ; M. S. Strickler, Tyler. 

In December, 1878, were elected: M. M. Smith, W. M.; E. A. 
Welty, S. W.; C. K. Corsaut, J. W.; George H. Carpenter, Treasurer; 
Peter Welty, Secretary; J. S. Hart, S. D.; P. S. Durham, J. D.; M. 
Strickler, Tyler ; George H. Trook and William Hoblitzell, Stewards. 



136 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

In December, 1879, the following were chosen : M. M. Smith, W. 
M.; Alvin Bates, S. W.; J. B. Denny, J. W.; George H. Carpenter, 
Treasurer; J. S. Hart, Secretary; G. M. Dodge, S. D. ; P. S. Durham, J. 
D.; M. D. Merritt, Tyler. 

In December, 1880, were elected Alvin Bates, W. M. ; William 
Hamshef, S. W.; P. P. Welty, J. W.; George H. Carpenter, Treasurer; 
Lee Durham, Secretary; C. K. Corsaut, S. D.; C. S. Armstrong, J. D.; 
M. D. Merritt, Tyler ; J. S. Hart and M. M. Smith, Stewards. 

In December, 1881, the election resulted as follows : J. S. Hart, W. 
M.; W. M. Hamsher, S. W.; C. S. Armstrong, J. W.; George H. Car- 
penter, Treasurer; M. M. Smith, Secretary; Peter Welty, S. D.; P. S. 
Durham, J. D.; G. M. Dodge and J. B. Denny, Stewards ; M. D. Merritt, 
Tyler. 

Keystone Royal Arch Chapter, No. 46, was set to work in Oregon, 
Holt County, Missouri, by C. A. Rowley, D. D. H. P., November 23, 
1867, with the following officers : H. Murphey, H. P.; H. C. Busick, 
J. G. Cowan, Scribe ; Daniel Zook, Secretary ; George Weber, C. H.; 
W. H. Williams, P. S.; A. Gillfillin, R. A. C; J. B. Curry, G. M. 3d V.; 
Dr. C. S. Meek, G. M. 2d V.; Henry Meyer, G. M. 1st V. 

This Chapter was again organized on the 10th of March, 1870, by 
virtue of a charter granted October 7, 1869. The first officers under 
this charter were J. S. Hart, H. P.; J. T. Sedwick, K. ; E. VanBuskirk, 
S.; M. M. Smith, P. S.; J. N. Masters, C. H.; E. L. Allen, Treasurer; 
Daniel Zook, Secretary; H. Murphey, R. A. C; Samuel C. Masters, G. 
M. 3d V.; C. A. David, G. M. 2d V.; A. Gillfillin, G. M. 1st V.; James 
Curry, Guard. 

The above were elected October 24, 1869, and the Chapter was set 
to work March 10, 1870, by John F. Houston, M. E. G. H. P.,. with the 
folloAving officers: J. S. Hart, H. P.; H. Murphey, K.; E. Van Buskirk, 
S.; J. N. Masters, C. H.; M. M. Smith, P. S.; E. L. Allen, R. A. C; A. 
Gillfillin, G. M. 3d V.; Daniel Zook, Secretary ; J. G. Cowan, Treasurer; 
F. S. Rostock, Guard. 

December 26, 1871, the following were elected : M. M. Smith, H. 
P.; H. Murphey, K.; E. Van Buskirk, S.; T. C. Dungan, P. S.; S. P. Jewell, 
C. H.; Levi Oren, Treasurer; Daniel Zook, Secretary; E. L. Allen, R. A. 
C; R. N. Howell, G. M. 3rd V.; John Wallace, G. M. 2nd V.; Charles 
David, G. M. 1st V. 

December 1872, the same officers were again chosen. 

December 1873 were chosen, M. M. Smith, H. P.; R. N. Howell, K.; 
John Wallace, S. ; J. N. Masters, C. H. ; T. C. Dungan, P. S. ; E. L. Allen, R. 
A. C; Daniel Zook, Treasurer; A. Roecker, Secretary; Levi Oren, G. M. 
3rd V; E. Van Buskirk, G. M. 2nd N.; R. Montgomery, G. M. 1st V; F. 
S. Rostock, Guard. The above were installed and set to work by Past 
High Priest Joseph S. Browne, of St. Joseph. 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 137 

December 8, 1874, were elected the following : M. M. Smith, H. P.; 
R. N. Howell, K.; John Wallace, S.; J. N. Masters, C. H. ; T, C. Dungan, 
P. S.; E. L. Allen, R. A. C; John Dyche, G. M. 3rd V.; Robert Mont- 
gomery, G. M. 2nd V.; E. Van Buskirk, G. M. 1st V.; Daniel Zook, 
Treasurer; Albert Roecker, Secretary; F. S. Rostock, Guard. 

December 14, 1875 the following were elected : M. M. Smith, H. P.; 
R. N. Howell, K.; John Wallace, S.; J. N. Masters, C. H.; T. C. Dungan, 
P. S.; E. L. Allen, R. A. C; W. B. Orr, G. M. 3rd V.; E. Van Buskirk, 
G. M. 2nd V.; Robert Montgomery, G. M. 1st V.; Levi Oren, Treasurer; 
E. A. Brown, Secretary; F. S. Rostock, Guard. 

December 12, 1876 the following were chosen : W. H. Williams, 
H. P.; G. M. Dodge, K.; W. B. Orr, Scribe; J. N. Masters, C. H.; T. C. 
Dungan, P. S.; E. L. Allen, R. A. C.; Levi Oren, G. M. 3rd V.; E. Van 
Buskirk, G. M. 2nd V.; Robert Montgomery, G. M. 1st N.; Albert Roecker, 
Treasurer; W. G. Mclntyre, Secretary; F. S. Rostock, Guard. 

December 11, 1877 the following were the officers chosen: T. C. 
Dungan, H. P.; M. M. Smith, K.; G. M. Dodge, S ; J. N. Masters, C. H.; 
W. G. Mclntyre, P. S.; E. L. Allen, R. A. C; Levi Oren, G. M. 3rd V.; 
E. Van Buskirk, G. M. 2nd V.; B. F. Fleming, G. M. 1st V.; Albert 
Roecker, Treasurer; Robert Montgomery, Secretary; John Wallace, 
Guard. 

In 1878 there was no election held. 

December 9, 1879 tne officers chosen were M. M. Smith, H. P.; E. 
VanBuskirk, K.; E. Annibal, S ; J. S. Hart, C. H.; G. M. Dodge, P. S.; W. 
G. Mclntyre, R. A. C; B. F. Fleming, G. M. 3rd V.; J. F. Bridgeman, G. 
M. 2nd V; J. N. Masters, G. M. 1st V.; E. A. Brown, Treasurer; E. Gillis, 
Secretary; F. S. Rostock, Guard. 

In 1880, the above officers were all re-elected. 

Februarys, 1881, the Chapter was moved to Mound City, where it 
has since continued to occupy the hall of Mound City Lodge No. 294, 
over W. M. Hamsher's store, on the northeast corner of State and Main 
Streets. 

December, 1881, occurred the first election of officers of the Chapter 
in Mound City. The following was the result: M. M. Smith, H. P.; 
Robert Montgomery, K.; E. Annibal, S.; J. S. Hart, C. H.; G. M. 
Dodge, P. S.; Ed. Gilles, R. A. C; B. F. Fleming, G. M. 3d V.; J. F. 
Bridgeman, G. M. 2d V.; E. VanBuskirk, G. M. 1st V; E. A. Brown, 
Treasurer ; W. G. Mclntyre, Secretary, and F. S. Rostock, Guard. 

There are in the town of Mound City three 

CHURCHES. 

The Presbyterian Church was organized by Rev. E. B. Sherwood, 
May, 1872, with the following members : W. W. Frazer, Miss M. A. 



138 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Frazer, Mrs. Jane Glenn, Andrew Frazer and Mrs. C. E. Strickler, the 
first three of whom are still numbered with its membership. Rev. M. 
L. Anderson was their first minister, remaining- till July, 1873, when 
Rev. W. G. Thomas was elected pastor. He remained for a little more 
than a year, after which the church was without regular preaching, 
except for a few months, during which period Mr. Carr and Mr. J. O. 
Pierce^ licentiates, served the congregation. June, 1877, Rev. Duncan 
Brown, the present (1882) pastor, took charge of the church, which then 
included, in all, thirteen members. Since that period 124 persons have 
united with this church. Its present membership is 122, fourteen having 
withdrawn to unite with other organizations, and one having been 
added. The church edifice is a neat gothic frame structure, with vesti- 
bule and gallery. It was built in 1874 and 1875, at a cost of $2,500. 
In the three years immediately preceding the present (1882), further 
improvements were added at a cost of about $600, rendering it a taste- 
ful and comfortable house of worship. The structure is not only com- 
pleted, but entirelypaid for. Regular services are held in this church every 
Sunday. Attached to this church is a ladies' missionary society, a child- 
ren's missionary society, and a Sabbath school numbering 150 scholars. 
The present (1882) church officers are Elders W. W. Frazer, Dr. George C. 
Brown, M. M. Smith, W. H. Watt, W. M. Hamsher and George H. Car- 
penter. The deacons are W. M. Hamsher and W. A. Long. E. A. 
Welty, Sunday school superintendent. The history of this church is 
remarkable, from the fact that in the rear of and adjoining this church, 
is the Mound City Academy, a private institution of learning, superin- 
tended by Rev. D. Brown, pastor of the said church. It is liberally 
patronized, and a credit to the educational enterprise of the town. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

The Christian Church in Mound City is a frame building of sub- 
tantial character and fair appearance. It was erected in 1878. The 
organization, however, of which it is the outgrowth, existed before the 
civil war. It now includes a membership of between one hundred and 
seventy-five and two hundred. In December, 1879, David Wetzel, the 
present (1882) minister, was chosen pastor. The present church was 
dedicated on the third Sunday of February, 188 1. The Sunday School, 
which includes over one hundred scholars, is under the direction of Mr. 
J. B. Denny, a representative druggist of the town. 

M. E. CHURCH. 

The society of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Mound City was 
organized in 1864, with a membership of five. Thest deluded David 
Gillis and wife, Mrs. Sarah Dodge and Mrs. Hoblitzell. 






BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 39 



Mound City was an appointment on the Oregon circuit. Rev. 
Thos. Hollingsworth was preacher in charge. The church building, a 
neat frame structure 30x40 feet, was erected in 1879, and -cost, including 
bell, organ and furniture, about $1,400. 

The present (1882) membership of this organization, including those 
on probation, is one hundred. The society also owns a neat frame resi- 
dence building occupied as a parsonage, on which they have expended, 
in the past year in the way of repairs, the sum of four hundred dollars. 

MILLS. 

Reference has already been made to the original saw mill, built in 
the town by Hoover, in 1857. This has long been numbered with the 
things of the past. 

The first flouring mill in Mound City, and, indeed, in Benton Town- 
ship, was built in 1871, by John Handford, the present (1882) proprietor. 
In 1869 he put up, on the site of this mill, a steam-power saw mill, which 
he operated till he substituted for the same the enterprise above referred 
to. This he began on a very small scale, a single run of burrs for grind- 
ing corn completing the capacity of the mill, which is now provided with 
three run of burrs, with a grinding capacity of 250 bushels of grain per 
day. It is known as the East Mound City Mills and is operated by steam 
power. 

Mound City Steam Flouring Mills were built in 1876, by W. J. Hall, 
at a cost of about eight thousand dollars. The building is a two and a 
half story frame structure, fifty by thirty-six feet area. It is furnished 
with three run of burrs, affording a grinding capacity of three hundred 
bushels of wheat and corn per day. 

On the 23d of February, 1878, occurred a disastrous explosion of the 
boiler of this mill, attended with terrible fatal results. Five men fell vic- 
tims to the catastrophe. These were Caldwell, the miller ; a wood-hauler 
by the name of Riley McWilliams, James Anderson, a farmer ; James 
Dawson, and the engineer. No just blame was considered to attach 
to the engineer, or any one connected with the mill, the explosion 
being purely accidental. The structure of the mill, which was entirely 
wrecked, was rebuilt in 1878 by R. H. Dawson and Mrs. W. J. Hall, the 
widow of the original proprietor, who died in July, 1877. 

NEWSPAPERS. 

A full reference to the history of the newspapers published in Mound 
City will be found under the general head of Newspaper Press of Holt 
County. The Mound City News now (1882) is a handsome nine-column 
sheet, printed and published by Brink & Spencer, who purchased the 
paper January 28, 1881. This paper is printed entirely at home, and re- 
flects credit on the publishers. 



140 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

SECOND INCORPORATION. 



At the August term of the county court, held August n, 1873, 
Mound City was incorporated under the village .act, and the following- 
were appointed to constitute the town board : Dr. B. Meek, Milton 
Herron, Daniel H. Gillis, M. Houston and William Hoblitzell. D. H. 
Gillis was chosen chairman of the board, and W. A. Mackoy, secretary. 

The first election for town officers was held April 7, 1874, resulting 
as follows : Wingate King (who was chosen chairman), Milton Herron, 
D. H. Gillis, William Hoblitzell and S. J. Landsdown. 

The election of April, 1875, was as follows : Amer Crannell, Adolph 
Albiez, George Emmerson, M. B. Moore, Henry Tipton. George Emmer- 
son was chosen chairman. 

At the election held April, 1876, the following were chosen: Henry 
Tipton, W. A. Mackoy, A. J. Martin, James Hart and M. Houston; James 
Hart was elected chairman. 

The election of April, 1877, resulted as follows: William Wilkin- 
son, J. S. Hart, J. F. Davis, Henry Tipton and W. T. Hyde. William 
Wilkinson was chosen chairman. 

The election of April, 1878, was with the following result ; William 
Wilkinson, who was chosen chairman, Henry Tipton, W. T. Hiatt, 
James S. Hart and T. Eben Cooper. 

At the election of April, 1879, were chosen: William Wilkinson, 
also elected chairman, W. T. Hiatt, James S. Hart, Henry Tipton and 
T. Eben Cooper. 

The election of April, 1880, resulted as follows : William Wilkin- 
son, chairman, W. T. Hiatt, H. Tipton, K. F. Rice and E. A. Welty. 

The election of April, 188 1, was with the following result : M. M. 
Smith, who was chosen chairman, W. T. Hiatt, E. A. Welty, Jacob 
Mumm and Lee Durham. M. M. Smith afterwards resigning, Lee Dur- 
ham was elected to succeed him as president of the town board. 

Reference has already been made to the mineral springs of J. Ogle, 
a mile and a-half northwest of Mound City. At the northern extremity 
of the town, about five hundred yards from the public square, is the 

POOL OF SILOAM, 

the property of the pioneer, Levi Dodge. The pool was built at a cost 
of several hundred dollars, and is stocked with several varieties of fish. 
In the park, east of the pool, is a bath house. Two springs feed the 
pool. The following analysis by Professor Charles P. Williams, of Phila- 
delphia, determined the component elements of these two springs to be 
as follows : 












BENTON TOWNSHIP. 141 



NORTH SPRING. SOUTH SPRING. 

Chloride of Sodium 0.352 Chloride of Sodium . . .• 0.35 17 

Sulphate of Soda 0.099 Sulphate of Soda . .- 0.0992 

Carbonate of Iron 1 .849 Carbonate of Iron 1.8490 

Carbonate of Lime 5.3 16 Carbonate of Lime 5.3160 

Carbonate of Magnesia 3.68 1 Carbonate of Magnesia. . . . 3.6810 

Aluminia Trace. Silica 1.1480 

Oxide Manganese Trace. Organic Matters 3.4722 

Silica 1,148 



Organic Matters 17.062 



Total Solids 15.9171 



Total Solids 29.507 

An infirmary is to be built here in the spring of 1882. 

PROFESSIONAL. 

The legal learning of Mound City is centered in the following-named 
gentlemen : Brigadier General Wilkinson, also in the commission of the 
peace ; C. C. Akin, Esq., H. C. Pepper, Esq., and A. H. Jamison, Esq. 
The latter-named gentleman is also engaged in the real estate business. 

The medical profession is represented by B. Meek, M. D., the pioneer 
physician and surgeon of the vicinity ; Dr. J. M. Tracy, G. W. Haken, M. 
D., etc., Dr. G. E. Brown, Dr. H. Pool, the magnetic healer, and Dr. M. 
Seville. The latter named gentleman, though a comparatively recent 
settler in Mound City, is recognized as a physician of long standing in 
Holt County. 

Dr. W. D. Trinque is the representative dentist of Mound City. 

POSTMASTERS. 

We have already referred to the fact that Hon. Galen Crow was the 
first to hold the position of postmaster, on the removal, in 1855, of the 
office to North Point, now Mound City. His successor was Daniel Gillis. 
After him came W. J. Marshall, succeeded by Major H. Dill, who served 
till July 27, 1867, when he was succeeded by Addison N. Glenn. In 1875 
Joseph V. Hinchman succeeded to the charge of the post-office, and con- 
tinued to discharge its duties till 1877, when he was succeeded by Win- 
gate King. January 7, 1882, King died, and ten days after Addison N. 
Glenn was appointed his successor. 

RAILROAD FACILITIES. 

The Nodaway Valley Branch of the Kansas City St. Joseph and 
Council Bluffs Railroad, extending in a northeasterly direction from 
Bigelow to Burlington Junction, in Nodaway County, a distance of thirty- 



142 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 



three miles, was completed to Mound City in the summer of 1880.; and r 
on the 2d day of August, of the same year, a station was opened in that 
place, and F. Peter Rogers, the present (1882) agent, appointed to the 
charge of the same. This station, which is in the southeast part of the 
town, in the Davis Creek bottom, stands on a surface eight hundred and 
ninety-four and a half feet above the sea level. The following is a cor- 
rect statement of the shipments from Mound City, for the year ending 
December 31, 1881, as furnished us by the accommodating agent, F, 
Peter Rogers : 



Names of Shippers. 


Cars of Grain 
to Chicago. 


Cars of grain 
St. Louis. 


Cars of Stock 
to Chicago 


Cars of Stock 
to Kan. City. 


Cars of Stock 
to St. Joe. 


Cars of Grain 
to Kan City. 


s of Hay to 

■it. Joseph. 




*W 


1-c 


W 


c 


to 

144 
«5 

25 

27 
3i 
17 
17 
10 

5 1 

3° 

377 


78 
4 

22 

14 

IO 
128 


Ct 
6 

6 
12 


H 

52 

5 

8 
65 


Ct 
6 

7 
13 


H 

5" 

17 
67 


W 


c 

24 
24 


U 


John E Caton 




J G Elliott 












B F. Doran 












James Paden 












G H Root 
























Cain & Co 












J. Baker . . 












E. D. Nash 

0. Bryant & Co 

D. Dows & Co 


15 
29 
66 


13 

44 

7 

115 


22 
22 


6 
4 

10 


9 


Totals 


no 


9, 



*W Wheat; fC Corn ; JCc Cattle; \ H Hogs 

The shipments to Mound City during the same period were as fol- 
lows : 

From Chicago — 171 car loads pine lumber; 5 car loads wagons ; r 
car load horses ; 2 car loads lime ; 1 car load potatoes ; 2 car loads 
barbed wire ; 4 car loads salt, amounting to 186 car loads from Chicago. 

From St. Joseph and other points were received in the same period 
— 27 car loads coal ; 12 car loads lime ; 1 car load stoves ; 23 car loads- 
native lumber; 5 car loads cord wood ; 1 car load cement;. 2. car loads 
furniture ; 2 car loads salt ; 17 car loads brick ; 5 car loads railroad iron ;: 
7 car loads rock; 1 car load earthen ware ; I car load fruit trees ; 13 car 
loads sand ; 3 car loads barbed wire ; 7 car loads cattle ; 3; car loads- 
hogs ; 4 car loads agricultural implements ; 2 car loads wagons ; 2, car 
loads piling: 2 car loads nails, amounting in all to 140 car loads,, which, 
added to the receipts from Chicago, made 326 car loads. 



KENTON TOWNSHIP. 



H3 



BANK. 

February 14, 1880, the Holt County Bank was organized in Mound 
City, with a capital of $20,000, and has since continued to do a prosper- 
ous business. The officers of this institution are Robert Montgomery, 
President ; Albert Roecker, Vice President, and Hugh Montgomery, 
Cashier. The bank is located on State Street, opposite W. Hamsher's 
store, and is regarded as a substantial and reliable concern. 

From the sworn statements of merchants doing business in Mound 
City, as shown in the tax book for 1881, it appears that the valuation of 
mercantile property in that town was $37,290, on which was paid a state 
tax of $ 146.82!, and a county tax of $ 146.32!, making a total of $293. 65^,. 
and showing over Craig, the next town in point of commercial importance 
in the county, an excess in valuation of $9,275. 

The commercial and mechanical business of Mound City, in Feb- 
ruary, 1882, was transacted by the following named persons : 



Austin, S. B. & J. M., general mer- 
chants. 

Bennett & Co., druggists. 

Bradley, N. M., saloon. 

Book, Jacob, dealer in native lum- 
ber. 

Biggers, Miss Rose, milliner. 

Backus & Co., carpenters. 

Bariteau & Welch, elevator. 

Caton, John E.. live stock shipper. 

Carter, G. M., sewing machine agt. 

Criswell, James, family groceries. 

Crannell, Amer, dealer in buggies, 
wagons, etc. 

Cooper, T. E., shoemaker. 

Corsaut & Meyer, general store. 

Carpenter, G. H., harnessmaker. 

Durham & Mounts, livery stable. 

Durham, Lee, J. P. and harnessma- 
ker. 

Dean, William, confectioner. 

Denny, J. B., druggist. 

Dick, Warren, wagonmaker. 

Elliott, J. G., general merchant. 

Frazer, McL., confectioner. 

Groves & Ferguson, general store. 

Graves, C. H., blacksmith. 



Hill, Hugh, barber shop. 

Hoblitzell, Smith & Jesse, hard- 
ware. 

Hoblitzell, Smith & Jesse, lumber 
dealers. 

Herron & McKee, carpenters, etc.. 

Harriman & Whaley, photographers 

Hamsher, W. M., general merchant. 

Mahan, Rev. W. S., photographer. 

Mumm, Moss & Co., lumber deal- 
ers. 

Muxlow, Edward, English Kitchen 
Hotel. 

McKinney, G. M., wagonmaker. 

McCann, Jacob, carpenter and con- 
tractor. 

Moore, C. J., grain elevator. 

Montgomery. Hugh, Cashier Holt 
County Bank. 

Newton, Joseph, blacksmith. 

Owen & Barber, Misses, millinery.. 

Preston, William E., wagonmaker. 

Pierce & Son, carpenters. • 

Pierce & Willis, butchers. 

Rice, John, painter. 

Smith & Andes, general merchants,. 

Smith, E. G., painter. 



144 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Glenn & Co., R. C, furniture. Thol, Nuke, bootmaker. 

Glenn & Co., R. C, drugs. Taylor & Landon, carpenters. 

George & Miller, hardware. Vanderslice & Co., butchers. 

Gibson, John, blacksmith. Youse, John, house painter. 

Hiatt, W. T., hotel and livery stable. Youse & Co., carpenters, etc. 
Houston, M., furniture and coffins. 

BUILDINGS. 

In the summer and fall of i88r, not less than sixty buildings of 
different size and character were erected within the limits of Mound 
City. Not a few of these were residences costing, at least, two thousand 
dollars. The demand for brick far exceeded the supply, and many were 
imported from St. Joseph and other comparatively distant points. In 
default of this necessary material, several extensive business houses were 
built in the town of pine lumber, among these was a two-story building 
24x80 feet, put up by Miss Rose Biggers, a lady long engaged in the 
millinery business in the town. Criswell & Gordon also erected a two- 
story frame business house 20x60 feet. Dr. Gordon completed a two- 
story brick business house on State Street, in the winter of 1881-82. 

OPERA HOUSE. 

The pride of Mound City, in an architectural as well as histrionic 
point of view, is the new and elegant structure of Corsaut & Meyer's 
opera house, which stands on the southeast corner of State and Main 
Streets, fronting on the former. This notable expression of the spirit of 
enterprise for which Mound City is especially known, is a brick building 
42x80 feet in extent. The lower floors are occupied by the handsomely 
appointed business house of Corsaut & Meyer, and the equally elegant 
drug store of J. B. Denny. The upper floor of this building constitutes 
the audience room of the opera house. This includes the entire area of 
the building, 42x80 feet, with a twenty-two foot ceiling. The stage with 
adjoining ante rooms is 20x42 feet. The same is elegantly and elab- 
orately fitted up with shifting scenery of the most approved style. The 
drop curtain, which is no less notable for the beauty of its design than for 
the consummate skill displayed in the execution of the painting by which 
it is embellished, is unsurpassed, if equalled, by any similar theatrical 
feature in the State. The audience room seats comfortably six hundred 
persons, and is readily accessible by means of a broad and easy stairway 
leading to the double swinging doors of the public entrance. The 
building was completed in the winter of 1881-82, and was first opened 
on the night of December 23rd, 1881, with the play of Draper's Uncle 
Tom's Cabin. On this occasion seven hundred spectators crowded the 
house, and were witnesses of its excellent acoustic merits. 

The cost of the entire structure was about twelve thousand dollars. 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 45 



^BIOGRAPHICAL. "4 



HENRY L. ACTON, 

• 

farmer, section 2i, was born in Morrow County, Ohio, March 12, 1836. 
His ancestors were natives of England, and his father, Osborn Acton, 
was born in Maryland. He was married in Ohio to Miss Rachel Het- 
rick, a native of Pennsylvania, whose ancestors were from Germany. 
Henry L. was the fourth in a family of six children. In 185 1 he came 
with his father, to Holt County, Missouri, where he has since resided, ex- 
cepting about two years, when he lived in Kansas. In 1872 he moved to 
his present location, and now owns a farm-of 160 acres. During 1861 he 
was in the Missouri State militia for six months. March 8, 1863, Mr. 
Acton was married to Miss Nancy A. Kunkel, who was born in Mor- 
row County, Ohio, January 3, 1844. Her father, Barnabas Kunkel, was 
a native of Pennsylvania. Her mother's maiden name was Catharine 
Secrest, a native of Pennsylvania. Mrs. A. was the second child in a 
family often, and in 1848 came to Missouri. They have had five child- 
ren, two of whom are now living, Lillie R. and John F. Mr. A. and wife 
are members of the United Brethren Church, and he is also a minister of 
that denomination, holding a quarterly conference license. 

JOHN J. ADAMS, 

farmer, section 21, the second child in a family of eight, was born in 
Edgar County, Illinois, November 17, 1836, his ancestors having been 
natives of Kentucky. His father, Jacob T. Adams, went to Illinois when 
113 years of age, and there he was married to Miss Sarah Cunningham, 
daughter of James Cunningham, a native of Virginia. John J. Adams 
was reared and educated in his native county, and in 1855, ne ^ e ^ his 
parents' home, and in 1858, came west. He made a number of trips 
across the plains to Denver, Utah Territory, etc., and continued the 
freighting business till the spring of 1866, being a part of the time in 
Holt County. Since 1866, he has made this county his home, and in 
1873, he located on his farm, where he has since resided. His farm 
:ontains 200 acres. Mr. A. was married to Marila Leech, October 21, 
[877. She was born in Fremont County, Iowa, October 27, i860. They 
lave two children : Sallie and Charlie. 

10 



I46 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

JONATHAN ANDES, 

farmer, section 9, was born in Shenandoah County, Virginia, July 30, 
181 1. His grand parents were natives of Maryland, and his father was 
born in Virginia. He was there married to Miss Elizabeth Good, who 
was born in Virginia, and they had a family of thirteen children, of whom 
Jonathan was the oldest. When he was about three years of age his 
parents moved to Rockingham County, Virginia, where he was reared, 
receiving a fair education both in German and English. March 7, 1839, 
he was married to Miss Anna Roadcap, who was born in Page County, 
Virginia, November 18, 1818, the third of a family of fourchildren. Her 
father, Daniel Roadcap, was a native of Virginia, and her mother, form- 
erly Frances Hoffman, was born in Pennsylvania. After his marriage 
Mr. Andes located in Augusta County, Virginia, and in 1853 he immi- 
grated, with his family, to Delaware County, Indiana, where he continued 
to live till 1871, when they came to Holt County, Missouri. He has fol- 
lowed agricultural pursuits from boyhood, and now has a landed estate 
of over 681 acres, a part of which he has given to his children. His home 
farm contains over 201 acres, which is finely improved, his house and 
surroundings presenting an attractive appearance. Their family con- 
sists of twelve children, seven of whom are living : Elizabeth, born Au- 
gust 31, 1 841 ; William C, born June 4, 1845 ; Frances, born September 
5, 1849; Susan, born November 21, 185 1 ; Mary A., born April 14, 1858; 
Martha, born May 16, i860 ; Amanda, born January I, 1864. 

WILLIAM C. ANDES, 

one of Holt County's most active and extensive farmers, was born in 
Rockingham County, Virginia, June 4, 1845, and resided in the same 
localities as his parents, Jonathan and Anna (Roadcap) Andes, till 18:9, 
when he came from Deleware County, Indiana, to Holt County, Missouri. 
He has made farming his occupation during life, with the exception of a 
few years, when frfe was engaged in working at the carpenter's trade. 
His estate consists of 400 acres of good land. He is a member of Mound 
City Lodge No. 294, A. F. and A. M. Mr. Andes was married February 
15, 1 87 1, to Miss Emma Shafer, a daughter of John Shafer, a native of 
Pennsylvania. She was born in Berks County, Pennsylvania, in March, 
1847. They have had six children, of whom four are now living: Laura, 
Eliza, Millard and Ida. 

S. B. AUSTIN 

is of S. B. & J. M. Austin, a leading firm of Mound City. The mercantile 
trade of Holt County, is ably represented by these parties, who do a large 
and successful business. They are both men of experience, having worked 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 47 

in the dry goods trade from boyhood. > Their father, Jeremiah Austin, 
was born in Connecticut, and emigrated to New York, and while in that 
State he was married at Fort Covington to Miss Betsie Howard, a native 
of New Hampshire. They located in Morley, St. Lawrence County, 
New York, where S. B. and J. AT. Austin were born, the former on June 
15, 1844, and J. M. on the 6th of November 1841. They were reared 
and educated in their native town, and during their boyhood days 
assisted their father, who was a lumber dealer, in that business. In 1862 
S. B. Austin went to Ogdensburg, New York, where he was employed as 
clerk in a dry goods store till the winter of 1870, when he came to St. 

* 

Joseph, Missouri. There he followed different mercantile pursuits till 
1874, when he came to Mound City, and since that time he has been 
engaged in his present business, though under different firm names. Mr. 
A. was married October 15, 1874 to Miss Josia Pitcher, a daugther of S. 
D. Pitcher, a native of Connecticut. Her mother's maiden name was 
Margaret Drew, a native of Kentucky. Mrs. Austin was born in Clay 
County, Missouri, March 18, 1853, and was married at Liberty, where she 
had been educated. They have one child, George F. In the year 1857, 
J. M. Austin went to Ogdensburg, New York, where he was for six 
years engaged in selling goods, after which he accepted a position as 
salesman in a large retail dry goods house of Boston. This he contin- 
ued for two years, and from that time till the latter part of 1875, he was 
engaged as traveling salesman over the State of New York in the inter- 
est of different wholesale dry goods houses of Boston and New York. 
Among his employers were Swedser, Swan & Blodget, and Ordway, Brad- 
bury & Co., both of Boston, he being with the latter firm from January, 
1866, till the Boston fire, which occurred November 9, 1872. Mr. A. 
then traveled from New York till. 1874, the first year being with Diggs, 
Cunningham & Co., then with S. B. Chittendon & Co., after which time 
he returned to Boston. F'or a period he traveled for Perry, Cook & Tower. 
In the latter part of 1875, he came west, and since then has journeyed 
over Kansas, Colorado and New Mexico, from St. Joseph, Kansas City 
and St. Louis. July 1, 1881, he came to Mound City, Missouri, where he 
had previously had an interest in business for some time. 

J. P. BAGBY, 

farmer, section g, is a son of Richard Bagby, Esq., who was born in Rock- 
bridge County, Virginia, and when about fifteen years old moved to 
Kentucky, locating in Barren County. There he was married to Miss 
Sarah M. Field, a native of Virginia. They emigrated to Missouri in the 
year 1837. J. P. was born in Buchanan County, Missouri, August 30, 
1841. In 1851, with his parents, he came to Holt County and located on 
the place where he now resides. His farm consists of 280 acres. Mr- 



148 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

B. served in the late war, from 1861 until its close, being in the Confeder- 
ate service. He was was mustered out of Co. A. Sixteenth Missouri. He 
is a member of Mound City Lodge No. 294, A. F. and A. M. Mr. Bagby 
was married September 14, 1872, to Miss Nancy Rodgers, and by this 
marriage they had five children, three of whom are now living : Samuel, 
Robert G., and Martha M. Mrs. B. was born in Monroe County, Iowa, 
January 14, 1849. Her father, James Rodgers, was a native of Ten- 
nessee, and her mother, whose maiden name was Martha Mudd, was a 
Kentuckian by birth. 

GEORQE BENNETT, 

of the firm of Bennett & Demming, dealers in drugs, stationery, etc., is a 
son of George J. and Jane (McDonald) Bennett, who were residents of 
London when George was born, November 24, 1840. He was educated 
in London, and during the last year of his abode there was engaged in 
selling drugs. In 1855, he came to America, landing at San Francisco, 
where he was employed at various branches of business, clerking, etc., 
till the beginning of the war of 1861, when he enlisted in Company C, 
Third California Volunteer Infantry. He remained in service for three 
years and three months, being mustered out as orderly sergeant. After 
his enlistment, his regiment was called to Utah Territory, where they 
were stationed during his time in service. Mr. B. remained in Salt Lake 
City one year after being mustered out, and then went to Montana, where 
he was engaged in clerking. He subsequently came to Holt County, 
Missouri, where he was occupied in farming till 1879, when he came to 
Mound City, and embarked in his present business. He has acted as 
county assessor for three years, and as deputy for four years, in a very 
acceptable manner. Mr. Bennett was married July 1.3, 1869, to Miss 
Julia E. Demming, a daughter of Butler Demming, of Ohio. They have had 
six children, four of whom are living: George O., Guy, Clara and Ed. 
McCoy. 

URIAH AND JAMES BLAIR, 

among the very first settlers in Benton Township, are natives of Indiana. 
Uriah was born March 22, 1825, and James was born December 26, 1826. 
Their parents, John M. and Mary E. (Billings) Blair, had a family of six 
children, the first two of whom were twins, one daughter and one son, 
Uriah. James was the next child born. In 1827 they moved to Pike 
County, Illinois, and were among the first settlers of that State. In 1836 
they visited Iowa, locating on Skunk River, where Mrs. Blair died. After 
this event they returned to Pike County, Illinois, where they lived till 
1839, an d then came to Holt County, Missouri, and located in section 20, 
township 61, range 38. This farm is now owned by Uriah and James Blair, 
the formar having 170 acres and Jam^s 193 acres. At the time they set- 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 149 

tied in Benton Township there were no people living within its present 
boundaries but Indians. They attended school in the first schoolhouse 
built in the township, which was a log cabin without even a fire-place, 
though on one side a log was left out for a window. The building was 
erected in 1840, in section 17, township 61, range 38, by the Blair family, 
the Baldwin family (the second settlers in the township), James Kimsey, 
John Hughes and one other person. The first session was taught by a man 
by the name of Lattimore, from the East, he being known as the Yankee 
teacher. In the spring of 1849 Uriah and James Blair, in company with a 
large expedition, started from Holt County for California. Their father 
also accompanied them. The party left about May 10, and the senior Blair 
died while on the road, on Carson River, at the foot of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains, and was there buried. While in California the brothers were 
engaged in gold mining, on the tributaries of the American River. 
James returned to Holt County in February, 1850, and his brother in the 
summer of the same year. Uriah was a soldier in the Mexican War. He 
was sworn into the service of the United States at Leavenworth, July 4, 
1847, as a member of what was known as the Oregon Battalion, attached 
to Col. Powell's regiment. The expedition ascended the Missouri River 
and returned to what is now Nebraska City, where they remained during 
the winter of 1847-8, and the next spring set out across the plains for 
Fort Kearney. News reached them of the close of the war and they 
were ordered back to Leavenworth to be discharged. He was a Demo- 
crat before the late war, but has since been a Republican. He is a mem- 
ber of Mound City Lodge, No. 294, A. F. and A. M. December 16, 1858, 
he was married to Miss Eveline Mackey, by which marriage there were 
born seven children : Alice M., C. Calvin, Mary E., Eva Z., Frank N., 
Cora I. (now deceased), and George D. Mrs. Blair, the fourth child in a 
family of eleven children, was born in Pike County, Missouri, January 
30, 1840. She was reared, educated and married in her native county. 
Her grandfather was a native of Scotland, and her father, Cyrus Mackey, 
of North Carolina, who came to Missouri in an early day and was mar- 
ried, in Pike County, to Miss Charlotta Jones, a native of Tennessee. She 
now lives in Pike County, Missouri. Mr. James Blair was married 
April 8, 1852, to Miss Emeline Jasper. Twelve children were the fruit 
of this union, ten of whom are now living : Dr. F., William D., Truston, 
Lena B., Anna E., Minnie M., Robert and Mattie (twins), James and 
Walter. Mrs. Blair's father, Merrill Jasper, was a native of Kentucky, 
and he was there married to Miss Elizabeth Shepherd, a native of Ken- 
tucky. They moved to Missouri in an early day, and lived in Pike 
County till about 1844, when they came to Holt County. Mr. Jasper died 
in August, 1845, and Mrs. Jasper in March, 1873.- They had a family of 
six children, Mrs. Blair being the second child. 



150 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

JACOB BOHART, 

farmer, section 34, is the son of Philip Bohart, who was a native of 
Germany, and who came to America when about eight years of age. 
He was married in Buchanan County, Missouri, to Miss Martha Russell, 
who was born in South Carolina. They had a family of ten children, 
Jacob being the fourth. He was born in Buchanan County, Missouri, 
July 25, 1845. When he was eleven years of age his parents moved to 
Holt County, Missouri, where he has since resided. He has followed 
farming as an occupation during life, and now has a farm of one hundred 
and sixty acres. He was married February 15, 1868, to Martha A. 
Gibson, a native of Holt County, Missouri, born April 20, 1849. Her 
parents were John and Sarah Gibson, the former a native of England, 
and the latter of Kentucky. Their family consists of one child, Anna 
E. Mr. and Mrs. B. are members of the Christian church. 

JOHN R. BRINK, 

■ 

of the firm of Brink & Spencer, editors and proprietors of the Mound 
City News, was born near Chillicothe, Ross County, Ohio, September 27, 
1856. His father, John Q. Brink, was also a native of Ross County, Ohio, 
and was there married to Miss Mary J. Cryder, of Ross County. They 
had five children, John R. being the second in the family. In 1865, the 
family moved to Missouri, and located in Nodaway Count)-. John's boy- 
hood days were passed on a farm, in a dry goods store and in school, he 
receiving an excellent education, which ably qualified him for a teacher, 
and he began the occupation of teaching when about eighteen years of 
age, and followed the profession principally for about five years. Janu- 
ary 28, 1880, he came to Mound City, and purchased a half interest in 
the Mound City News. Mr. Brink was married October 5, 1880, to Miss 
Helen Kavanaugh, the third child in a family of seven children. She was 
born near Maryville, in Nodaway County, Missouri, her father, Nicholas 
Kavanaugh, being a native of Kentucky. Her mother's maiden name 
was Serepta Saunders, and she was a native of Virginia. Messrs. Brink 
& Spencer are publishers of a live, interesting and spicy paper, and being 
the only firm not using a patent sheet, are enjoying a large circulation. 

NAPOLEON AND JAMES BROWNING, 

farmers, section 19, are both natives of Clark County, Kentucky, Napo- 
leon having been born December 22, 1835, and Jameson the 4th of June, 
1844. Their father, Francis C. Browning, was born in Clark County, 
Kentucky, June 11, 1798, and was married in the same county to Miss 
Nancy Johnson, who was born in Clark County, Kentucky, May 29, 



BENTON TOWNSHIP I 5 I 

1806. They moved to Missouri in the year 1846, locating in Platte 
County, and in the spring of 1848 they came to Holt County, where 
Francis C. Browning died, in March, 1853. They had a 'family of nine 
children, seven of whom are now living : Eda, Susan E., Almeda, William, 
Alwilda, Napoleon and James. Mrs. Browning now lives with James 
Browning, her youngest son, and owns a farm of 160 acres. Napoleon 
Browning is a member of Mound City Lodge No. 294, A. F. and A. 
M. He was married April 15, 1858, to Miss Margaret R. Wilson, a 
daughter of Joseph Wilson. She was born in Hardy County, Virginia, 
December 23, 1842. Tney have six children : Lucy A., born June 10, 
1863 ; Annie V. L., born March 22, 1865 ; Elizabeth J., born October 
14, 1869 ; Frazer, born July 21, 1870; Mary M., born January 6, 1875 ; 
Effie B., born April 21, 1878. Mr. and Mrs. B. are members of the 
Christian Church. He is an elder and trustee in that church. James 
Browning was married November 6, 1864, to Miss Millie Clark, a daugh- 
ter of Berry Clark, who was a native of Kentucky. Her mother's 
maiden name was Margaret Meek, also a native of Kentucky. Mrs. B. 
was born in Henry County, Kentucky, April 6, 1846. They have five 
children : Montgomery C, born September 29, 1865 ; William E., born 
March 16, 1870: Cora T., born June 22, 1872 ; James L., born February 
17, 1875, and Marian B., born August 22, 1878. 

GEORGE H. CARPENTER 

is an extensive dealer in harness and saddles. His grandfather, Sylves- 
ter G. Carpenter, was from New York, and was there married. Bishop 
Carpenter, the father of the subject of this sketch, was also a native of 
the same state, and was married to Miss Weddle, of New York, her 
parents being natives of England. George H. Carpenter was born in 
Warren County, New York, February 24, 1824. He was reared on a 
farm and was educated in the common schools of Warren County. In 
1846, he immigrated to Carroll County, Illinois, where he was engaged 
in farming till the fall of 1876, except during the years 1860-61, which 
time was spent in the mining country of California. In the fall of 1876, 
he came to Mound City, Mo., where he was occupied in the furniture 
business till January, 1881, when he began at his present calling, in 
which he is meeting with great success. He is the representative busi- 
ness man in his line of trade in this city. Mr. C. has been twice mar- 
ried : First, May I, 1846, to Miss Minerva Balcom, a daughter of Uriah 
and Patience Balcom, who were both natives of Vermont.* Mrs. Car- 
penter was born in Warren County, New York, in the year 1822, and 
died January I, 1868. They had four children, two of whom are now 
living, Augusta and Jenevia. He took for his second wife Miss Alice 
A. Morey, a daughter of George and Charlotte Morey, both natives of 



152 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

New York. Mrs. Carpenter was born in Warren County, New York, 
July 12, 1848. They have had two children, only one of whom is now 
living, George W. Mr. and Mrs. C. are members of the Presbyterian 
Church. 

T. EBEN COOPER, 

manufacturer of fine boots and shoes, is a son of Samuel Cooper, a 
native of New York, who in later life emigrated to Ohio, where he was 
married to Miss Matilda Pickard, a native of Ohio. They had a family 
of eight children, of whom T. Eben Cooper was the fifth. He was born 
in Andrew County, Missouri, November 9, 1854, and was reared and 
educated in his native county. When twelve years of age he began to 
learn his present trade in the town of Fillmore, which he continued till 
1875, when he disposed of his shop on account of failing health and went 
to Iowa. He was there engaged at his trade in different parts of the 
State till February 1876, when he came to Mound City, and since then 
has been interested in his present business and is one of the most suc- 
cessful men in his line in Northwest Missouri. He is well known to this 
vicinity as a first-class mechanic, and gives general satisfaction to all 
his customers. Mr. Cooper was married November 9, 1876, to Miss 
Martha L. Gregory, a daughter of Rufus R. Gregory, a native of Ken- 
tucky. Her mother's maiden name was Mary Crawford, a native of 
Ohio. Mrs. C. was born in Lewis County, Kentucky, March 6, 1852. 
They have had two children, and of these one is living, Ernest. Mr. 
and Mrs. C. are members of the M. E. Church. 

CHARLES K. CORSAUT, 

of the firm of Corsaut & Meyer, merchants, is a native of London, 
Ontario and was born September 2, 185 1. He is the youngest child in 
a family of eleven children, and was a son of James Corsaut, who was a 
native of New York. His mother's maiden name was Millie Farrar, a 
native of Massachusetts. Charles was reared in his native city till he 
attained his fourteenth year, receiving his education in the Helmoth 
College. He also attended the London Commercial College, from which 
institution he was graduated in the year 1869. The principal part of his 
time, from the age of sixteen till the year 1874, he was engaged in 
teaching school and keeping books for lumber firms on the Lake Shore 
and Michigan Southern Railroad. In 1874 he came to Mound City and 
was occupied in teaching till 1876, when he accepted a clerkship of W. 
M. Hamsher & Co. This he continued two years, and was then for one 
year associated in the business as one of the firm. In February, 1880, 
he became a member of his present firm, which occupied their new 
building December 1, 1881. He is a member of Mound City Lodge, 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 53 

No. 294, A. F. and A. M.; also the Keystone Chapter, of Mound City. 
Mr. Corsaut was married January 7, 1880, to Miss Maggie, a daughter 
of Andrew Meyer, Esq. She was born in Holt County, Missouri, June 
18, 1856, and died May 9, 1881. They had one child, Maggie N. 

AMER CRANNELL, 

dealer in grain, buggies, spring wagons, etc., was born in Hadley, Sara- 
toga County, New York, February II, 1838. He was the fifth of a family 
ofnine children. His father, Elijah Crannell, was a farmer, and his 
mother's maiden name was Mary Lord. He received a limited educa- 
tion in the common schools of the country, and was raised to habits of 
industry, working the greater part of his early life on a farm. In Decem- 
ber, 1856, he left his native home and emigrated west, landing in Jack- 
son County, Iowa, where he engaged in farming till 1861. In the spring 
of that year he crossed the plains with an ox team, and reached Oriville, 
California, in September following. In the last week of that month he 
enlisted in the Second California Cavalry, U. S. service, and went with 
his troop to San Francisco, where he was duly sworn in, and with his 
command, Company D., repaired to New San Pedro, California, where 
they established a camp. They remained there till June, 1862, when 
they moved to Camp Latham, six miles up the coast, about eighteen 
miles from Los Angeles. In the three years which he remained in the 
service, his command was frequently engaged with the Indians. The lat- 
ter they removed finally to a reservation near Fort Tejon. Company 
D., of the Second California Cavalry, during their campaign in this 
country, established Fort Independence, in Owen River Valley. They 
continued to operate against the Indians and rebels of that country till 
October, 1864, when they were ordered to San Francisco, where they 
were mustered out. This closed the military career of the subject of 
this sketch, who filled, at different times during the period of his service, 
the positions of farrier and commissary sergeant. In March, 1865, he 
left California and returned home by way of Panama, arriving at his 
home in Icwa on the day of the assassination of President Lincoln. In 
1869 he married, in Iowa, Miss Cornelia E. Bates, daughter of David B. 
Bates. By this marriage he has five children living, four sons and one 
daughter. In December, 1871, Mr. Crannell moved with his family to 
Maryville, Missouri, and thence, in 1872, to Mound City, Missouri, where 
he has since continued to reside, pursuing, in the meantime, various 
branches of business, and contributing to the growth and advancement 
of that important commercial center, of which he is recognized as a rep- 
resentative and eminently pop.ular citizen. He established, in partner- 
ship with J. F. Davis, the first exclusive hardware store in Mound City, 
and subsequently the first extensive harness factory. He is no longer 
identified with either of these interests. 



154 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

CHARLES CRAWFORD, 

farmer, section 20, is a native of Ireland, and was born in the year 1834. 
When fifteen years of age he emigrated to America, after which he was 
engaged in various employments, in many different States. In 1856 he 
located in Holt County, Missouri, where he has since been engaged in 
farming, and now has a farm of one hundred and eighty-one 'acres. 
During the war he served in the militia for about nine months. Decem- 
ber 8, 1 861, Mr. C. was married to Miss Margaret R. Collins, who was 
born in Holt County, Missouri, in October, 1844. They have had nine 
children, of whom are now living three boys and four girls : William, 
James, Hattie M., Minnie I., Rebecca L., Myrtie E. and Oscar. 

CAPTAIN DAVID T. CUMMINS, 

farmer, section 30, was born in Crawford County, Ohio, July 30, 1839. 
His father, George Cummins, was a native of Pennsylvania, and was 
married in Ohio, to Miss Carolina Hoblitzell, who was a native of Ohio. 
They had a family of fifteen children, David T. being the seventh child. 
He was reared on a farm, and was educated in his native county, and in 
April, 1861, enlisted in Company I, of the three months' service under 
McClellan. He acted as first duty sergeant, after which he enlisted in 
Company H, Sixty-fourth Ohio Infantry, organized by John Sherman, 
and known as Sherman's brigade. He remained in service till October 
24, 1864, when he was mustered out as captain. He was wounded June 
18, 1864, at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, for which he draws a pen- 
sion. After he returned from service, Mr. C. remained in Ohio till the 
spring of 1865, when he came to Missouri and located in Holt County, 
where he has since resided except for about eighteenth months, when he 
was in Brown County, Kansas. During the years 1867-8 he was engaged 
in the mercantile trade in Oregon. He now has a farm of 160 acres, on 
which he located in December, 1878. He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and also belongs to the I. O. O. F. Captain Cummins was 
married February 25, 1864, to Miss Jennie Dixon. They have three 
children : Charley Sherman, Phil Sheridan, Zella Dixon. Mrs. C. was 
born in Crawford County, Ohio, August 28, 1848. Her parents, John 
and Margaret (Robinson) Dixon, were both natives of Ohio. Mrs. C. 
was reared and educated in her native county, and graduated from the 
Springfield Female Seminary in June, 1863. 

JONAS B. DENNY, 

dealer in drugs and druggists' sundries, was born in Washington County, 
Indiana, March 12, 1844. He is a son of Christopher H. and Phoebe 
(Wright) Denny, who were both natives of the same county as himself. 



r.ENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 55 

Jonas was educated in Washington County, and there resided on a farm 
till 1862, when he enlisted in Company E, Fifth Indiana Cavalry, of the 
Ninetieth Regiment, and remained in service till June, 1865. He was 
then mustered out, as regimental bugler, having been in many important 
battles, after which he returned to his native county. In the spring of 
1866 he came to Missouri, and located in Holt County, and was engaged 
in farming till 1872, when he located in Corning and embarked in the 
mercantile trade, as one of the firm of Denny Brothers & Co. They con- 
tinued to sell goods in that town for two years, when they moved their 
stock to Milton, Atchisbn County. In 1878 Mr. Denny sold his interest 
and came to Mound City, since which time he has been engaged in sell- 
ing drugs, having occupied his present place of business, in Meyer's Opera 
House, since October 26, 1881. He is also agent for the Buckeye reaper 
and mower. He is a member of Mound City Lodge, No. 294, A. F. and 
A. M. Mr. Denny was married December 16, 1869, to Miss Mariah L. 
Rayhill, a daughter of Jacob Rayhill, who was a native of Indiana. Her 
mother's maiden name was Margaret Morris, also a native of Indiana. 
Mrs. Denny was born in Washington County, March 28, 1849, an< ^ came 
to Holt County, Missouri, in the year 1865. They have a family ot three 
child en : Orrie E., Arthur J. and Nell K. Mr. and Mrs. D. are mem- 
bers of the Christian Church. 

LEVI DODGE, 

proprietor of the Pool of Siloam, is a descendant of Caleb Dodge, who 
was a native of New Hampshire, and who was there married to Miss 
Elizabeth Woodberry. Edward Dodge, the father of the subject of this 
sketch, was also born in New Hampshire, and, with the family, emigrated 
to Maine, where he was married to Miss Loraine Dand, a native of 
Maine. Levi Dodge was born in Waldo County, Maine, July 5, 1814, 
and the same year the family moved to Athens County, Ohio, and, in 
fall of 1837, to Clinton County, Missouri. He was married in Athens 
County, Ohio, January 12th, 1834, to Sarah Hursey. She was born in 
Maine, February 8, 1813, and was a daughter of Ariel Hursey, a Free 
Will Baptist preacher, who had moved to Athens County, Ohio, in 18 14. 
Mr. Dodge was engaged in farming, in Clinton County, till 1850, when 
he moved to Filmore, Andrew County, and, in the fall of 1852, settled 
on Squaw Creek, in Holt County, on the farm now occupied by John 
Schrautz. He was one of the earliest settlers in this part of Missouri, 
and made the first path between there and Graham. During a a part of 
1853 he sold goods at Graham, and kept the first post office ever estab- 
lished in the place ; not having any mail carrier, he made up a subscrip- 
tion, amounts from one cent and upwards being given. Removing to 
Nebraska, in 1854, Mr. D. kept a trading post at the falls of Nemaha, 



156 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

having no one but Indians for his associates. In 1856, he was in busi- 
ness on the old California trail, in Kansas. In 1857 and 1858 he wasl 
engaged in a speculative enterprise at Winnebago, Nebraska, which 
proved unsuccessful, and, in the fall of 1859, ne returned to Holt County j 
where he has since resided. During eighteen years he has moved seven- 
teen times. He was engaged in farming till 1876, when he moved tol 
Mound City, with the intention of living a retired life, but has sincej 
made many improvements to the town. In 1876, he discovered medical 
properties in his mineral well, and, in 1877, he prepared a pool, which 
he named the - Pool of Siloam, and commenced the erection of a bath 
room. During the summer of 1878, at a very great expense, he made 
the present Pool of Siloam, the water being supplied by springs. 
Adjoining this is a beautiful park, adorned with shade trees and shrub- 
bery. He has, in the present (1882) year, erected a hotel on the upper 
bank of the park, which is occuped by Dr. Pool as an infirmary. The 
analysis of the water, which was made in the fall of 1879, may be seen 
in other parts of our history. Mr. Dodge is one of the leading and 
most prominent citizens in Holt County, and deserves much credit from 
the people of Mound City, for the interest he has taken in the advance- 
ment of the town. Mrs. Dodge died January 14, 1879. They had four 
children, only one of whom is living, Gilbert M. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM F. DRAKE 

is principal of the public schools of Mound City. In order that a 
country, city or town may advance and become known as an enlightened 
community, nothing is more essential than the educational advantages 
which it affords, and to have good schools, it is very necessary that the 
educators should be competent to fill the position for which they are 
employed ; but to do this energy and enterprise must exist. The citizens 
of Mound City may well feel proud of the man who now so ably fills the 
position of principal of their schools, for he is a man admirably adapted 
to that calling. The grandfather of the subject of this sketch, Stout 
Drake, was a native of New Jersey, and when sixteen years of age 
emigrated with his father ( who was a native of England ) to Kentucky. 
He was married in the latter State to Miss Huldah Pangbern. They 
emigrated from Kentucky to Ohio in 1810, and located in Brown County, 
where Jonathan S. Drake, the father of William was born. He was there 
married to Miss Eleanor Martin, a daughter of Joel Martin, who was a 
native of West Virginia. Her mother's maiden name was Jennie Brown, 
a native of Virginia. Eleanor Drake was born in Brown County, Ohio. 
She and her husband now live in Ohio. Prof. William F. Drake was the 
second child in a family of eighteen children. He was born in Brown 
County, Ohio, November 16, 1840, and was there reared, receiving the 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 57 

advantages of the common schools. He afterwards attended Holbrook's 
National Normal of Lebanon, Ohio, and while not in school passed his 
time on alarm. October 21, 1862 he enlisted in Company K., Fifty-ninth 
Ohio Infantry, and remained in service till the close of the war, after 
which time he came to Missouri and located in Sheridan County. There 
he was engaged in teaching till 1870, when he entered the State Normal 
School at Kirksville as a student, and from that institution he was 
graduated in 1872, being a member of the first class graduating in the 
institution. In 1872 he was elected principal of the public schools of 
Oregon, Holt County, Missouri, and continued to occupy that position 
for two years, when he was elected principal of the public schools of Rock 
Port, Atchison County. These schools he conducted with great satis- 
faction to the community till 1880, when he was called to his present 
position. During the last four years of his stay in Atchison County, he 
was school commissioner of the county. Since coming to Mound City, 
Prof. Drake has not only been interested in his school, but in various 
improvements of the town, having erected a fine resicence. He was 
married February 5, 1874, to Amelia C. Kreek, a daughter of T. I. Kreek, 
now of Oregon, Missouri, and who was a native of Maryland. Her 
mother's maiden name was Elizabeth Jackson, a native of Pennsylvania. 
Mrs. Drake was the second child in a family of ten children, and was 
born in Oregon, Holt County, Missouri, August 5, 1855. She was there 
reared, educated and married. Prof. D. is a member of the Christian 
Church, and Mrs. D. of the M. E. Church. 

P. S. DURHAM, 

of the firm of Durham & Mounts, proprietors of livery and feed stable, is 
the son of Joseph Durham, who emigrated from Kentucky to Indiana, 
where he was married to Margaret Ricker, a native of Tennessee. P. S. 
Durham is the oldest of a family of six children, and was born in Indi- 
ana, October 16, 1837. When but eleven years of age, he left his father's 
home, his mother having died a short time previous, and went to Mercer 
County, Illinois, where he found himself to be among strangers. He 
worked on a farm in Mercer County, and attended the common schools 
of that vicinity, and in the fall of 1 870, came to Holt County, Missouri, 
where he was engaged in farming till 1877, when he moved to Mound 
City. Since that time he has been engaged in his present business. He 
was also for some time in the hotel business. Mr. D. is Junior Deacon 
of Mound City Lodge No. 294, A. F. and A. M. He has been three 
times married: First, June 25, 1857, to Miss Catharine Philips, of Indi- 
ana. She was born in the year 1834, and died in 1872. They had eight 
children, six of whom are living: Albion, Adda, Flora, Burt, Carrie and 
Alice. He took for his second wife Mrs. Fannie Elliott, of Indiana, her 



158 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

maiden name being Fannie Flemming. She died in the year 1875. They 
had one child, Jennie. Mr. Durham's third marriage occurred February 
6, 1876, to Mrs. Lucy Chambers. Her maiden name was Canada, and 
she was born in Illinois, December 23, 1832. They have one child, 
Florence. 

JOSEPH R. FERGUSON 

* 

is of the firm of Groves & Ferguson, dealers in general merchandise.! 
Joseph M. Ferguson, his grandfather, was born in Fayette County, Ken- 
tucky, and was there married to Miss Mary Young, a native of Jessa- 
mine County, of the same state. Richard Y. Ferguson, the father of 
Joseph R., was born in Jessamine County, Kentucky, and in 183 1 or 1832 
he came to Missouri and was married in Franklin County to Miss Mar- 
garet Chitwood, who was born in the same county. She was a daughter 
of Seth Chitwood, a native of Tennessee. Her mother's maiden name 
was Margaret Caldwell, who was born in Franklin County, Missouri. 
Joseph R. Ferguson, one of Mound City's most enterprising merchants, 
is the first child in a family consisting of seven children, and was born 
in Franklin - County, Missouri, August 8, 1851. He was educated in his 
native county, where he followed farming till March, 1875, when he 
came to Holt County, and located in Forest City. In the latter place 
he was engaged as clerk for Joseph Groves till January, 1880, when he 
became connected with the present firm, and in January, 1882, opened 
out their present store in Mound City. Mr. Ferguson wa"s married Feb- 
ruary 19, 1879, to Miss Amelia A. Murphy, who was born in Culpeper 
County, Virginia, May 23, 185 1, a daughter of James T. Murphy, also a 
native of Virginia. Her mother's maiden name was Helen Marshall, 
and she was born in Virginia. In 1856, the family moved to Missouri, 
locating in Franklin County. Mrs. F. was the second child in a family 
of eight children. Mr. and Mrs. Ferguson have one child, Robert M. 
They are members of the M. E. Church. 

ELWIN PORTER FORBES, 

farmer, section 19, was born in Columbus, New York, May 15, 1829. His 
grandfather was a native of England and early emigrated to America, 
first locating in Massachusetts, and, while in the revolutionary war, he 
was killed. Alfred Forbes, the father of E. P., was born in Massachu- 
setts, and, while his father was in the war, the family moved to Ver- 
mont, where he was married to Miss Zuliva Bell, a native of Vermont. 
Subsequently he went to New York. They had a family of nine children, 
E. P. being the eighth in number. When he was two years old the fam- 
ily moved to Pennsylvania and located in Corydon, and, in the spring 
of 1843, settled in Farmington, Iowa, where he lived till 1848, and then 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 59 

came to Holt County, Missouri. His father was a physician by profes- 
sion, but E. P. learned the blacksmith trade while in Farmington. This 
he commenced at Jackson's Poi nt, now Mound City, there at that time 
being no prospects of a town. Mr. F. helped to survey the town and 
worked at his trade for eighteen years. During the war he was in Iowa. 
In 1867 he moved on his farm, which now contains eighty acres, and near 
his residence he has a fine fish pond, which is well stocked with fish. 
He was the second postmaster in Mound City and held that position for 
five years. He was married in the spring of 1852 to Miss Hannah Por- 
ter, a native of Ohio, who died in the spring of 1858. They had three 
children, two of whom are now living, Alfred C. and Belvin. Plummer 
is deceased. Mr. Forbes was again married to Mrs. Dorathy Nicholson, 
January 22, 1860. Her maiden name was Hoover, and she was born in 
Hardy County, Virginia, February 12, 1826. When three years of age 
her parents, John and Sarah (Lykins) Hoover (both natives of Virginia), 
moved to Madison County, Indiana, and she was there married *to Will- 
iam Nicholson, January 22, 1846. He was born in Ohio, May 14, 1818, 
and died May 5, 1852. They had two children, Salona and Francis M. 
(now deceased). In 1855 she came to Holt County, Missouri, with her 
parents. 

GEORGE GILLIS, 

one of the most prominent and successful pioneers of Holt County, 
is a son of Jonathan Gillis and Dollie, nee Oldfield, both natives 
of the State of New York. George Gillis was born in Steuben 
County, New York, July 23, 1808. When he was about ten years 
of age his parents started for the State of Ohio, their mode of trans- 
portation to the Alleghany River being by team. There they pur- 
chased a boat and went by water to the Sciota, and located in Sciota 
County, where George grew to manhood. He received but a limited 
education. He was married, February 14, 1834, to Miss Elizabeth 
Dodge, a sister of Levi Dodge, also now a prominent citizen of Holt 
County, Missouri, and whose sketch appears elsewhere. She .was born 
in Athens County, Ohio, December 13, 1817. Mr. Gillis lived in Athens 
County two years, when he moved by ox team, to LaPorte County, 
Indiana. Not being contented to settle in the swamps which then 
existed in that locality, he returned, at the end of one year, to Athens 
County, Ohio, and from there emigrated by team, in 1836, to Missouri, 
and located in Clinton County. Since the fall of 1843 he has been a cit- 
izen of Holt county, except for three years during the war, when he lived 
in Mills County, Iowa. During that conflict he was neutral, trying to 
attend to his own affairs and not meddle with outsiders. Mr. Gillis has 
followed farming and dealing in stock as an occupation during life. He 
was one of the first to engage in the stock business in Holt County, and 



i6o 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 



has been one of the most successful men in that industry. Being one of 
the pioneers, he had many hardships 'to endure, as is customary in the 
settlement of a new country. When he began life for himself he was 
poor, but by his own labor and business management he has accumu- 
lated considerable wealth. His landed estate, at the present time, con- 
sists of 600 acres. He has never held or sought after office, and is a 
member of no secret society. He has raised a family of ten children, 
all but one of whom are still living. The children are as follows: 
Edward, Laurany (now deceased), Levi, Margaret, Pollie, Wayne, 
George, Robert, Cynthia, and Delia, who is the only one at home. 

EDWARD GILLIS, 

stock dealer and breeder of fine blooded cattle, section 24, is a son of 
George and Elizabeth (Dodge) Gillis, and was born in Sciota County, 
Ohio, November 23, 1834. He resided with his parents in their various 
moves, and with them came to Holt County, Missouri, in October, 1844. 
Here he has since resided with the exception of one year, during which 
time he was in Iowa. He was reared on a farm, receiving the advant- 
ages of a common school education, and in 1855, he began clerking in a 
store, continuing the same in different houses till 1859, when he bought 
a stock of goods, and carried on business for himself in Mound City till 
1861. Since that time he has been interested in farming and dealing 
in stock, and has been one of the most successful stock men in the county. 
He was among the very first to invest in blooded stock, making his first 
purchase of thoroughbreds in February, 1872. His landed estate con- 
sists of 1,000 acres, 760 acres joining where he lives. His residence is 
one of the finest in the county, and was erected in 1871, being located 
within two and three-quarters miles of Mound City. He is a member of 
Mound City Lodge No. 294, A. F. and A. M., Keystone Chapter No. 
46, and also belongs to the I. O. O. F. fraternity. Mr. Gillis was married 
January 6, 1863, to Miss Amanda Moore, a daughter of Mr. S. Moore, a 
native of Shenandoah County, Virginia. Her mother's maiden name was 
Clarissa Skeen, a native of Rockingham County, Virginia. Mrs. G. was 
born in Clinton County, Indiana, August 1 1, 1837, and when seven years 
of age, her parents moved to Andrew County, Missouri, and two years 
after came to Holt County. They have eight children, seven girls and 
one boy : Kittie, George B., Clara, Debia, Sadie, Fannie, Charlie and 
Bettie. Having quite a family of girls, Mr. Gillis has chosen the plan of 
educating them at home by employing a teacher and using one room of 
his residence for the school room. He now has one of the best of 
instructors, and the school is conducted in the same manner as the com- 
mon schools of the county. 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. l6l 

JOHN H. GLENN 

is a member of the firm of R. C. Glenn & Co., extensive dealers in fur- 
niture. They also have in an adjoining room the leading drug store in 
the city. Their business is carried on in the first building erected in 
Holt County, having an iron front. The subject of this sketch is one of 
the most prominent citizens of this place, and was born in Gallia 
County, Ohio, May 23, 18 18. His grandfather, William Glenn, at a very 
early period, emigrated from Virginia to Ohio, and was one of the 
pioneers of the southern part of the state, he having made his home 
there when thr county was a wilderness, inhabited by only a few scat- 
tering persons. John's father, George Glenn, was born in Virginia, and 
was a small boy flirhen he came to Ohio with his father. He married 
Nancy Carlisle, a native of Virginia, and John H. Glenn vvas the eldest 
child by this marriage. He grew to manhood in Gallia County, Ohio, 
receiving such an education as the schools ot those early days afforded. 
When at the age of twenty-two years, or January 1, 1840, he was mar- 
ried to Jane Dupre, who belonged to a family of French descent, and 
whose ancesters formerly resided on the Isle of Jersey. After his mar- 
riage Mr. G. continued to live in Southern Ohio, and was engaged in 
farming and milling in the counties of Gallia and Highland till i860, 
when he drifted westward and located in Holt County, Missouri. He 
purchased land in Whig Valley, one of the most fertile and beautiful 
farming districts in the county, where he resided till 1870. During the 
war he remained on his farm and took.no active part in the struggle, 
though he sympathized with the Union side. In 1868 he was elected 
the representative from Holt County in the General Assembly and took 
his seat in the legislature at an important period in the history of the 
state. He served at Jefferson City during the winters of 1868-69 anc * 
1869-70, and represented his constituents in a creditable and conscien- 
tious manner. In 1870 he gave up farming and removed to Mound 
City, where he has since resided. He has had five children, four of 
whom are now living : Addison N., Sheherzada Angeline (now 
deceased), George P., Nancy J. (wife of William Mackay), and R. C. 
Glenn. Whether or not the name of "Whig Valley" offered any 
inducements for Mr. Glenn to settle in that locality when he first came 
to Holt County, the fact nevertheless remains that in politics he was 
originally an old line Whig and an ardent supporter of Whig prin- 
ciples and policy as long as the party of Clay and Harrison remained 
in existence. He deposited his first vote for president for General Har- 
rison, the Whig candidate, in the celebrated " log cabin and hard cider " 
campaign of 1840, when the whole country, particularly Ohio, the home 
of Harrison, was ablaze with excitement and good humored log 

cabin processions and jovial barbecues carried the hero of Tippe- 

11 



l62 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

noe into the presidential chair. Mr. Glenn became a Republican on 
the formation of that party and has since been one of its supporters, 
following the example of most of the old Ohio Whigs in becoming the 
bone and sinew of the new Republican party, and has taken an active 
interest in political affairs and contributed to the success of that party 
in Holt County. 

ADDISON N. GLENN, 

son of John H. Glenn, was born in Gallia County, Ohio, September 16, 
1839, and is the oldest child of his father's family. He resided with his 
parents, in different locations, and, in December, 1861, enlisted in Com- 
pany H, Twenty-fifth Missouri Infantry, remaining in service till Novem- 
ber 18, 1864, having served in the armies of the Tennessee and the Cumber- 
land. He participated in a number of important battles, and was mustered 
out as First Lieutenant of Company M, First Regiment of Missouri En- 
gineering Corps. Mr. Glenn then returned to Holt County, Missouri and 
located on a farm, where he resided till the spring of 1866, since which 
time he has been engaged in various branches of business in Mound City. 
For a period he held the position of postmaster. He was married May 24, 
1868, to Miss Arville A. Evans, a daughter of John T. Evans, a native of 
Virginia. Her mother's maiden name was Frances C. Higley, a native of 
Canada. Mrs. G. was born in Holt County, Missouri, January 22, 1841. 
Thev have one child, A. Theresa. 

SAMUEL GLICK, 

farmer, section 22, was born in Shenandoah County, Virginia, January 
2, 1835. His grandfather, John Glick, was a native of Maryland, and 
Joseph Glick, his father, was born in Virginia. He was there married to 
Miss Susan Wampler, who was a Virginian by birth. They had a family 
of nine children, Samuel being the eighth in number. He was reared 
in his native county, and was educated in the town of New Market. In 
1857, he came to Holt County, Missouri. He has followed farming dur- 
ing life, and now has a landed estate of 476 acres. He (Mr. Glick) was 
married December 25, 1861, to Miss Martina Pearson. Four children 
were the fruit of this union : Achsah S., Anna B., Emma F., and Geo. 
W. Mrs. Glick was born in Buchanan County, Missouri, April 20, 1841. 
Her father, James Pearson, was a native of Kentucky. Her mother's 
maiden name was Achsah Jenkins, a native of Tennessee. Mr. and 
Mrs. G. are members of the German Baptist Church. 

JACOB GROESBECK 

was born in Renssellaer County, New York, November 28, 1821. His 
ancesters were of German descent. His father was Herman Groesbeck, 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 163 

and his mother's maiden name was Mary Bovee. Young Groesbeck 
lived in his native county till 1835, when with his mother he moved to 
Chautauqua County of the same State, his father at that time being- 
deceased. In the Spring of 1840 he went to Springfield, Illinois, where 
he worked about four years, and afterwards moved to Galena, Illinois. 
There he began work in the lead mines. Till the year 185 1 he made his 
home in Galena and Springfield, and about 185 1 he located permanently 
in Peoria County, Illinois, where he engaged in farming. In May, 185 1, 
Mr. Groesbeck was married to Mary J., a daughter of Jesse and Lizzie 
Darby. The former was a native of Ohio, and died in Atchison County, 
Missouri. Mrs. G. was born in Wayne County, Kentucky, December 21, 
1834. In the year 1857 he removed from Illinois to Nebraska, and 
located near Peru, where he was occupied in farming, owning nearly 500 
acres of land. In 1862 he moved to Atchison County, Missouri, and in 
1870 came to Holt County, where he has since continued to live. He 
now owns a large tract of land adjoining Mound City, it being one of the 
oldest farms in that part of the county, having been settled in 1840 or 
1841. A postoffice was formerly kept there by Andrew Jackson and 
was called Jackson's Point. It was afterwards known as North Point. 
Mr. G.'s family consists of: Elizabeth, born March 12, 1857; Jacob A., 
born November 17, 1858; Francis A., born March 29, 1864; Melissa, born 
November 8, 1861; Hattie, born August 14, 1866; William A., born 
March 31, 1871; Charles H., born October 6, 1873; Luella, born Decem- 
ber 2, 1876. 

W. M. HAMSHER, 

dealer in general merchandise, is the youngest child in a family of 
eleven children, whose parents were John and Mary (Wunderlich) Ham- 
sher, both natives of Pennsylvania, and of German descent. W. M. 
was born in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, December 17, 1849. He 
was reared to habits of industry, spending his boyhood days on a farm, 
and receiving his education in his native county. When about sixteen 
years old, he began clerking in a store in Franklin County, which he con- 
tinued till the spring of 1S71, when he located in Monmouth, Illinois. 
After five months, he came to Holt County, Missouri, and was engaged 
in clerking, at Forest City, till 1874. At that time he came to Mound 
City, and embarked in his present business. Mr. Hamsher is a member 
of Mound City Lodge, No. 294, A. F. and A. M. He was married Octo- 
ber 12, 1875, to Miss Mary Luckhardt, a daughter of George Luckhardt. 
Her mother's maiden name was Harriet VanLunen, and they were both 
natives of Germany. Mrs. Hamsher was born in Johnstown, Pennsyl- 
vania, August 5, 1853. They have one child, Clarence F. Mr. H. is one 
of the most energetic men of the city, and thoroughly deserves his 
success. 



164 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

MILTON HERRON 

is a leading carpenter and contractor of Mound City. His grandfather, 
Francis Herron, was married in Ireland to Miss Mary Graham. They 
were both natives of that land, and after their marriage they emigrated 
to America and located in Pennsylvania, where their son John, (the 
father of Milton Herron) was born, in the year 1799. He now resides in 
Holt County, Missouri, and draws a pension for having served during the 
war of 18 12, for three years and seven months. He was married in 
Pennsylvania to Miss Mary Gamble, a native of Pennsylvania. Milton 
Herron was born in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, September 15, 1829, 
and was the eldest of a family of six children. When he was about four 
years old his parents located in Harrison County, Ohio, where he was 
reared and educated. His father was a shoemaker by trade, and Milton 
was reared to learn that industry. When he attained his eighteenth 
year he went to Morgan County, Ohio, where he followed the carpen- 
ter's trade till 1865, then going to Pent Water, Oceana County, Mich- 
igan. While there he worked at carpentering one year, and from 
thence, in 1866, he moved to Mankato, Minnesota. In 1868 he came to 
Holt County, Missouri, and until 1870 lived in Oregon, soon after loca- 
ting in Mound City. He has principally followed the carpenter trade 
since he left Ohio, and for six months during the war he was employed 
by the government as a carpenter, being stationed at Johnsonville, 
Tennessee. Mr: H. is a member of the I. O. O. F. fraternity. He was 
married May 29, 1853, to Miss Sarah Israel, a native of Morgan County, 
Ohio. She was born in the year 1833, and died in 1863. They had three 
children, there being only one now living, Lomira, who is a teacher in 
the Mound City Public Schools. Mr. Herron's second marriage occur- 
red January 19, 1864, to Miss Mary E. Tavenner, who was born in Vir- 
ginia in 1839. Mr. and Mrs. H. are members of the M. E. Church, and 
he has been a liberal contributor to that denomination, having erected 
the church of Mound City in 1878, for which he is deserving of much 
credit. 

WILLIAM T. HIATT, 

liveryman and proprietor of the Hiatt House, and is a grandson of 
William Hiatt, who was a native of Pennsylvania. He was there mar- 
ried, and there he had born a son, Stephen Hiatt, the father of the sub- 
ject of this sketch. Stephen emigrated to Ohio and thence to Kentucky, 
where he was married, in Brown County, to Miss Lucy Morris, a native 
of Kentucky. William T. Hiatt, the fifth in a family of twelve children, 
was born in Greenup County, Kentucky, September 8, 1826. The days 
of his youth he improved as a farmer boy, in his native county, and in 
1841 he went to Indiana. In the following spring Louisa County, Iowa, 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. l6$ 

became his home, where he resided till 1845, when he moved to Des 
Moines County, of the same state. In that locality he continued to re- 
side till 18s 1, when he settled in Mercer County, Illinois. While in Iowa 
he was engaged in the wood business on the Mississippi River, except 
during the last four years, which time was spent in farming. While in 
Illinois he was in various branches of business, connected with machin- 
ery, corn-shelling, etc. In 1866 he emigrated from Mercer County, Illi- 
nois, to Holt County, Missouri, and located on a farm, and, in 1873, he 
moved to Mound City. Since that time he has been in the livery busi- 
ness. Previous to the building of the railroad through Mound City he 
ran a transfer to Bigelow. In 1874 he embarked in the hotel business. 
Since he came to Mound City he has been a member of the town council 
for four years and a member of the school board three years. Mr. Hiatt 
was married in Des Moines County, Iowa, March 2, 1847, to Miss Susana 
Heaton, a daughter of Alexander Heaton, a native of Kentucky. Her 
mother's maiden name was Jemima Shaw, a native of New York. They 
now reside near Mound City, Missouri. Mrs. Hiatt is the third of a fam- 
ily of thirteen children, and was born in Brown County, Ohio, February 
1, 1832. She resided in her native county till eight years of age, when 
the family moved to Henderson County, Illinois, and, in the spring of 
1844, they moved to Des Moines County, Iowa. They have had twelve 
children, six of whom are living, Louisa, Alice J., John W., Wm. S., Mary 
E. and James T. 

WILLIAM HOBLITZELL 

is a member of three of the leading business firms of Mound City, lum- 
ber, hardware and dry goods houses. He was born in Richland County, 
October 29, 1833. His father, Adrian Hoblitzell, was a native of Mary- 
land, and his mother, formerly Elizabeth Dorland, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1842 they moved to Missouri, and located in Platte County. 
William was there engaged in farming till 1844, when he came to Holt 
County, and shortly afterward he began clerking in a store. He has 
since been engaged in mercantile pursuits at different locations. In 1856 
he was married to Miss Martha J. Burnett. They have two children, 
Nannie and Jennie. Mrs. H. was born near Knoxville, Tennessee, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1838. Her father, R. Burnett, was a native of Kentucky, and 
her mother, Nancy Burnett, nee Neal, of Tennessee. 

M. HOUSTON, 

dealer in and repairer of furniture. M. W. Houston, the father of the 
subject of this biography, was born in Kentucky and subsequently emi- 
grated to Indiana, where he was married to Miss Mary Grayson, a native 
of Tennessee. Mortimer Houston was born in Lawrence County, 



1 66 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Indiana, April 24, 1838. He was reared and educated in his native 
county, and when about seventeen years of age he began the trade of 
cabinet making. In 1857 the family moved to Iowa and located in Des 
Moines, where he completed his trade, which he followed in Des Moines 
till the beginning of the war in 1861. For six months during the year 
1863 he was sutler in the Twenty-third Iowa regiment, being obliged to 
return home on account of sickness. In the spring of 1864 Mr. H. moved 
to Missouri, and located in Savannah, Andrew County, where he worked 
at his trade till 1865, when he came to Holt County. Here he has since 
been engaged in various branches of business, among which are fruit 
growing and bee keeping, making a specialty at the present time of 
these industries. He has a farm near the city limits. His bees on an 
average furnish from three to five thousand pounds of honey per year. 
In October 1881 he opened his present store and is deserving of a liberal 
patronage from the people of his vicinity. Mr. H. was married January 
6, 1862 to Miss Maggie Buzick, who was born in Wapello County, Iowa, 
January 22, 1840. She is a daughter of Henry F. Buzick, a native of 
Ohio. Her mother's maiden name was Mary Ruckman, a native of 
Illinois. The family of Mr. and Mrs. H. consists of nine children, seven 
of whom are living, Henry M., Charles I., Irene, Leonard, Carl, Alice and 
Clarence. Mr. and Mrs. H. are members of the M. E. Church. 

WASH. HUTTON, 

farmer and stock dealer, section 28, township 61, range 31, postoffice 
Mound City, is a native of Pennsylvania, and was born in Luzerne 
County, July 20, 1827. His father, William Hutton, was also a native of 
Pennsylvania. His mother's maiden name was Elizabeth Bowman, a 
native of Pennsylvania. They had a family of six children, Wash, being 
the fifth child. When he was eleven years of age his parents moved to 
Lee County, Illinois, where he grew to manhood, and was there educa- 
ted. He followed farming in Illinois till the spring of 1 850, when he 
went to California and was there engaged in mining till the fall of 1854,' 
when he returned to Lee County, Illinois, and in the fall of 1865 he came 
to Holt County, Missouri, and located on the farm where he now resides. 
His landed estate consists of over 800 acres, most of which is well 
improved and well watered. He was married in October, 1855, to Miss 
Caroline Morgan. They have had six children, four now living : Adella, 
Elizabeth, Minnie F. and Walter L. Mrs. H. was born in Tazewell 
County, Illinois, December 10, 1830. Her father, Joshua Morgan, was 
born in Kentucky. Her mother's maiden name was Elizabeth Green, a 

native of Ohio. 

ALBERT H. JAMISON, 

attorney and notary public, is a descendant of Ephraim Jamison, who 
was born in Virginia, in the year 1790, and came to Missouri in the year 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 167 

1801. He was married to Clarissa Hinton, a native of Georgia, who was 
born in the year 1794. Her husband died in 1846, since which time she 
has resided with her son, Joseph W. Jamison, the father of Albert H. 
Jamison, who was a native of Missouri. He now resides in Callaway 
County, Missouri, where he was married to Miss Nancy R. Maupin, a 
native of Missouri. Her father, George Maupin, was born in Kentucky, 
and came to Missouri in the year 1803. There he was married to Nancy 
Miller. Albert H. Jamison, whose name heads this sketch, was the sec- 
ond child in a family of ten children, five girls and five boys. He was 
born in Hickory County, Missouri, October 21, 185 I, and, when ten years 
of age, with his parents, he moved to Callaway County, Missouri, where 
they resided till March, 1865. They then located in Audrain County, 
Missouri, and, eighteen months later, they returned to Callaway County, 
Missouri, where his father now resides, his mother being deceased. Al- 
bert secured the benefits of the common schools in the different locali- 
ties where he resided, and also attended the McGee College, of Macon 
County, four months and about fourteen months in the North Missouri 
State Normal, at Kirksville. His youth was spent on a farm and, in 
1870, he began teaching, in which he was principally engaged till 1877, 
when he commenced to study for his present profession. He was grad- 
uated, in 1878, from the law department of the State University, of 
Brownville, Missouri, and, in July of the same year, he entered upon his 
practice, in Brunot, Wayne County, Missouri, where he continued till 
October, 1879. Mr. J. then came to Mound City, where he has followed 
his profession with a considerable degree of success. He was married 
May 12, 1881, to Miss Mollie Renoe, a daughter of Baylis C. Renoe, a 
native of Missouri. Her mother's maiden name was Eliza Nevins, a na- 
tive of Missouri. Mrs. Jamison was born in Callaway County, Missouri, 
November 7, 1855. 

MERRILL JASPER, 

farmer, section 16, is a son of Merrill Jasper, Esq., and was born in Holt 
County, Missouri, October 3, 1845. His father was one of the early set- 
tlers in the county, and had a family of six children, the subject of this 
sketch being the youngest child. The lather died before the birth of 
Merrill. He was reared and educated in Holt County, and in 1867 he went 
to Omaha, where he was engaged as a clerk in a store for three years. He 
was then employed for three years as wood workman in the car shops 
of the Union Pacific Railroad, since which time he has been interested in 
farming. Mr. Jasper now has a farm of 1 18 acres, which is well improved. 
He was married May 11, 1871, to Miss Kittie Young, who was born in 
Barren County, Kentucky, September 23, 1845. They have two chil- 
dren, Alice B. and Nellie E. 



l68 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

C. G. JESSE, 

of the firm of Hoblitzell, Smith & Jesse, lumber dealers and dealers in 
general hardware, stoves and tinware, is the son of James Monroe and 
Amanda {nee Tinsley) Jesse, who were both natives of Kentucky. C. G. 
Jesse was born in Shelby County, Kentucky, April 20, 1854. He was 
reared in his native county, and there received the benefits of a common 
school education. When seventeen years of age he became engaged as 
clerk in a store, which position he continued to occupy in Kentucky till 
1874, whence came to Missouri and accepted a situation in Bigelow, 
Holt County. There he remained till 1877 when he came to Mound 
City and began dealing in lumber as a member of the firm of Hoblitzell 
& Jesse. They did business under that firm name till January 1882, 
when Mr. Smith became associated with the company, and at the same 
time they embarked in the hardware business, and have been having a 
successful trade. Mr. Jesse was married April 1 1, 1877 to Miss Nannie 
Hoblitzell, a daughter of Mr. William Hoblitzell. They have had two 
children, one of whom is living, Edna M. 

HENRY KUNKEL, 

(deceased), was born in York County, Pennsylvania, December 11, 181 1. 
His father, Henry, was a native of Pennsylvania, and was there married 
to Miss Anna Miller, of the same state. The grandfather of the subject 
of this sketch was also named Henry, and he was a native of Hesse, 
and came to America as a British soldier in the Revolutionary War. 
Henry Kunkel, whose name heads this narrative, was a carpenter by 
trade, and followed that occupation during life. When about twelve 
years of age he immigrated to Richland County, Ohio, where, on the 
1st of June, 1835, he was married to Miss Barbara Acton. She was born 
in Charles County, Maryland, August 25, 1816. Her paternal ancestors 
held the name of Henry Acton for three generations back, and for two 
generations were natives of Maryland. The third was of English extrac- 
tion. Her mother's maiden name was Mary Padgett, a native of Charles 
County, Maryland. Mr. Kunkel and his family lived in Ohio till 1847, 
when they came to Missouri and located in Holt County. Here he 
resided till the time of his death, which occurred October 4, 1879. They 
had a family of ten children, seven of whom are now living : Jacob, 
James H., Nancy A., John, Julia A., Mary A. and Darius W. Mr. Kun- 
kel was a member of the Evangelical Church. He left a farm of 240 
acres, and since his death Mrs. K, with the assistance of James H. and 
her youngest son, has carried on the farm. James H. Kunkel was born 
in Richland County, Ohio, May 4, 1840. He now has in his possession 
a farm of eighty acres. The Mineral Springs were discovered on the 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 69 

farm of Mr. Henry Kunkel in February, 1872, while he was prospecting 
for coal, the analysis being given elsewhere. There has also been 
plowed up, on this place, many wonderful articles, supposed to have 
been burned in a furnace in ages past. 

DR. WILLIAM A. LONG, 

farmer, section 29, is the son of David Long, who was a native of Frank- 
lin County, Pennsylvania. He was there married to Miss Catharine 
Shoemaker, of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and, at an early day, 
emigrated to Ohio. William A. Long, the fourth child in a family of 
seven children, was born in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, January 22, 
1838. He was there reared and educated and, in the fall of 1861, he en- 
listed in Company K, 158th Pennsylvania Infantry, remaining in service 
till the spring of 1863. He participated in many important battles. In 
the fall of 1864 he began the study of dentistry, which he continued for 
two years, and was afterwards engaged in the practice of his profession, 
in Franklin and Cumberland Counties, till 1870, when he went to 
Kosciusko County, Indiana. There he resumed his practice for eighteen 
months, after which he located in Marshall County, Illinois, and, in a 
short time, came to Holt County, settling on his present tarm, where he 
has since resided. He has also been practicing his profession in connec- 
tion with farming. His farm, contains 160 acres, on which is located a 
fine residence. He has just completed a fish pond, which covers an acre 
of ground, and is surrounded by a row of shade trees, and is well stocked 
with Government fish. The doctor is a member of the Masonic frater- 
; nity, and also belongs to the I. O. O. F. He was married March 21, 1871, 
to Miss Elizabeth Swanger, a native of Franklin County, Pennsylvania. 
She died in the year 1874. They had two children, both of whom are 
deceased. Dr. Long was again married January 2, 1877, to Mrs. Anna 
Griffeth, formerly Miss Anna Meyer, a daughter of Andrew Meyer. She 
was born in Holt County, Missouri. They have two children, Thomas 
A. and Hadessa. 

GEORGE M. McKINNEY 

is a prominent blacksmith and wagonmaker in Mound City. His father,. 
Mathew McKinney, was born in Pennsylvania and emigrated to Ohio, 
where he was married to Miss Louisa Wilson, a native of Maryland. 
By this union there were five children born, of which George M. was 
the youngest. He was born in Guernsey County, Ohio, August 2, 1839, 
and there received the benefits of a common school education. During 
the days of his youth he assisted his father, who was by occupation a 
blacksmith, at his trade, and later in life he became a thorough master 
Df the business, following the same in Ohio till 1862. He then wended 



I70 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

his way to Washington Territory, and in the fall of the same year he 
returned as far as Omaha, Nebraska, where he worked at the anvil for 
eighteen months. At the end of that time, or in the spring of 1864, he 
went to Nebraska City, and there resumed his chosen calling till Jan- 
uary, 1865, when he returned to Ohio, and in September, 1866, he again 
started for the west. After spending a short time in Illinois and Iowa, 
he located at Forest City, Holt County, Missouri, in December of that 
year, and in the following spring went to Richville, Missouri, where he 
started a shop on his own account. This he continued to carry on till 
September, removed it to Nebraska City, Nebraska, and there he 
resided till the spring of 1868, when he returned to Holt County, Mis- 
souri, carrying on business in Forest City till March, 1875. Mr. McKin- 
ney subsequently came to Mound City, and has since been the leading 
mechanic in his line in this place, and has met with great success. 
During the war, in the year 1861, he served four months in Company H, 
Seventeenth Ohio Infantry. Mr. McKinney is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity. He was married July 2, 1837, to Mrs. Annie Thomas, a 
daughter of John Clark, who was a native of Indiana. Mrs. McKinney 
is a native of Indiana, and was born April 16, 1842. They are both 
members of the M. E. Church. 

A. S. McNULTY, 

farmer, section 9, is the son of John McNulty, who was born in Vir- 
ginia and who afterwards emigrated to Ohio, where he was married to 
Miss Drusilla Tumbelson, a native of Ohio. By this union they had 
eleven children. A. S. McNulty was born in Adams County, Ohio, May 
8, 1833. He was reared in Ohio, and the year 1865 came to Holt County, 
Missouri. In 1864 he enlisted in Company H., Seventy-third Ohio 
Infantry, and remained in service till the close of the war. For several 
years while in Ohio he was engaged in sawing lumber, and since coming 
to Missouri he has followed his present occupation. He now has a farm 
of 203 acres. He was married May 8, 1859, to Miss Catharine Watson. 
From this union ten children were born, six of whom are living : Ora E., 
Lucy G., Alfred R., Wiley A., James H. and Eddie P. Mrs. McNulty 
was born in Adams County, Ohio, February 28, 1834. Her father, 
William Watson, was a native of Ohio. Her mother's maiden name was 
Mary Glascock, also a native of Ohio. 

B. MEEK, M. D., 

the fifth of a family of ten children, five boys and five girls, is a native 
of Kentucky and was born in Henry County, April 22, 1826. His father, 
John Meek, was a native of South Carolina. His mother's maiden name 
was Temperance Lowden, and she was a Kentuckian by birth. The 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. \"]\ 

family came to Missouri in the fall of 185 1, and in the following spring 
located in Holt County. Young Meek received his primary education 
in his native county and accompanied his parents to Holt County. The 
days of his youth were spent on a farm, and in October 1854 he began 
the study of medicine, subsequently graduating from the St. Louis Med- 
ical College at the winter term of 1856-7. Dr. Meek soon began his 
practice in Mound City, and has since been engaged in following his 
profession in Holt County except for eighteen months during the war, 
when he was in Clay County, Illinois. At the time he came to Mound 
City there was but one business house in the town, and he was the first 
physician. In 1858 he became interested in the drug business as one 
of the firm of Meek & Rigdon, but the latter partner was only associated 
with the firm a short time. This was the first drug firm in the place. 
Dr. Meek afterwards continued the business till 1863. During the period 
from 1869 to 1873 he was a resident of Craig. He is a member of Mound 
City Lodge No. 294, A. F. & A. M. He was married April 19, i860 to 
Miss Elizabeth A. Sharp, a daughter of William A. Sharp, who was a 
native of Kentucky and a pioneer of Holt County. Her mother's 
maiden name was Caroline Elliott, of Missouri. Mrs. Meek was born 
in Holt County, Missouri, October 23, 1841. Mr. and Mrs. M. have had 
four children : John W., born January 30, 1861 and died April 1870; 
Gertrude, born January 29, 1864; Leonitas, born October 25, 1869; 
•Francis C, born April 27, 1872. 

ELI MEEK, 

farmer, section 33, the sixth of a family of nine children, is a native of 
Kentucky, and was born in Henry County, June 4, 1830. His father was 
a native cf South Carolina, and his mother of Kentucky. Eli was edu- 
cated in his native county, and has lived in Holt County, Missouri, since 
1852, except for two years during the war, when he resided in Pike 
County, Missouri. His farm consists of 220 acres, mostly improved, his 
house and surroundings presenting an inviting appearance. He is a 
member of Mound City Lodge, No. 294, A. F. and A. M. Mr. Meek was 
imarried November 21, 1855, to Miss Nancy M. Mackey, who was born 
in Pike County, Missouri, April 11, 1836. She was a daughter of Cyrus 
Mackey, a native of Missouri. Her mother, formerly Charlotte Janes, 
• was born in Tennessee. The family of Mr. and Mrs. Meek consists of 
ten children : Martha P., Mary L., John C, James E., Emma D., Clara 
B., Eli C, Anna L., William M. and Joseph L. 

ANDREW MEYER. 

As one of the most extensive agriculturists and land owners of Holt 
C ounty, may be mentioned the subject of this sketch. He is a son of 



172 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 



V 



Andrew and Mary (Adolph) Meyer, and is the second child in a famil) 
of nine children. He was born near Mullheim, Baden, April 28, 1821. 
In 1834 his parents, with their family, emigrated to America and located 
in Wayne County, Ohio. ,In 1843 he came to Missouri and, in May of 
the same year, settled in Holt County. The August following he went 
across the Missouri River, to the Iowa and Sac Agency, and first fol 
lowed farming and was afterward assistant blacksmith. In 1847 he en- 
listed in the Oregon Battalion, for service in the Mexican War. Hebe 
longed to Col. Powell's regiment, and was sworn in at Leavenworth, July 
4, 1847, an d shortly afterward set out on an expedition across the plains 
to Fort Kearney. The company was called back in the fall of 1848 to be 
discharged, the war having closed. During this trip he met with the 
noted Brigham Young. In the winter of 1848 Mr. Meyer went to Des 
Moines, Iowa, where he bought land and, May 12, 1849, in company with 
other parties, he left the Iowa and Sac Agency for California, and was 
the first to start overland from Holt County during that season. He 
was engaged in digging gold, on the American River, near Sutter's Mill, 
now Coloma, till September 15, 1850. Coming back to Holt County he 
was married August 20, 185 1, to Miss May Secrest. Later he began 
farming, where he now lives, section 21, township 61, range 38, and now 
owns 2,358 acres of land. Mrs. Meyer was born in Richland County 
Ohio, July 13, 1834. Her father, John Secrest, was a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, and came to Holt County in 1849. Her mother, formerly Margaret 
Campbell, was also a native of Pennsylvania. They had a family of nine 
children, Mrs. M. being the fifth child. Mr. Meyer's family consists 0! 
twelve children, Annie E., James H., Maggie M. (who was the wife oi 
Chas. Corsaut, but now deceased), Alfred A., Willard P., Armilda C. 
George W., Robert S., Emma J., Charles E., Marvin E. and Don C. 

HUGH MONTGOMERY, 

cashier of the Holt County Bank, of Mound City, is a native of Ireland 
and was born in Bangor, County Down, on January 22, 1845. When ter 
years of age he came to America with an uncle, his parents having 
died previous to this, and resided with this relative at Jackson, Ohio 
where he was reared and received the advantages of an education. Ir 
July, 1861, he enlisted in Company E, Twenty-seventh Ohio Infantry 
and remained in service till September, 1864, having participated ir 
many important battles. ' He served for eighteen months in the Provosl 
Marshal's Department of Memphis, Tennesse. When mustered out he 
returned to Jackson, Ohio, after which he attended Bryant & Strattpn'i 
Commercial College, of Cincinnati, graduating from that institution ir 
the spring of 1865. Mr. Montgomery was then employed as bookkeepei 
in Cincinnati for nearly one year, when he went to Jacksonville, Illi- 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 173 

lois, where he was engaged in dealing in fruit trees and shrubbery for a 
ew months. Subsequently he accepted a position as bookkeeper in the 
7 irst National Bank, of Chattanooga, Tennessee, which position he 
lilled till 1869, when, on account of failing health, he returned to Ohio. 
Hie was interested in the drug business in that state for three years, and 
afterwards was appointed auditor on the Chester, Iron Mountain and 
.Eastern Railroad, continuing to occupy this position till the failure of 
the company in 1873. Mr. M. remained there till 1874, being located in 
Chester, and in 1875 he came to Holt County, Missouri, and settled in 
Pregon, where he was employed as salesman in a dry goods store for 
pne year. He then went to St. Joseph and was engaged in keeping 
Dooks till 1880, being for two years in Schuster, Hax & Co.'s Bank. In 
February, 1880, he accepted his present situation. Mr. Montgomery is 
ji member of the Masonic fraternity. He was married in September, 
[869, to Miss Laura Sibley, a daughter of Rev. E. Sibley, who was a 
native of New York. Her mother, whose maiden name was Phoebe 
Simmons, was a native of Connecticut. Mrs. M. was born in Middle- 
port, Ohio. They have two children living : Nellie and Earl S. One is 
deceased. 

STRAUTHER MOORE, 

'deceased) was born in Shenandoah County, Virginia, October 28, 181 1. 
He was reared on a farm in his native county and was there educated. 
,When about eighteen years of age his parents and their family moved 
to Ohio and located in Greene County, where he was married October 
10, 1835, to Miss Clara Skeen. They had a family of ten children, five 
of whom are living: Amanda, born August 11, 1837; Mark B., born 
April 9, 1841 ; Strauther, born December 22, 1843 ; Thomas B., born 
September 16, 1854; Camdon J., born July 23, 1856. Mr. Moore 'and his 
amily lived in Ohio till 1838, when they moved to Clinton County, 
Indiana, and in 1846 came to Missouri, locating in Andrew County. In 
.the spring of 1849 they came to Holt County and settled where Mrs. 
Moore now lives. Mr. Moore was engaged in farming and dealing in 
>tock during life, and at the time of his death had a landed estate of 
500 acres. His religious preferences were with the Christian denomina- 
tion. He died September 31, 1874. Mrs. Moore was born in Mason 
,-ounty, Virginia, February 23, 18 14. Her father, Reuben Skeen, was a 
lative of Shenandoah County, Virginia, as was also her mother, formerly 
D hcebe Moore. Mrs. Moore accompanied her parents on their move 
Greene County, Ohio, when she was about fifteen years of age. 
\mong the children of the Moore family, who are now deceased, two 
[rew up and were married. The oldest daughter, Mary Moore, was 
>orn July 19, 1834, and was married February 8, 1855, to George Kelley, 
vho was born in Pike County, Missouri, December 21, 1826. He died 



1/4 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

December 24, 1864, and Mrs. Kelley died February 9. 1866. They left 
a family of four children, three of whom are now living: O. M., born 
February 16, 1856; Strauther S., born June 21, 1858, and died in 1865 ; 
Emma A., born May 29, 1861 ; Ann N., born December 28, 1864. These 
were reared by their grandmother, Mrs. Moore. Caroline Moore, now 
deceased, was born June 11, 1849, an d was married to Stephen Jones. 
She had one child, which still survives. 

JACOB MOSER, . 

(deceased), was born in Pendleton County, West Virginia, November 
16, 1789. His grandparents were natives of Germany, and his father, 
Adam Moser, was a native of Virginia. He was married to Miss 
Susan Harpool, by which marriage there were born fourteen children, 
Jacob being the sixth child in number. He was reared in his native 
county, and received but a limited education. About the year 1818, he 
went to Ohio and located in Greene County, and was there married, 
August 18, 1830, to Mrs. Indiana Tatnan, by whom he had one child, 
George H., born June 1 1, 1831, and now a merchant in Toolsboro, Louisa 
County, Iowa. Mrs. Moser died in April, 1834. Mr. M. was again mar- 
ried, November 24, 1836, to Miss Mary Cook, by whom he had seven 
children : Indiana L., born September 11, 1837 ; Harriet A., born April 
I 3- 1839 J Mary S., born October 6, 1842 ; Jacob A., born April 27, 1844; 
Rebecca C, born October 5, 1846 ; Charles A., born March 8, 1848, and 
Stephen F., born February 15, 1850, and died October 16, 1853. Mr. 
Moser lived in Ohio till the spring of 1837, when he moved to Pike 
County, Illinois, and in May, 1841, he came to Holt County, Missouri, 
locating in section 20, township 61, range 38, where Mrs. M. now lives. 
He followed farming as an occupation, and at the time of death, May 8, 
1872, he owned a farm of 500 acres,' which has since been occupied by 
the widow. Mr. M. was an active member of the Masonic fraternity, 
and belonged to Mound City Lodge, No. 294. Mrs. Moser was born in 
Morris County, New Jersey, April 29, 1807. Her father, Abraham 
Cook, was a native of the same State, though his ancestors came of Eng- 
lish origin. He learned the trade of shoemaking, in Elizabethtown, New 
Jersey, and when twenty-one years old married Miss Mary Lyon, a 
native of New Jersey. He then went to the island of St. Domingo, one 
of the West Indies, where he lived a short time, and then returned to 
New Jersey and embarked in the mercantile business in Morris County. 
In 1818 he emigrated to Ohio and located in Greene County, where he 
was engaged in farming till the time of his death, except during the last 
year of his life, when he lived in New Carlisle. He had a family of six 
children, Mrs. M. being the third child. She was educated in New 
Jersey and received an excellent education, becoming ably proficient to 






BENTON TOWNSHIP. 175 

teach school, but having no such desire turned a deaf ear to all entreaties. 
Her life has been a happy one. and she is now in active health, is endowed 
with a great amount of judgment, and is respected by all. 

JACOB MUMM, 

of the firm of Mumm, Moss & Co., dealers in lumber, lath, sash, blinds, 
doors, lime, hair, cement, paint and barb wire, is one of Mound City's 
most prominent and energetic business men. He is a native of Germany 
and was born in Schelwig, November 8, 1834. He was educated in his 
native country, and was reared to habits of industry, being engaged in 
farming till 1857 when he emigrated to America, landing at New York 
City, November 16, of the same year. He soon located in Porter County, 
Indiana, and in tne fall of 1859 he came to Missouri and settled in St. 
Joseph, where he was there occupied in various works till 1868. Mr. M. 
next embarked in the lumber business as one of the firm of Pinger, 
Mumm & Co., which he continued till 1871, and from this time on he was 
employed as foreman of different lumber companies till the spring of 
1880 when he came to Mound City and opened up his present house. 
He has since been doing a successful business. During the late war he 
served as a soldier for two years, acting as second sergeant. He was 
married August 6, 1863 to Miss Elizabeth M. Jessen, a native of the same 
country as himself, born December 14, 1843. She was also reared in her 
native home. They have had eight children, six of whom are living : 
Anna M., Littie M., Amanda, Theodore W., Emma O. and Benjamin F. 

ALFRED MURRY, 

farmer, section 34, the fourth in a family of seven children, was born in 
Campbell County, East Tennessee, November 22," 1812. His father, 
James Murry, was a native of Alabama, and his mother, Barbara Sharp, 
of North Carolina. He was reared on Clinch River, within nine miles 
of Jacksboro, and received his education in the old fashioned schools. 
In the fall of 1841, he removed from Tennessee to Missouri, and located 
near old Jimtown, Andrew County, and, in March, 185 1, he came to Holt 
County. In 1853, he located on the farm where he now resides, and 
which contains 160 acres. This he has improved, and now has the first 
brick house built in Benton Township, outside of Mound City. Mr. M. 
has been twice married : First, in February, 1840, to Miss Mary Sharp, 
who was born in Campbell County, East Tennessee, February 8, 18 15. 
She died August 27, 1846. They had four children, of whom only one is 
living, Sterling H., born December 4, 1840. The three deceased are 
Louisa J., born December 9,-1842, died in August, 1852 ; Elizabeth F., 
born in January, 1846, died the following spring, and one other died 



176 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

while young. He was again married, February 27, 1847, to Miss Nancy 
Young, by whom he has had nine children, three now living : Gilbert T., 
born November 17, 1850; Perry D., born May 23, 1853 ; Andrew F., born 
November 28, 1863. Those deceased were Lucinda J., born April 28, 
1849, died in August, 1852 ; Amanda M., born July, 1855, died in 1858; 
Howard E., born September 27, 1859, died September 15, 1881, and three 
infants. Mrs. M. was born in Floyd County, Kentucky, January 
10, 1819. His parents, Charles Young and Margaret {nee McBroon) 
Murry, were natives of Kentucky. Mrs. M., the fourth child in a fam- 
ily of fourteen children, came with her parents, to Missouri, in 1841. 
The family of her father all lived to be grown, except one, who died in 
her twelfth year. 

EDWARD MUXLOW, 

proprietor of the English Kitchen and Bakery, Mound City, Missouri, is 
a native of England, and was born in the town of Dembleby, Lincoln- 
shire, on July 20, 1829. He was educated in the town of Grantham, 
England, and was reared on a farm, being engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits in England till May, 1854, when he came to America. On his 
arrival in this country he landed at New York, but soon located in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, wherehe remained till July, 1855, next settling on a farm near 
Champaign, Illinois. He was for three years engaged in farming in that 
vicinity, and then moved into the town of Champaign, where he was 
occupied in buying grain till the fall of 1865, at which date he moved to 
St. Joseph, Missouri. Mr. Muxlow resided there till the spring of 1869, 
and then returned to Illinois and lived in Tuscola till June, 1873, when 
he again came to St. Joseph. Since that time he has been engaged in 
the hotel business. He came to Mound City in February, 1875, and, in 
his present business, he has succeeded in giving general satisfaction to 
the traveling public, and is well known by the commercial men in this 
section of the country as one of the most enterprising of hotel men, and 
as one knowing the wants of the weary tourists. While in Cleveland, 
Ohio, he was married (November 30, 1854,) to Miss Elizabeth Goodfel- 
low, who was born in Manchester, England, March 22, 1835. She died 
in Champaign, Illinois, November, 1872. She came to America when 
about fifteen years of age. They had one child, who is now deceased. 
Mr. Muxlow was again married in November, 1877, to Mrs. Margaret A. 
Owens. Her maiden name was Cornell, and she was born in Hampshire 
County, Virginia, August 22, 1830. When she was seven years of age 
her parents moved to Ohio and located in Highland County, where they 
lived till 1854, next moving to McLean County, Illinois. There she was 
married, October 28, 1856, to Joseph C. Owens, who was born in Hoy, 
Herefordshire, England, in February, 1829. He came to America when 
about fifteen years of age, and afterwards made a trip to his native home. 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 177 

His occupation during life was that of a baker. He moved from Cham- 
paign County, Illinois, to St. Joseph, Missouri, where he died, March 28, 
1872. Mr. Muxlow has by his former marriage four children, now living, 
William C, Laura V., Ellen M. and Jeneva. 

CHRISTIAN NIEDERHOUSER, 

farmer, section 23, is a native of Switzerland, and was born April I, 
1832. He was reared and educated in his native country, and, while 
there, was engaged in farming, and also was interested in the dairy 
business. In 185 1 he came to America and located in Wooster, Ohio, 
remaining in different parts of that state over two years, when he went 
to Indiana. There he was occupied in driving a stage from Rochester 
to Logansport till the fall of 1855, when he went to Iowa and resumed 
stage driving on the line from Iowa City to DesMoines and Council 
Bluffs till the summer of 1858. Mr. N. then came to Missouri and 
drove stage in the northwestern part of the state from St. Joseph till 
i860, when he moved to Denver and was there engaged in the same 
business till 1861. At that time he returned to Mound City, where he 
was driving stage to Rock Port and other points till 1864, when he went 
with a train from Atchison, Kansas, to Utah Territory. He remained 
in that country till the fall of 1866, and, while there, was interested in 
the mercantile trade and running ferry-boat at different points on the 
Bear River. In the fall of 1866 he returned to Mound City, and on 
March 14, 1867, Mr. Niederhouser was married to Miss Margaret L. Mann. 
She was born in Highland County, Ohio, March 26, 1832, and when 
about thirteen years of age her parents moved to Knox County, Illi- 
nois, and four years later to Fremont County, Iowa. In 1864 she came 
to Holt County, Missouri. They have no children of their own, but 
have an adopted child, Louis C. Dappin. He was born June 15, 1867, in 
Atchison County, Missouri. Mr. N., after being married, located on 
his farm, where he now owns 146 acres, all of which is the savings of 
his own labor. 

HENRY C. PEPPER 

is one of the leading attorneys of Mound City, and is deserving of more 

than a passing notice. His grand parents on his father's side were 

natives of Virginia, where Joseph Pepper, the father of the subject of this 

biography was born. Joseph Pepper emigrated to Kentucky when quite 

young, and in that State he was married to Miss Matilda Peace, a native 

of Kentucky. Henry C. Pepper was born in Hart County, Kentucky, 

August 13, 185 1. He was reared to habits of industry in his native 

county, and there received the advantages of the common schools, after 

which, in 1874, he graduated from the literary department of the classical 

12 



178 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

military institute of Danville, Kentucky. His time for six years there- 
after was principally spent in teaching, he being' employed in some very 
prominent institutions, among which was the high school of Gallatin, 
Tennessee. As an educator he was more than ordinarily successful. 
Mr. Pepper chose the profession of law as his occupation during life, and 
after a usual course of preparatory study he graduated from the law 
department of the Cumberland University of Lebanon, Tennessee, in 
June, 1879. I n September of the same year he began the practice of law 
in Frankfort, Kansas, where he continued seven months, and after spend- 
ing six weeks in Texas he located in Mound City, Missouri. He is here 
held in high esteem by the citizens of the place, consequently is meeting 
with much success in his legal business. He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity. 

DR. HANNIBAL POOL, 

Magnetic Healer, is also manager of the Invalids' Hotel, or Infirmary of 
the Pool of Siloam of Mound City, an institution which is becoming as 
noted in Northwest Missouri as are places of like kind in other states. 
Dr. Pool principally conceived the idea of his system of healing from the 
hotel and infirmary, or Custer House, of Ottumwa, Iowa, and has, for 
something over two years, been practicing the work. His success since 
locating in Mound City, September 26, 1881, has been far beyond his 
expectations, and also that of his friends. He is a native of Cornwall, 
Crownshire, England, and was born September 23, 1837. In the year 
1842 he came with his parents, Francis and Elizabeth (Baston) Poo', to 
America, and located in Jo Daviess County, Illinois. His father was 
there interested in the lead mines for ten years, after which they moved 
to Lafayette County, Wisconsin, where he resided on a farm till the 
spring of i860. Returning to Jo Daviess County, Illinois, on May 24, of 
the same year, he was married to Miss Sophia Adams, a native of Ire- 
land and of English ancestry. She was born in June, 1844, and died 
March 28, 1880. By this union they had nine children, Henry F.,Vilena, 
Emma (deceased), Robert W., Albert S., Etta, Charles L., Anna M. and 
Jesse M. After being married Dr. Pool crossed the plains to Colorado 
and was engaged in mining at Central City, of the Gregory District, till 
August, 1863, when he returned to Lafayette County, Wisconsin, where 
his family was at that time living. He remained there till the spring of 
1865, when he returned to Jo Daviess County, Illinois, and was there 
made foreman of the New York & Galena Lead Mining Company.which 
calling he pursued for two years. After a few moves he located in Lafay- 
ette County, Wisconsin, but finally moved back to Jo Daviess County, 
Illinois, and was engaged in farming and mining. In March, 1878, he 
went to Wyoming where, for a period of time, he was superintendent in 
the mining department of a mine. After a serious illness he visited the 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 79 

Hot Springs for three months, and, in March, 1879, he returned to Jo 
Daviess County, Illinois, after which time he was treated at the Custer 
House, of Ottumwa. His brother being Sheriff of Jo Daviess County, 
Illinois, he acted as deputy for some time, after his return from Wyo- 
ming. Having the power of a magnetic healer and becoming convinced 
of its virtue, he began the practice as a profession, and, September 26, 
188 1 , came to Mound City, where he has permanently located and is 
gaining the confidence of the people in that vicinity. Those acquainted 
with him know him to be a man of strong principles and of high moral 
standing. 

' DeVVITT CLINTON PORTER, 

farmer, section 25, is a son of Cummings Porter, who was born in Wash- 
ington County, Ohio, where he was married to Miss Frances S. Keene, a 
native of Virginia. In 1850 they emigrated to Missouri and located in 
Holt County, where DeWitt was born, January 24, 1852, he being the 
second child in the family, which consisted of three boys and one girl. 
Of these two boys and the girl are now living. During life the subject 
of this sketch has resided in Holt County, and now has a farm of 440 
acres. D. W. Porter, his only brother, was born in Holt County, Mis- 
souri, January 28, 1854, and is now attending school at Columbia, Mis- 
souri. 

EDWARD RICHARDS, 

is an enterprising farmer on section 24. His grandparents, originally 
from Scotland, emigrated to America and located in Pennsylvania, 
where Godfrey Richards, the father of Edward, was born. He was 
married in that state to Miss Bethsheba Adams. Edward Richards, the 
subject of this sketch, was born in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, Sep- 
tember 8, 1832, and is the fourth child in a family of ten children. 
When he was two years of age his parents moved to Wayne County, 
Ohio, where he grew to manhood. In 1850 he went to Williams County, 
Ohio, and there he made his home for some time, but for five years he 
was principally in DeKalb County, Indiana, where he was married, 
November 23, 1855, to Miss Martha Smith, a daughter of Isaac B. Smith, 
of New York. She was born in DeKalb County, Indiana, November 12, 
1837. They have had seven children, five of whom are now living : 
William H., Mary E., Jonas, Hugh and Eva. Mr. Richards farmed in 
DeKalb County till 1865, when he came to Missouri and located in 
Andrew County. After living there two years he settled in Holt 
County, where he now has a farm of 220 acres, all of which is well 
improved. In 1881 he erected a fine residence which presents an 
attractive appearance, affording a view of Mound City, two miles dis- 
tant. In September, 1861, he enlisted in Company M, Second Indiana 



l8o HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 






avalry, and remained in service for three years and eleven days. He 
was mustered out as corporal, having participated in all the battles in 
which his company was engaged. 

JOHN SCHRAUTZ, 

farmer, section 26, was once the representative of Holt County, Missouri, 
in the twenty-eighth general assembly. He is a native of Pennsylvania, 
and was born in Lancaster County, July 12, 1829. John Schrautz, his 
grandfather, and for whom he was named, was a native of Lancaster 
County, Pennsylvania, his parents having emigrated from Germany and 
located in that county in the year 1735. John Schrautz, Sr., was married 
in his native county to a Miss Garber, by which union Samuel Schrautz, 
the father of the subject of this sketch was born. He was married to 
Miss Catharine Hull, and in the year 1835 with his family he immigrated 
from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, to Ohio and located in Stark 
County, where he was numbered among the most prominent citizens in 
that locality, being for several years judge of the common pleas court. 
John Schrautz, whose name heads this biography, was reared to man- 
hood in Stark County, Ohio, and there received the advantages of the 
common schools which were much inferior to those of the present day; 
his time was also mostly employed on a farm, and he had but limited 
opportunities for procuring a desired education. He was married in 
Stark County, Ohio, in 1850 to Miss Mary E. Scheets, after which he 
began farming in the same county on his own account. In the spring of 
he i854moved to DeKalb County, Indiana. In the fall of 1855 a universal 
sickness swept over that part of the State, which proved unusually fatal 
and malignant in its character, and inside of eleven days he lost his wife 
and two children, all the members, beside himself, of the family. In 
September 1857 he was married to his present wife, at that time Miss 
Susan Duck. She was born in Stark County, Ohio, January 16, 1836. 
Her parents were natives of Pennsylvania, her mother's maiden name 
being Abigal Spangler. Mr. Schrautz has by his last marriage two 
children, Mary, wife of E. A. Welty, of Mound City, born in DeKalb 
County, Indiana, June 30, 1858, and A. B. Schrautz, now attending school 
at Raleigh. He was born in DeKalb County, Indiana, September 16, 
i860. In 1865 Mr. S. moved to Missouri and located in Holt County, 
on the place where he now resides, his farm containing 290 acres. In 
1876 he erected his present residence which denotes comfort and pros- 
perity and which is located at the foot of the bluffs within two miles of 
Mound City, his house forming a conspicuous object of attraction in view 
of a line of bluffs above the city. In politics Mr. S.'s sentiments have 
been with the Republican party, whose principles appealed to his sup- 
port when the Republican party was first organized, more than a score 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. l8l 

of years ago. He cast his first vote for President for Franklin Pierce, in 
1852, before the Republicans were numerous enough to form a national 
organization, and since that time has invariably cast his suffrage for the 
Republican nominees'. In 1874 the Republicans of Holt County made 
him their candidate for representative. He was elected and filled that 
position to the satisfaction of his people and with great credit to himself. 

THOMAS SECREST, 

farmer, section 22, is a grandson of Thomas Secrest, who was a native of 
Germany, and immigrated to America and located in North Carolina, 
where Jacob Secrest, his son, was born. The latter was married to Miss 
Rachael Morquette, a native of North Carolina, her father being a native 
of Germany. Thomas, a son of Jacob Secrest, was the seventh child in 
the family of ten children, and was born in Morgan County, Indiana, 
September 18, 1830. He was reared on a farm in his native county, and 
there received a fair education in the " schoolhouses built on the woods- 
man plan." While in Morgan County, Indiana, he was married, July 
10, 185 1, to Miss Mary A. Shults, a daughter of George Shults, who was 
a native of North Carolina, and of German descent. Her mother's 
maiden name was Elmira Bean, also of North Carolina. Mrs. Secrest 
was born in Morgan County, Indiana, May 11, 1833, and was the oldest 
child in the family of six children. The family of Mr. and Mrs. Secrest 
consists of twelve children, ten of whom are now living: William P., 
Delphia J., George O., Winfield S., Mary A., Thomas S., Van King, Ella, 
Effie and Dudley W. In 1852 Mr. Secrest and his family moved to Holt 
County, Missouri, and located on the farm where he now resides. He 
has made farming his occupation during life, and by his own labor and 
judicious management became the possessor of a landed estate amount- 
ing to 940 acres, all of which is improved. The only office he has ever 
held was that of justice of the peace, which he filled very acceptably for 
eight years. March 20, 1862, he enlisted in Company B, Fourth Regi- 
ment, M. S. M., and remained in service till in May of the same year, 
when he was discharged on account of disability. He has always voted 
the Republican ticket, and is a staunch supporter of the principles of the 
party. He is a member of Mound City Lodge, No. 294, A. F. and A. M. 

JACOB SILVUSE, 

farmer, section 21, was born in Shenandoah County, Virginia, March 27, 
1827. His grandparents were natives of Pennsylvania, and his father, 
Jacob Silvuse, was born in Virginia. He was there married to Miss 
Susan Gorber, a native of Virginia. Jacob was reared in Rockingham 
County, Virginia, on a farm, but part of the time worked at the wagon- 



182 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

makers trade. In 1872 he came to Holt County, Missouri. His farm 
now consists of 214 acres, and is well improved. He was married to his 
present wife, formerly Miss Susan Miller, January 21, 1865. They have 
one child, Susan C. Mrs. S. was born in Rockingham County, Virginia. 
Her father, Daniel Miller, and her mother, whose maiden name was Bar- 
bara Glick, were natives of Virginia. Mr. and Mrs. S. are members of 
the German Baptist Church. 

THOMAS SMITH, 

section 29, is one of the industrious farmers of this township. His grand- 
father, Smith, a native of Kentucky, was married to Mary Ellis. William 
Smith, the father of Thomas, was born in Bourbon County, Kentucky, 
and emigrated to Martin County, Indiana, where he married Miss Ber- 
thenia Cannon, of Georgia. They had a family of eight children. Thomas, 
the sixth child, was born in Miami County, Indiana, February 21, 1833. 
He was reared to manhood at his birthplace, spending his boyhood days 
on the farm and receiving the benefits of a common school education. 
In 1854 he moved to Harrison County, Missouri, where he resided till 
the fall of 1880, then coming to Holt County, where he purchased a farm. 
He owns 100 acres of improved land, and has a handsome residence upon 
his place. During the war he was a member of the Missouri State mili- 
tia a short time. While in Harrison County he served for two terms as 
township collector. Mr. Smith was married, December 24, 1856, to Miss 
Mary T. Shackelford, a daughter of Clayton and Jane Shackelford, 
natives of Tennessee. She is the third child in a family of seven children, 
and was born in Piqua County, Ohio, October 28, 1834. When she was 
about eight years of age her parents moved to Wabash County, and thence 
to Miami County, of the same state, in the fall of 1854. Mr. and Mrs. S. 
have had two children, one of whom, James M., is now living. 

PERRY J. SPENCER, 

the subject of this sketch, was born in Morrow County, Ohio, 
December, 22, 1857. His parents, William and Lydia Spencer, were 
both natives of the same state. William Spencer was born September 
17, 1836, and Lydia Spencer, nee Miller, was born on the 9th of January, 
1838. They were married in April, 1856, and then settled in Johnsville, 
Ohio, removing to Noble County, Indiana, in 1862. They again located 
on a farm, coming thence in 1868 to Missouri and settling in Nodaway 
County, on a farm adjoining Graham, where Perry was inured to the life 
of a farmer boy. He followed the plow in summer and attended the 
district school during the winter months, and at the age of eighteen 
years he began teaching school and continued the profession for five 
years. On August 23, 1880, he was married to Miss Emma L. Turnure, 



KENTON TOWNSHIP. 183 

whose parents, E. W. and Emily L. Turnure (jteeCompton), were natives 
of New York. They were married in 1853, an d afterwards settled in 
Boone County, Illinois, remaining there till 1863, when they moved to 
Mitchell County, Iowa, thence to Nodaway County in 1865, locating on 
Long Branch, east of Bridgewater, and in 1871 Maryville became their 
home. There E. W. Turnurewas engaged in the hotel and mercantile 
bussiness for some time. He removed to Graham in 1877, and departed 
this life on the 12th of July, 1880. His wife, Emily L. Turnure, was a 
member of the Baptist Church. Mrs. Perry Spencer was born on the 
18th of April, 1859. She died December 5, 1880. She was a member 
of the Presbyterian Church. In the spring of 1881, Mr. Spencer bought 
a half interest in the Mound City News, a weekly newspaper published 
in Mound City, and which has under the present able management become 
a journal recognized as one of the leading papers of the county. 

JOHN M. TRACY, 

one of the leading physicians of Holt County, has been engaged in 
practicing medicine at Mound City since June 1866. He was born 
in Marion County, Indiana, December 6, 1837. His grandfather was 
from the State of Virginia, and moved at an early period to Kentucky, 
where James Tracy, his son, was born. He removed from Kentucky to 
Indiana, and, in the latter state, he married Miss Mary Custer, who was 
born in the same part of Kentucky as her husband. The second, in a 
family of five children, by this marriage, was John M. Tracy, the sub- 
ject of this sketch. He resided in Marion County, Indiana, till seven- 
teen years of age, and there received his primary education. In 1854, 
he moved to Illinois, and after that date he was a student at the Hed- 
ding Seminary, at Abingdon, and in that institution had excellent facili- 
ties for becoming thoroughly acquainted with the necessary branches of 
a substantial English education. He came to Missouri in the year 1858, 
locating in. Bates County, and, for a while, taught school, and at the 
same time prosecuted the study of medicine, a profession which he had 
early resolved to adopt, his instructor being Dr. Rockwell, of West 
Point, Bates County. After residing there about three years, that part 
of Missouri becoming depopulated and unsafe for residence, by reason 
of the progress of the war, Mr. T. went to Colorado, and was there engaged 
in several speculative enterprises. In 1864, he located in Brownville, 
Nebraska, and was there occupied in the practice of his profession till 
June 1, 1866, when he became a citizen of Mound City, Holt County. 
He has been very successful in his chosen calling, and is known as an 
able physician. He is closely devoted to his professional practice, and 
has been active in the pursuit of the study of medicicin^ even after 
having thoroughly established himself in practice, believing, as he does, 



1 84 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

that constant study is necessary to the attainment of the highest suc- 
cess. His medical education he obtained at the Eclectic Medical Col- 
lege of Cincinnati, Ohio, from which he graduated in the spring of 1873. He 
also graduated in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in St. Joseph, 
Missouri, in 1881, and at present is a member of the Northwestern Medical 
Society of Missouri. His wife was formerly Miss Mary J. Collins, daugh- 
ter of John Collins, who settled at Oregon, Holt County, Missouri, and 
who was one of the early residents of the county. Their marriage occur- 
red October 5, 1875. They have had two children, one of whom is now 
living, Blanche E. By a former marriage the doctor had five children, 
three of whom are now living : Emma, Annie and James M. His atten- 
tion and time has been devoted to his profession, to the exclusion of 
active participation in the field of politics, and in his political senti- 
ments he has been rather conservative and independent. He has acted, 
however, with the Democratic party, and is a believer in the cardinal 
principles of democracy. Dr. Tracy is one of the leading Masons about 
Mound City, and is a member of Mound City Lodge No. 294, A. F. and 
A. M. with which he has been connected since 1871. He is also a mem- 
ber of Keystone Chapter, now of Mound City, but formerly of Oregon. 

E. A. AND P. P. WELTY, 

are of the firm of Welty Bros. & Co., dealers in general merchandise. 
This is one of the leading firms of Mound City, who, by their liberal 
course of dealing and wide-awake business habits, are doing much 
toward giving the town a reputation as a business point. They are 
natives of Andrew County, Missouri. E. A. Welty was born September 
13, 1852, and P. P. Welty on April 14, 1854. Their grandfather early 
emigrated from Switzerland to America and located in Ohio, where 
John P. Welty, the father of E. A. and P. P., was born. In 1849 he 
emigrated to Missouri and was married in Buchanan County to Miss 
Amanda Richardson, a native of Indiana. When E. A. was about 
three years of age the family moved to Arago, Richardson County, 
Nebraska, having previously located in St. Joseph, where he carried on a 
trading post for a period of time ; also acted as postmaster. They 
resided in Richardson County till 1866, when they moved to Nemaha 
County, of the same state. John P. was sheriffin that county till 1874, 
when they moved to Mound City, Missouri, where E. A. and P. P. have 
since lived. The days of their youth were improved on a farm and 
behind the counter. They were educated in the different localities where 
they resided, and in the State Normal School of Nebraska, located at 
Peru. E. A. was for three years engaged in teaching while in Nebraska, 
and taught the public school of Mound City one term, since which time 
he has been selling goods. P. P. Welty was also engaged in teaching 



BENTON TOWNSHIP 1 85 

in Nebraska for two years, but since coming to Mound City he has been 
in his present business. They both began in their present business in 
March, 1879, William Hoblitzell being the company of the firm. They 
are both members of Mound City Lodge, No. 294, A. F. and A. M, and 
Mound City Lodge, No. 341, I. O. O. F. E. A. Welty was married 
October 15, 1879, to Miss Mary Schrautz, a daughter of John and Susan 
Schrautz. She is a native of Indiana, and was born June 30, 1859. They 
have one child, Helen. P. P. Welty was married March 20, 1878, to Miss 
Roberta Robertson, a daughter of John H. Robertson. Her mother's 
maiden name was Elizabeth Durrett. Mrs. Roberta Welty is a native 
of Missouri, and was born March 27, i860. They have one child, 
Perry A. 

COL. WILLIAM WILKINSON 

is a native of Bradford, Yorkshire, England, and was born August 18, 
1819. His father was a land steward and proprietor of a large woolen 
factory, in which were employed nine hundred hands, and often more. 
During his younger days he assisted his father in his work. He received 
a primary education in England, and, in the year 1837, he went to the 
province of Rhode Island, with the intention of attending school. He 
was there at the time of the rebellion and his sympathies being with 
Dore, on this account he left the province and located at Niagara Falls, 
where, for a number of years, he was publishing a paper, called the 
Evangelical Pioneer. He then located in Canada, where he was most of 
the time in public office. In 1858 he was a candidate for a position in 
Parliament, against the celebrated McDonall, in which he was defeated 
by a small majority. He was a resident of Canada for fourteen years. 
In the year of 1849, he had conferred upon him the degree as 
Master of Arts from the Madison University, of Hamilton, New 
York. After leaving Canada Mr. W. moved to Romeo, McComb 
County, Michigan, and, during 1859 and i860, he was engaged in the 
practice of law. At the time Fort Sumpter was fired upon there was a 
meeting held and the colonel was called upon to address the audience, 
in which he said he would not say go, but he would say come. From 
that the chairman called all to come round the liberty pole. The next 
day they were called in, and, by a ballot vote of the company, Mr. W. 
iwas elected Captain of Company A, Ninth Michigan Infantry. In about 
four days thereafter he was appointed by the Governor as a field officer, 
his muster in as major being August 6, 1861. They were the first regi- 
ment to go southwest, then went to Bowling Green, and were then in 
Nelson's expedition, and participated in the battle of Fort Donelson. 
Their next important battle was Pittsburg Landing, after which he was 
captured, and, with Generals Prentice and Crittendon, he was confined 
1 various prisons, being with them put on exhibition at many public 



1 86 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

places, fair grounds, etc. He left Libby Prison, October 12, 1862, and 
again joined the army, and was attached to General Thomas's head- 
quarters, and commanded the regiment through the battle of Stone 
River. Immediately after he was given the commission of Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the Ninth Regiment of Michigan, which dates February 6, 
1863. He remained attached to General Thomas's staff till the close of 
the war, having the command of the Reserve Brigade of the Army of the 
Cumberland. He commanded in the advance at the battle of Chicka- 
maugua, with General Thomas, and commanded at many other important 
battles, among which was Lookout Mountain. He was in the Atlanta 
campaign, at the battle of Chickasaw Mountain, in all the siege of Atlanta, 
battle of Jonesboro', and, instead of going to the sea with Sherman, he 
returned with Thomas to Nashville. On the return he was in the battle 
of Frankfort, and was also in command, at the battle of Nashville. Col 
Wilkinson then remained at Nashville, his muster out dating September 
15, 1865, but he was not released till the latter part of November. March 
13, 1865, upon him was conferred the rank of Colonel in the United 
States Army, by the advice and consent ot the Senate, for gallant and 
meritorious services during the war, his commission being signed by 
Andrew Johnson. When he was made colonel he was placed in the reg- 
ular army and holds that rank at the present day, he not having been 
released. In 1866 he received an appointment in the United States mai 
department, and was renewed by Grant in 1868, and retained the appoint 
rnent till 1871. In December, 1872, he left Romeo, Michigan, and came 
to Missouri. While in Romeo he was mayor of the city for three years 
Upon coming to Missouri he located in Savannah, Andrew County, wher 
he was admitted to the Andrew County bar, and began the practice o 
law, in partnership with his son, John M. Wilkinson. In 1872, while or 
a railroad surveying expedition, the latter was fatally shot, supposed tc 
be accidentally. In 1873 the colonel came to Holt County, and locatec 
at Oregon, and in a short time came to Mound City. Since then he ha; 
been mayor of the town four terms, and has been justice since June, 1877 
He has also paid some attention to the practice of law, but to no grea 1 
extent. Since the war he has taken an active part in the success of tlu 
Republican party, and has done grand work for the cause, having can 
vassed Atchison County twice since he came to Mound City. He was; 
member of the Republican Committee of the Ninth Congressional Dis 
trict, and belongs to the Grand Army of the Republic. He has a son ii 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, engaged in the practice of medicine, and wh( 
is one of the most able and prominent surgeons of the state. His son 
who was killed in Texas, was also in the army and was mustered out a 
a lieutenant. 



BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 87 

JOSEPH WILSON, 

is a son of Charles Wilson, a native of New Jersey, and is of English 
ancestry. His mother's name was Easter Davis. Joseph, the youngest 
child in a family of nine children, was born in Hardy County, Virginia, 
June 4, 1800. He was educated in the old-fashioned log cabins, slab 
benches, greased paper for lights, etc., and on October 19, 1826, he was 
married to Miss Elizabeth A. Morrow. He was reared a farmer's boy 
and was engaged in farming in the valleys of Virginia till 185 1, when 
he emigrated to Miama County, Indiana, living there till 1854. Mr. W. 
then came to Missouri, locating in Jackson County, and in the spring of 
1857, he came to Holt County, where he has since resided and has lived 
1 in the same house. The county at that time was thinly settled, and 
Mrs VV. says she thought it was the " last place in the world." Wolves 
were numerous then, and many stories might be related of those pioneer 
days. With the exception of the last twelve years, Mr. Wilson has 
been engaged in farming, and now has a landed estate of 200 acres. 
He has never held an office and never belonged to any society. They 
have had a family of twelve children, eight sons and four daughters, 
seven of whom are now living : James E., David M., Joseph G., Adam 
C, Sarah J., Margaret R. and Virginia. Mrs. Wilson is a daughter of 
James Morrow, a native of Hardy County, Virginia. Her mother's 
maiden name was Elizabeth Spohr, also of Hardy County, Virginia. 

JOSEPH G. WILSON, 

farmer, section 23, is a son of Joseph Wilson, and was born in Hardy 
: County, Virginia, May 4, 1845. He accompanied his parents on their 
various moves before coming to Missouri, always staying with them, and 
since the spring of 1856 he has resided in Holt County. He has made 
farming his occupation during life. In October, 1863, he enlisted in 
Company D, Twelfth Missouri cavalry and remained in service till the 
close of the war, when he was mustered out as chief bugler. He had 
been in a number of important battles, among which were Florence, 
Franklin and Nashville, also numerous engagements on the plains during 
the Indian troubles. Mr. Wilson was married August 11, 1867 to Miss 
Bettie Meek, daughter of B. Meek, a native of Kentucky. Her mother's 
maiden name was Nancy Jones, a native of Kentucky. Mrs. Wilson was 
born in Henry County, Kentucky, June 17, 1847. They have had six 
children, two of whom are living, Martha G. and Ella A. Mr. and Mrs. 
W. are members of the Christian Church. 

S. R. YOUNG 

was born in Barren County, Kentucky, May 8, 18 12. His father, 
Edward Young, was a native of Virginia, and immigrated to Kentucky 



1 88 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

at an early period. His mother was formerly Keziah Rennick, the 
daughter of William Rennick, one of the earliest pioneers of Kentucky, 
who came from Virginia, and who lived for several years at McKinney's 
Station. Mr. Young is the youngest child of ten children, and was 
reared to manhood in Barren County, Kentucky. His only opportuni- 
ties for procuring an education were in the subscription schools. His 
father died when he was but about fifteen years old, and he then went to 
live with his brother, with whom he learned the tanning business. This 
he followed near Glasgow, Kentucky, in which state he lived till the 
year 1854, when he came to Holt County, Missouri, and located where 
he now resides, on section 15, township 61, range 38. He has since fol- 
lowed farming and stock raising. Mr. Y. has taken an active interest in 
public affairs, and soon after his coming to this county, was chosen jus- 
tice of the peace. In the fall of 1858 he was elected the representative 
from Holt County in the Twentieth General Assembly. He served in 
the regular session, an adjourned session, and a called session. He was 
at Jefferson City during the winter of 1858-9 and that of 1859-60, and 
was a member of the last General Assembly that convened before the 
breaking out of the war. He had run as a candidate for the legislature 
on the Democratic ticket, and in the memorable presidential campaign 
of i860 gave his warm support to Stephen A. Douglas. When the 
country at last was precipitated into the rebellion he took no part in 
that struggle, and stood on the same ground occupied by a large num- 
ber of the old citizens of Missouri, opposed both to the secession of the 
states and their attempt to disrupt the Union, and to the manner in 
which coercion was undertaken on the part of the Federal government. 
From the latter part of 1864 till the spring of 1868 he resided in Fre- 
mont County, Iowa, where he acted as justice of the peace. Since the war 
he has acted in sympathy with the principles and policy of the Demo 
cratic party. In December, 1839, Mr. Young was married to Miss 
Matilda J. Paxton, by which union they have had six children : Joseph 
E., born November 19, 1839; Ella M., born January 29, 1842; Keziah 
A., familiarly known as " Kittie," born September 23, [845 ; Robert T., 
born November 6, 1848; Sarah E., born April 21, 1850; Benjamin A., 
born September 18, 1853. Mrs. Young was born in Rockingham 
County, Virginia, about five miles from the Natural Bridge, on August 
5, 1816. Her father, Joseph Paxton, was a native of Virginia and a 
soldier in the war of 18 12. Her mother's maiden name was Elvira 
Bagby, a native of Virginia. 

JOHN W. YOUSE, 

house, sign, carriage and ornamental painter, is a son of Levi Youse, 
Esq., who was born in Pennsylvania and was there married to Miss 






BENTON TOWNSHIP. 1 89 

Catharine Catchshaw, also born in the same State. John Youse, the 
father of Levi, was a native of Germany. John W. Youse was born in 
Franklin County, Pennsylvania, October 16, 1854. He was reared and 
educated in his native county, spending his boyhood days on a farm. 
In 1873 he went to Tiffin, Ohio, and began his trade with a Mr. Spindler, 
a prominent painter of that locality, with whom he remained till the fall 
of 1876. He then returned to his native home, and in 1878 came to 
Mound City, where he has since been successfully engaged at his trade 
having the confidence of the people in this vicinity. William O. Youse, 
of the same family as John W., and at present one of the leading carpen- 
ters of Mound City, was born in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, 
December 5, 1856. When eighteen years of age he began working at 
his present trade which he followed in his native county till 1878 when 
he came to Mound City. He was married December 17, 1878 to Miss 
Ellen Andrews, a daughter of John and Sarah (Kelley) Andrews. Both 
were natives of New Jersey. Mrs. Youse was born in the same State 
in the year 1857. They have one child, John W. 




CHAPTER VIII. 

BIGELOW TOWNSHIP. 

BIGELOW TOWNSHIP BOUNDARIES— PHYSICAL FEATURES— EARLY SETTLERS-FIRST 
MERCANTILE ENTEK PRISE-CHURCHES-ISAAC HAYS— BIGELOW-BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Bigelow Township was reduced to its present (1882) limits, March 
22, 187 1. It includes, with the exception of sections 1 and 12 in the 
northeast corner of the same, the whole of Township 61, range 39, and 
eighteen sections and fractional sections of township 61, range 40. It is 
bounded on the north by Union and Benton Townships, on the east by 
Benton Township; on the south by Lewis Township, and on the west by 
the Missouri River, which separates it from the State of Nebraska. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

The entire area of Bigelow Township lies in the wide bottom which 
here extends on a dead level, ten miles westward from the bluffs to the 
Missouri River. It is traversed by numerous important streams, and 
interspersed with lakes and swamps. The Big Tarkio enters Bigelow 
Township from Union, in section 4, and flows in a southerly by westerly 
direction through six sections, into Lewis Township, through which it 
runs in a westerly course somewhat over a mile, then bending north 
ward again, flows into Tarkio swamp cr marsh, in section 36, township 
61, range 40. This creek, two hundred links wide in Bigelow Township, 
is returned in the government surveys as a navigable stream, to the 
south line of township 63, range 40, in what is now Union Township, 
and within three miles of the northern boundary of the county. 

Little Tarkio enters Bigelow Township near the northwest corner 
of section 3, township 61, range 39, and flows in a generally southerly 
course, traversing eight sections of the same, and entering Lewis Town- 
ship in section 4, township 60, range 39. Its average width in Bigelow 
Township is about one hundred links. 

Squaw Creek, flowing in a southwesterly course from the neighbor- 
hood of Mound City, in Benton Township, enters Bigelow Township in 
section 2, at its northeast corner, and flowing through the same, and a 
corner of section 1 1, enters Tarkio Creek just within the east boundary 
of section 10, township 61, range 39. 



BIGELOW TOWNSHIP. 191 

The lake, or rather swamp, into which the Big Tarkio flows, is prob- 
ably not over one third of a mile wide in its greatest breadth. It extends, 
however, over a considerable surface, occupying in its irregular area 
portions of sections 18, 19, 30 and 31 of range 40, in township 61. This 
body of water was once known as Higgins' Lake. It is now called Big 
Lake, and abounds in fish, wild geese and ducks. On the southeast 
quarter of section 13, township 61, range 40, bordering on its banks, Wil- 
liam and Harmon Higgins, brothers, from Ray and Platte Counties, Mis- 
souri, settled in November 1 84 1. Stephen C. Collins, for twenty years 
surveyor of Holt County, assisted them in putting up their house. The 
Iowa and Sac Indians were then numerous in the neighborhood. 

EARLY SETTLERS. 

Besides those above mentioned, among the earliest settlers of Bige- 
low Township were Joshua Kelso, (still living) constable in 1855, when 
it was included in Benton ; Joseph Scott and his sons William and John 
Scott; Daniel David, who came from Switzerland County, Indiana; 
Jeff. Campbell, Wade Whitney and John Stone, from Virginia ; Jack 
Chaney, Joel Chaney and Fields Chaney from Ray County, Missouri ; 
fohn L. Morris, from Kanawah, Virginia, whose wife was a daughter of 
[ohn Hinkle, who died in 1853, came from Randolph County, Virginia, to 
Bigelow Township in 1848. He was an uncle of J. C. Hinkle, now a 
orominent citizen of West Lewis Township. Nelson Rodney, C. G. 
Hopkins and A. Galloway were early settlers. Among the earliest to 
ocate in what is now Bigelow Township was a man by the name of 
Wagle, who settled just west of the present site of Bigelow, and lived 
:here till the year 1844, when he was forced to move, in consequence of 
:he flood of that year. Elijah Duncan and William Farmer were also 
imong the earliest settlers of this township. Thomas and John Dun- 
can, sons of E. Duncan, and James, Elijah and Andrew Farmer, sons of 
■Vm. Farmer; Jacob, James and Alex Fitzwaters from Franklin County, 
Missouri. A large number of the settlers of the western portion of 
5igelow Township were from Franklin Countv, Missouri. 

FIRST MERCANTILE ENTERPRISE. 

The first merchants who sold goods in Bigelow Township were 
'rury T. Easley and R. J. Poindexter. They came from Franklin 
ounty, Missouri, in 1849, an< ^ opened a stock of goods near the mouth 
' the Tarkio, in what is now West Lewis Township, just across the line 
om Bigelow Township. They shortly after went to California. On 
ieir return, in 1852, they started a store on the river bank, above Lang- 
Mi's place, opposite Rulo, Nebraska. This was the first store ever 



192 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

established within the limits of what is now Bigelow Township. It was 
destroyed by fire in 1857. Easley & Poindexter, the pioneer merchants, 
enjoy the distinction of being the first to introduce cockle burrs into 
Holt County. These they brought in the tails of their horses from 
Franklin County, Missouri, on their first arrival in the country. 

TIMBER. 

Fully four-fifths of the area included within the present limits of 
Bigelow Township was originally heavily timbered, and the entire 
expanse of this territory, which is bottom land, level as a floor, was 
covered with a growth of rushes almost as thick as grass. The trees 
which towered above this growth, attained, many of them, to enormous 
size, and it was not unusual to find cottonwoods six feet in diameter, as 
well as walnut, hackberry, mullbery and and other indigenous growths of 
•corresponding dimensions. The rushes which grew here in such vast 
profusion, sustained, during the winter season, thousands of cattle which, 
supplied with no other food, came out fat in the spring. As many as 
ten 'thousand head have been wintered on these rushes in the bottoms 
in one season. These were often brought from as iar south as Clay and 
Jackson Counties. Judge J. T. V. Thompson, of Liberty, Missouri, had, 
among his cattle on these rushes, twelve buffaloes. They were sent there 
in 1842. Long after he had removed the rest of the herd, there remained 
one cow buffalo which boldly attacked people whom it chanced to encoun- 
ter. It was finally shot and killed. This bottom land has all long been 
entered, and a vast acreage cleared and in cultivation. The rushes 
which once grew here in such boundless profusion, from the action of 
fire and other causes, have nearly entirely disappeared. At present 
(1882) not above one-half the area of the bottom is timbered. This is 
included chiefly in the southern and western parts of the township. In 
point of fertility, there is no more excellent country on the continent, 
the products of this latitude growing, with slight attention, in vast pro- 
fusion. We state, on the authority of Mr. John C. Hinkle, a representa- 
tive farmer and reliable resident of this section, whose farm, the south- 
west quarter of section 7, extends to the southern limits of this town- 
ship, that within half a mile of the Bigelow line, in Lewis Township, on 
this bottom land, he raised in 1879, a crop of wheat which averaged 
upwards of forty-five bushels of wheat to the acre. 

MILLS. 

In 1861 the Hoover Saw Mill was moved from Mound City and set 
up on Big Tarkio, in the northeast quarter of section 17, township 61, 
range 39, one mile and a-half south by west of the present town of 



BIGELOW TOWNSHIP. 1 93 

Bigelow. In 1864 L. Hoover sold this mill to T. W. and E. D. McCoy, 
who operated it till 1869, when they sold to R. P. Lewis, who ran the 
mill alone till the year 1870, when he associated with himself in the busi- 
ness E. A. Brown, Esq. They continued at this point till the fall of 1876, 
when they moved the mill to the northwest quarter of section 7, town- 
ship 61, range 39, three miles west of the town of Bigelow, where it is 
still (1882) operated. The yield of this mill averages about one million 
feet of lumber per year. This is chiefly Cottonwood, elm, walnut and 
basswood. The receipts from sales of walnut lumber alone, sawed at 
this mill, in the year 1881, amounted to $5,889. The other permanent 
or stationary sawmill of Bigelow Township is now (1882) owned by 
Jacob Book. It formerly stood on Little Tarkio Creek, four miles south 
of the town of Bigelow. In 1870 it was moved by Johnson & Chambers 
to the northeast quarter of section 32, township 61, range 39, on the 
waters of the Big Tarkio. Several years after Jacob Book purchased the 
mill and moved it to its present location, the east eighty of the north- 
west quarter of section 21, township 61, range 39, about two and a-half 
miles southwest of the town of Bigelow. 

CHURCHES. 

The first ecclesiastical edifice erected within the present limits of 
Bigelow Township was the white church, which stood on the east bank 
of Big Tarkio, on a farm now (1882) owned by B. M. Beesley, on the 
southeast quarter of section 32, township 61, range 39. This church was 
built in i860 by the M. E. Church, South, at a cost of about six hun- 
dred dollars. The organizers of the congregation were Isaac H. Jones, 
now of Rulo, Nebraska, and his wife ; Isaac Jarvis and wife, Mrs. Susan 
D. Easley, Mrs. Elizabeth Poindexter, U. T. Cranmer and wife, and Mrs. 
Mary A. Spoonamore. 

The first sermon was preached in this church on the 4th of July, 
i860, by Rev. Mr. Dodd, of Calloway County, Missouri. In the winter 
of- 1871, the structure of this, the pioneer church of the township, was 
destroyed by fire. 

In the succeeding summer the "Brick Church" was built by the 
congregation of the burned church. This they located on the southeast 
quarter of section 29, one mile north of the site of the old White 
Church. It is a neat building, thirty by fifty feet in the clear, and was 
completed at a cost of $2,000. It is one of the best buildings of its 
character in the county. 

Shiloh M. E. Church, South, also in Bigelow Township, is a frame 
structure, which stands on the bank of the Missouri River, in section 23, 
township 61, range 40. It is a building thirty by forty feet in extent, 
and was erected in 1873, at a cost of about seven hundred dollars. The 

13 



194 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

principal members who built this church were George H. Walker, A. I. 
Griffin and Robert Adkison. 

ISAAC HAYS. 

In our report of Lewis Township mention is made of the death, at 
the advanced age of 104 years, of Mrs. Pope, of Forest City. Bigelow 
Township also, it appears, had her prodigy of longevity, in the person of 
the venerable Isaac Hays, who died in October, 1880, at his residence 
just within the limits of Lewis Township, near the south line of Bigelow 
Township, on the fractional section 6, township 60, range 39, where the 
Big Tarkio enters the latter from the former township. From a notice 
of his life, written by the Rev. W. S. Mahan, of Mound City, Holt County, 
Missouri, and published in the Kansas Chief, we glean the following 
facts : " Isaac Hays was born in Greenbriar County, Virginia, July 28, 
1778. At the age of two years he moved, with his parents, uncles and 
grandparents to Kentucky. They joined Daniel Boone and his pioneers 
in the fort where Boonsboro' was subsequently built. His father, John 
Hays, was killed in a fight with the Indians, on Brier Creek, leaving 
young Isaac and a baby sister to provide for. They remained at the fort 
about nine years, and Father Hays, as he was familiarly known in this 
country, retained to the last a very distinct recollection of Boone. On 
attaining his majority he moved, with his mother and sister, to Garrard 
County, Kentucky, and, in 1812, was married to Miss Anna Hohimer, 
whose parents came from North Carolina. In February, 1813, he took 
the place of one Samuel Davis, who had been drafted, to go with the 
command of the unfortunate Col. Dudley, to join Gen. W. H. Harrison, 
at Fort Meigs, receiving for so doing 155 silver dollars. He was subse- 
quently in the disastrous engagement with the British and Indians, at 
the River Raisin, and was one of the few whose fortune it was to escape 
that terrible massacre. With his fellow captives he was taken to Mai- 
den, Canada, and there paroled. Furnished with two days rations they 
tramped through the wilderness to their homes, and arrived on the 5th 
day of May. August 14, 1814, another draft was made and our hero 
drew the black bean. He was forthwith enrolled in the company of 
Capt. William Woods, Col. Stoughton's regiment and Gen. Adair's brig- 
ade, which was ordered to join Gen. Jackson, at New Orleans. Just pre- 
vious to starting from home he united with the M. E. Church, not wish- 
ino", as he expressed it, if killed, to die in his sins. Embarking in flat- 
boats the expedition started from the locality where Portland, Ken- 
tucky, now stands, bound for New Orleans. At Natchez, and subse- 
quently at Baton Rouge, they were met by couriers, urging them to make 
all haste. January 4, 1815, they passed the city of New Orleans and 
encamped three miles below its site. On the 8th was fought the memo- 
rable battle which immortalized Jackson. Isaac Hays was one of the 



BIGELOW TOWNSHIP. 195 

seven in the American ranks who were wounded. The scar of this 
wound, which was on his left arm, he carried to the day of his death. 
Father Hays, in speaking of that memorable occasion, mentioned that a 
ball passed through the crown of his hat, just grazing his hair, and 
another ball cut off part of the rim of his hat and went through the cape 
of his hunting shirt. He also stated that a light rain fell continually, 
but ceased in the afternoon, when the sun shone out beautifully. He 
saw Gen. Packenham's body, lying within one hundred yards of the 
ditch. He had been shot in the head, the bullet entering the left eye. 
March 18th he started for home, with $21 loaned him by a deserter 
whom he had befriended. Arriving April 27 he found his home in ashes 
and its contents destroyed. His wife and child, however, had escaped 
the flames. He remained in Kentucky till 1827, and was major of his 
home regiment of militia.'elected over three competitors by 250 majority. 
After leaving Kentucky he settled in Indiana, but soon after moved to 
McLean County, where he remained a number of years. His wife dying 
he returned to Kentucky and married a widow, Mary Renfrow, in the 
same house where he had married his first wife. In 1854 Major Hays 
moved to Holt County, Missouri, and settled near the mouth of the Big 
Tarkio, where he continued to reside up to the period of his death. In 
March, 1861, his second wife died, and he was left entirely alone, as his 
two sons had entered the army and his daughters were married and gone. 
The old major was an uncompromizing Union man, and boldly defied a 
gang of robbers, who, calling themselves Confederate soldiers, plundered 
his house during the stormy days of the rebellion. During the war the 
old man made a third matrimonial venture, espousing, this time, a 
widow lady residing in Hiawatha, Kansas. He had, by this marriage, 
four children, the eldest now (1882) nineteen years of age, and the 
youngest twelve, all hearty, good-looking young people. On Major 
Hays' one hundredth birthday five hundred people dined with him, and 
mainly at his expense ; and, as he was poor and a Government pen- 
sioner, it was resolved that when the one hundred and second anniver- 
sary arrived the same should be celebrated at the expense of his friends. 
Accordingly, on July 28, 1880, several hundred persons again dined with 
him, in J. C. Hinkle's grove, but, on this occasion, as determined, at their 
)wn expense, many of them making him, besides, small donations. 
Appropriate addresses were delivered by the Rev. W. S. Mahan and 
jen. Wilkinson, of Mound City. The Rev. Mr. Campbell led in prayer, 
md the whole affair was a success enjoyed by all present." 

BIGELOW 

> the only trading point within the limits of the township. It is located 
n the Kansas City, St. Joseph and Council Bluffs Railroad, in the center of 



T96 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

section io, township 61, range 39, thirty-eight miles from St. Joseph, 
and one hundred and six miles from Kansas City. The town of Bige- 
low took its start in November, 1868, at which period Captain H. L. Wil- 
liams opened in the place the first store within the limits of the town- 
ship. The business of this enterprise was conducted by W. A. Bostick 
till March, 1869, when H. C. Haines took charge of the same and con- 
tinued to operate it till 1875, when he bought out his employer and con- 
tinued the business on his own account till August, 1878, at which 
period he moved to Sabetha, Kansas. 

In March, 1869, T. D. Frazer & Bro., opened in the place a general 
stock of goods. The firm continued under this name till the year 1873, 
when B. F. Fleming became a partner in the concern, and the business 
was thenceforth transacted in the firm name of Fleming & Frazer. Jan- 
uary 1, 1882, B. F. Fleming purchased the interest of his partner and 
has since continued to conduct the business in his own name alone, and 
is to-day one of the most popular and successful merchants in the county. 

Dr. J. P. Jackson opened in 1870 the first drug store in Bigelow. 
He commanded a large practice as a physician, and continued the busi- 
ness of his store by deputy till 1875, when he sold out and was sue 
ceeded by C. S. Armstrong. In 1877, Simpson & Chuning bought out 
the establishment and conducted its business till 1879, when they sold 
to Muir & Campbell. June, 1881, they sold to the present (1882) pro- 
prietors. 

In 1875, Holt Bros, started a drug store, which they sold in 1877 tc 
James McLean. He afterwards sold to Edmund Anibal, who sold out 
December 29, 1881, to John C. Hinkle. 

The first blacksmith to locate in the town of Bigelow was C. H 
Graves, who settled there and opened his shop in the spring of 1869 
Disgusted with the untoward consequences of the high water of 1881 
he sold out to John L. Spohn, blacksmith and wagonmaker, and emi- 
grated. W. E. Preston was the first wagonmaker to locate in Bigelow 
He moved away in 1 881. 

William Perry started in 1868 the first saloon in the place. Hi: 
successors were James M. Smith in 1869, John Smith in 1875, and J. N 
Westfall, present (1882) proprietor of the business. 

In 1879, James W. White, started a confectionery, which is stil 



running. 



Robert Notley built and opened in 1869 the first hotel in the place 
He remained in the business two years. His hotel was the Bigelov 
House, now owned and kept by I. B. Courier. The Star Hotel was buil 
by J. L. Moffit in 1872. Several parties at different times kept th' 
house. It has been closed since 1877. 

Dr. J. P. Jackson, the first physician to settle in the place, move< 
there in 1869. He afterwards located in Mound City and is now (1882 



BIGELOW TOWNSHIP. 197 

a practitioner of Kansas City. Doctors Rhodes and W. S. Allen were 
located in the town previous to 1876. 

The present (1882) physicians are Dr. J. H. Twyman and Dr. J. L. 
Minton. 

The only lawyer who ever settled in Bigelow was M. A. Duff, who 
located there in 1872, in the practice of his profession. He now (1882) 
resides on his farm in the township. 

J. H. Isgriff was the the first justice of the peace in the town. He 
was succeeded November, 1870, by H. C. Long, Esq., the present official 

The first postmaster of Bigelow was H. C. Haines, appointed in 
1869. He was succeeded in 1870 by L. Sloan. Dr. J. P. Jackson was 
postmaster in 1871. He was succeeded in 1874 by H. C. Long, J. 
P., who held the office till 1877, when H. H. Simpson received the 
appointment. The present (1882) postmaster, Esquire H. C. Long, was 
appointed for the second time January I, 1882. 

In 1880, John L. Chuning, an enterprising citizen of the county, put 
up, in the town of Bigelow, the second brick residence in the township. 
This is a spacious and handsome two story building, and was completed 
at a cost of three thousand dollars. 

Mr. Chuning, in the following year, put up the first brick business 
house in the township. This is also in the town of Bigelow, and was 
completed at a cost of five thousand dollars. The dimensions of this 
structure, which is also a two story building, are twenty-six by ninety 
feet. In November, 1881, W. H. Bell & Co. opened, on 'the lower floor, 
1 a large stock of general merchandise. The upper floor, which is 
approached by an inside stairway, is occupied by a public hall 60x26 
feet. The balance of this floor, 26x30 feet, is divided into offices. 

The town contains a good frame school building with a belfry. The 
only ecclesiastical edifice in Bigelow is the structure of the Roman 
: Catholic Church, a small but neat gothic frame building, erected at a 
1 cost of $1,600. 

Up to the period (1880) of the building of the Nodaway Valley 
Branch Road, of which Bigelow is the southern terminus, the town was 
an important shipping point. Of walnut lumber alone Lewis & Brown 
shipped, in one season, eighteen car loads. 

Bigelow, at one period, was one of the best shipping points on the 
line of the K. C, St. Joseph & C. B. railroad, between St. Joseph and 
Council Bluffs. The completion of the railroad across the often wet and 
scarcely passable bottoms extending eastward to the blufts, transferred 
the bulk of this business to Mound City, the rising commercial center of 
Holt County. It is still, however, an important trading point, com- 
manding the patronage of the wide extent of bottom land extending 
vestward to the Missouri River. 



198 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 



4-BIOGRAPHICAL.* I 

THOMAS ALMOND 

was born in Hendricks County, Indiana, February 16, 1839, and was the 
son of Pleasant and Sarah (Merritt) Almond, both natives of Kentucky. 
In 1841 the family moved to Iowa, and Thomas was brought up in Van 
Buren and Henry Counties of that state, being educated in the common 
schools. During the war he was in service for three years, in Company 
A, First Colorado Cavalry Regiment, and went through Western Kan- 
sas, Colorado and New Mexico. After the war he returned to Henry 
County, Iowa, and then engaged in freighting from Omaha to Fort 
Laramie, continuing this business for three years. In 1875 he removed 
to Holt County, Missouri, and began tilling the soil. He now owns 
160 acres of land in section 22. Mr. Almond was married February 29, 
1872, in this county, to Miss Elizabeth Duke, who was born in Gasconade 
County, Missouri. She is the daughter of Josiah G. Duke. Mr. and 
Mrs. A. have three children : Riley Spencer, born November 24, 1872 ; 
Sarah Ann, born December 16, 1874, and Lucy I. E. M. J., born June 10, 
[880. He is Republican in politics. 

EDMUND ANIBAL 

was born January 10, 1844, in Fulton County, New York. His father, 
Robert C. Anibal, was a native of the same state, and his mother, 
formerly Catherine Eglin, of New Jersey. Edmund was reared on his 
father's farm in Fulton County. He was educated at the Jonesville 
Academy, and afterwards attended Union College, at Schenectady, for 
about two years. In 1865 he came west, and for one year was engaged 
in teaching school at Hiawatha, Brown County, Kansas. In April, 1866. 
he came to Holt County and taught for twelve years, having had charge 
of but two schools during that time — in Bigelow five years and at 
another place seven years. Recognizing his ability as an able instructor, 
the Democratic party nominated him as their candidate for county 
school commissioner in 1866. He was elected and filled the position 
very creditably for two years. In 1878 he established a drug and gro- 
cery business in Bigelow Township, and has established a successful 
trade. Mr. Anibal was married November 12, 1869, in Holt County, 
to Miss Phcebe J. Hinkle. She is a neice of Henry Clay Dean, and is a 
native of Virginia. They have two children : Charles W., born August 



e 



BIGELOW TOWNSHIP. I99 

22, 1870, and Laura May, born December 23, 1873. Mr. A. is a member 
of the Masonic order, and is one of the leading business men of this 
place. 

BALY M. BEESLEY, 

section 32, was born in Stokes County, North Carolina, January I, 1854, 
and was a son of Jacob and A. J. Beesley. The former was a native of 
Stokes County, North Carolina, and the latter of Virginia. In 1856 
Jacob Beesley died, after which the family moved to Howard County, 
Indiana, where they resided'until October 1863, then removing to Holt 
; County, Missouri. Baly was raised on a farm in Howard County, attend- 
ing the district school during the winter, and since coming to this county 
he has attended the Oregon graded school for one year. With these 
exceptions his education has been obtained by self application. When 
fifteen years of age he left home and was engaged in working on a farm 
by the month for three years. With the money thus obtained he pur- 
chased books and now has a very fine library; he is an excellent teacher, 
and has served as such for five years. Much study has been given by 
him to astronomy and astrology, and he is now lecturing on these sub- 
jects, his lectures being highly endorsed by the leading educators of the 
county. He is Republican in politics, and in March, 188 1, was appointed 
as a justice of the peace of Bigelow Township. His farm contains 100 
acres, 75 of which are under cultivation, with orchard, etc., upon it. 
June 8, 1876, Mr. Beesley was married to Miss Mary A. Minton, daughter 
of Elisha Minton. She was born and reared in Holt County. They 
have two children : Mary E., born April 13, 1878, and Roberta Ann, 
born March 15, 1880. 

BENJAMIN F. FLEMING 

s one of the prominent men of Bigelow, and has been in business con- 
inuously longer than any man in the place. He was born in Wayne 
bounty, Kentucky, September 23, 1838, and was the son of E. D. R. and 
Dorcas (Vickery) Fleming. His mother was a native of Kentucky and 
lis father was born near Halifax Court House. The latter was a farmer 
>y occupation, and Benjamin grew to manhood on a farm in his native 
ounty. He received but a very limited common school education, and, 
n August, 1867, removed to Holt County, Missouri, where he became 
ngaged in the saw mill and lumber business in this township. Two 
ears afterwards he disposed of this industry and embarked in the mer- 
antile trade in Bigelow. He is now doing business in the same house 
1 which he started thirteen years ago, and is carrying a good stock of 
eneral merchandise, being successful in his transactions. Mr. Fleming 
'as married April 13, 1873, at New Point, Missouri, to Miss Laura 
>'Neal, daughter of Elisha O'Neal. She is a native of Wisconsin. They 



200 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

have two children living : Mary Edna, born January 6, 1875, and Jennie 
V., born May 15, 1880. Two children are deceased. 

HENRY JONES, 

section 26, was born October 13, 1838, in Mahoning County, Ohio. His 
father, Clemons Jones, and his mother were both natives of Maryland. 
Henry was brought up in his native county and received a limited edu- 
cation, during the winters, in the common schools. In 1855 ne went to 
Iowa, but after remaining a short time took a trip to California, in i860. 
While there he was engaged in teaming, and after five years he left that 
state and came to Holt County, Missouri, in the fall of 1866, settling on 
a farm. He now owns 180 acres of land, 125 being cultivated, and upon 
it is a young orchard of 150 apple trees, and other fruit. Mr. Jones has 
been twice married. First, in this county, to Miss Lucinda Green. To 
his present wife, formerly Miss Julia Chaney, he was married September 
4,. 1880. She is the daughter of Hosea Chaney, and was born and reared 
in Holt County. Mr. Jones has two children : Mina, born November 
22, 1869, and Addie Leora, born June 1, 1877. Mr. J. is independent in 
politics. He is a member of the Masonic Order, and also of the Grange. 

RICHARD P. LEWIS, 

of the firm of Lewis & Brown, manufacturers and dealers in lumber, 
Bigelow, was born in Rush County, Indiana, June 25, 1826. His father, 
N. G. Lewis, was a native of Breckenndge County, Kentucky, and his 
mother, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Pearson, was born in Vir- 
ginia. In 1838, the family moved to Madison County, Indiana, and 
Richard spent his youth on a farm, and attended school in Rush and 
Madison Counties. The principal part of his education was obtained by 
study outside of the school room. In 1854, he went to Dallas County, 
Iowa, and after farming for one season, began work at the carpenter's 
trade in Adel. This, in connection with other mechanical industries, he 
continued until 1862, and for six years thereafter was interested in mer- 
chandising at the same place. He then moved to Bartlett, Fremont 
County, and resumed the same business until 1870. In that year Mr. 
Lewis came to Holt County, and embarked in the saw mill and lumber 
trade, and since that time has continued as a manufacturer and dealer 
in lumber. In May, 1864, he enlisted in the hundred day service, in the 
Forty-sixth Iowa Infantry. He is Democratic in politics, and a member 
of the Masonic fraternity. Mr. L. has been twice married : First, May 
15, 1845, to Miss Eleanor Cook, daughter of John Cook. By this union 
there were four children, only one of whom is living. Mrs. Lewis died 
December 30, 1861. He was again married April 3, 1866, in Madison 



BIGELOW TOWNSHIP. 201 

County, Indiana, to Miss Hattie Graham, daughter of Harry Graham, 
Esq. She was born in Indiana, July 27, 1845. This union was blessed 
with two children : Ralph L., born December 17, 1876, and Harry C, 
born April 21, 188 1. 

HENRY C. LONG 

was born in Claiborne County, Tennessee, January 20, 18 19, and was a 
son of John and Anna (Carr) Long, the former a native of North Caro- 
lina, and the latter of Tennessee. John Long was a soldier in the war 
of 1812, and in the engagement at New Orleans was wounded and car- 
ried a British ball in his hip until the time of his death. In 1832 the 
family moved to Morgan County, Illinois, where the subject of this 
sketch resided until he came to Holt County, landing here April 6, 
1855. He settled four miles south of Mound City, and up to the year 
1880 was engaged in farming and stock raising. At that time he moved 
to Bigelow. He is now acting as justice of the peace for this township, 
having been elected twelve years ago, and has ever since been continu- 
ously re-elected. In December, 1881, he was appointed postmaster of 
the town, and entered upon the discharge of his duties in January, 1882. 
Mr. Long has been three times married ; first, June 4, 1840, in Morgan 
County, Illinois, to Miss Susan Matthews, and after twenty-five years 
of married life she died, February, 1865. His second marriage occurred 
in October, 1867, in Holt County, to Mrs. Ruth Titus, who died a 
few years later. In April, 1871 or 1872 he was married to his pres- 
ent wife, in this county. Mr. Long has eight children living: Alice J. 
(wife of Jacob West), born April 28, 1846 ; William H., born January 7, 
1848; John W., born December 15, 1849; Martha L. (wife of C. E. 
Courier), born October 1, 1853 ; Eliza Ellen (wife of William Finicle), 
born October 29, 1855; Mary L., born August 12, 1859; Charles H., 
born March 31, i85i, and George Isaac, born February 24, 1862. Mr. 
Long is Republican in politics, and has always been prominently iden- 
tified with this party. 

GEORGE McKOWN, 

section 24, was born in Clinton County, Missouri, on the 30th of May, 
1837. His parents were Jeremiah and Ada (Livingston) McKown, the 
former being a native of Kentucky. George was reared on his father's 
farm in Clinton and Buchanan Counties, where the family subsequently 
moved. His educational advantages were somewhat restricted, he only 
being able to attend the common subscription schools. In the fall of 
1865 he moved to Holt County, settling on a farm in the western part of 
Lewis Township, and after a period of ten years he located in Bigelow 
Township. He now has 120 acres of land, some of which is timber, and 
upon the place is an orchard of apple and peach trees. Mr. McKown is 



202 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Democratic in politics and is a member of the Grange. He was married 
December 3, 1857, to Miss Ruth J. Branson, in Andrew County. Mr. and 
Mrs. M. have eight children : William F., born November 18, 1859; 
Nancy L., born March 22, 1863; Mattie May, born December 30, 1865; 
Andrew J., born May 8, 1869; Jeremiah, born August 14, 1871; John M., 
born November 25, 1873; Lucinda, bom November 2, 1875, and George, 
born March 24, 1878. 

THOMAS MACKEY, 

section 29, was born in Holt County, Missouri, September 21, 185 1. His 
father, Thomas Mackey, Sr., was a native of Pike County, Missouri, and 
his mother, formerly Mary Jones, was born in Tennessee. In 1856 the 
family removed to Nebraska, where they resided for about eight years, 
and in 1864 returned to Holt County. Young Mackey was brought up 
on his father's farm, here and in Nebraska, and was educated in the com- 
mon schools. He also attended one term at Forest City. He is now 
the owner of 172 acres of land, on the Missouri bottoms, 120 acres of 
which are under cultivation. A good orchard adorns the farm, consist- 
ing of all varieties of fruit adapted to this climate. Mr. Mackey was 
married in this county, February 15, 1874, to Miss Anna M. Moore, 
daughter of S. Moore, of Mound City. Mrs. M. was born in Iowa, but 
was raised here. They have four children : William F., born December 
7, 1874; Marion M., born September 21, 1876; Genevia W., born Sep- 
tember 25, 1878, and Albert S. C, born September 17, 1880. Mr. and 
Mrs. M. are members of the Baptist Church. He belongs to the Grange, 
and in politics is democratic. 

PETER RILEY, 

one of the leading farmers of this township, was born February 21, 1839, 
in Columbiana County, Ohio, and was the son of John R. and Catharine 
(Richards) Riley. The former was a native of New Jersey and the latter 
of Pennsylvania. The family finally moved to Pickaway County, Ohio, 
where John Riley died, in 1842. Peter went to Montgomery County, 
Indiana, in 185 1, and, after living there for six years, came to Holt 
County, in 1855, and settled on the Missouri River. He passed his youth 
on a farm and had but meagre chances to obtain an education, his school- 
ing being principally acquired by self application. He is now the owner 
of 373 acres of land, 145 acres is the home place, and of this no acres 
are under cultivation. His orchards consists of 200 apple, besides peach, 
cherry and pear trees. He resides on section 15. Mr. Riley was mar- 
ried in Holt County, October 8, 1857, to Miss Lydia Miller, a daughter 



BIGELOW TOWNSHIP. 



203 



of John R. Miller. She was born in Ohio, October 28, 1838. They have 
had ten children, seven of whom are living-: Sarah J., wife of James G. 
Cateron, born May 17, 1858 ; Mary Isabelle, wife of D. S. Cateron, born 
January 2, 1861 ; Leona, born September 9, 1865 ; Ida May, born Jan- 
uary 12, 1868 ; Dora Alice, born November 19, 1869; Harry Lee, born 
July 4, 1874; Benjamin F., born March 3, 1880. Mr. Riley is a Demo- 
crat, politically, and is a member of the Masonic order. 




CHAPTER IX. 

CLAY TOWNSHIP. 

BOUNDARIES-PHYSICAL FEA I'URES-EARLY SETTLERS— WHIG VALLEY— MAITLAND- 
SCHOOLS— CHURCHES— BUSINESS DIRECTORY— BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Clay Township embraces the northeastern municipal division of 
Holt County. It was first organized at the June term of the Holt County 
Court, in the year 1854, and in the record of that date is thus described: 

BOUNDARIES. 

" Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Nodaway 
River two miles north of where Oiler's Base Line crosses said river, thence 
due west parallel with said Oiler's line to the top of the dividing ridge 
between the waters of the Nodaway and those of the Little Tarkio; 
thence following said divide north to the county line between Atchison 
and Holt Counties, thence east with said line to the middle of the main 
channel of the Nodaway River, thence down the same to the point of 
beginning, to be designated as Clay Township." 

On the organization, June 20, 1874, of Hickory Township, Clay 
Township was reduced to its present limits, which are bounded as 
follows : On the north by Atchison County ; on the east by Nodaway 
County, from which it is separated by the Nodaway River ; on the south 
by Hickory Township ; and on the west by six miles of Liberty and three 
miles of Benton Township. It includes within its limits about forty-six 
square miles of territory. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

The physical aspect of the country is that of a gently undulating 
plain diversified with elevations and depressions along the water courses, 
generally in the vicinity of the Nodaway. 

Highley's Creek, named in honor of William Highley, heads in sec 
tions 35 and 25, township 63, range 38, and flowing in a southeasterly 
and easterly direction, is met in the southeast corner of section 16, town- 
ship 62, range 37, by Schooler's Branch. The united streams called on 
the county map, Buck's Branch, flow through Whig Valley, a district of 
Clay Township which comprises a part of sections 8, 9, 17, and all of 16, 
and part of 20 and 21 in township 62, range 37. 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 205 

Roland's Branch heads in the northeast part of Clay Township, in 
section 24, and flows in a northeasterly and southeasterly course, enter- 
ing Nodaway River in the east part of section 21, township 63, range 37. 
The stream at this point is from fifteen to twenty links wide. 

The Indian Ford on Nodaway River extended from the northwest 
quarter of section 3, township 62, range 37. The river, at this point is 
fordable at low water. 

White's Ferry was on the Nodaway near the southeast corner of sec- 
tion 4, township 62, range 37. S. C. Collins surveyed, in March i860, 
the state road from Forest City to Maryville, in Nodaway County, by 
this ferry, and found the distance from Forest City to the ferry to be 
nineteen miles, thirty-three and one-half chains to the middle of the 
Nodaway River, and the total distance from Forest City to Maryville 
thirty-five miles, 59.45 chai-ns. This road runs through Whig Valley. 
The chain carriers in the survey of this road were Robert Gibson and 
Robert Hill. 

King's Grove is partly in Clay Township in section 19. It derived 
its name from John King's father, who settled in that locality in 1849 or 
1850. In the government survey of September 25, 1839, what is now 
known as King's Grove is designated as Roland's Grove. 

EARLY SETTLERS. 

The original pioneers in the northeast part of Holt County were 
Whigs, and being intensely devoted to the principles of that grand old 
party, and possessing an unbounded admiration for its gallant leader, 
Henry Clay, they named the locality which they settled Whig Valley, 
and the township Clay. 

The first settler of Whig Valley was Theodore Higley, who, in the 
year 1846, made the first settlement on the northeast quarter of section 
18, township 62, range 37. In 1848, about two years later, W. G. Higley, 
who had been a soldier in the Mexican War, returned, and settled near 
his father, Theodore. About the same time Thomas J. Evans settled on 
the northeast quarter of section 9, in the same Congressional township, 
but soon afterward sold to Joseph White. This place was for many 
years known as " White's Ford," from a crossing on the Nodaway River 
at that point. About the year 1850, Charles Schooler settled on what is 
known as the Schooler farm, which occupies a part of the southeast 
quarter of section 16, township 62, range 37. About the year 1852, Wil- 
liam McDonald and Montgomery McDonald came from Kentucky. 
These parties, excepting the last named, came from Indiana. From 
1852 to i860, several farms were opened and improved. Among the 
the other early settlers were Joseph White, John S. Peters and David 
Bender, from Indiana, and Lewis Garnett, from Kentucky. John and 
William King were also among the first. 



206 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

As stated, the early settlers were all Whigs, and what was calle 
Whig Valley embraced a small portion of country bordering on th< 
Nodaway River, not more than two miles in extent from north to south 
and about the same distance from east to west. During the war th» 
majority of old settlers left, and the present population of this distric 
is mostly composed of parties from Ohio, who are intelligent and enter 
prising.' 

WHIG VALLEY 

was the name of the post office, and a town was laid out in the fall o 
1876, and a store built. The first store in Whig Valley was establishec 
in 1870 by E. A. Burnett & Bro., and stood on section 9, of township 62 
range 37. This was purchased by E. F. Weller, who, in 1876, built th< 
present store on the town site of Whig Valley. Whig Valley wa 
abandoned when Maitland was laid out, its business houses and thei 
proprietors all moving to the new town. 

MAITLAND. 

On the 12th day of May, 1880, the plat of the embryo town of Mait 
land, in Clay Township, was filed in the Recorder's Office of Holt County 
by J. F. Barnard, of St: Joseph, Missouri, who was the owner of the lane 
upon which the town was located. The original town site occupies the 
south half of the southeast quarter of section 4, and the west half of the 
northeast quarter of section 9, township 62, range 37. So rapidly did il 
grow, and so numerous were the buildings which had been erected that 
on the 4th day of August, following, Mr. Barnard filed the plat of ar 
addition to the town. It is handsomely located, on the Nodoway Val- 
ley Railroad, a branch of the Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluff; 
Road, about eighteen miles from its intersection with the main line, anc 
contains, at this time, a population of about six hundred souls. The 
placid little stream, called the Nodaway River, forms the eastern 
boundary line, of its corporation, and flows in a southwesterly direction 
towards the Missouri, with which it unites twenty-eight miles distant 
Upon the opposite side of the Nodaway, from Maitland, is situated the 
thriving little village of Graham, in Nodaway County, the two towns 
being connected by an elegant iron bridge, which cost the two countie 
of Holt and Nodaway $6,000. The country surrounding Maitland (Clay 
Township) is conceded to be the best agricultural district in the county 
both on account of its physical features and the fertility of its soil. 

FIRST IMPROVEMENTS. 

The pioneer building of the town was put up in June, 1880, by J. M 
Wensch & Co., of St. Joseph, Missouri, for a lumber office. The second 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 207 

house was moved from Whig Valley, by E. F. Weller, and located on the 
south side of Main and First street, south corner, for a store. Mr. Wel- 
ler was the first postmaster. The first business house erected in the 
town was the hardware store of C. D. Messenger, who was from St. Joseph. 
The next business house was erected by Garnett & Swope, and used as 
a drug store. Then came David Kennedy, William Ritchie and others, 
all of whom began and finished their improvements between June and 

August, 1880. 

SECRET ORDERS. 

The A. O. of U. W. have an organization, and meet over th6 bank 
of Weller & Donovan. 

•SCHOOLS. 

Besides the seven schools that are taught in the township the town 
has a good public school in successful operation, which numbers one hun- 
dred and ten pupils, under the superintendency of Miss Dora E.Turner. 
No school building has been erected, but it is contemplated to build one 
soon, which is to have all the conveniences and appliances possessed by 
the modern school-house. The railroad company has donated a block 
for a public school building. • 

CHURCHES. 

The first church, a frame building, was put up in September, 1880, 
by the Christian denomination and organized by Elder W. F. Wait. The 
second and last church edifice (frame) was erected also in 1880 by the M. 
E. Church. The first pastor was Rev. James Showalter, who still offi- 
ciates. 

NEWSPAPERS. 

The town supports one newspaper, Maitland Independent, J. J. 
Moulton, proprietor. The paper is independent in politics, and was 
established about March, 1881. 

BUSINESS DIRECTORY. 

Anders, Albert, confectioner. Jenne, Z., carpenter. 

3aublitt, George, confectioner. Johnson, C, artist. 

^aublitt, George, billiard hall. Maxwell. D. R., physician. 

Surch, W. E., physician. McCoy, John, barber. 

looker, — , Hotel. Messenger, C. D., hardware. 

-ain, Daniel, carpenter. Moore, James & Co., groceries and 

hambers, Howard, restaurant and provisions. 

• confectionery. Moore & Siemon, groceries. 

ummins & Thayer, agricultural Noble, C, drugs. 

implements. Palmer, W. A., sewing machines. 



208 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Dougherty, M. N. & Co., dry goods. Park & Roberts, drugs. 

Downey, T. S., physician. Pratt, E. R., livery stable. 

Dulaney, E. E., contractor and Ritchie, William, carpenter. 

builder. Russell, Mrs., millinery. 

Ewing & Brady, dry goods. Rea, J. I., law office. 

Frank Julius, baker and confec- Salters, J. W., blacksmith and wag- 

tioner. onmaker. 

Everhart, William, furniture. Sarber, C, barber. 

Finney, Williams & Co., lumber. Sherburne, A. M., physician. 

Graham & Frame, dry goods. Sidell, Julius, butcher. 

Hart, E. A., justice of the peace. Smock & Owens, groceries and 
Hatfield, James, postmaster. queensware. 

Hedgpath, D., sewing machines. Stone, J. R., saddles and harness. 

Hinkle, Mrs. M. A., millinery. Swope, John S., grain elevator. 

Howell Bros., lumber yard. Thompson & Dicky, butchers. 

Kennedy, David, blacksmith. Vanderlinde, John, drugs. 

Kenyon, Monroe, hardware. Wyman, R. C, physician. 

Kernes, William, Valley hotel. Weller & Donovan, bankers. 

Kidd, W. H., grocer. White, Robert, wagonmaker. 

King, S. D., carpenter. Young, — , shoemaker. 
Leach, C. A., telegraph and express office. 

TOWN OFFICIALS. 

E. F. Weller, councilman. W. A. Graham, councilman. 

David Kennedy, councilman. James Wensch, councilman. 

E. A. Phillips, councilman. James Palmer, constable. 

James Moore, street commissioner. 



®—l?=$i=z$- «L 



"*s/f^ 



5BIOGRAPHICAL.& 



JOSEPH ANDES, 

farmer and breeder of fine hogs, section 14, is a native of Shenandoah 
County, Virginia, was born August 7, 1852, and is a son of John and 
Susan (Glick) Andes. His father was born in Rockingham County, 
Virginia, in 1819, and his mother in Shenandoah County Virginia. After 
being married they settled in Shenandoah County, Virginia, and in the 
spring of 1856 moved to Holt County, Missouri, settling near Oregon. 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 209 

There they remained one year, and then located four miles southeast of 
Mound City. John Andes died in October, 1870, and his wife now makes 
her home with her son, William G. Joseph Andes spent his youthful 
days and received a good education in Holt County, Missouri; At the 
age of twenty-two years he took a pleasure trip to California, and 
remained on the Pacific coast till December, 1874, when he returned to 
Holt County. He was married December 30, 1865, to Miss Nancy 
J. Palmer, a native of Holt County, Missouri, born May 30, 1859. She 
is a daughter of Martin V. and Nancy (Roberson) Palmer, the for- 
mer a native of Holt County, Missouri, born March 29th, 1834, and her 
mother, of Monroe County, Kentucky, born September 29, 1829. She 
moved with her parents to Clinton County, Missouri, in 1830, and to 
Holt County, in 1850. Mr. and Mrs. Palmer were married January 2, 
1859, an d afterwards settled in Nebraska. Her father was in the late 
war, and later went west and was killed by Indians. Mr. and Mrs. Andes 
lived on the old homestead till 1876, when they moved to their present 
farm. Mr. A. has been an extensive live stock dealer. They have three 
children John M., born October 29, 1877; Mattie M., born November 
12, 1879, and George C, born August 19, 1881. They are both members 
of the German Baptist Church. 

PETER L. BOHART, 

of the firm of P. L. Bohart & Co., merchants, is a native of Clarke County, 
Indiana, and was born January 24, 1859, being a son of R. C. and Eliza 
Bohart. His father was a native of Guernsey County, Ohio, born Sep- 
tember 7, 1828, and with his parents he moved to Clarke County, Indiana, 
where he was married. He began the mercantile business when at the 
age of twenty-one years, but subsequently sold out and moved to 
Graham, Nodaway County, Missouri, in 1864. There he did a general 
merchandising business till 1879, when he disposed of his interest to his 
sons. He died soon after. Mrs. Eliza Bohart is still living. P. L. spent 
his boyhood days in his native county, and with his parents moved to 
Graham, Nodaway County, Missouri. There he received an excellent 
education, and in the spring of 1878 graduated at Bryant's Business Col- 
lege, at St. Joseph. His early tastes were for the general dry goods busi- 
ness, so after completing his studies he returned to Graham and entered 
his father's store as clerk. He soon earned for himself an enviable rep- 
utation as a salesman, and in the fall of 1878 in connection with his two 
brothers he purchased the entire stock of goods from the father, and 
continued the business till September 1881, when he sold out. The fol- 
lowing winter was spent at Chicago, and in the spring of 1882 he returned 
home and formed a partnership with J. H. and W. B. Bohart, purchasing 
the entire stock of dry goods of Dougherty & Taylor. They are now 
doing an excellent business, and well merit their success. 

14 



2IO HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

JUDGE J. R. BRADFORD 

is one of Clay Township's most popular citizens. He is a native of Ross 
County, Ohio, and was born March 12, 1824. His father, Thomas, was a 
native of Plymouth, Massachusetts, born February 25, 1778, and was a 
ship carpenter by trade. He was married to Miss Mary Holmes, a native 
of Massachusetts, born November 29, 1780. They settled in Massachu- 
setts and there his wife died, and he was married the second time in 
1820 to Miss Sophia Russell, a native of Weatherfreld, Massachusetts, 
born October 9, 1793. They settled in Chillicothe, Ross County, Ohio, 
at an early day, and the father worked at his trade till about 1838. Then 
he purchased a farm southeast of Chillicothe. He died March 23, 1839, 
and the mother lived till December 9, 1845. J- R- passed his boyhood 
days in his native county and received an excellent high school educa- 
tion at Chillicothe. He devoted his time to agricultural pursuits, and 
was married January 16, 1845, to Miss Ceviller Oldaker, a native of Ross 
County, Ohio, born November 3, 18 18. She was a daughter of John 
and Mary F. Oldaker, who were natives of Loudoun County, Virginia. 
They settled in Ross County, Ohio, at an early day. Mr. and Mrs. 
Bradford sold out their effects in Ross County and, with their family, 
moved to Nodaway County, Missouri, in 1863, settling near what is now 
Burlington Junction. He improved a good place, which he afterwards 
sold and purchased his present farm in the spring of 1865, this being the 
first farm settled in Clay Township. In the fall of 1881, Mr. B. was 
elected county judge. Their family consists of six children : Sophia F., 
(now Mrs. Dr. J. W. Morgan), Mary O., (wife of Rev. Wm. Cowley), 
Sarah E., Julia, (wife of Mortimore Evans), John E. and James B., who 
married Mary M. Johnson. Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Bradford are members of 
the M. E. Church, in which he is one of the trustees. He also belongs to 
the I. O. O. F. fraternity. 

AUGUSTUS BROCHER, 

farmer, section 28, is a native of Germany. He was born February 18, 
1844, and is a son of Henry Brocher. His mother died when he was 
quite small, and he came with his uncle, P. J. Brocher, to America, in 
1853, settling in Calumet County, Wisconsin, on a farm. In that county 
he was educated. The father of Augustus came to America in 1845, and 
settled in Blue Earth County, Minnesota. The subject of this sketch 
enlisted in Company K, Second Regiment Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, 
in March, 1864, and did service till April 15, 1865, being honorably dis- 
charged. He returned to Minnesota and was married November 4, 1868, 
to Miss L. C. Roy, a native of Clinton County, Missouri. She was born 
May 1, 1847, and was a daughter of Lawrence and Nancy Roy, natives 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 211 

of Pulaski County, Kentucky. Mr. and Mrs. B. settled on a farm near 
Oregon, Holt County, Missouri, in 1870, and, in 1873, moved to where he 
now resides. His farm consists of forty acres of finely improved land. 
They have a family of four children : Aubra C, Curtis, Lawrence and 
Orah M. They are members of the U. B. Church. 

A. W. BROWNLEE, 

farmer and breeder of Poland China hogs, section 19, is a native of 
Washington County, Pennsylvania, and was born January 3, 1852, being 
a son of William and N. M. Brownlee. The former was born in that 
county in 1826, and was there raised as a farmer. His mother was also 
a native of Washington County, born in 1825, and was a cousin of Hon. 
John A. Logan, of Illinois. They were married in 1848, and then set- 
tled on the farm where they still reside, being among the prominent 
citizens of that locality. The subject of this sketch passed his youthful 
days and received his education in his native county. He early began 
business for himself as a farmer and breeder of fine hogs. May 6, 1873, 
he married Miss Tillie Mountz, a native of Washington County, Penn- 
sylvania, born July 30, 185 1. She is. a daughter of James K. and Caroline 
Mountz, who were natives of Washington County. Mr. and Mrs. B., the 
day after marriage, started for Holt County, Missouri, and here he rented 
land till 1879, when he purchased a farm of forty acres near Oregon. In 
the spring of 1882 he bought his present farm, consisting of 160 acres, 
five miles southwest of Maitland. This is well improved in every par- 
ticular. During the year 1881 Mr. B. raised and sold $2,200 worth of 
fine hogs. 

J. H. CHAMBERS, 

§ 

proprietor of restaurant, was born in Andrew County, Missouri, April 19, 
1848, and is a son of Andrew and Maria (Byer) Chambers. His father was a 
native of Knox County, Ohio, and went to Buchanan County, Missouri, 
in 1838. He was married in 1839 to Miss Maria Byer, a native of Phil- 
adelphia, Pennsylvania, who, with her parents, moved to Missouri in 
1837. Mr. and Mrs. C. settled in Andrew County, Missouri, in 1839, 
ind in 1874 moved to California, where they now reside. J. H. Cham- 
bers spent his boyhood days in his native county on a farm. During 
he war he enlisted in Company D, Forty-third Regiment, Missouri 
/olunteer Infantry, and was taken prisoner at Glasgow, Missouri. 
Vfter being exchanged he did scout duty through Missouri and Kansas, 
'eing mustered out at St. Louis in July, 1865. He then returned to 
Andrew County, Missouri, and devoted his time to farming till 1866, 
; hen he went to Colorado. Returning from there he went to Scott 
ounty, Missouri, and clerked for S. O. Scofield, a merchant, for some 



212 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

eight months, after which he came back to Andrew County, Missouri. 
Mr. C. married November 12, 1872, Miss B. Meick, a native of Andrew 
County, Missouri, born in 1850. Her parents, John and Mary Meick, 
were natives of Kentucky, and went to Platte County, Missouri, and 
afterwards moved to Andrew County. Mr. and Mrs. Chambers subse- 
quently settled on a farm, but sold out and came to Maitland November 
•8, 1881. Their family consists of three children : Ardena, Blanche and 
Polly. Mrs. C. is a member of the Christian Church. 

D..J. CROCKETT, 

farmer, section 36, a native of Grundy County, Missouri, was born 
October 5, 1844, being a son of Eli and Sarah (Duval) Crockett, who 
were natives of Kentucky. The father was born in 1803, died in 1863, 
and the mother was born in 1805 and died in 1846. D. J. spent his 
youth and received a good education in his native county, and in 1862 
he enlisted in Company C, Twenty-third Regiment Missouri Volunteer 
Infantry. He did service in Tennessee and was with Sherman on his 
march to the sea, and thence to Washington, D. C, where he was mus- 
tered out, June 20, 1865. He then returned to Missouri, and in August, 
1869, went to Menard County, Illinois. He was married December 12, 
1861, to Miss Cynthia Thompson, a native of Menard County, Illinois, born 
July 20, 1850, and a daughter of Aaron and Sarah (Carson) Thompson. 
Her father, a native of Cape May County, New Jersey, was born January 
28, 1810, and was a son of Anson and Elizabeth (Eldridge) Thompson. 
Having received a good education in youth, he went to Menard County, 
Illinois, and taught school and also worked at the carpenter's trade and 
clerked in a store for a number of years. In 1848 he turned his attention 
to agriculture, purchasing and improving a large tract of land. He was 
married September 21, 1848, to Miss Sarah J. Carson, a native of Sanga- 
mon County, Illinois. Her parents were William and Cynthia (Bou- 
mont) Carson. They settled in Menard County, Illinois, he being one 
of the first men of the county. The mother died October 18, 1854, and 
the father married for his second wife, the widow of George M. O'Banion. 
The family of Mr. and Mrs. Crockett consists of five children : William 
D. C, born October 14, 1872; Dillard Z., born September 12, 1874; 
Aaron E., born September 2, 1876; Lulu J., born October 25, 1878, and 
Olie M., born September 14, 181 1. An infant died December 12, 1880. 
They are both members of the Christian Church. 

M. N. DOUGHERTY 

is a native of Trumbull County, Kentucky, where he was born in 1831. 
His father, Col. Robert S. Dougherty, was also a native of that county, 
born in 1790. He spent his boyhood days and received a good educa- 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 213 

tion in his native county, and was elected State Representative eleven 
times, and was State Senator for two years. During the war of 1812 he 
was a Colonel. He was married to Miss Elizabeth Pearce, who was a 
native of Washington County, Kentucky, born in 1800. They settled 
on a large plantation in Trumbull County, Kentucky. Col. Dougherty 
died from the effects of swallowing a cockle burr, in 1844. M. N. passed 
his youth in Kentucky, and received a good education. When at the 
age of twenty years he went to northwestern Texas, remaining a short 
time, and then returned to Kentucky. Soon afterwards he visited his 
uncle, Major John Dougherty, at one time Indian Agent in the Platte 
Purchase in 1835, and through him a description of the Platte Purchase 
was given Hon. L. F. Linn, United States Senator. M. N. Dougherty 
spent some months in this country, and went back to Kentucky, and in 
the spring of 1857 he visited northeastern Missouri, but finally located 
at Graham, Nodaway County, Missouri. Here he entered into partner- 
ship with Mr. G. C. McFadden and opened up a general stock of goods, 
in the fall of 1858, building the first storehouse at Graham. He con- 
tinued this occupation till the fall of 1861, when, leaving the business in 
charge of his partner, he enlisted in the Confederate army under Colonel 
Wilfries, and remained in service till the fall of 1863. He was in the 
battles of Blue Mills, Lexington, Pea Ridge, and while in Arkansas he 
. was taken sick. When able for duty the regiment was in Tennessee. 
Mr. D. then started for Graham, but was captured by Jayhawkers, near 
Barton, Missouri, his horse was taken from him, and he was compelled 
to walk to Graham. Here he was obliged to take the oath, and now 
being under bonds, had often to report at St. Joseph. Finally he pro- 
cured a pass and went to Iowa, afterwards to Nebraska, and during the 
years of 1863 and 1864 made two trips to Denver, Colorado. In the fall 
: of 1864 he was superintendent of a freight train en route to Denver, and 
the following winter he organized a train and went by South Pass to 
Virginia City, Montana. There he remained till the spring of 1865, 
when he went back to Kentucky. In 1869 he came to St. Joseph and 
again engaged in freighting west. He passed the winter in mining, 
returned to Kentucky, and devoted his time to merchandising till 1873, 
when, with his mother, he went to Graham. He resumed general mer- 
:handising, and in 1881 moved to Maitland. Mr. D. was married Sep- 
:ember 28, 188 1, to Miss Fannie Conklin, a native of Holt County, 
Missouri. She is the daughter of Charles and Mittie Conklin. 

DR. T. S. DOWNEY, 

clectic physician, was born in Guernsey County, Ohio, on the 13th of 
fay, 1822, being the son of Walter and Mary (Clark) Downey. His 
ither was a native of Indiana, born June 27, 1801, and died October 16, 



214 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

1868. His mother was born in Pennsylvania, August 29, 1801, and died 
in April, 1856. They were married March 29, 1821, and then settled in 
Morgan County, Ohio, moving to Guernsey County, and thence to 
Shelby County, in 1852. Young Downey received an excellent educa- 
tion while a resident of Ohio. He was married the first time on the 
17th of March, 1842, to Miss Mary A. Scott, and then settled in Guern- 
sey Connty, Ohio, moving to St. Joseph, Michigan, in 1856. In 1869 he 
came to Clearmont, Nodaway County, Missouri, and located on a farm. 
He was also engaged to some extent in the practice of medicine. In 
1875 he moved to New Point, Holt County, Missouri. Mrs. D. died on 
the 26th of March, 1876, leaving tour children : Sarah A., John F., 
Mary J., and Benjamin C. The eldest son, John F., graduated from 
Hillsdale College, of Michigan, and was professor of mathamatics and 
astronomy at the Pennsylvania State University for eight years, and in 
the spring' of 1880 he received the same appointment at the Minnesota 
State University. Dr. Downey was married the second time December 
23, 1876, to Mrs. Phoebe Talbott, whose maiden name was Smart, a native 
of Meigs County, Ohio, born April 12, 183 1. She is the daughter of 
Joseph and Phoebe (Pierce) Smart. Her father was a native of New 
Hampshire, born July 10, 1800, and died April 13, i860. Her mother 
was born in Meigs County, Ohio, November 12, 1808. They were mar- 
ried in 1828, and then settled in Meigs County, Ohio. Dr. Downey 
located at Whig Valley in 1878 and moved to Maitland in May, 1880. 
He has filled the pulpit of the M. E. Church for fifteen years, and for 
the past ten years as a local preacher of the United Brethren Church. 

E. C. EVERHART 

is a native of Clermont County, Ohio, where he was born February 22, 
1S22. His father, Titus, was a native of Virginia, born in 1772, and was 
a captain under Gen. Harrison in the war of 1812. He married Nancy 
Bryan, in 18 14. She was born in 1799, and was a daughter of David and 
C. Everhart, a prominent citizen of Clermont County, Ohio. The father 
of the subject of this sketch died in 1844 and his mother in 1879. D. C. 
spent his boyhood days, and received a good education, in his native 
county. When quite young he learned the carpenter's trade. He has 
made three trips to California, being very successful in his undertakings 
as a miner. The trips were made in 1850, 1853, and the third one in 
1857. Mr. E. has been married six times ; first, January 15, 1844, to Miss 
Harriet H. Ely, a native of Clermont County, Ohio, born December 21, 
1824. She died September 28, 185 1, leaving one son, William E., born 
January 24, 1849. He is now a merchant at Maitland, Missouri. His 
second marriage occurred January 1, 1852, to Miss Mary T. Gest, a native 
of the same county, born January 7, 1826. She died April 27, 1853, leav- 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 21 5 

ing one son, Charles R., now a farmer in this township. December 7, 
1853, he was married the third time, to Miss Mary T. Hulick, a native 
of the same county, born August 26, 1830. Her death occurred June 5, 
1861. Two daughters survive : Carrie B., wife of W. E. Schoole, a farmer 
in the township, and Dollie B., wife of Warren W. Pegg, who is editor of 
the Clermont Courier, in Clermont County, Ohio. Mr. Everhart's fourth 
marriage was to Miss Chloe A. Debolt, a native of Hamilton County, 
Ohio, born January 14, 1835. She died June 26, 1868. The fifth mar- 
riage was October 6, 1870, when Miss Lina A. Dunseth, a native of Ham- 
ilton County, Ohio, became his wife. She was born May 16, 1838, and 
died April 30, 1873. Mr. E. was married the sixth time, in 1881, to Mrs: 
Matilda Harell, a native of Shelby County, Indiana. She had previously 
been married three times and has one son, L. B. Binson, now a grain 
merchant at Humboldt, Nebraska. D. C. Everhart has been a contractor 
and liveryman at Batava, Ohio, and also farmed for many years, and 
during the time he lived in Hamilton County, Ohio, was interested in the 
hotel business. For many years he has been dealing in real estate, in 
Missouri and Ohio. Three of his children are settled in Holt County, 
Missouri, and when Maitland was founded he invested largely in lots. 
Since then his time has been devoted to the improvement of his land. 
He built the Valley Hotel, which was the first one erected in the town. 
Mr. E. has been a Mason in good standing since 1849. 

CHARLES R. EVERHART, 

farmer and stock grower, section 4, is a native of Clermont County, Ohio, 
was born in 1853, and is a son of D. C. and Mary (Gest) Everhart. 
Charles was raised and educated in his native county, and in 1873, took 
a trip to California, remaining at San Francisco for some three months. 
He afterwards went to Boise City and devoted his time to the dairy 
business for two years, after which he came to Holt County, Missouri. 
Mr. E. was married in 1875, to Miss Mary E. Schoole, a native of Holt 
County, Missouri, born December 19, 1855. She was a daughter of 
Charles H. and M. W. (King) Schoole. They have three children : 
Gracie, Blanche and Eva. 

D. A. GELVIN 

is a member of one of the largest live stock firms in Northwest Missouri. 
His farm consists of 573 acres of fine, fertile soil, situated along the Nod- 
away River, his residence being in section 16. Mr. G. is a native of 
Franklin County, Pennsylvania, where he was born August 4, 1850, and 
was a son of James and Catharine Gelvin. His father was born and 
raised in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, and began dealing in stock 
ivhen but a mere boy. He soon became noted for his superior judg- 



2l6 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

ment in the selection of a horse, and for many years purchased large 
droves of these animals, in Pennsylvania and Ohio, taking them to 
Boston. At other times he would buy cattle and hogs in Pennsylvania 
and Ohio and take them to the markets of Baltimore and Philadelphia. 
After many years of successful business life he retired from active labor. 
He was first married in 1833, to Miss Mary Zimmerman, who died in 
1844. He was married the second time in 1846, to Miss Catharine Crider, 
a native of Franklin County, Pennsylvania, born in 181 5. The senior 
Gelvin died in February, 1873, but his widow still resides at the old 
homestead. D. A. spent his boyhood in his native county, receiving a 
good education, and when at the age of twenty years he came west and 
located in Holt County, Missouri. He worked by the month till the 
spring of 1871, and during that year and the one following, he farmed. 
In February, 1873, he returned to Pennsylvania on account of his father's 
sickness, and the succeeding summer worked by the month. The next 
fall he again came to Holt County, and devoted his time to farming. 
Mr. G. was married November 19, 1874, to Miss Lizzie Hershner, a 
native of Crawford County, Ohio, born February 3, 1850, and a daughter 
of Andrew and Mary (Pearce) Hershner. Her father, who was born in 
1821, in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, moved with his parents to Craw- 
ford County, Ohio. Her mother was a native of Maryland, and with her 
parents moved to Crawford County, Ohio. After being married they 
settled in that county, and in 1866, came to Holt County, Missouri, where 
they now reside. Mr. and Mrs. Gelvin settled on eighty acres of land 
in Clay Township, in section 24, township 62, range 38, and in 1876 he 
entered into the live stock business, which has proved to be a grand 
success. He first bought on commission, but soon established an excel- 
lent reputation as a buyer, and entered into a partnership with E. F. 
Weller. He afterwards became interested in a store, finally sold out and 
entered into partnership with William Maurer. They are now known 
as about the heaviest shippers in Northwest Missouri. Mr. G. has as 
good a stock farm as there is in Holt County. His family consists of 
three daughters : Elsie D., born January 11, 1876; Emma L., born 
August 21, 1878, and Cora May, born October 9, 1880. 

J. D. GOODPASTURE, 

farmer, section 36, was a son of Rev. A. H. and Dulcina B. Goodpasture. 
His father, a native of Overton County, Tennessee, was born June 21, 
1812, he being a son of John and Margery Goodpasture, natives of Vir- 
ginia. John built the first court house at Richmond, Virginia. Rev. A. 
H. G. was the sixth child of a family of fourteen children. He spent his 
boyhood days and received a good common schooling in his native 
county, and when twenty-one years of age began life as a farmer. In 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 217 

1833, he went to Central Alabama, and while en route, stopped for a 
time and attended a camp meeting. There he became converted, and 
soon resolved to work in the Christian cause. He began studying for 
the ministry, and was licensed to preach in April, 1835, by the Talladega 
Presbytery of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. He soon com- 
menced preaching at Mardisville, Alabama, and after laboring for 
twenty-five months, returned to his native place. In 1836, he went to 
Sangamon County, Illinois, and in that state was circuit preacher some 
eighteen months. Going again to Alabama, he remained till 1842, when 
he went to Illinois and located in Menard County, where he has since 
labored. He was married January 10, 1843, to Dulcina B. Williams, a 
native of Bath County, Kentucky, born March 19, 1819. She was a 
daughter of James and Hannah (Moffin) Williams. Rev. A. H. Good- 
pasture and wife afterward settled at Petersburgh, Menard County, Illi- 
nois, where they remained till 1850, and then purchased land where 
they now reside. J. D. was born in Petersburgh, Menard County, Illi- 
nois, May 9, 1846, and when at the age of four years, with his parents, 
he located on a farm. He received a good common education, and dur- 
ing the years of 1863 and 1864 attended the North Sangamon Academy. 
In 1865 he took a course of study at the Normal School, at Lincoln, Illi- 
nois, afterward returned home and was married September 1, 1868, to 
Miss Frances H. O'Banion, a native of Morgan County, Illinois. She 
was born November 21, 1848, and was educated at Forest Hill and 
Jacksonville Seminaries. Her father, George M., was a native of Mor- 
gan County, Illinois, born September 15, 1827, and was a son of Evin 
and Margaret (Hall) O'Banion. Her mother, formerly Amanda M. 
Flinn, was from the same county, born September 3, 1827. She was a 
daughter of Z. W. and Elizabeth (Hill) Flinn. George M. and Amanda 
O'Banion were married February 10, 1848, and then settled in Morgan 
County, Illinois, on a farm, moving to Cass County. Illinois, in 1850, 
and back to Morgan County in 1852. Here George died September 15, 
1853, and his wife was married the second time to Aaron Thompson, a 
native of Cape May County, New Jersey. He was born January 28, 
1810, being a son of Anson and Elizabeth (Eldridge) Thompson. Hav- 
ing received a good education, he went to Menard County, Illinois, in 
1837, taught school and worked at the carpenters' trade, and also clerked 
in a store for a number of years. In 1848 he turned his attention to 
agricultural pursuits, purchasing and improving a large farm. He was 
married September 21, 1848, to Miss Sarah J. Carson, a native of San- 
gamon County, Illinois, born in 1827, and a daughter of William and 
Cynthia (Boumont) Carson. She died October 19, 1854. After their 
marriage Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Goodpasture settled in Morgan County, 
Illinois, on a farm and remained till September, 1869, when they came 
to Holt County, Missouri. Here he purchased his present farm consist- 



218 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

ing of 500 acres of improved land, with excellent buildings, good 
orchards, etc. They have a family of six children : Edwin R., born 
July 26, 1869; Abraham H., born May 20, 1871 ; Amanda D., born 
January 17, 1873 ! Mary H., born July 31, 1875 ; George B., born Octo- 
ber 5, 1877, and Vianna J., born August 31, [881. They are both mem- 
bers of the M. E. Church. 

W. A. GRAHAM, 

of the firm of Graham & Frame, dealers in dry goods, notions, clothing, 
hats, boots, shoes, queensware, etc., was born in Guernsey County, 
Ohio, on the 22d of October, 1858, being the son of Rev. F. H. and 
Rebecca A. (Irvin) Graham. His father was a native of Baltimore 
County, Maryland, born in 1823, and his mother was born in the same 
county in September, 1827. They were married in 1845 ar >d settled in 
Belmont County, Ohio, and subsequently moved to Rockford County, 
Indiana. They afterwards returned to Guernsey County, Ohio, and in 
1865 emigrated to Harrison County, Missouri, settling on a farm. There 
they remained till 1869, when they moved to Oregon, Holt County, and 
in 1871 to Rock Port, Atchison County. In 1872, Fillmore, Andrew 
County, became their home, and in 1873 they went to Macon City. 
Here the father died on the 25th of July of that year. William, with 
his mother, then returned to Oregon, Holt County, in the fall of 1875. 
During youth he received good educational advantages, thereby becom- 
ing familiarized with the primary business rules, so important in the 
life of every successful business man. From 1876 till 1879 he was 
deputy postmaster and telegraph operator at Oregon. In March, 1879, 
he entered the employ of Woolworth & Colt, at St. Joseph, as salesman, 
with whom he remained till July, 1880, when he formed a partnership 
with Mr. Albert Frame, opening a general stock at Maitland. Mr. 
Graham owns the building which they occupy. He found a wife in the 
person of Miss Grace B. King, to whom he was married December 31, 
1880. She was a native of Fayette County, Ohio, born October 15, 
1858, and was the daughter of Dr. R. and Rachel (O'Neil) King. Mr. 
G. is a member of the A. O. U. W., belonging to lodge No. 202. He 
and his wife are members of the M. E. Church. 

EDWARD L. HART 

was born on the 24th of November, 1856, in Holt County, Missouri, and 
was the son of Rev. David and Martha E. (Higley) Hart. The former 
was a native of Yorkshire, England, and was born November 21, 182 1, 
his parents being Francis and Susan (Speck) Hart. David Hart was 
early left an orphan, and when quite young he learned the machinist's 
trade. When twenty-one years of age he entered the ministry. In 1852 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 219 

he emigrated to America, locating at Jacksonville, Illinois, where he was 
engaged in the carriage business, till 1854, after which he came to Whig 
Valley, Holt County. There he remained till the summer of 1855, when 
he moved to Nebraska. The winter following he returned and, on the 
12th of December, 1855, was married to Miss Martha E. Higley, a native 
of Hartford, Connecticut, born June 9, 18 19. She was a daughter of 
Thomas Higley, a native of Hartford, Connecticut. He was born in 1785 
and was married to Miss Ann Gaylord, a native of Windsor, Connecticut, 
born in 1788. In 1830 they moved to North Carolina, and in 1838 to 
Indiana, coming to Clay Township, Holt County, Missouri, in 1845, and 
being among the very first settlers here. Thomas Higley died in 1853, 
and Ann G. Higley in 1861. Rev. David Hart and his wife finally located 
in Nebraska, and in 1869 returned to Holt County. In 1872 they again 
went to Nebraska, and in 1878 to Salt Lake City, in order to gain, if pos- 
sible, a change for the better in Mr. H.'s health. He died there January 
14, 1879. Mrs. Hart then returned to Nebraska, where Edward L. had 
been reared and educated. He attended for some time the State Uni- 
versity, and after leaving this institution returned with his mother to 
Holt County and settled on the old homestead, where they now reside. 
December 14, 1881, Mr. Hart was appointed Justice of the Peace, and 
discharged his duties faithfully and creditably. 

ALLEN HAYZLETT, 

farmer, section 14, was born in Hancock County, Indiana, May 18, 1838, 
and is a son of James and Angeline (Taylor) Hayzlett. His father was 
a native of Virginia, and his mother of Ohio. With their parents they 
had moved to Hancock County, Indiana, where they married and set- 
tled. James Hayzlett died in 1859. The subject of this sketch spent his 
boyhood days and received a good education in his native state, com- 
mencing life for himself as a farmer when at the age of twenty years. In 
i860 he went to Kansas and farmed till April, 1862, when he enlisted in 
Company B, Twelfth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, and was at the battle 
of Independence. He was wounded four times, and oa August 25, 1862, 
was honorably discharged. Mr. H. returned to his farm in Kansas, and 
remained till 1864, when he went to his native county in Indiana. In 
1866, with his mother, he moved to Hughes Township, Nodaway County, 
Missouri, purchasing a farm, which he sold in 1876, and then moved to 
Holt County, Missouri. There he bought his present farm of 120 acres 
of land, now well improved. He was married November 25, 1877, to 
Miss Amanda Fountain, a daughter of L. and Martha Fountain. The 
former was born October 9, 1830, and the latter October 17, 1829. They 
had gone to Shelby County, Indiana, with their parents when they were 
mere children. Their marriage occurred October 16, 1855, after which 

■ 



22 O HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

they settled in that county, and moved to Minnesota in 1864, and in 1871 
to Holt County, Missouri. They now reside near Oregon. 

JAMES M. KENYON, 

dealer in hardware, farm implements, etc., is a native of Andrew County, 
Missouri, where he was born April 11, 1840, being a son of Thompson 
and India Ann (Griffith) Kenyon.' His father was born in Ohio in 18 10, 
and his mother is a native of Bourbon County, Kentucky, born in 1811. 
After being married they settled in Ohio, and in 1838 moved to Andrew 
County, Missouri, purchasing a farm of 240 acres of choice land. The 
senior Kenyon died in 1844. James M. passed his youthful days and 
received his education in his native county. After his father's death he 
took charge of the farm, though but seventeen years of age. In 1862 he 
went to Colorado, and devoted his time to mining and freighting, and 
during the years of 1868 and 1869 he was engaged in the grocery bus- 
ness at Warsatch, Colorado. Upon selling out he returned to the old 
homestead in Andrew County. Mr. K. was married November 11, 1869, 
to Miss Emily Jackson, a native of Guernsey County, Ohio, born on the 
17th of July, 1848. She is the daughter of Benjamin and Sinie Jackson,, 
the former a native of Pennsylvania, born October 6, 1799, an d her 
mother, a native of Belmont County, Ohio, born July 19, 1807. They 
were married December 15, 1830, and then settled in Belmont County, 
Ohio, and in 1867 moved to Andrew County, Missouri, and in 1880 to 
Maryville. After the return of Mr. Kenyon from Colorado, he devoted 
his time to the breeding of Short Horn cattle, till 1877, when, with John 
W. Jones, of Clinton County, he closed out the entire herd at St Joseph, 
Missouri. In 1877 and 1878 he was at Deadwood, and in July 1880, he 
settled at Maitland, embarking in the dry goods trade, but sold out dur- 
ing that fall and purchased his present stock of Paschal & Spencer. He 
is a Mason in good standing. Mrs. K. is a member of the Presbyterian 
Church. Their family consists of Clyde M., born April 2, 1871, and Mary 
E., born September 13, 1876. 

A. H. KIDD, 

merchant, at Maitland, was born in Petersboro' County, Canada, Feb- 
ruary 24, 1850, and was a son of Robert and Elizabeth (Johns) Kidd. 
His father is a native of Lanark County, Canada, and when but a mere 
boy moved with his parents to Petersboro County and settled on a farm. 
His mother is a native of England, and went to Canada with her parents- 
when at the age of twelve years. After they were married they settled 
on the farm where they still reside, and are now enjoying good health. 
A. H. passed his boyhood days and received a good education in his 
native county. He afterwards spent some two years at a grammar 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 221 

school, and devoted the next two years in teaching. In 1869 he grad- 
uated at the New London Commercial College. He then returned to 
the home of his parents and assisted on the farm. In the spring of 1871 
he immigrated to the Unites States, locating in Iowa. He taught school 
in the counties of Union, Adams and Taylor. He was married April 28, 
1877, to Miss E. M. Kater, a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, born 
May 23, 1838. Her father was James Kater, Esq., a native of Scotland, 
who, after being married, came to America, in 1828. He was a weaver 
by trade, and located at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and assisted his son 
in a market. Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Kidd subsequently settled in Adams 
County, Iowa, on a farm some nine miles from Creston, purchasing and 
improving 160 acres of land. After some four years he sold out and 
came to Maitland and opened a store, where he is now doing a success- 
ful business. Both he and his wife are members of the Christian Church, 
and Mr. K. is assistant superintendent of the Sabbath school. 

CHARLES A. LEACH, 

freight agent and telegraph operator, was born May 12, 1852, in Cayuga 
County, New York, being a son of C. and J. H. Leach, who, after their 
marriage, moved to Nodaway County, Missouri, in 1871, and settled on 
a farm six miles north of Maryville. Charles A. spent his boyhood days 
in his native county. His education was a very liberal one, and was 
received at OakwoOd Seminary, now known as Friends' University, in 
Cayuga County, New York. He was a graduate from this institution in 
1870, and then came west with his parents, assisting them on the farm 
till the summer of 1873. At that time he entered the office of the Kan- 
sas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs Railroad at Maryville, Missouri. 
His qualities as a student and business man were soon observed by the 
company, and August 12, 1874, he was placed in charge of the Bigelow 
office, and on the main line of the Kansas City, St. Joseph and Council 
Bluffs. Here he became known as a skilled and careful operator, and 
August I, 1880, he assumed charge of the duties of the office at Mait- 
land. Mr. Leach is possessed of superior social powers and is known 
to be quite a humorist. Miss Rena R. Courier became his wife on 
February 10, 1877, and by this union they have two children, a bright 
boy, Guy C, born August 27, 1878, and a charming daughter, Mary, 
born October 12, 1880. Mrs. L. is a member of the M. E. Church. Mr. 
Leach belongs to lodge No. 202 of the A. O. U. W. 

G. R. McINTYRE, 

farmer, section 23, is a native of Holt County, Missouri, and was born 
May 12, 1849. His father, Judge George Mclntyre, a native of Butler 
County, Ohio, moved with his parents to Parke County, Indiana, and 



222 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

there he was married to Miss Polly Milleman, a native of New York, 
She had gone with her parents to Michigan, and afterwards to Parke 
County, Indiana. The Judge and his wife settled in Holt County, Mis- 
souri, and there his wife died October 22, 1872. G. R. Mclntyre spent 
his boyhood days in his native county, and received an excellent educa- 
tion. He taught school for a number of winters, and was married January 
31, 1872, to Miss Louisa A. Russell, a native of Holt County, Missouri, 
born August 2, 1853. She was a daughter of Judge R. H. and Mary E. 
Russell. The former was born in Clarke County, Ohio, April 7, 1818, 
and in 1836 left Ohio and resided in Lafayette, Indiana, and in the spring 
of 1836 he came to the Platte Purchase. In 1841 he married Mary E. 
Crowley, who died in i860. In 1861 he was married to Susan Bishop. 
Mrs. Mclntyre was raised by her step-mother, and was educated in Holt 
County. Mr. and Mrs. Mel. finally settled on their present farm. They 
have been blessed with three children: Lee, born October 14, 1873; 
Edwin, born November 6, 1875, and D. G., December 21, 1877. 

C. D. MESSINGER, 

hardware dealer, may be numbered among the most successful business 
men of Maitland. He is a native of Clinton County, Missouri, and was 
born in 1856. His parents were Chester and Elizabeth (Riley) Messin- 
ger, the former a native of New Hampshire, and the latter of Kentucky. 
She was a sister of Hon. J. T. Riley, of Buchanan County, Missouri. 
The father and mother of C. D. died when he was but a mere boy, and 
his early days were spent in agricultural pursuits, the money thus earned 
through the summer months being spent in procuring an education. 
When at the age of eighteen years he determined, with that spirit of 
enterprise which has characterized his course through life, to enter the 
mercantile business. He began in the hardware establishment of J. H. 
Robison, of St. Joseph, and discharged his duties creditably and to the 
satisfaction of his employer. Mr. MessingeY subsequently became 
employed by Shultz & Hosea, hardware and cutlery manufacturers, and 
his ability and strict attention to business, soon achieved for him an 
enviable reputation as a salesman. In June, 1880, he attended the sale 
of lots at the newly located town of Maitland, purchasing choice corner 
lots. Soon after he erected a business house, and is now known through- 
out the Nodaway Valley as a leading hardware merchant. He is a 
Mason in good standing, and is also a member of the Baptist Church. 

J. T. MOORE, 

merchant, was born in Menard County, Illinois, on October 29, 1850, and 
is a son of Samuel and Selena (Williams) Moore. His father was a native 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 223 

of Fleming County and his mother of Green County, Kentucky. They 
both moved to Illinois in 1823, with their parents, and there they were 
married, afterwards settling on a farm. J. T. passed his youthful days 
and received his education in his native county. He was married Octo- 
ber 29, 1873, to Miss Catharine McNeal, a native of Menard County, Illi- 
nois, and a daughter of John and Eliza (Short) McNeal. After marriage 
Mr. and Mrs. Moore settled at the old homestead, and in 1880 he disposed 
of his entire effects and moved to Holt County, Missouri. He located 
some four miles northwest of Maitland, improved a farm of eighty acres, 
but sold out and moved to Maitland, in March, 188 1. February 8, 1882, 
in connection with Mr. J. K. Seaman, he entered the grocery business. 
Mr. and Mrs. Moore have a family of two children, Samuel and Jessie B. 
Mr. M. is a member of the A. O. U. W., belonging to Lodge No. 202. 

J. J. MOULTON, 

is the publisher and proprietor of the Maitland Independent, a newsy 
and interesting sheet, published weekly, and which, under its present 
able management, has built up a good circulation. Mr. Moulton is a 
native of Tazwell County, Illinois, and was born on a farm four miles 
east of Fort Clark (now Peoria) on August 15, 1833. The days of his 
youth were spent in assisting his father on the farm, his evenings being 
devoted to study. When eighteen years of age he purchased an outfit, 
and from that time until he was twenty-two years old, he followed prairie 
breaking with an ox team. In 1855, he entered a college in his native 
county, prosecuting his studies for some four years. In 1861, he enlisted 
in Company K, Eleventh Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and was placed on 
guard duty at Bird's Point, being honorably discharged in the August 
following. On the 2d of the same month, Mr. Moulton re-enlisted in the 
Sixteenth United States Infantry, receiving his discharge on October 2,. 
1864. Returning to Illinois, he was occupied in teaching school till the 
fall of 1867, when he went to Atchison County, Missouri, locating on a 
farm. In 1878, he purchased the Riverton Enterprise. A few months 
later he moved to Clarinda, Iowa, where he established the Nodaway 
Chief. In February, 1881, he sold out and came to Maitland, Holt County, 
Missouri, where he has since continued to edit one of the best papers of 
the county. Mr. Moulton was married April 20, 1865, to MissRoxie A. 
Mette, a native of Wood County, Illinois. She was born in 1844. They 
have one child, Ernest, born October 12, 1866. 

D. C. PARKS, 

druggist, a native of Andrew County, Missouri, was born January 16,. 
1855, being a son of John M. and Frances (Thomas) Parks. His father 
was born and raised in Kentucky, and in 1852 came to Missouri, locating 
near Fillmore, Andrew County. His mother was a native of Clay 



224 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

County, Missouri. They settled on a farm after their marriage, where 
they still reside. The subject of this sketch spent his boyhood days in 
his native county till he abandoned tilling the soil, in order to fit him- 
self for a teacher. Many long evenings were spent in study, and two 
years of his younger life were passed as professor of penmanship. 
With a mind filled with learning and a future bright and promising, he 
taught school some four years, and in 1881 formed a partnership with a 
Mr. Roberts. They opened a drug store at Maitland, and are now 
doing a good business. Mr. Parks was married to Miss Mary Kee, 
December 29, 1881. She was a daughter of William and Elizabeth Kee, 
was born in 1858, and was raised in Andrew County, Missouri. She is 
a member of the M. E. Church, and Mr. P. belongs to the I. O. O. F. 
fraternity. 

WILLIAM H. PATTERSON, 

farmer and breeder of Clydesdale horses, mules and Jersey and Poland 
China hogs, resides in section 25. Mr. P. is a native of Andrew County, 
Missouri, was born January 14, 1841, and is a son of Henry and C. S. 
Patterson. His father was born in Ireland, January 14, 18 14, and came 
to America in 1834, landing at New York City. He went to Mobile, 
Alabama, remained one winter, thence to St. Louis, and finally located 
at Savannah, Andrew County, Missouri, in the spring of 1835, being one 
of the twelve who first located in that county. He was married in 1840, 
to Miss C. S. Cobb, a native of Montgomery County, Kentucky. She, 
with her parents, moved to Missouri at an early day. Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry Patterson settled on a farm near Savannah, and in 1846 moved 
into the town, where Mr. P. now resides, his wife having died in Novem- 
ber, 1862. W. H. spent his boyhood days in his native county, and 
received a good education. When twenty years of age he started out 
for himself as a farmer, and during the war freighted in Colorado till 
1866. He then returned to Andrew County, and in March, 1866, he was 
married to Miss Eliza J. Cobb, a native of Andrew County, Missouri. 
She was a daughter of G. W. and Mary Cobb, the former a native of 
Kentucky, and the latter of Virginia. With her parents she moved to 
Andrew County, Missouri, where she was married. William H. Patter- 
son and wife settled on Hackberry Ridge, in Andrew County, and lived 
there till 1867, when he moved to Holt County, locating some four miles 
east of Oregon. In 1870 he moved on the farm where he now resides. 
Their family consists of six children, five boys and one girl : Louis C, 
Edward H., Hallie A., William L., George H. and Morie O. 

A. S. PEARCE, 

farmer, section 11, was born in Baltimore County, Maryland, May 10, 
1838, and was a son of William and Elizabeth Pearce, who were also 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 225 

natives of the same county. The subject of this sketch passed his 
younger days in his native county, and when at the age of fourteen years 
with his parents he moved to Butler County, Ohio, where they settled 
on a farm. In 1854 he moved to Illinois, and here he enlisted in the 
Second Illinois Light Artillery, in 1862, and did service through many 
hard fought battles, among which was the engagement at Fort Donel- 
son. He was promoted to orderly sergeant for bravery, and was finally 
mustered out. Soon after he came to Holt County, Missouri, and in 
1865 was married to Miss Julia Kunkel, a native of Holt County, Mis- 
souri, born November 28, 1848. By this union they have a family of 
eight children : Willie, Schuyler, Myrtle, Alfretta, Dellie, Abraham, 
Perte and Homer. They have lost one, Rowena. Mr. Pearce's farm con- 
sists of 160 acres of fine land, well improved, including good buildings 
and orchard. 

J. E. PHILLIPS, 

lumberman, is a native of Watertown, Jefferson County, New York, 
and was born May 13, 1 85 1 , being a son of William N. and Lucy J. 
Phillips. The former was born in Massachusetts, and, in 1846, was mar- 
ried to Miss Lucy J. Tayor, a native of Saratoga County, New York. 
They afterwards settled at Watertown, and, in 1854, moved to Wayne, 
DuPage County, Illinois, locating on a farm. Some two years after, Mr. 
P. entered the mercantile business at Wayne, and here Mrs. Lucy Phil- 
lips died, in 1858, leaving seven children. The father was married a 
second time, to Miss Mary Black, a native of Rockport, New York. 
She had moved to Illinois with her parents at an early day. Her death 
occurred in 1864, at the age of fifteen years. J. E. Phillips then went to 
live with a'n uncle, Elliott Tayor, at Pontiac, Oakland County, Michigan. 
In 1874, he graduated from the High School, and in 1876 was graduated 
from the law department of the State University at Ann Arbor, Mich- 
igan. He practiced at the bar of Chicago and Wheaton, Illinois, till 
January, 1880, when, his health having failed, he entered the employ of 
Howell & Bros., at Maryville, Missouri. Soon after he took charge of 
their lumber yard at Graham, and in June of the same year came to 
Maitland. He was one of the pioneers of the town, and made some of 
the first improvements. Mr. P. was married June 7, 1876, to Miss Emily 
Sayer, a native of Wayne, DuPage County, Illinois, born August 8, 1853. 
She was a daughter of Henry V. and Phebe E. (Moffatt) Sayer, who 
were natives of New York. They settled in DuPage County, Illinois at 
an early day. Mr. and Mrs. P. have one child, Mary Lucy. They are 
both members of the Congregational Church. Mr. Phillips is chairman 
of the town board, a school trustee, and is superintendent of the Sunday 
School. 

15 



226 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

B. W. ROSS, 

physician and surgeon, though young in years, deserves to be classed 
with the old practitioners of Holt and Nodaway Counties. He is a native 
of Bainbridge, Ross County, Ohio, and was born September 22, 1852. He 
enjoyed the best advantages for an education that Ohio could afford, 
and always having had a taste for the medical profession, in 1871, he 
commenced reading with Dr. Hughey, of Bainbridge, and continued 
under his tutorship for one year, when, on account of poor health, he was 
obliged to abandon his studies. Believing that the western climate 
would be beneficial, he came to Holt County, Missouri, in 1874, his 
parents having moved to that county some two years previous. While 
residing with his parents, and assisting on the farm, he regained his 
health, and resumed the study of medicine. He attended lectures in 
1879-80, and graduated from the Keokuk Medical College, of Keokuk, 
Iowa. In [880 he began the practice of his profession at Mound City, 
Holt County, Missouri, and remained there until the spring of 1881, 
when he came to Graham, and immediately engaged in following his 
chosen profession. Later, Dr. Ross removed to Maitland and became 
occupied in the drug business, in which he has obtained a large and 
lucrative patronage. His studious habits and close attention to his call- 
ing, combined with excellent work, have placed him in the front rank 
among members of his profession. The doctor is a member of Lodge 
No. 189, of the I. O. O. F., of Graham. He was united in marriage on 
the 6th of January, 188 1, to Miss Mary E. Harmon, a daughter of Jacob 
Harmon, a native of Brown County, Kansas, born on the 4th day of 
March, 1858. 

MAJOR EB. ROZELL, 

farmer, section 31, was born in Ross County, Ohio, April 29, 1837, and 
is a son of Eben and Esther Rozell, who were natives of New York. 
The father was born in 1772, and went to Ross County, Ohio, in 1805. 
He died in March, 1846, after having served in the war of 1812 under 
Colonel McDonald. The mother of Eb. Rozell was born in 1793. They 
married in 1813, and then settled in Ross County, Ohio, where they had 
purchased a large tract of land, and improved it. Mrs. Rozell still 
resides at the old homestead. The subject of this memoir spent his 
boyhood days and received an excellent education in his native county. 
During the time from 1857 to 1858 he taught school, but afterwards 
returned to the farm and devoted his time to agricultural pursuits. He 
was married September 13, i860, to Miss Mary Ross, a native of Ross 
County, Ohio, born April 22, 1843, and is a daughter of George and 
Abbie (Meighen) Ross, natives of Pennsylvania. In May, 1861, Mr. 
Rozell enlisted in the Sixty-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and was 



CLAY TCfWNSHII'. 227 

wounded at the battle of Corinth, October 4, 1863, after which he was 
discharged. He returned to Ross County, Ohio, and in the spring of 
1864 assisted in organizing the One Hundred and Forty-ninth Regiment 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and entered the field as major of his regi- 
ment. He served in Virginia with the army of the Potomac till Octo- 
ber, 1864, when he was wounded in the shoulder and left lung. He was 
captured in the Shenandoah Valley, and for several weeks was held as 
prisoner in Libby Prison, at Richmond. He was paroled and mustered 
out at Washington, D. C, September 20, 1864. Mr. R. returned to Ross 
County, Ohio, and the following spring made a visit to Burlington 
Junction, Nodaway County, Missouri. In 1870 he disposed of his 
effects in Ross County, and moved to Andrew County, Missouri, and in 
187 1 came to Holt County, Missouri, settling where he now resides. In 
1874 he was elected justice of the peace. The family of Mr. and Mrs. 
Rozell consists of four children : Olie, Frank, Albert and Walter. 
They are both members of the M. E. Church. 

H. H. SEELEY, 

of the firm of Finney, Williams & Co., lumber dealers, is a native of 
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and was born April 23, 1846. His 
father, R. Seeley, was born in the state of Connecticut, in 1824, and with 
his parents moved to Rochester, New York, and in 1844 he went to 
Pennsylvania. His parents later moved to Wisconsin. Roswell taught 
school for some time, and was afterwards married to Isabella Crawford, 
a native of Pennsylvania, born in 1825. They settled in Pennsylvania, 
and in 1848 moved to St. Louis, and to Illinois in 185 1. Leavenworth, 
Kansas, became their home in i860, and in 1867 the father died, and in 
1882 the mother followed. H. H. accompanied his parents on their dif- 
ferent moves, and received a good education at Leavenworth. He 
learned the carpenter trade and worked in Leavenworth till 1874, when 
he went to Barnard, Nodaway County, Missouri, and opened a lumber 
yard. This he sold to a Mr. Williams, and formed a company styled 
Finney, Williams & Co., and located at Maitland in October, 188 1. Mr. 
S. was married July 4, 1870, to Miss Etta D. Sayre, a native of Oneida 
County, New York, born January 15, 1849. She is the daughter of F. R. 
and L. (Chapman) Sayre, her father a native of New York, was born in 
1802, and her mother, a native of New York, was born in 1806. After 
they were married they settled in New York, and in i860 moved to 
Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Seeley are both members of the Baptist Church. 
He belongs to Lodge 204, A. O. U. W. Their family consists of six 
children living : F. R., Charles S., George A., W. G., L. I. and I. G. One 
daughter, Alice R., is deceased. 



228 HISTORY OF« HOLT COUNTY. 

N. S. SHULL, 

farmer, section 29, was born in North Carolina, April 15, 1840. His 
parents, James and Elizabeth Shull, were both natives of the same state. 
N. S. Spent his boyhood days and received a good education in North 
Carolina. During the late rebellion he served the entire time in the 
Confederate army. In 1869 he went to Nodaway County, Missouri, and 
was married April 15, 1875, to Miss Mary Gilmore, a native of Buchanan 
County, Missouri. After this they settled in Holt County, Missouri. 
They have a family consisting of four children : Maggie L., William H., 
Ernest E. and Minnie B. Mrs. S. is a member of the Christian Church. 

LOUIS C. SMOCK, 

grocer. The subject of this sketch, a native of Nodaway County, Mis- 
souri, was born on the 4th of May, 1853, and is the son of James and 
Martha (Linville) Smock. His father was born in Bartholomew County, 
Indiana, in 1819, and died December 22, 1864. His mother was a native 
of Jackson County, Missouri. Louis passed his boyhood days and 
received his education in Holt County, Missouri. In 1874, he spent the 
most ot the time in Indiana, but after returning devoted his time to 
farming till October, 1881. He then entered the grocery business at 
Maitland, and as a merchant is very successful. Mr. Smock was mar- 
ried on the 5th of August, 1875, to Miss L. Murphy, a native of Daviess 
County, Missouri, born on the 9th of March, 1859. Her father was John 
Murphy, Esq. Mr. and Mrs. S. have by this union three children : 
Bathana B., born April 7, 1877; Thomas L., born December 9, 1879; 
Marion J., born January 4, 188 1. Mr. Smock is a Mason in good stand- 
ing. His farm consists of 60 acres of fine land well improved. 

JOSEPH R. STONE, 

dealer in harness, saddles, trunks, valises, etc., is a native of Atchison 
County, Missouri. He was born January 30, 1859, ancl is a son of J. R. 
and M. S. (White) Stone, who settled in Atchison County, Missouri, in 
1857. Joseph, with his parents, moved to Worth County, in i860, and 
remained till 1864, then going to St. Joseph, where he lived until 1865, 
thence to Plattsville, Iowa, and in 1866 he located at Graham. Here his 
father carried on the harness and saddle business till 1879, when h< 
moved to Burlington Junction. Joseph received a good education at 
Graham, and when but a boy began working at the harness business, 
and after his father's removal he opened a shop in Graham and did 
good business there. November 10, 1880, he came to Maitland and no> 
commands a good trade, which he deserves. Mr. Stone married Miss 
Lydia Eberlin, a native of Wisconsin, born August 7, 1861. She is the 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 229 

daughtei of Thiebant and Mary E. (Hamm) Eberlin. Her lather is a 
native of Germany, born October 14, 1826. Her mother was born in 
France, October 15, 1825. They were married April 25, 1853. After 
their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Stone settled at Maitland. He is a member 
of Hesperian Lodge, No. 189, I. O. O. F., and Lodge No. 202, A. O. U. W. 

WICKLIFF TAYLOR 

is one of the successful merchants of Maitland. He was born in New 
Paris, Preble County, Ohio, being the son of Dr. J. C. and Nancy Taylor. 
His father is a native of Fleming County, Kentucky, born in 1819, and 
his mother of Virginia, born in 1818. Dr. J. C. and Nancy Taylor were 
married in 1838, after which they settled in Preble County, Ohio, and in 
1858 moved to Indiana. Here Mrs. Taylor died, and the doctor was 
married the second time, and, in 1859, came to Nodaway County, Mis- 
souri, and in i860 to Forest City, Holt County. He was afterwards in 
the mercantile business at Graham for seven years, and also at Fillmore 
ana Savannah. He sold out at Maryville in 1874, then moved to Topeka, 
Kansas, where he now resides. Wickliff established a store at Graham, 
and conducted the business under the firm name of Taylor & Bros., soon 
after the father's removal to Kansas, and still retains his interest. He 
is also the junior member of the firm of M. N. Dougherty & Co., who 
are doing a general merchandise business in this city. Mr. T. was mar- 
ried July 27, 1881, to Miss Belle Turnure, a native of Boone County, 
Illinois, and a daughter of E. W. and Emily Turnure. Her father, a 
native of New York, was born in 1827, and died in July, 1880. Her 
mother was born in 1832, in New York, and is still living. They were 
married in 1853, after which they settled in Boone County, and in 1863, 
went to Mitchell County, Iowa, and to Nodaway County, Missouri, in 
1865. They located near Bridgewater, and in 1871 went to Maryville, 
and to Graham in 1877. 

L. M. THOMPSON, 

farmer, section 36, is a native of Menard County, Illinois, where he was 
born, May 27, 1852, and is a son of Aaron and Sarah (Carson) Thompson. 
His father was born in Cape May County, New Jersey, January 28, 18 10, 
and was a son of Anson and Elizabeth (Eldridge) Thompson. He 
received a good education and went to Menard County, Illinois, in 1837, 
where he taught school and worked at the carpenter's trade. He also 
clerked in a store for a number of years, and in 1848 he turned his atten- 
tion to agricultural pursuits, purchasing and improving a large farm. 
He was married September 21, 1848, to Miss Sarah J. Carson, a native 
of Sangamon County, Illinois. She was a daughter of William and Cyn- 
thia (Boumont) Carson. He was one of the first settlers of Menard 



230 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

County, Illinois. The mother died October 19, 1854, and the father was 
married the second time to Mrs. Amanda M., widow of George M. 
O'Banion, who still resides in Illinois. L. M. Thompson spent his boy- 
hood days in his native county, and received a good education, when at 
the age of seventeen years he came to Holt County Missouri, and broke 
prairie for two years, and in 1872 turned his attention to tilling the soil. 
He married March' 22, 1874, Miss Emma Shields, a native of Washing- 
ton County, Indiana, born March 7, 1851. Her parents were William 
and Sarah (Cartwright) Shields. Her father, a native of Randolph 
County, North Carolina, was born January 31, 1823, the son of Reuben 
and Gracie Shields. Her mother was born in Washington County, 
Indiana, May 12, 1823. They were married October 9, 1844, and then set- 
tled in Washington County, Indiana, and in 1870 moved to Holt County, 
Missouri, and in 1879 to Kansas. Mr. and Mrs. Thompson finally located 
where they now reside. Their family consists of two children : IdaM., 
born February 22, 1875, and Claudie M., born December 30, 1876. 

S. L. VINSONHALER, 

grain dealer, was born in Nodaway County, Missouri, June 29, 1854, and 
is a son of D. M. and Mary Vinsonhaler, The father was a native of 
Ross County, Ohio, born October 6, 1820, and with his parents he moved 
to Nodaway County, Missouri, and settled near Graham. He was mar- 
ried October 6, 1853, to Miss Mary Byers, a native of Andrew County, 
Missouri. She died in 1858, and D. M. Vinsonhaler' married the second 
time Miss Mary I. Rea. They now reside where he first settled, some 
three miles south of Graham. S. L. passed his younger days and 
received his education in Nodaway County, Missouri. In 1868 he began 
clerking for Smith & Vaugh, merchants at Graham, and in 1869 entered 
the employ of McQuary & Gardner, hardware merchants. In [871 he 
learned the painters' trade, at which he worked till 1880, when he 
entered the employ of Bariteau & Welch, grain merchants at Maitland; 
Mr. V. married October 25, 1875, Miss Sarah Trapp, a native of Andrew 
County, Missouri, born March 16, 1858. She was a daughter of Rev. 
W. R. and M. A. Trapp. Mrs. V. died November 27, 1875. Mr. V. 
was married the second time September 13, 1879, t0 Miss Maggie 
Lewis, a native of Fayette County, Pennsylvania, born February 21, 
1861. Her parents were Dr. D. S. and Margaret J. Anderson. Mr. V. 
is a member of Hesperian Lodge, No. 189 I. O. O. F. 

GEORGE WAGNER, 

farmer, section 4, a native of Jefferson County,. Ohio, was born in 1833. 
His lather, George Wagner, was born in Pennsylvania, and at an early 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 23 I 

day, he went, with his parents, to Ohio, in which state he settled. He 
was married to Miss C. Hicler a native of Ohio. Her father and mother 
came from Germany. George passed his youthful days in his native 
state, and in May, 1855, was married to Miss Elizabeth Hooper, a native 
of Athens, Ohio, born in 1836. Some time after they settled in that 
county, and remained till 1844, when they moved to Morgan County, 
Ohio. In the spring of 1866, Mr. Wagner came to Holt County, and 
located in Clay Township, where he now has a farm, consisting of 200 
acres of improved land- 

JAMES WAGNER, 

1 

; farmer, section 33, was born in Athens County, Ohio, March 25, 1837, and 
was a son of George and C. (Hicler) Wagner. His father was a native 
of Pennsylvania, and, with his parents, moved to Ohio and settled in 
Athens County at an early day. The mother of James was a native of 
Ohio, but of German descent, her parents having come from Germany 
and settled in Jefferson County, Ohio. Young Wagner was raised on a 

jfarm, receiving a good common-school education, and in 1859 he started 
for Pike's Peak. Upon reaching the Platte River he decided to go no 
further, but located at Phelps, in Atchison County, Missouri, where he 
remained two years. He then went to Vernon County, Wisconsin, and 
enlisted in Company F, Twentieth Regiment Wisconsin Volunteer 
Infantry, and served till March 4, 1863, when he was honorably dis- 
charged, on account of a wound received in a skirmish. December 7, 

1 1863, Mr. Wagner returned to Wisconsin and was married March 4, 1864, 
to Miss E. Smith, a native of Vinton County, Wisconsin. She died in 
March, 1867, at the age of twenty-one years, leaving two children, Law- 
rence E. and William M. Mr. Wagner was married the second time 
August 1, 1869, to Miss Rebecca Harris, a native of Morgan County, 
Ohio, born in 1850. In 1876 they moved to Holt County, Missouri, and 
settled near Maitland, and later located where he now resides. He owns 
a farm of 160 acres of fine land, well improved. Mr. and Mrs. W. have 
three children, Charles W., George S. and Bertie R. They are both 
members of the U. B. Church. 

W. F. WAIT, V. D. M., 

Maitland Christian Church, is a native of Monroe County, Ohio, and 
was born on the 16th of August, 1847, being the son of Dr. L. A. and 
Sarah (Smallwood) Wait. His father was born in Greenbrier County, 
West Virginia, in 1812, and died October 28, 1864, and his mother, a 
native of Ohio, was born in 1820, and died in 1855. They were married 
in 1844, and then settled in Monroe County, Ohio. W. F., with his 
parents, moved to Platte County, Missouri, in 1857, ar >d, in 1859, to 



232 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Atchison County. He received his education at Atchison, Kansas, and, 
in 1864, enlisted in the Fourth Kansas Light Artillery, and did service 
in the Black Hills, fighting Indians. He suffered many hardships, and 
at one time lived for nineteen days on mule meat and rose buds. After 
being mustered out at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in December, 1865, 
Mr. Wait returned to Atchison, devoting his time to study preparatory 
to his entering the ministry. He was ordained in September, 1868, his 
first charge being at Wyandotte, Kansas. There he remained till 1873, 
when he came to Missouri, and since that time he has preached in 
DeKalb, Clinton, Caldwell, Daviess and Holt Counties. He was mar- 
ried on the 7th of July, 1876, to Miss Annie E. Boulton, who is a native 
of Buchanan County, born in January, 1873. She is the daughter of P. 
L. and" Annie (Baker) Boulton, who were both natives of Mason County, 
Kentucky, and who, after being married, settled in Buchanan County,' 
Missouri. In 1853 they moved to Caldwell County, locating about 
seven miles from Cameron. By this union Mr. and Mrs. Wait had one 
child, Rutherford B., born March 29, 1877, but who died soon after. Mr. 
Wait is a member of Lodge No. 202, of the A. O. U. W. 

JACOB WELLER, 

farmer, section 13, was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, on August 22, 
1818, and is a son of John and Mary (Barbara) Weller. He received an 
excellent education in the state schools, and was assistant teacher from 
1832 till 1835 and acted as principal until 1853. In September, 1844, he 
was married to Miss Catherine Marget, a native of Germany, born Feb- 
ruary 2, 1823. In 1853 Mr. W. joined the Baptist Church, and for that 
reason was discharged from further duties as government teacher. The 
following October, with his wife and children, he came to America, 
landing at Philadelphia, and soon received a call to preach from the 
Louisville Baptist Church. He acted as missionary till 1869, when he 
moved to Clarke County, Indiana, and settled on a farm, which he 
improved. In 1870 he sold out and came to Holt County, Missouri, 
and purchased a tract of land. He now owns some 320 acres of well 
improved land near Maitland. His family consists of seven children 
living : Ernest, Frederick K., William G., Sarah E.. Charles F., Phillip 
J., and Lydia M. 

D. A. WILLIAMS, 

farmer, section 1, was born in Geauga County, Ohio, in 185 1, being a son 
of Delvo and Elvira (Knox) Williams, who were natives of the same 
county. After being married they settled where the father now resides, 
the mother having died in 1858. The subject of this sketch spent his 
boyhood days and received a good education in his native county, and 



CLAY TOWNSHIP. 233 

when twenty-one years old he started out for himself, by first engaging 
in the butter and cheese business for some six years. He married 
August 27, 1871, Miss Georgie Johnston, a native of the same county as 
her husband, born in December, 1857. She was the daughter of A. and 
L. (Heath) Johnston, who were born in Geauga County, Ohio. The 
mother died when Mrs. W. was quite small, and she was raised by an 
aunt. In 1878 Mr. W. went to Black Hawk County, Iowa, and was there 
occupied in making butter and cheese, till 1879. After this he removed to 
Clarke County, Indiana, and in 1881 traveled through Kansas, but not 
being satisfied with the country, finally purchased his present farm of 80 
acres, which is all improved, and well watered. Mr. and Mrs. Williams 
have two boys, James A. and Delos G. Mrs. W. is a church member. 

GEORGE W. ZOOK, 

farmer, section n, was born in Mahoning County, Ohio, in 1833. His 
parents were natives of Pennsylvania and moved to Mahoning County 
at an early day. When George was five years of age they died and he 
was raised by an aunt, Caroline Clay by name, and a resident of Maho- 
ning County. When at the age of fourteen years he supported himself 
by working on a farm, and in 1850 he went to N-?)ble County, Indiana. 
He was married September 19, 1852, to Miss Lucinda Action, who was 
a native of Ohio, born in 1836, being a daughter of William and Mary 
Action. Her father was born in Maryland and her mother in Ohio. 
After being married they settled in Ohio, and, in 1850, moved to Noble 
County, Indiana, where they still reside. Mr. and Mrs. Zook finally 
located in LaGrange County, Indiana, purchased a farm and made many 
improvements. In 1869 he sold out and came to Holt County, Missouri, 
and remained till 1871, when he bought his present farm of 200 acres. 
This he has greatly improved. The family of Mr and Mrs. Z. consists 
of four children, Mary J., Sarah A., William C. and Rosa B. They are 
members of the Christian Church. 

P. M. PASCHAL 

was born on February 3, 1827, in Somerset, Pulaski County, Kentucky, 
being the eldest son of Alvah and Sarah (McQuary) Paschal. The for- 
mer was a native of Russell County, Virginia, born in 1801, and with his 
parents moved to Kentucky in 1804. P. M.'s mother was a native of 
Wilkes County, North Carolina, born in 1802. She moved to Kentucky 
in 1812. They were married in March, 1826. The father died in April, 
1854, his wife in 1877. " Pleas," as he is familiarly called, spent his boy- 
hood days and received his education in his native state. Early in life 
he was engaged in the ship timber business, but in the course of a few 



234 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

years, by his energetic business qualities and industry and good man- 
agement, he secured a competency to embark in the horse and mule 
trade, purchasing animals in Kentucky and taking them to Mis- 
sissippi and Louisiana. These he disposed of to planters. Being an 
active worker and square dealer, he soon ranked among the foremost in 
the business. In 1864 he purchased a tract of land in Holt County, 
Missouri, consisting of 200 acres, and in 1865 closed out his entire 
interest in Kentucky and settled on his farm in Missouri, devoting his 
time to improving land and stock raising. November 1, 1875, he dis- 
posed of all personal property and spent the year 1876 in settling up 
outstanding business. January I, 1877, he associated himself with John 
W. McQuary, of Graham, Nodaway County, Missouri, as a hardware 
merchant. The following year, in October, 1878, his partner died. Mr. 
Paschal settled up the estate and purchased the interest of his late part- 
ner, and continued the business as sole proprietor till April, 1880, when 
he took in John S. Spencer as junior partner. His landed estate consists 
of some 918 acres of finely improved property, situated in Holt, Nodaway, 
Andrew and DeKalb Counties. At the outbreak of the rebellion Mr. P. 
was in the capital of North Carolina, and was at Raleigh the night of its 
capture, but soon finding things rather warm, he returned to his native 
state. He is cautious, firm in purpose, and strictly honest in all business 
transactions. To his excellent business qualifications is the establish- 
ment largely due for its remarkable financial success. In business cir- 
cles he stands high for his unswerving integrity and stability. 




CHAPTER X. 

FORBES TOWNSHIP. 



BOUNDARIES- PHYSICAL FEATURES-STREAMS— EARLY SETTLERS— FIRST PREACHER- 
FIRST CHURCH ORGANIZED— FIRST SCHOOL-OTHER EARLY SE 1TLERS-FIRST 
PHYSICIAN-BUILDINGS AND PEOPLE-DALLAS— WEST UNION- FORBES— EDUCA- 
TIONAL-PRESENT BUSINESS— SHIPPING STATION BIOGRAPHICAL. 



At a regular term of the county court of Holt County, held at the 
court house, in Oregon, on the 22d day of March 1871, it was ordered 
that a new municipal township be erected out of the southern portion of 
Nodaway Township, and bounded as follows : 

"Commencing at the southwest corner of section 6, township 59, 
range 37, thence south to the southwest corner of section 18, township 
59, range 37 ; thence west to the northwest quarter of section 23, town- 
ship 59, range 38 ; thence south to the Missouri River ; thence down the 
left bank thereof to the mouth of the Nodaway River, thence up on the 
right bank of the Nodaway River to the south line of section 1, town- 
ship 59, range 37 ; thence west to the place of beginning. All that 
part lying within these boundaries shall hereafter be known as Forbes 
Township, and the place of voting shall be at the town of Forbes." 

On the 10th of May, 1872, the dividing line between congressional 
townships fifty-nine and sixty was made the northern boundary of 
Forbes Township. The tier of sections from one to six, inclusive, on the 
north boundary of this township, was thus taken from Nodaway Town- 
ship and annexed to Forbes, thereby adding nearly six entire sections 
to the latter township, and increasing its area to its present (1882) limits. 

The outline of this township, from the circumstance of a consider- 
able portion of the same being bounded by the Missouri and Nodaway 
Rivers, is necessarily irregular, and where the boundaries are straight 
lines, Lewis Township cuts a notch out of the northwest corner of Forbes, 
two miles east and west by three miles north and south. It is thus 
bounded on the north two miles by Lewis Township, and six miles by 
Nodaway Township ; on the east it is bounded by the Nodaway River, 
which separates it from Andrew County, and also by the Missouri River ; 
on the south by the Missouri River, which separates it from the state of 
Kansas ; and, on the west by Lewis Township. 



236 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

Forbes Township includes a considerable diversity of surface. The 
bluff formation, which, within its limits, begins on the north line of sec- 
tion twenty-three, township 59, range 38, extends in an eastward by 
southerly direction to section 29 of range 38, in the same township 
where stands the town of Forbes, thence in a nearly due easterly direc- 
tion to the confluence of the Nodaway with the Missouri River, in the 
southeast corner of the county, the whole extent of this chain of eleva- 
tion including a distance of about eight miles. To the southward of this 
bluff extends the wide expanse of Little Tarkio and Missouri River bot- 
tom lands, which generally are, or were originally heavily timbered. 
The bluff lands, or those immediately to the northward of the same, are 
very broken, and the general aspect of that portion of the township 
extending beyond these, even to its extreme northern limits, present the 
aspect of a rolling country. 

Though including within its'limits a considerable amount of prairie 
land, Forbes Township is essentially a timbered district of the county. 
Besides all the other different varieties of wood proper to this section of 
country, a considerable amount of superior walnut has been cut and 
shipped from its limits, and though materially decreased from the yield 
of former years, this still continues to be a valuable item of export. 
Limestone of superior quality exists in exhaustless deposits along the 
water courses, and in the bluffs of this township. This is well adapted 
for building purposes, and is extensively quarried. 

STREAMS. 

This township is abundantly provided with water, for stock and 
domestic uses. Unfailing springs of living water abound almost every- 
where within its limits, and is otherwise readily obtained at reasonable 
depths, by digging. Besides the rivers on its boundaries, there are several 
minor streams within its limits. The old channel of the Little Tarkio 
enters Forbes Township at the northwest corner of section 28, township 59, 
range 38, and flows in a generally southeasterly direction to the northeast 
corner of section 32, where it makes a bend of nearly a mile, flowing 
northward and then eastward, entering the Missouri River in. section 26. 
Prior to its cutting into the Missouri above Forest City, where its prin- 
cipal volume now flows through the old forsaken channel of the Missouri 
River, the Little Tarkio was a stream of no inconsiderable importance 
in Forbes Township. It was over one hundred feet wide, very deep, and 
abounded in buffalo, pike, salmon and cat-fish. As many as thirty cats, 
weighing from fifteen to thirty pounds each, have been taken at a single 
haul from the creek. 



FORBES TOWNSHIP. 237 

Easter Branch rises near the center of the township and, flowing in 
a southeasterly and southerly direction, enters the old channel of the 
Little Tarkio, about one mile east of the town of Forbes. 

In the northern part of the township Harden's Branch rises, near the 
northern boundary of section 4, township 59, range 37, and, flowing in a 
southeasterly direction, enters the Nodaway River in section 12 of the 
same township. 

Such is Forbes Township as Nature made it. 

The Nodaway River, which forms the eastern boundary of the town- 
ship, was declared a navigable stream, by act of the Legislature, in 1839. 
A chute is formed by the Nodaway River and an arm of the Missouri, on 
the east side of Nodaway Island ; and, in the days of steamboating, was 
a noted thoroughfare for that class of vessels. The steamer Watosa of 
St. Joseph, running between that city and Omaha, was sunk in the Nod- 
away Chute, about 1865. The bell of this boat now hangs in the steeple 
of the Christian Church at Oregon. A steamboat was built about 1868, 
on the Nodaway, near the State ferry, by Richard Danelsbeck. It was 
designed to run between points below Hollister's Mill and St. Joseph, as 
a wood boat. The enterprise proved a financial failure to the owner and 
was abandoned. Hollister's Mill, in the northeast corner of Nodaway 
Township, is, by the sinuosities of the stream, about twenty miles dis- 
tant from the mouth of the Nodaway. While referring to this river, 
before entering on the history proper of Forbes Township, it may be as 
well to state that, as early as 1839, there existed on the same, with a 
western landing on the northeast quarter of township 59, range 37, in 
what is now Forbes Township, a ferry owned and operated by a man by the 
name of Rose, and known as Rose's Ferry. This has long passed out of 
existence. 

EARLY SETTLERS. 

The first white settlers of Forbes Township were also the first to 
locate within the limits of Holt County. These were Peter and Blank 
Stephenson, brothers, from Indiana. Blank brought with him a wife. 
Peter was unmarried. They arrived in the spring of 1838, and settled 
on the southeast quarter of section 7, township 59, range 37. This sec- 
tion is contiguous to the present eastern boundary of Lewis Township, 
and is about five miles southeast of the site of the present town of 
Oregon. The farm is now (1882) the property of George Meyer. 
Immediately on their arrival, the Stephensons put in a crop of corn. In 
the fall of the same year came, also from Indiana, John Russel with his 
wife and seven children, R. H. Russel, the present (1882) judge of the 
Probate Court of Holt County, a younger brother, and, at the period of 
his arrival, an unmarried man, John Sterritt, wife and two children, one 
of whom, W. H. Sterritt, is now a prominent merchant of the town of 



238 , HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Oregon, and James Kee, also from Indiana. At the period of the arri- 
val of these new-comers, Blank Stephenson and wife and his brother Peter 
were the only white people living west of the Nodaway River, and the 
arrival of the new-comers was hailed with a welcome which only pio- 
neers know how to extend and to appreciate. 

John Russel first settled on the southwest quarter of section 8, 
township 59, range 37, directly east of Blank Stephenson's. This farm 
is also the property of George Meyer. 

John Sterritt settled on the northwest quarter of section 8, town- 
ship 59, range 37, directly north of John Russel's. Peter, Blank Steph- 
enson's brother, settled in the same section. He moved away during 
the progress of the civil war, about 1864, and, going south, settled 
where he now (1882) resides, in Dade County, Missouri, near Golden 
City post office, in Barton County. There was no other arrival that 
fall until the 9th day of October, 1838, when William R. Russel, the 
first born of the white population of Holt County, first saw the light on 
the above described farm of his father, within the limits of what is now 
Forbes Township. In the following spring and summer settlers began 
to flock in. Among others, came from Indiana, Mrs. Rachel Jackson, a 
widow lady with a large family of children, among them Alexander 
Rogers, a grown son by a former marriage. Mrs. Jackson, who died in 
January, 1882, at the advanced age of upwards of ninety years, was, at 
the period of her demise, a resident of Council Bluffs, Iowa, where, 
until very recently, she was engaged in keeping a hotel. She is 
described by those who have known her for more than a generation, as 
a woman of rare executive ability and great force of character. The 
place which she settled is the southwest quarter of section 5, township 
59, range 37, now in the northern tier of Forbes Township sections, was 
in that day included within the limits of Nodaway Township. This 
farm is now (1882) the property of Judge George Mclntyre, and 
here still stands the building erected by Mrs. Jackson. It is a substan 
tial double log house, each room eighteen feet square, with a hall 
between them nine feet wide. The white oak logs of which the build- 
ing is composed were afterwards weather-boarded. This, at the period 
when it was first built, was the best house in the county. It is still, 
though unoccupied, in an excellent state of preservation. Mrs. Jackson 
in an early day, here kept the first house of public entertainment in the 
county. Here, also, convened the March term of the Circuit Court of Holt, 
County, just one year after the organization of that body in the house 
of William Thorp, on the northwest quarter of section 12, township 59, 
range 38, of Lewis Township, where it first assembled, March 24, 1841. 
This latter farm is now (1882) owned by the heirs of James Stephenson. 
On the 4th day of March, 1841, just twenty days before the assembling 
of the county court, the house of William Thorp was also the scene o' 



FORBES TOWNSHIP. 239 

the inauguration of the first Circuit Court of Holt County, the proceed- 
ings of which are elsewhere detailed. 

Mrs. Jackson's house was, on several subsequent occasions, used to 
accommodate these courts, and was long a noted locality in the early 
days of Holt County. Of Mrs. Jackson's children by her second mar- 
riage, several afterwards became representative men in the country. 
Andrew, the eldest son, is the founder of Jackson's Point, now Mound 
City, in Holt County. In 1853, he moved to California and settled in 
the Susune Valley, midway between Sacramento and San Francisco, 
where he has been, for years, a leading grain merchant ; Franklin Jack- 
son, his brother, is a prominent insurance man of San Francisco ; Wilson 
Jackson, a fourth son, died young; Ellen, her eldest daughter, married 
Alexander Record, now of Glenwood Iowa; Mary, another daughter, 
was the wife of Abijah Duncan, since dead ; Margaret, the youngest 
died young. 

INDIAN SCARE. 

It is related that the first born of the land of Holt experienced, in 
early infancy, a narrow escape from the consequences of what proved to 
be a groundless terror on the part of a number of the community of set- 
tlers : It appears that one Vesser, an itinerant trader, had killed an 
Indian in a remote part of the county, and an undue apprehension, on 
the part of the small band of settlers had been awakened, that the 
Indians would wreak their vengeance upon them. Alexander Rogers, 
above referred to, was especially persuaded that such would be the case. 
John Sterritt and John Russel had both gone to the bottom-lands, some 
miles distant, to look after their cattle which were there being wintered 
on the rushes that grew rankly in that locality. The only men about 
the settlement then were R. H. Russel, Isaac Massey and Alexander 
Rogers. The alarm was given late in the evening, and these three, with 
the women and children, promptly fled through the snow to the neigh- 
boring woods. In the course of their flight the infant, William Russel, 
began to cry. This so terrified Rogers that he promptly expressed him- 
self in favor of smothering the child, whose screams, he believed, would 
reveal their presence to the murderous Indians. The indignation of the 
mother and jeers of the men, however, triumphed over his insane alarm, 
and the sacrifice failed to take place. After a halt of some hours in the 
cover of a dense wood, about midnight, the snort of a horse which hap- 
pened to be in the party was instantly construed into a signal of the 
approach of the blood-thirsty red-men. In an instant all was excite- 
ment, and the valiant Alex, again bethought him of that baby and of 
the possibility of its again giving a scream. Fortunately the destroy- 
ing savage proved to be an antlered buck whose glaring eyeballs gleam- 
ing in the pale starlight, had startled the horse. By no means, however, 



HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 240 

satisfied of their safety, the fugitives proceeded through the snow to the 
Nodaway River, a distance of four miles. Crossing this stream on a 
raft, the men left the women and children on the Andrew County side, 
and returned. On their arrival they found John Sterritt and John 
Russel, who had just got back from the bottom. They immediately 
went to work and barricaded and otherwise fortified the house, which 
was a log building, on the Russell farm. In a few days, however, it 
became apparent that the scare was absolutely groundless. No Indians 
were in the immediate neighborhood, and those in other parts of the 
Purchase had not, if they were conscious of their existence, the slightest 
idea of in any way injuring or molesting the settlers. Thus, the first 
estampede from the settlement proved happily the result of a causeless 
alarm at which the pioneers could afford to laugh, as the almost daily 
increasing neighborhood pursued the even tenor of its way.' William R. 
Russel, whose escape from the effects of terrors of Rogers, which pro- 
duced the incident above detailed, not only survived his infant flight, 
but grew to manhood, and is now (1882) a resident of San Bernardino 
County, California, where he is successfully engaged in the nursery 
business. 

In the summer of 1840 George and Augustus Borchers started, 
within the present limits of Forbes Township, the " Pioneer Store" of 
Holt County. The senior member of this primitive and original mer-j 
cantile enterprise of this county has been dead for some years. Augus- 
tus Borchers is now (1882) a resident of Hamburg, Iowa. They were the 
first Germans to settle within the limits of Holt County, and the first 
foreigners naturalized there. They bore the character of men of stricl 
integrity, as well as of sterling business capacity. Their initial start ir 
business was, of course, in keeping with the demands of the settlement 
and necessarily on a very small scale. Their store stood on the north- 
west corner of the southwest quarter of section 7, township 59, range 37 
on a farm now the property of George Meyer, within the present limit.' 
of Forbes Township, but included, in that day, in the area of Nodaway 
the eastern of the two original townships into which the county, on it: 
organization, was divided. They continued to do a fair business her; 
for about two years, when the newly established town of Oregon absorbec 
their trade. 

It is related by the few who here survive of the original settlers c 
this neighborhood, that the winter of 1840-41 was, unlike its several pre 
decessors, one of unusual mildness. During the entire season there wa 
no frost on the ground, and plowing was feasible during all the winte 
months. 

It appears that Blank Stephenson was the first to hold the office c 
constable within the limits of Holt County, at that period include 
within the limits of Buchanan County. This was in 1839. His fin 



FORBES TOWNSHIP. 241 

official experience is rather amusing, and was as follows: He 
started on the track of a horse thief, and pursuing him as far 
as English Grove, a locality now included within the present limits of 
Atchison County, he halted for the night. Awaking the next morn- 
ing, the astute constable was amazed to find that the thief had 
overtaken him, and made a second haul by stealing his horse. The 
baffled official was thus reduced to the necessity of walking back home, 
where his crest-fallen appearance, in due time, failed not to excite 
the derision of the community, in which his first exploit long after 
remained a standing joke. The unfortunate Blank Stephenson met a 
tragic and untimely end. In the month of July, 1840, as he was in the 
act of crossing his yard fence with a load of kitchen wood in his arms, 
he was struck by lightning and instantly killed. The first violent death 
of a white person in the county was thus the visitation of Providence on 
the head of the first settler. It appears that this untimely victim of the 
thunderbolt, though a person of honorable impulse, was a man of turbu- 
lent disposition and powerfully athletic frame. On that very morning 
he had prepared himself for a fisticuff encounter with another who claimed 
the championship of the neighborhood, and was almost in the act of 
starting to the scene of the anticipated fight, when he was suddenly and 
terribly conquered by an invincible adversary. The spot on which 
transpired this lamentable occurrence was near the site of Borcher's 
store, on the farm above described as the present (1882) property of 
George Meyer. Blank Stephenson was the first who obtained a license 
to sell whisky in the county. This was granted March 21, 1841, by the 
first county court. The instrument granted to George Drane and Blank 
Stephenson license to keep " grocery" for the term of twelve months by 
paying ten dollars. In 1839, William, the father of John and Peter Ste- 
phenson, came out from Indiana, and remained in Holt County, residing 
in Forbes township up to the period of his death, which occurred at the 
age of fifty-two years, in December, 1841. With their father, in 1839, 
came William Stephenson, Jr., who died of the measles while serving in 
the Mexican War, John now (1882) living four miles from Oregon. Mike 
and also Alexander Stephenson died in 1843. 

FIRST PREACHER. 

The first to preach the gospel within the limits of what is now Holt 
County, was the Rev. William Thorp, a Hardshell Baptist minister from 
Clay County. It is believed that, inasmuch as the bulk of the popula- 
tion were at that time residing within what is now included within the 
limits of Forbes Township, that it was, in that locality, that the reverend 
pioneer preached his first sermon. It is a circumstance worthy of notice 
that, notwithstanding the subsequent general development, and com- 

16 



242 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

parative wealth existing in Forbes Township, there is not, nor has there 
ever been erected within its present limits, a building exclusively 
devoted to the purposes of public worship. 

FIRST CHURCH ORGANIZED. 

The first church or class of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Holt 
County was organized by Rev. Edwin Peary, at the residence of Elias 
Davidson, two miles north of the present town of Forbes and five or six 
miles southeast of Oregon. This was in the winter or spring of 1841. 
Besides the minister and his wife, the members of this organization were 
Benjamin Davidson and wife, John Robison, George Scott and wife, 
William Robison and wife, Josiah Pierce and wife, Chloe Pierce and 
Frances A. Pierce, a daughter of the two last mentioned, and perhaps a 
few others. 

The first Sunday School in the county was organized in 1841 by 
Rev. William Hamilton, of the Iowa and Sac Mission, in an old log cabin 
school house on the land now owned by John Stephenson. This was 
the first school house built in the county, and its origin was as follows: 

FIRST SCHOOL. 

The first building erected for the special purpose of a school for the 
instruction of youth, was a rude log house, which stood within the limits 
of what is now Forbes Township, in the northwest quarter of section 7, 
township 59, range 37, on a farm adjoining the east boundary line of 
Lewis Township, and now (1882) owned by John Stephenson, and about 
three miles southeast of the site of the present town of Oregon. This 
building was put up in the spring of 1840, by the residents of the neigh- 
borhood, and was completed in the course of one day, each man appear- 
ing on the appointed morning with his logs and whatever other material 
he was assigned to bring. The original structure, which was afterwards 
slightly improved, was necessarily of the rudest description. Benches 
were extemporized from puncheons split from linden logs ; the 
floor was of similar material and construction. Greased paper, in the 
long, narrow aperture created by the removal of a log from the wall of 
the building for the purpose of affording a window, supplied the absence 
of glass. The house was eighteen feet square. The first teacher to, 
exercise his vocation in this primitive temple of the muses was Gilbert 
Ray ; then a man by the name of Scoville. He was shortly after suc- 
ceeded by another by the name of John Worley, from Indiana. Among 
the pupils who first attended this school were Elias and Cassandra David- 
son, Henry, Sarah and Milton Russel, children of the pioneer, John 
Russel, who died in 1861 ; Henry and Eliza Sterritt, children who died 



FORBES TOWNSHIP. 143 

in 1846, and James and Mike Stephenson, children of William Stephen- 
son, Sr., who died in the early part of the winter of 1841. The site of 
this pioneer structure, which was torn down in 1846, still betrays an 
unmistakable relic of its existence in the debris of a long-fallen chimney 
of ponderous stone, as well as the occasional presence of a rock of com- 
paratively larger dimensions which probably served to underpin the 
corner of thjs ancient and long extinguished structure, amid whose for- 
mer area grew, in wild luxuriance, the hazel bush, the tall weeds and 
wild flowers which, in their rocky neighborhood, blossom and wither in 
safe exemption from the farmer's plow-share. 

OTHER EARLY SETTERS. 

Prominent among the other early settlers of what is now Forbes 
Township, were Smith Mclntyre, who arrived in 1839, an< ^ died, in 1881, 
on his farm, in the southeast quarter of section 6, township 59, range 37, 
of Forbes Township. Judge George Mclntyre, his brother, who now 
(1882) lives at home, on the quarter adjoining on the east, in section 5- 
John Baldwin, from Parke County, Indiana, se'ttled in Forbes Township, 
in 1839. John Stephenson, from Indiana, came in 1840. In the same 
year came Thomas Ramsay, who settled the farm now owned by N. 
Murray & Bros. About the same period, Joseph Brownlee, from Vir- 
ginia, settled in the Missouri River bottom. He was the first man to 
start a steam saw mill within the limits of the township. This was 
about a mile and a half below the present Town of Forbes. In 1840, 
also came James Foster, one of the first attorneys admitted to the bar 
of Holt County. He was born in County Monahan, Ireland, February 
18, 1818. In 1837, he came to the United States, and settled in Jefferson 
City, Missouri. In 1839 ne was admitted to the bar of the Supreme 
Court, at Boonville. In the following year, he moved to Holt County, 
and settled in Forbes Township, making his office and residence at the 
Widow Jackson's, where he continued to make his home, till the found- 
ing of the Town of Oregon, the county seat, when he took up his abode 
and continued to reside there in the practice of his profession, for many 
years after. His professional standing in the state was high, and his 
personal popularity great. He represented Holt County in the legisla- 
ture of 1848-49. A strong sympathizer with the cause of the South, 
during the period of the rebellion, he moved his residence from Oregon. 
At the close of the war, he returned, but a few years after again left, 
moving his residence permanently. In 1841, Felty Worley settled on 
the farm now (1882) owned by Huitt. J. Frank Worley, who came at 
the same time, now lives in the bottom. In the same year came Abraham 
Brown and his sons, E. R. Brown, A. Mc. Brown and Dr. M. D. Brown. 
The three former are dead. Dr. Brown is now a resident of Forest 
City, Missouri. 



244 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Abraham Brown settled the northwest quarter of section 10, town- 
ship 59, range 37, in what is now Forbes Township. In the year of his 
arrival he planted on this farm, which is now (1882) the property of F- 
C. Honnen, the first apple orchard ever set out in Holt County. The 
trees were grafted on crab apple stocks. Josiah Pierce, with his sons 
Charles, Lorenzo and Silas, came from Maryland in 1841, and settled in 
the present Forbes Township. Elias and Benjamin Davidson were also 
early settlers. Robert Patterson, a large land-owner, who now resides 
on the southwest corner section 4, in the same township and range, set- 
tled there in 1841. William G. Patterson is also an old settler. W. D. 
Taylor and Squire P. Shambaugh both continue to reside where they 
first settled in Forbes Township, in 1843. Charles Shambaugh, a brother 
of the latter, also came about the same time. John and Daniel Huitt 
settled in the neighborhood in 1846. George Meyer, the fruit man, 
came from Lewis Township in 1857, and settled in Forbes Township on 
the splendid farm he now owns in sections seven and eight. Henry 
Clark settled in an early day in a locality in the neighborhood of Nod- 
away River, known as Cracker's Neck. 



FIRST PHYSICIAN. 






The first to practice medicine in what is now Forbes Township, was 
Doctor John C. Norman, the pioneer physician of the county. Previous 
to the laying out of the town of Oregon, to which he afterwards moved, 
he made his headquarters and office at the Widow Jackson's tavern. 

John M. Briggs, a native of Tennessee, who afterwards moved to 
Iowa, where he died in 1877, started in 1840, the first blacksmith shop 
within the limits of what is now Forbes Township. His stand was about 
six miles southeast of the site of Oregon. 

BUILDINGS AND PEOPLE. 

The first frame building erected for a residence in the county was 
put up by John Russel, on what is now the George Meyer farm. It is a 
one-story house, with three or four rooms, and is still in a good state of 
preservation. The class of citizens wlio settled in what is now Forbes 
Township, with a fair share of the roughs and restless characters who 
float everywhere in the van of civilization, were generally men of enter- 
prise and often persons of substance, for that early day. Some of them 
yet remain reputable and honored members of the community, while the 
descendants of many are living representatives of the best class of the 
inhabitants of the county. 

About the year 1846 organized gangs of outlaws rendered property 
in horses yery unsafe ; and, though an eminently law-abiding people, the 



FORBES TOWNSHIP. 245 

better class of citizens were reduced to the necessity of associating them- 
selves into companies for the purpose of putting down the source of these 
outrages. The people inhabiting that section of the county now known 
as Forbes Township were especially sufferers by these robberies. About 
one hundred of these organized themselves into a vigilance committee, 
of which William Thorp was chosen captain and James Craig (now Gen. 
Craig, of St. Joseph,) lieutenant. For a while it seemed difficult to fix 
suspicion on any individual. It, however, began to be remarked that a 
quiet and seemingly inoffensive citizen, by the name of George Carter, 
who had formerly resided in the neighborhood, occasionally returned to 
visit his friends ; further, that these visits were periodic, and, also, it 
began to be the subject of remark that, whenever George favored his 
Holt County friends with a visit, his sympathetic nature was sure to be 
wounded by hearing, shortly after his arrival, of some of their horses 
having been stolen. The strangeness of the coincidence soon became 
the subject of general remark. Suspicion was directed against Carter, 
and immediately acted on. He was arrested, tied up and severely 
whipped. He finally yielded to the pressure of circumstances, and dis- 
closed the whole business, giving the name of an unsuspected accomplice, 
by the name of Bass, who was forthwith arrested and subjected to the 
same discipline. The thieves were then given three days in which to 
leave the county, an injunction with which they promptly complied. This 
effectually broke up horse-stealing in these parts. 

DALLAS. 

The first attempt to start a town within the limits of what is now 
Forbes Township, occurred April 17, 1843, when Abraham Brown laid 
out the town of Dallas, on the northeast quarter of section 28, township 
59, range 37, one mile above the mouth of the Nodaway River. This, 
though it never in its best days amounted to much of a town, was still 
for many years a noted shipping point, and during certain conditions 
of the river, when Iowa Point was not readily accessible, served as an 
entrepot for Oregon. A hemp press and several large warehouses for 
several years stood on the site of this prospective town. Long before the 
decadence of the hemp interest in Missouri, it had lost even its nominal 
existence, and was only remembered among the things of the past. The 
only attempt to sell goods in the place was made by James Whitehead, 
who kept a small store at the landing for about a year. Insignificant as 
it was, however, Dallas was not too small to provoke rivalry, and a com- 
petitor in the prospective town of 

WEST UNION 

struggled into an ephemeral existence only, however, to blink out inglo- 
riously and without a requiem. On the 12th of April, 1844, H. Utt, 



246 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Henry H. Utt and E. M. Samuel laid out this town. Its location was 
between Dallas and the mouth of the Nodaway River. Corner lots 
could not be given away, and while the friends of the would-be founders 
gloried in the enterprise of these enthusiastic rivals of the Dallas inter- 
ests, they almost universally condemned their judgment. West Union 
fell still born, and few now living in or out of the county have any rec- 
ollection of the prospective existence of such a place. 

The third attempt to start a town in the territory of Forbes Town- 
ship was an enterprise of much later date, and has to a certain extent 
proved a success. This, the town of 

FORBES 

was laid out in 1869, by Levi Devorss, on the southwest quarter of the 
northwest quarter of section 29, township 59, range 37. Since that 
period, additions to the original site have been made. As early as 1839, 
Jonathan Keney pre-empted the quarter on which the town stands. 
This was, afterwards, entered by Thomas Mulholland, who, in the early 
part of 185 1, sold it, together with adjacent lands, amounting, with a 
tract at the same time conveyed by Edward* Mulholland, to 290 acres, to 
Levi Devorss, who had previously resided in Buchanan County, Missouri. 
The idea of locating a town at this point was prompted by the presence 
of the Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs railroad, which was com 
pleted to this point in the summer of 1868, the first train of cars running 
through the site of the town August 9, 1868. The depot at this point is 
nineteen miles north by west of St. Joseph; and the elevation of its site 
is eight hundred and sixty-seven and nearly 'one-half feet above the 
level of the sea. 

The original house of the town is the farm residence of Levi 
Devorss, at the foot of the bluff at the north extremity of the village. 
The first building erected after the laying out of the town was a small 
store erected by William Herron, on what was afterwards Devorss' 
addition to the original town. Herron & Taylor sold goods here during 
the summer in which the road was building. They soon after erected a 
larger building in which, for the period of three years, they continued to 
sell goods. The style of the firm was Herron, Taylor & Meyer. W. D. 
Taylor- and George Meyer, both representative citizens and large farmers 
of the township, were included in this firm. In 1871, W. D. Taylor, in 
partnership with S. M. Shirley, put up a two-story brick house twenty- 
six by sixty feet area, in which they opened a stock of goods, and where 
they continued to transact mercantile business till 188 1, when they 
closed out, and rented the building to John Ross & Co., who now (1882) 
do the leading commercial business of the place. 

In 1876 Shirley & Taylor put up, in the town of Forbes, the first 
steam flouring mill ever built in the township. It was a frame struc- 



FORBES TOWNSHIP. 247 

ture, of considerable extent, and was fitted up with three run of burrs. 
This mill was hardly under way before it was accidentally destroyed by 
fire. About thirty steps beyond was a warehouse, in which was stored 
a considerable amount of merchandise, also the property of the firm. 
To this building the fire communicated, and the whole was soon wrapped 
in flames, involving a total loss of about $7,000. 

Ross & Meyer opened, in 1875, a stock of goods in the town, and 
did a prosperous business till August, 1880, when they closed out. 

E. B. Bumps, in 1870, opened the first drug store in Forbes. He 
continued to sell here till 1877, when he moved from the town. 

The first to open a blacksmith shop in the place was John Brownlee. 

The first physician to locate in the town was Dr. Jason Bumps, since 
dead. 

The first postmaster of Forbes, or as the office is styled, Elm Grove, 
was Levi Devorss, the father of the town. He was appointed August 
28, 1868. His successors, in regular order, have been : S. M. Shirley, 
N. Swiget, Jacob Meyer and Charles Scott, appointed in 1881. On the 
resignation of Meyer, John Ross, his late partner in business, discharged 
the duties of the office till the appointment of his successor, the present 
(1882) incumbent. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The people of Forbes have always appreciated the importance of 
education and encouraged every scheme calculated to promote that 
interest in their midst. One of their first enterprises was the erection 
of a school building in 1^69. This was a small frame building twenty- 
two by twenty-four feet area, and is now (1882) occupied as a dwelling. 
It was erected by the Rev. Mr. Bloomer, a Protestant Methodist 
preacher, and cost $560. The first who taught in this school was Lud 
Wyet. The second teacher was Charles Coursen. He taught two 
two years, from September, 1870, when he was succeeded by William 
Kezier, who, in turn, was succeeded by William Morrison. The Rev. 
Mr. Bratcher, of the church of the United Brethren, taught two terms. 
Al. Ewing taught from the fall of 1877 to close of the term. He was 
succeeded in the fall of 1878, by T. J. Owen, the last who taught in the 
old school building. In 1878 and 1879 was erected at a cost of three 
thousand dollars the present elegant structure of the Forbes public 
school. It is a spacious two-story brick edifice on a commanding eleva- 
tion overlooking the village, and the wide extent of bottom land stretch- 
ing far westward to the Missouri River. A stately grove of native 
timber almost surrounds the building, adding no less to the comfort 
than the appearance of its surroundings. The first session of the pub- 
lic school opened in this building with Professor A. G. Young, M. D., 
as principal, assisted by Mrs. Young. In the fall of 1880, Samuel 



248 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

O'Fallon commenced the school. He was assisted by Miss Belle 
Young. After the Christmas holidays he resigned, and was succeeded 
by Galen B. Anderson, who taught the school to the close of the term. 
September, 1881, Professor J. E. Campbell, assisted by Miss Clara 
Wilkinson, the present (1882) teacher of the school, took charge of the 
institution. The 

PRESENT BUSINESS 

of Forbes is as follows : J. A. Ross & Co., general merchandise, in the 
brick store formerly occupied by Shirley & Taylor. 

A. G. Young, M. D., drug store. 

J. R. Wilson, general stock, in the new frame building in which the 
post office is kept. 

William Kelley, saloon. 

Jo"hn A. Smith & M. Cordery, blacksmiths and wagonmakers. 

Drs.. A. G. Young and M. V. Dunn are the physicians of the town. 

Levi Devorss, founder of the town, capitalist and hotel keeper. 

E. Hilliker is the present railroad agent. 

The present (1882) population of Forbes is one hundred and fifty. 
It is, though a small place, one of no inconsiderable importance as a 
shipping station. During the past year (1881), there have been shipped 
from this point, 945 car loads of cordwood, thirty-three car loads of 
walnut logs, and one car load of hoop-poles. The grain and hog pro- 
duct of this season was reported as unusually low, the shipments of the 
same amounting to but thirty-two car loads of the former and twenty- 
four of the latter. The heaviest shipper was J. A. Ross, the merchant. 
He sent from Forbes Station 500 car loads of cordwood, and six car 
loads of corn. 

G. W. Pullen, who runs a saw-mill in the bottom below town, 
shipped fifteen car loads of native lumber. 

The heaviest shipper of hogs was M. Gelvin, who sent oft fourteen 
car loads. 



.&— i^S^S— si 



'sT^S* 



^BIOGRAPHICAL* 



DANIEL A. BAKER, 

farmer, is the owner of 261 acres of land, and lives on section 36. He 
was born in Lawrence County, Indiana, August 8, 1837, being brought 
up as a farmer. In 1857 he came to Holt County, Missouri, and bought 
a part of his present farm, but, after remaining for two years, he returned 
to Indiana, residing there until 1867, when he again came to this county 



FORBES TOWNSHIP. 249 

and settled permanently. In October, 1861, he enlisted in the Fiftieth 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry and served for three years. He was with 
Gens. Buell and Rosecrans, and at Pilot Knob the company of which 
he was a member was captured by Morgan, but in a few days were 
paroled, and after a time exchanged. Two of the paroled men were from 
Kentucky and took up arms again before they were exchanged. Mor- 
gan's men recognized them, captured and shot them. After joining the 
regiment they were assigned to the Seventh Army Corps. Mr. B. par- 
ticipated in the battle of Little Rock, Arkansas, and was through the 
Red River expedition. For meritorious conduct he was promoted to 
first lientenant, and served in that capacity until he received his dis- 
charge. He then returned home and, after remaining two years, he came 
to his farm in Missouri. He married Miss Eliza Noon, in Lawrence 
County, Indiana, in February, 1857. They have two children, Carrie 
Ellis and Ava. Mrs. Baker is the daughter of John Noon, of Indiana. 
Mr. B. started here, in 1857, with limited means, but by hard work and 
good management overcame every obstacle, and he now has an excel- 
lent farm. 

WILLIAM M. BAKER, 

section 35, was born in Lawrence County, Indiana, April 29, 1841, and 
in 1868, came to this county and purchased a piece of land, improving 
it, and adding to it from time to time until now he has a superior farm 
of 280 acres. He married Miss Martha Baker, of Kentucky, in 1859. 
They have six children : Minnie B., Carrie, Jackson, Ida, Harry and 
Lena. Mr. Baker is one of the'substantial men in the township and has 
labored hard to gain a compentency. He is a good farmer, and his 
land on the" bottoms is very productive. 

MARTIN V. DUNN, 

physician and surgeon, was born in Iroquois County, Illinois, on the 
14th of August, 1837, and was the son of Samuel M. and Nancy (Walker) 
Dunn, the former a native of Kentucky, and the latter of East Ten- 
nessee. Martin was educated in the common schools, and also attended 
the Urbana Academy, of Illinois. Resolving upon the practice of med- 
icine as his profession, he commenced its study with Dr. Samuel A. 
Barry, of Concord, Illinois, and attended lectures at Rush Medical Col- 
lege, of Chicago. Dr. Dunn began business life, as it were, with a phy- 
sician's lease. His grandfather Walker was a surgeon in the Florida 
War, and was with General Jackson. His father was an early graduate 
of the Medical College in Lexington, Kentucky, and for many years a 
prominent practitioner in Iroquois County, Illinois. Four of his brothers 
are well known brethren of the medical profession in Northwest Mis- 



250 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

souri. He also has a sister, a successful physician in Macon County, 
Missouri. Two of his sisters are married to doctors — Dr. J. W. Dunn, 
of Atchison County, and Dr. James Bickett, of Conception, Nodaway 
County. Two nephews were members of the graduating class during 
the past winter. The subject of this sketch has practiced in Iowa with 
his brother, Prof. S. M. Dunn, and also in Nebraska. In i860 he came 
to Holt County, and for sixteen years has been a regular practitioner 
in this and adjoining counties. He is a man respected by all, and a 
physician of skill and experience. In i860 the doctor was married to 
Rebecca M. Oliver, of Salem, Nebraska, daughter of Robert and Ellen 
Oliver. She died May 1, 1881, leaving six children : William O., Robert 
Lee, Charles Sumner, Edward M., Minerva G. and Martin V. Mrs. Dunn 
was a woman loved by all, and her death was mourned by many. Dr. 
D. is a Cumberland Presbyterian in his religious preferences, and was 
formerly a Democrat in politics, but is now a Greenbacker. 

EDWIN HILLIKER, 

railroad agent and telegraph operator at Forbes, was born in. Riley, 
Clinton County, Michigan, March 18, 1852. His father, John Hilliker, was 
born in New York, and his mother, formerly Unez Mix, was a native of 
Erie County, Pennsylvania. The former was a musician and has devoted 
his life to the profession of music, and in that capacity is well known 
throughout the State of Michigan. Young Edwin received good educa- 
tional advantages, and being ambitious for some active business, after 
leaving school he came to Craig, Missouri, in 1871, where he learned 
telegraphing, acting at that station for three years as assistant agent. 
Since that time he has had charge of stations at Sugar Lake, Missouri, 
Bartlett and Henton's, Iowa, and in 1881, he came to Forbes. He is 
prompt in the discharge of his duties, and accommodating to the travel- 
ing public. Mr. Hilliker was married to Miss Mary Clark in Craig, 
January 4, 1879. She is a daughter of John Clark, Esq., of Nebraska. 
They have one child, Delia Gertrude, born December 8, 1879. Mr. H. is 
Republican in politics. 

ELUM EDGAR HUNTER, 

section 11, was born in Haynesville, Clinton County, Missouri, June 21, 
1841, and was the son of Joseph and Jane (Bowles) Hunter. His father, 
an agriculturist by occupation, was a native of Franklin County, Vir- 
ginia, and his mother of Cumberland County, Kentucky. Elum passed 
his youth in farming and in attending the common schools of Andrew 
County. During the war, he enlisted in the Fifth Missouri Regiment of 
the Confederate army, for two years, and was in the two battles at Cor- 
inth, Shiloh, before Richmond, in the seven days battle, at Farmington, 



FORBES TOWNSHIP. 25 1 

Grand Gulf, Champion's Hill in 1863, also at Fort Beauregard and Vicks- 
burg. Mr. H. was one of seven out of his company of 112 left at that 
battle. He had sixty relatives in the company, all of whom were killed 
or wounded, he himself being twice wounded. In 1863, after leaving 
the army, he went to Colorado, New Mexico and Utah, returning to the 
mines in Montana, from whence, after a few months, he visited Salt 
Lake and Southern California. He was there engaged in mining, and, 
in December, 1865, returned to Missouri, having been, on the whole, 
quite successful in his enterprise, although meeting with one quite serious 
loss. In 1865, he came to this (Holt) county, and now has 160 acres of 
land, well improved, with an orchard of choice varieties of fruit. There 
is upon the place some fine Berkshire hogs. Mr. Hunter was married 
November 7, 1869, to Matilda F. Vaughn. She is the daughter of John 
Vaughn, who was born in Virginia in 1787, and came to Missouri in 
1855. Mr. and Mrs. H. have one child, Robert E. Lee, born August I, 
1871, and have adopted one, Emma Frances, born in 1868. He is dem- 
cratic in politics, and his religious sympathies are with the Christian 
denomination. His father, Joseph Hunter was born in Franklin County, 
Virginia', in 1797. In 1823, he married Miss Jane Bowles, in Kentucky, 
and, in 1835, came to Clinton County, Missouri, settling near Haynes- 
ville. After five years, he sold his claim, moved to Plattsburg and kept 
the first hotel ever opened in that city. He remained there for five 
years, when he disposed of his property, and moved to Hackberry 
Ridge, Andrew County. Then he improved one of the best farms in 
the county, and lived there until 1865, when he came to Holt County, 
and purchased a desirable farm, which he afterwards sold to James 
Ramsay, and bought 160 acres on section 11, where his son now (1882) 
lives. Mr. Hunter died July 17, 1874, and Mrs. Hunter died October 
18, 1845. They left seven children: Emily McCrorey, Josephine Sally, 
Gallant V., Joseph S., Tolutha A. D., Elum E., and Henrietta Hines. 
Mr. Hunter was Judge of Andrew County for many years, and it is said 
by old citizens that his decisions were never reversed by higher courts. 
He was a representative type of a Virginia gentleman — always affable 
and honorable, and despised meanness in any form. 

GEORGE MEYER, 

one of the largest farmers of Holt County was born within three miles 
of Mullheim Baden, Germany, March 5, 1827. His father, Andrew 
Meyer, was a cabinet maker by trade, but followed the occupation of a 
farmer. His mother's name before marriage was Mary Adolph. There 
were nine children in the family, of whom the subject of this sketch was 
the fifth. In 1834, when he was seven years old, the family emigrated 
to America, landing in New York City and proceeding to Wayne County, 



252 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Ohio. Mr. Meyer attended a common school very little during the ten 
years the family lived there, but since then he has, by his own efforts, 
become well qualified for business, and is a great lover of books and 
reading. In 1844 his father removed with the family from Ohio to Mis- 
souri, settling in Lewis Township, Holt County. He lived with his 
father, and was engaged in farming till 1849, when, with hundreds of 
others, he was seized with the gold fever, which pervaded the whole 
country on receiving news of the wonderful discoveries of gold in Cali- 
fornia. He was one of the first to leave Holt County for the Pacific coast. 
He set out with his brother Andrew and Judge Mclntyre, and their 
wagon was the first from Holt County to cross the Missouri, at Iowa 
Point, the usual crossing point. They left the Iowa and Sac agency 
May 1, 1849, an d reached Hangtown,- California, the 13th of the follow- 
ing August, beating other Holt County parties who started three days 
later, by more than a month. In California he worked mostly on Amer- 
ican River, part of the time within two miles of where Sutter & Marshall 
first found gold. In September 1850, he returned home by the Isthmus 
and New York route. Returning to Holt County, he was married April 
3, i85i,toMiss Mary Ann Kunkel, daughter of Jacob Kunkel. Mrs. 
Meyer is a native of Morrow County, Ohio, and came to Missouri in 
1845. Mr. M. soon purchased the farm where he now resides, on sec- 
tion 7. This was one of the first settled farms in the county, and the 
site of the first store ever opened in Holt County. He. first purchased 
160 acres in his home farm, and 80 in the timber. Subsequent to the 
war he bought 270 acres more, and now has 1125 acres of land, 680 of 
which are located in the upper part of the county. He has been engaged 
in general farming, and feeds considerable stock. He is one of the pros- 
perous citizens of the county, and enterprising and progressive in his 
disposition. He has also made the raising of fruit a specialty, and 
perhaps has one of the choicest orchards in the county. His display 
has not only taken the premium at the Holt County fairs, but the $200 
premium at the first grand exposition at St. Joseph, offered for the best 
display of fruit, and open to the whole state. The extent of his farming 
may be judged from the fact that in 1876 he raised 270 acres of corn, 
averaging from forty to fifty bushels to the acre ; 950 bushels of fall 
wheat, and 1,000 bushels of oats. He feeds generally from twenty-five to 
fifty head of stock and 100 head of hogs a season. In his political affil- 
iations he was formerly a Democrat, and in 1848 cast his first vote for 
Lewis Cass. In i860 he voted for S. A. Douglas, with the hopes that 
it would result in the election of Lincoln. He was a strong union man 
through the war, served several times in the militia, and since the war 
has been a decided Republican. He celebrated his silver wedding in 
April 1876, and on that occasion had a family photograph taken, in 
which appear Mr. and Mrs. Meyer and their nine children, all of whom 



FORRES TOWNSHIP. 253 

were living at home. The names of the children are : Jacob S., Julia 
A., May Alice, Daniel, Peter, Fanny Ellen, Solomon, Ida and Ada, the 
last two being twins. Mr. Meyer is a representative man, and his 
influence as such and as a christian gentleman, is felt wherever he is 
known. He has been a member of the German Methodist Church, at 
Oregon, for the last twenty years, as has also his wife. His father and 
mother are both buried in the Oregon cemetery. His daughter, Julia A., 
married John Blum, April 4, 1878, and died August 4, 1879. Jacob S. 
married Caroline Blum, December 22, 1880, and moved to Sweet Water 
County, Wyoming, where he has a sheep ranche. 

LINNVILLE MURRAY, 

section 9, was born in Indiana on the 9th of May, 1833, and is a son of 
Hanson and Eliza (Brunson) Murray. The former, a nurseryman by 
occupation, was a native of Virginia, and the latter of Indiana. Linn- 
ville passed his youth in learning the nursery business with his father. 
In 1869 he removed to Missouri, locating in Holt County, and now owns 
twenty-three acres of land, devoted to the raising of fruit and a nursery. 
Having been brought up in this industry he is well qualified forthe posi- 
tion, and now has 1,100 trees of various kinds, with different assortments 
of fruit, his transactions in this line being always honorable and just as 
represented. Mr. M. was married, in 1S53, to Mary Carroll; of Pennsyl- 
vania, daughter of James Carroll, Esq. They have a family of four chil- 
dren : Lee Annie, Maud, James E. and Campbell. He is a Presbyterian, 
and politically a Greenbacker. 

NICHOLAS FREMONT MURRAY, 

nurseryman and fruit grower, is the owner of 120 acres of land, and 
resides on section 9. Eighty acres of his farm are devoted to fruit pur- 
poses. He was born in Ohio County, Virginia, March 17, 1839, and was 
from boyhood a close student of books and matters pertaining to nursery 
and fruit culture. His father, Hanson Murray, was born August 11, 181 1, 
in Virginia, was a nurseryman by calling, and brought up his sons to 
learn the business. His mother was Eliza Brunson, born in Wayne 
County, Indiana, in 1815. They were married in 1832. Hanson Murray 
moved to Morgan County/Missouri, in 1863, and settled there, but find- 
ing the location not suitable for the cultivation of fruit, he sold out in 
1869, and came to this township, buying some land. He at once started 
a nursery, and continued the business very successfully until 1877, when 
he died, leaving his farm and nursery to his wife and children. Nicholas 
F., the subject of this sketch, married Miss Emily F. Whitham, in Ohio 
County, Virginia, November 6, i860. She died September 30, 1865, 



254 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

leaving one child, Jessie J., who is married to Charles Childers, in this 
county. Mr. Murray's second wife was Elizabeth J. Riggle, whom he 
married May 9, 1867, in Washington County, Pennsylvania. They have 
five children living : Joseph H., George R., Minnie May, Alberta and 
Norman F. In 1869, Mr. M. came to Holt County, bought a portion of 
his father's farm, on section 9, and commenced work setting out a large 
orchard of both apples and peaches, and since that time has been wholly 
engaged in fruit culture and his nursery. In 1 87 1, he lost his house and 
contents by fire. In 1876, his loss by grasshoppers was $4,000, which 
almost discouraged him, but his enthusiasm for the business knew no 
failure, so he again went to work. He has succeeded in establishing a 
reputation and knowledge of fruit culture second to none in the state. 
In November, 1879, the Murray Bros, took out a novel, and yet very useful, 
patent for protecting fruit trees. Perhaps no location can be found better 
adapted to all kinds of fruit, and a better climate and soil for raising 
trees. Mr. M. has not only established a fame at home for horticultural 
information, but his essays before the different horticultural societies 
are considered excellent authority. Politically he is a Greenbacker, and 
in religious views a Presbyterian. 

ROBERT PATTERSON, 

farmer and stock raiser, has 960 acres of land, and lives in section 4. He 
was born in County Donegal, Ireland, October 4, 1830, and came to this 
country with his father, settling where he now lives in 1842. In 1846, 
when at the age of sixteen years, he enlisted in Col. Powell's Battalion 
for the Mexican War, in Capt. Rogers company, of Savannah. They 
were engaged for eighteen months building forts. At the close of the 
war he received an honorable discharge and returned home. In 1852 he 
went to California and engaged in farming in the Suisun Valley, where 
he remained for four years, meeting with good success. He then came 
back to the old homestead, and on November 17, 1857, he married Miss 
Telitha Jane Kender, of Savannah, Mo. Her father was James Render, 
Esq., an honored pioneer and citizen of Andrew Co. By this happy union 
they have had ten children, nine of whom are still living : Alice, James 
W., Bailey H., Robert L., John H., Annie E., George, William and Charles. 
Kittie died in 1865. Alice was married to Louis F. Pointer, who died in 
October, 8, 1880, leaving one child, Lulu May. In 1852, previous to his 
brother John's journey to California, Mr. Robert Patterson bought the 
old homestead, and after his marriage he commenced improving it. In 
1858 he sold one of his quarter sections and bought one on the section 
where he lived, and has been making additions and improvements until 
now he has one among the largest and most valuable farms in Holt 
County. His residence, and the buildings connected, with his large 



FORBES TOWNSHIP. 255 

barn, are among the most desirable and convenient to be found any- 
where. His orchard of fine fruits of all kinds is worthy of more than a 
passing notice. He has 1,100 apple trees, 300 peach, etc., etc. Mr. P. 
has grown up in this neighborhood, and has done much by his labor and 
means to improve the county. His father, William Patterson, was born 
in the north of Ireland, in 1799, and was brought up a farmer, following 
that occupation on a large scale. Becoming satisfied that the great 
west was the place for his large family of children, he came to this 
country, in 1842, and settled in Forbes Township, pre-empting 160 acres 
on section 5. He only lived one year and a-half after this, when he died 
in the fall of 1844. Mrs. P. had died in the winter of 1842, very soon 
after arriving in America. Her maiden name was Catharine Lucas. 
She was born in the north of Ireland, and at the time of her death was 
fifty-five years old. They had nine children, Margaret, Phillip, Henry, 
Eliza, Blair, Isabella, Jackson, William G. and Robert. 

JOSEPH B. PROCTOR, 

deceased, was born in Cooper County, Missouri, December 22, 1822. 
His father was John Proctor, born in Kentucky, in 1800, and his mother 
was formerly Lydia Westbrook. Mr. P. came to Missouri in 1820 and 
settled in Cooper County, and at a very early day moved to this county, 
being one of the first to settle on the bottoms and make a farm. In 
1847 Joseph B. went to Oregon and remained a short time, and in 1849, 
when the gold fever broke out in California, he went there and remained 
two years. He came home, and the next year returned to the land of 
gold, staying one year. By this time he had secured enough money to 
buy 1 1 1 acres of his large farm, and commenced work, making many 
additions to his original purchase. He continued its improvement, 
erected a very large residence, and very few farmers were financially 
stronger than he. He had set out all kinds of fruit, and was preparing 
to pass the remainder of his life in comfort, when, in February, 1881, he 
died. He married Miss Elizabeth A. Minton, of Franklin County, Missouri, 
in 1855. They had five children, all of who are living : Elizabeth Jane, 
Sarah Ann, John H., William L., and Ruth A., who married Robert 
Victor Hudgins, of this county, June 6, 1 881. He was born in Ken- 
tucky, and afterwards came to this county, obtaining a good education. 
He has been employed for some time in teaching, and is now reading 
law, preparing for the practice of that profession. Mr. P. was a mem- 
ber of the Fourteenth Kansas Volunteer Infantry for two years durkig 
the war, and received an honorable discharge. He was a Republican 
and belonged to the Christian Church. The widow and sons are now 
conducting the farm; this is situated in section 36, and contains 440 
acres. 



256 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

JAMES W. RAMSAY, 

farmer and stock raiser, section 4, was born in Hancock County, Indiana, 
June 17, 1838, and in 1841 came to this county and township with his 
father, locating on the farm which the Murray brothers now own. He 
was brought up to hard work and enjoyed but little school advantages. 
May 6, 1862, he married Miss Sarah O. Jackson, of Oregon, the daughter 
of John F. Jackson, of this county, formerly of Fayette County, Penn- 
sylvania. Mr. J. was the third school commissioner of this county, and 
was a capable man and most efficient officer. Mrs. R.'s mother, whose 
maiden name was Nancy Cannon, was born in Pennsylvania, and now 
lives with her daughter, Mrs. Kreak. Mr. Jackson died May 13, 1862. 
Their family consisted of four children. John F., Mary B., Nancy E. and 
James O. Mr. Ramsey was in the state service for several months dur- 
ing the war. He afterwards rented a farm for three years, and obtained 
money enough to make the first payment on the farm where he now 
lives, and by great energy and good judgment on the part of himself and 
wife they have paid for the farm, built a good residence and made many 
improvements, now owning340 acres of land. Twenty years ago he com- 
menced a poor boy and has so managed his business that he now is one of 
the leading, successful and reliable men of this county. His orchard con- 
sists of 500 trees, with a variety of fruit. In politics he is a Republican and 
the family are Methodists. Thomas Ramsay, his father, was born in Penn- 
sylvania, in i8oi,and came to Indiana, where he settled and remained 
until he came to this state and township, in 1841. Here he improved a fine 
farm and did much for the opening of this new settlement. He married 
Miss Mary Beck, in Indiana, December 16, 1824. They had fourteen chil- 
dren, seven of whom are living : Mary Jane, Sarah E., Matilda, Panenah, 
James W., Roley T. and William H. Mr. Ramsay died June 13, 1878, and 
Mrs. R. September 15, 1872. No man among the pioneers of this county 
had more friends than Mr. R., he having been a friend to all. 

JOHN A. ROSS, 

merchant, was born in Harrison County, Ohio, January 25, 1853, and in 
1858 accompanied his father to Lawrence County, Indiana, there receiv- 
ing a good education. In the spring of 1870 he came to Holt County 
and worked on a farm one year, after which he was employed by Sheeley 
& Taylor as clerk. He remained as such for five years, when he formed 
a copartnership with George Meyer in the spring of 1875. This connec- 
tion existed until August, 1880, when George C. Smith, of St. Joseph, 
bought the interest of Mr. Meyer, and since that time the business has 
been conducted under the firm name of J. A. Ross & Co. Mr. Ross 
commenced here without a dollar, but his kindness of disposition and 



FORBES TOWNSHIP. 257 

strict integrity soon gave him hosts of friends. He has acquired a 
prominent position among the best business men of the county. His 
general stock of merchandise is large and complete. Mr. Ross married 
Lucretia Devorss, of this village, December 6, 1874. She was the 
daughter of Levi Devorss, one of the early pioneers of the county. 
They are rearing one boy, Bertie. 

HARRISON RUSSEL, 

deceased, was born in Clarke County, Ohio, July 22, 1822, and was the 
son of Robert and Winifred (Hinson) Russel, both natives of Kentucky. 
The father was a farmer by occupation, and Harrison spent his youth in 
working on the farm and in attending school. In 1852, he removed to 
Missouri, locating in Holt County, and here improved a fine farm of 255 
acres, in section 5, where his family now reside. During the war, Mr. R 
was a member of the state militia. He was Republican in his political 
views, and religiously a Methodist. August 2, 1852, he married Eleanor 
Vandivere, daughter of Arthur Vandivere, of Warren County, Ohio. 
They had three children : Arthur, born April 6, 1852 ; Alia J., born 
October 29, 1856, and Sidney M., born October 29, 1868. Mr. Russel 
died on the 8th of July, 1876. He was a man governed only by motives 
of right, a good neighbor and friend of all. He was very successful in 
his business, always managing it satisfactorily. At his death he left a 
good farm, which is being conducted by his son, Arthur, in an able 
manner. The latter is an industrious young man, and faithful in the 
the discharge of his duties. 

JOSIAH SPRINGER, 

deceased, was born in Butler County, Ohio, November 1, 1805. His 
father, Nathan Springer, a native of Pennsylvania, moved his family to 
Franklin County, Indiana, where he lived until 1845, when he came to 
this county and settled on the farm now occupied by his son. This was 
then an unfavorable looking site for a home, but by hard work and cul- 
tivation Mr. S. made a productive farm, and his improvements com- 
pared favorably with the majority of the best farms of the county. He 
married Miss Julia Ann Lympus in Fayette County, Indiana, February 
7, 1828. She was born in Butler County, Ohio, March 30, 181 1. Of 
this union there are nine children living : Martha, Nathan L., Jonathan, 
Phoebe Price, J. Squear, Julia Linley, Mary L. Gardner, Wilson Riley, 
and William A. Mr. Springer died April 4, 1861. In politics he was a 
Republican, and belonged to the Christian Church. Mrs. Springer's 
father was of English origin and her mother of German descent. Mr. 
Springer was one of a few who during life did good to all and made 

17 



258 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

society and the world with which he came in contact better for his hav- 
ing lived. His son, William A. Springer, was born April 23, 18S4. He 
was married December 25, 1879, to Miss Laura Dooley, of Oregon. 
They have one child, Elsie, born April n, 1881. They both belong to 
the Christian Church. Politically he is a Republican. He has pur- 
chased the homestead of 200 acres in section 6, is taking care of his 
mother and is one of the progressive, intelligent young farmers of the 
county. 

WILLIAM STEPHENSON 

was born in Culpeper County, Virginia, in March, 1789. His father was 
a native of Ireland, and his mother of France. In June, 1840, he moved 
to Holt County, Missouri, with his family of fifteen children, and settled 
in section 7, on the farm where his son John now lives. He was a very 
stout, athletic man, and one honored by the pioneers of this county. 
He was democratic in politics, and a member of the Baptist Church. 
His marriage occurred in Virginia, in 1813, to Margaret Troutman, 
daughter of Peter Troutman, of German origin. They had fifteen chil- 
dren : Luvisa Baldwin, Blank S., Peter, Susanah, wife of George Baxter, 
who was the first tailor in Oregon, William, John F., Alexander, Marga- 
ret A. Hindman, Nancy J. Hindman, James, Michel A., Eliza, Rebecca 
Collins, Sarah Hutton and Rachel Price. Mr. and Mrs. S. were the 
parents of the first settlers of Holt County, and died on the place which 
was first settled by Peter, their son, in 1838. Mr. S. died in 1842, and 
his wife in 1864. 

JOHN STEPHENSON, 

farmer and stock raiser, is the owner of 1,030 acres of land, his residence 
being on section 7. He was born in Bond County, Illinois, August 16, 
1825, and came to Missouri, locating in this county and township, and 
on his present farm, in June, 1840, his brother, Peter, having settled on 
the claim in March, 1838. The latter had come here with another 
brother by the name of Blank, who settled on an adjoining claim, which 
George Meyer now owns. These two brothers were the two first settlers 
of Holt County. In 1846, John enlisted in Company C, of General 
Price's regiment, and went into the Mexican war, remaining in service 
until the war closed, a period of some eighteen months, and was with 
General Fremont for a portion of the time. On his return home he pur- 
chased a farm and improved it. In March, 185 1, he married Miss Mar- 
garet Russel, daughter of John Russel, one of the earliest pioneers of 
the county. They have six children : George S., Robert S., Tresa, 
Dora E., Bertha L. and Anna Lee. In 1863, he bought the old home- 
stead of his brother, Peter, who then moved to Dade County, Missouri. 
Mr. John Stephenson now has one of the best farms of its class in the 



FORBES TOWNSHIP. 259 

county. Everything is conducted in good shape, and he farms on a 
large scale. Few men there are, indeed, who commenced life with 
nothing, and who have accumulated such a competency. He is reliable 
in his transactions, and is worthy of the position he occupies. In poli- 
tics he is a Democrat, and in religion a Universalist. 

WILLIAM D. TAYLOR, 

section 17, was born in Coshocton County, Ohio, on the 19th of January, 
1816, and was the son of William Taylor, a tanner by occupation, and a 
native of Hampshire County, Virginia. His mother, whose name before 
her marriage was Casander Davidson, was born in Clarksburg, Virginia. 
When William was an infant his father died, and his mother marrying 
again, he was brought up by his step-father, working hard and receiving 
but a limited education. On October 25, 1843, ne came to Missouri, and 
the same day located in Holt County. He was an early settler here, and 
passed through many hardships in opening a farm. He formerly owned 
the land where Forbes is located, and now possesses considerable bot- 
tom land adjoining the village, his landed interests altogether consisting 
of 640 acres. He is a leader among the agriculturists of this neighbor- 
hood. His farms are well improved, and he has a good residence. The 
orchards upon his own and his son's farms, contain 1,400 trees. Mr. T. 
started in life poor, but by hard labor has gained a fortune. His mother 
came from Ohio and lived with him for several years, when, in 1870, she^ 
died. He has been three times married : First, in Hampshire County, 
Virginia, in 1837, to Hannah Taylor, who died in 1844, leaving two 
children, Casander and Daniel B. In 1845 he was married in Hardin 
County, Virginia, to Nancy Jane Jones. She departed this life in 1859. 
Of this union there are six children : John E., Mary, Sarah M., Sattara, 
Rovvena and Barbara. Mr. T.'s third marriage occurred in i860, in this 
county, to Margaret Vaughn. Barbara was married to James Cordy, 
who lives at the homestead and works the farm. Politically is demo- 
cratic, and belongs to the Protestant Methodist Church. Mr. Taylor 
tells a snake story, which is vouched for by the old settlers and those 
acquainted with the facts. One day in early spring he discovered a den 
of rattlesnakes, together with other varieties, some being very large. 
Procuring a club he killed three hundred, and the next morning visited 
the place and disposed of fifty. Some time afterwards he found a coil 
as large as a half-bushel measure, and killed these also. 

ADELBERT G. YOUNG, 

physician and druggist, was born in Kankakee County, Illinois, April 10, 
1852. His father, John D. Young, was born in Terre Haute, Indiana, 
and was a farmer by calling. His mother, whose maiden name was Cor- 



26o HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

intha Enos, was born in Ohio. A. G.'s youth was spent in Iowa, where 
he received his education, at Wittensburg academy, of Jasper County. 
In December 1869 he came to Buchanan County, Missouri, and was 
engaged for several years as a successful teacher. He studied medicine 
with Dr. C. F. Knight, of St. Joseph, and was graduated from the Hos- 
pital Medical College, of St. Joseph, in February, 1880. In 1877 he settled 
in Forbes, taught the school there for several terms, and subsequently 
started the drug business, also soon having a large and successful prac- 
tice. He is a member of the Northwestern Medical Society, of Missouri, 
and belongs to the Masonic Lodge of Oregon. He is a Democrat in 
politics. Dr. Young married Miss Laura E. Larkin, of St. Joseph, 
October 24, 1878. She was a daughter of B. F. Larkin, for many years 
a contractor and builder in St. Joseph. Mrs. Young died April 2, 1881, 
leaving one child, which soon after died. Mrs. Young left a large circle 
of friends to mourn her loss. The Dr. is quite studious and determined 
to keep pace with the advancement of medical science. 




CHAPTER XI. 

HICKORY TOWNSHIP. 

HICKORY TOWNSHIP-BOUNDARIES— EARLY SETTLERS— NICKOLS GRAVE-FIRST SCHOOL 
HOUSE— FIRST PREACHER-FIRsT PHYSICIAN, ETC.— FIRST MILL— DUNKARD 
CHURCH— NEW POINT — CHURCH —WATER — SHORT HORNS —ORCHARDS— BIO- 
GRAPHICAL. 

BOUNDARIES. 

On the 17th day of June, 1874, the present municipal division of 
Holt County, known as Hickory Township, was created. Its limits, which 
had been previously included in the southern part of Clay and in the 
northern part of Nodaway Township, are thus described in the record of 
its organization : 

" Commencing at a point where Oiler's Base Line intersects the Nod- 
away River, thence west on said line to the southwest corner of section 
35, township 61, range 38, thence north on section line dividing sections 
34 and 35, up to and passing along line dividing sections 2 and 3 to the 
township line dividing townships 61 and 62, thence due east on the town- 
ship line until it intersects the Nodaway River to the place of begin- 
ning — said township to be known as Hickory Township, and place of 
voting to be Fairview School House." 

It is bounded on the north by Clay Township, on the east by Andrew 
County, from which it is separated by the Nodaway River, on the south 
by Nodaway and Lewis Townships, and on the west by Benton Town- 
ship. 

EARLY SETTLERS. 

We have already stated that the first settlers of Holt County, Peter 
and Blank Stephenson, arrived in the spring of 1838, and established 
themselves in what is now Forbes Township, near the present lines of 
Lewis and Nodaway Townships; and, further, on excellent authority, that 
jon the arrival, with several others, in the fall of the same year, of R. H. 
(Russel, present judge of the Probate Court of Holt County, these two 
brothers were the only white settlers living west of the Nodaway River. 
It appears, however, that there is a difference of opinion touching the 
correctness of the latter statement, it being contended by some that 
about the period of the arrival of the Stephensons, or immediately sub- 



262 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

sequent thereto, three brothers by the name of Nickols had crossed the 
Nodaway and effected a settlement in a locality to which they gave the 
present accepted name of Nickols Grove, in the southern part of what is 
now Hickory and extending southwards into the northern part of the 
present Nodaway Township. It is probable that the period elapsing 
between the arrivals of the two bands of settlers was very brief, and that 
they were for some time afterwards ignorant of each other's presence in 
the country. 

At some time during the year 1838, it is generally conceded, Robert 
Nickols, the pioneer, arrived from Virginia and settled on the northeast 
quarter of section 33, township 61, range 37, near the northeast corner of 
which now stands the flourishing hamlet of North Point, one of the most 
prosperous and active business centers of its size in this country. This 
quarter section is now owned by J. Ruhl and others. 

NICKOLS' GROVE. 

Nickols' Grove, in the immediate vicinity of the village, lies along 
the waters of Nickols' Creek. The main body of the timber is in the 
southeast corner of the township and extends, as before stated, into Nod- 
away Township, to the southward. That portion of the grove lying in 
Hickory includes an area equivalent to about two and a half square miles, 
and abounds in some of the finest specimens of the valuable timber pecu- 
liar to this section of country. With the exception of occasional groves 
of smaller extent most of the territory included within the limits of Hick- 
ory Township is prairie. Robert Nickols, shortly after, induced his 
brothers, Frank and John, his mother and his brother-in-law, J. Kelley, 
to move to and settle in this section of country. John Nickols died of 
cholera, on his way to California in the early days of the gold fever. 
Emigration from the older states and settled portions of Missouri flowed 
to the neighborhood of the Stephenson settlement, six or seven miles 
farther south, but it was some time before these early settlers of the 
Grove, of whom A. C. Bevan was also one, had any neighbors. In 1840, 
Isaac Long, from Ohio, settled in the neighborhood. Hiram Schotzer 
and Zach Winkler, both from Pennsylvania, arrived in the neighborhood 
and there settled between 1840 and 1845. These both subsequently I 
moved to California. John B. Ish came in an early day to the neighbor- 
hood, from Saline County, Missouri, whither he afterwards returned and j 
where, if still living, he continues to reside. He settled the magnificentl 
farm adjoining New Point, and now owned by John G. Cowan. Among 
others also came Cain Owens, from Kentucky, and Jacob Ham, a Ten- 
nesseean, who had come to the settlement from Saline County. Both 
are dead. In 1845, Thomas S. Bragg, Esq., a native of Virginia, who had 
moved to Harrison County, Kentucky, came to Missouri, in 1845, and 



HICKORY TOWNSHIP. 263 

settled the splendid farm on which he now resides, in the neighborhood of 
New Point. This farm was settled by Hiram Shartzer, in 1843. In the 
same year, also, came Andrew Pope and Lapsley Embree, from Lincoln 
County, Kentucky. The former now (1882) resides in Clay County, Mis- 
souri. The latter died in Arkansas, in 1880. Daniel Hudson, from 
Pulaski County, Kentucky, who died some years ago, was also a well- 
known citizen of Holt County. He came to the neighborhood in 1845. 
With the exception of Thomas S. Bragg, Esq., all the above men- 
tioned are either dead or have moved away. Among other old settlers 
may be mentioned Michael and James DeBolt, John, Joseph and Noble 
Hodgins, Robert Morris and Captain Peter Price 

FIRST SCHOOL HOUSE. 

The first school house built within the limits of what is now 
Hickory Township was a rude frame building, erected in the year 1846. 
It stood on the southeast quarter of section 29, township 61, range 37, 
on a farm now owned by John G. Cowan. The first who taught in this 
building was a man by the name of Elmer, a New Yorker by birth. 
This primitive temple of the muses has long been numbered with the 
things of the past, and its memory scarcely survives in the minds of the 
remaining few who had any personal knowledge of its existence. 

FIRST PREACHER. 

The first to preach the gospel in this locality was the Rev. Jacob 
Bird, of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He began his labors there in 
1845. His field was in that early day an extensive one ; and, though 
church edifices by the members of his denomination were early created 
in other parts of the county, no building was ever put up by them within 
the bounds of Hickory Township. In that day of sparse population 
almost any ordinary cabin was sufficiently commodious for the demands 
of the small congregations who assembled to hear the occasional 
expounders of the Word ; and, as population increased, the shady 
groves afforded, in the summer season, shelter for the camp meetings 
which constituted, in that day, a prominent feature in the religious life 
of the early settlers. 

The first of these assemblies to occur in this locality was held in 
the summer of 1857, on a farm occupying section 32, township 61, range 
37. at that time the property of Esquire Bragg, but now (1882) owned 
by his son-in-law. The presiding elder at this meeting was the Rev. 
Mr. Ashby, assisted by the Rev. W. Naylor, and other itinerant minis- 
ters. These assemblies continued for many years after to maintain 
their popularity. In 1877, 1878 and 1879 largely attended camp meet- 
ings were held on section 33, township 61, range 37, in Nickols Grove. 



264 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

FIRST PHYSICIAN, ETC. 

The first physician to locate in the Grove was Dr. Dozier, who 
settled there in 1845. He was formerly from Andrew County. Pre- 
vious to that period, however, Dr. Norman, the pioneer physician of the 
county, and Dr. W. W. Wittington, from Andrew County, had extended 
their practice to the settlements in and about Nickol's Grove. 

The first blacksmith to pursue his calling in what afterwards became 
Hickory Township, was Henry Honaker, a native of Virginia. He com- 
menced business in 1854, in a shop which he had put up on the north- 
west quarter of section 9, township 61, range 37. Mr. Honaker was a 
Southern sympathizer, and, in consequence of his opinions, was assas- 
sinated in the spring of 1863. 

THE FIRST MILL. 

The first mill in the township was a small concern with one pair of 
burrs, built by John N. Blair, for Robert Nickols, about the year 1839 or 
1840. It was a water power, and stood on the northwest quarter of sec- 
tion 34, township 61, range 37, about one-half mile east of the site of the 
present village of New Point. The only grain ground at this mill was 
corn. It continued to be operated till 1857. There is now (1882) no 
mill within the limits of Hickory Township. 

The first ferry on the Nodaway River which had a landing on the 
shore of what is now Hickory Township, was established and maintained 
for several years by a man by the name of Lackey, from Andrew County. 
The landing of this ferry was on a farm now (1882) owned by Samuel 
Praisewater, near the line between the southeast quarter of section 27, 
and the southwest quarter of section 26, township 61, range 37, about 
one-half mile north of the site of the present town of New Point. Henry 
DeBolt afterwards kept a ferry on southwest quarter of section 27, town- 
ship 61, range 37, about one-half mile above the old ferry, before i860. 
This latter was about 1861. Both have long passed out of existence. 

The first to plant fruit trees in Hickory Township was Esquire 
Thomas S. Bragg, who planted an apple orchard on his farm, which lies 
in section 32, township 61, range 37, in the immediate neighborhood of 
New Point. This pioneer orchard, which included about fifty trees, was 
planted about the year 1847. Some of the finest orchards in the county 
are now growing in Hickory Township. 

The erection of church edifices is a recent enterprise in Hickory 
Township, though religious organizations have existed there from the 
earliest settlement of the county. The first ecclesiastical structure put 
up in the township was the Dunkard Church, near the southwest corner 
of the northwest quarter of township 61, range 31, near the west line of 
the township. 



HICKORY TOWNSHIP. 265 

DUNKARD CHURCH. 

On the northwest quarter of section 14, township 61, range 38, 
within the limits of Hickory Township, and near the dividing line 
between it and Benton Township, is a neat frame church building, thirty- 
five by fifty feet area, with an extension sixteen feet square. This is 
popularly known as the Dunkard Church. It was built in 1874 by Levi 
Kauffman and Isaac Zigler, contractors, assisted by other workmen. Its 
cost was about $1,800. The congregation was organized as a church in 
February, 1872, with the following members, thirty-six in number : A. 
J. Correll and wife, Joseph Glick and wife, Samuel Glick and wife, Joel 
Glick and wife, Jonathan Andes and wife, Isaac Zigler and wife, Joseph 
Kauffman and wife, Levi Kauffman and wife, William Griffith and wife, 
James Judy and wife, David Keller and wife, John Shamberger and wife, 
John H. Miller, Joseph Hilderbrand, Susan Andes, William G. Andes, 
Jane Parmer, Mary Hilderbrand, Mary Kauffman, Mrs. Susan Glick, 
Isaac Wampler and wife, Anna Andes and Solomon G. Snell. This 
organization is styled Bethel, and the name of the meeting house Beth- 
lehem. Of the above named organizers, in the language of one of their 
ministers : " Some have gone to their reward while others have moved 
to other countries, until of the original members scarcely one half now 
(1882) remain identified with the congregation." The church is pros- 
pering abundantly, and increasing in numbers. In May, 1878, the con- 
gregation divided, and a large number being in Nodaway County, a 
church was there organized. The church in Holt County has no organ- 
ization other than Bethel, of which there are, at present, five ministers, 
viz : John H. Miller, Joseph Glick, Joel Glick, Peter E. Whitmer and 
Reuben Keller. The organization includes some of the best citizens of 
Holt County. 

The first election of officers held in Hickory Township occurred 
November 3, 1874, and resulted in the choice of Thomas Wright and W. 
S. Allen as justices of the peace, and Robert Hester, constable. The 
only town and post office in Hickory Township is 

NEW POINT. 

The town is located near the west side of the northwest quarter of 
section 33, township 61, range 37. A portion of the village also lies in 
the east part of the northwest quarter of the same, the half section line 
passing along the center of the principal street. The south limits of 
the village extend to the waters of Nickol's Creek, the principal stream 
ol the township. The town was first started by L. D. Barnes, the 
founder of the town, and the pioneer merchant of the place, who com- 
menced selling goods there, in a building which he had erected for that 



266 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

purpose, in 1869. In 1875, in consequence of another of the same name 
having been previously established, the name of the town and post 
office, which had originally been called Grant, was changed, and the 
present style, New Point, was substituted therefor. About the same 
period, Jerry Stultz started his blacksmith shop, the first established in 
the place. He still operates it. 

In 1871, B. F. Wilson, the present (1882) druggist, originally from 
the State of Indiana, established the first and only drug store in the town. 
In the same year, James Barnes started a wagon shop. He continued to 
manufacture till 1876, when he sold out to his brother, C. F. Barnes, who 
continued the business till 1880, when he sold to E. S. McDonald, the 
present wagon maker. Mr. Barnes then, in partnership with Joseph R. 
Collison, purchased, under the firm name of Barnes & Collison, the good 
will and stock in trade of the pioneer merchant, L. D. Barnes, and have 
since continued to conduct the business at the old stand. 

In 1872, B. F. Chandler started a blacksmith shop in New Point. 
This, in 1876, he sold to J. B. Coffin, the present smith. In 1874, John 
P. Ruhl, started a millinery establishment in the place. During the fol- 
lowing year, he added, in an adjoining room, a stock of general mer- 
chandise. Both these enterprises he continues to pursue. 

The first boot and shoe shop in the village was started by Davis 
Brodbeck, in 1878. He was succeeded in this business by H. Armack, 
after whom came the present boot and shoemaker, William Kunkel. 

In 1876, Aaron Cole opened a general stock of merchandise. In 
the following year, he sold out to his brother, G. W. Cole, who contin- 
ued the business till 1880, when he sold to the present proprietor, A. 
Swartz, a native of Ohio, and went to work at the carpenter's trade. 

Frederick Meister and Ulrich Burger, under the firm style of Meister 
& Burger, started in 1875, a general store, which they conducted till the 
spring of 1881. They now run a tin shop in New Point. G. W. Cole 
and John Lautz are the carpenters of the place, the latter having been 
ten years in the business there. 

The first physician to locate at New Point was Dr. William Parrish, 
who settled in the town in 187 1. He moved away in 1874, and was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Bryson, who, in turn, was succeeded by Dr. Reeves. On 
retiring, Dr. E. W. Burtch established himself in the practice of medi- 
cine. He was succeeded by the present physicians of the town, Dr. 
James Ashworth and Dr. J. R. Kearney. The latter is a native of Ohio, 
and a graduate of the Medical College of St. Louis and of Bellevue Hos- 
pital Medical College, New York. 

There is no school within the limits of the town of New Point. 
Nickols' Grove District School, however, is only about three-quarters of 
a mile distant, in a northwesterly direction. 



HICKORY TOWNSHIP. 267 

CHURCH. 

New Point contains one of the neatest and most elegantly appointed 
country churches in the state. It is the property of the Old School 
Presbyterians. The building is a gothic frame, thirty feet front by forty- 
five feet deep, and is crowned with a belfry. The windows are of stained 
glass of elegant design, and the whole presents a very attractive appear- 
ance. The interior appointments of the church are even more elaborate 
than the external finish, and are strikingly neat and harmonious in their 
proportions. A handsome organ and elegant chandeliers are included 
in the same. The edifice was completed in October, 1877, at a cost °f 
about two thousand dollars, largely through the liberal aid of John G. 
Cowan, who donated the ground on which it stands. 

New Point Presbyterian Church was first organized in Cowan's 
School House, near New Point, on the 2d day of September, 1872, and 
styled Hope Church. The Rev. Robert Cruikshanks, D. D., conducted 
the organization, and preached the first sermon. The Rev. N. H. Smith, 
first pastor of the congregation was also present. The following mem- 
bers composed the original organization : John G. Cowan and Mary 
E. Cowan, his wife, B. O. Cowan, Mrs. Elizabeth Gresham, John Meyer 
and wife, V. L. and Hannah Graham, William and Sarah Coburn, 
and Samuel G. Park. The first officers elected were Elders John 
G. Cowan and John Meyer. The congregation continued to worship in 
Cowan's School House, from the period of their organization in 1872, up 
to the period of the completion of the church edifice, in October 1877. 
In November, 1877, the dedication services of the church were conducted 
by the Rev. Duncan Brown, of Mound City. The pastors in charge of 
the church from its origin to the present time have been as follows : 
Rev. N. H. Smith, September, 1872 ; Rev. J. O. Pierce, June, 1876 ; Rev. 
George Miller, October, 1876 ; Rev. W. E. Williamson, D. D., January, 
1882. 

WATER. 

Hickory Township is a well watered, sufficiently timbered, and 
an excellently improved district of the county. The principal streams 
of the township are Nickols Creek and Hickory Creek. The former is a 
stream of occasionally sufficient volume to afford mill power. This 
stream debouches into Nodaway River, near the northwest corner of the 
southeast quarter of section 27, township 61, range 37. Nearly parallel 
with this, and about two miles north, is Hickory Creek, flowing also in 
a southeasterly course, and emptying into Nodaway River on the south- 
east quarter of section 22, township 61, range 61, on land owned by 
Hershner Brothers. The mouth of this stream is about three-fourths of 
a mile due north of the mouth of Nickols Creek, and about one mile by 



268 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

the winding of the river. Hog Creek, in the extreme northern part of 
Hickory Township, flows in an easterly direction towards the Nodaway, 
forming a swamp or lake near the banks of that stream, and known as 
Lovelady Lake. Kimsey Creek rises in the northwestern part of Hickory 
Township, in section n, township 61, range 38, and flows about two 
miles south and west into Benton Township. Innumerable springs and 
spring branches abound, affording ample stock water in all parts of the 
township. 

SHORT HORNS. 

John G. Cowan, the pioneer short horn breeder of the Platte Pur- 
chase, and the owner of several valuable farms in Holt County, resides 
in the immediate vicinity of New Point. His home place, which 
includes 617 acres, is one of the best improved in the country. In the 
fall of 1842, he moved from Kentucky, his native state, to Lafayette 
County, Missouri ; thence, in 1843, to Andrew County, Missouri. In 
1858 he settled in the neighborhood of Graham, in Nodaway County. 
In March, 1866, he moved to Holt and settled on his present home, in 
what is now Hickory Township, on the farm formerly owned by John B. 
Ish. His residence stands on the southwest quarter of section 28, town- 
ship 61, range 37 west. There are several fine apple orchards on this 
farm. The one adjoining the lawn of his residence contains a number 
of trees unequaled in size in the state, several of them measuring from 
six to six and a half feet in girth, and containing in their trunks and 
branches not less than two cords of wood. These giant trees are uni- 
form and strikingly symmetrical in appearance, and produce immense 
yields of some of the finest varieties of fruit. The feature, however, 
for which this farm is especially noted is the magnificent herd of Short 
Horn Durham cattle always found here. In 1868, Mr. Cowan made his 
first importation of this valuable breed of live stock from Kentucky. 
The year previous to this he had imported a short horn bull from Illi- 
nois. The bull which he brought from Kentucky in the winter of 1868 
and 1869 was Knight of Saint George, registered in A. H. B., No. 8,473, 
and bred by William Duncan, of Illinois. In 1870 he brought fifteen 
head of these cattle from Ohio. In 1872 he purchased for the sum of 
three thousand dollars of William Warfield, of Lexington, Kentucky, 
the celebrated bull, Loudon Duke the Sixth, 10,399 A. H. B. For 
this splendid specimen, which weighed 2,300 pounds, he afterwards 
refused four thousand dollars, and subsequently four thousand five hun- 
dred dollars. Wherever exhibited he took premiums. These places 
of exhibition included all the principal fairs in Missouri, as well as the 
state lairs of Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, and Nebraska. 
The premiums which he took in his lifetime, amounted in number to 
upwards of fifty. His numerous progeny were scarcely less noted as 



HICKORY TOWNSHIP. 269 

premium takers. Prominent among these was Loudon's Minnie, a red 
heifer, which was exhibited at the Centennial in Philadelphia, and was 
awarded the gold medal. 

Loudon Duke- the Sixth, died April 14, 1881, at the age of eleven 
years, and was buried in his lot. From the pioneer herd started by John 
G. Cowan, many of the best herds in the west have derived their origin. 
His present (1882) herd includes between sixty and seventy head of 
thoroughbreds, at the head of which is Bel Duke of Thorndale, A. S. H. 
R., 8148, assisted by Loudon, Jr., A. S. H., 8888. B. O. Cowan, second 
son of the pioneer breeder, has been associated in the Short Horn busi- 
ness with his father since 188 1. 

There is in Hickory Township another herd of Short Horns. This 
includes about twenty-five head, the property of Esquire Bragg, above 
referred to. They were purchased from the Hamiltons, of Kentucky, at 
their sales in Kansas City in 1879 and 1880. 

ORCHARDS. 

Nearly every farm in Hickory Township has its apple orchard. 
Grapes and other fruits also abound. Not a few farmers here, as in 
neighboring townships, manufacture several barrels of Concord wine 
yearly, for their own use. The largest apple orchard in Hickory is on a 
farm owned and occupied by John W. Davis, including the southwest 
quarter of section 9, township 61, range 37. 

The Lackey road, which ran through Hickory township, was that 
part of a main traveled highway, which led from Jackson's Point (now 
Mound City) to Lackey's Ferry, on the Nodaway, and was on the line 
of the great thoroughfare leading from St. Joseph to Council Bluffs. 
Lackey's Ferry was established by Andrew Lackey, and has since been 
\ called the Thrailkill Ferry, and subsequently the Praisewater Ferry. 
Lackey afterwards located a short distance below the ferry and estab- 
lished a trading post and saloon, which was frequented by nearly all the 
1 trappers who ranged through the upper country. 



270 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 



^-BIOGRAPHICAL.^ 



JAMES ASHWORTH, M. D., 

was born on the 12th of July, 1849, m England, and was the son of 
Robert and Hannah (Fletcher) Ashworth, who were also natives of that 
country. James received a liberal education in England, and for about 
six years previous to coming to the United States, he was engaged in 
book keeping. In 1869, he landed on American soil, and subsequently 
studied medicine under Dr. Cavanaugh, of Lamar Station, an early 
practitioner of Nodaway County, after which he attended the Medical 
College of Cincinnati. From this institution he was graduated in medi- 
cine and surgery in 1878. Dr. A. first commenced the practice of his 
profession in Nodaway County, but soon came to Holt County and set- 
tled at New Point, where he now has a large and increasing patronage. 
He was married May 1, 1872, in Nodaway County, to Louisa Campbell, 
daughter of H. D. Campbell, Esq. T.he doctor is independent in politics, 
and is a member of the Christian Church. 

ALLEN T. BLOOMER, 

section 29, was born in Fayette County, Ohio, November 8, 1828. His 
father, Joseph, was born in Virginia, but moved to and was one of the 
leading men of Fayette Co., Ohio, he having served as sheriff for four 
terms. He lived to be seventy-two years of age, dying at his residence, 
in that county, in 1859. Allen's mother, formerly Mary McDonald, was 
a native of Ohio. Young Bloomer spent his youth on his father's farm, 
and attended the common schools. In 1855, he removed from Ohio to 
Illinois, where he resided until November, 1865, when he came to Holt 
County. He located near where he now resides, and at this time (1882) 
is the owner of 365 acres of land, upon which is an orchard of 150 
apple and 150 peach trees, besides cherries, pears and plums. Mr. B. 
devotes considerable attention to the raising of Short Horn cattle and 
Poland China hogs. He was married August 12, 1852, in Fayette 
County, Ohio, to Mary Baker, daughter of Watson Baker. She is a 
native of Ohio. They have three children : Joseph W., born May 16, 
1853 : Lida (wife of Dr. J. R. Kearney, of New Point,) born October 3, 
1858, and Ada, born June 25, 1870. Mr. B. is Republican in politics. 



HICKORY TOWNSHIP. 2J\ 

WILLIAM COBURN, 

section 30, a leading farmer of this township, was born October 6, 1831, 
in Warren County, Ohio, his parents, John and Zilphia (Sayres) Coburn, 
both being natives of that county. In 185 1 the family moved to Shelby 
County, Indiana, but after remaining for two years, located in Minnesota. 
There they made their home for thirteen years, and in the spring of 1868 
came to Holt County. The subject of this sketch passed his earlier 
days on the farm, and in attending the common schools. He now owns 
240 acres of land, upon the same there being a good bearing orchard of 
140 apple and 500 peach trees, besides other fruit. Mr. Coburn has 
some graded cattle, and devotes much attention to feeding stock. Dur- 
ing the war, for two years, he was a member of the Second Minnesota 
Cavalry. In his political views he is Republican, and is a member of 
the Presbyterian Church. Mr. C. was married October 5, 1853, in Miami 
County, Indiana, to Sarah E. Vandoren, daughter of Jacob Vandoren. 
She is a native of Preble County, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. C. have eight 
children : Martha E., (now Mrs. Peter Comer) born October 16, 1854 ; 
Nellie F., (wife of Robert Emmerson) born April 19, 1857; Alvin, born 
April 6, 1859; William V., born March 31, 1865 ; Susan V., born January 
26, 1868 ; Ralph L., born March 10, 1871 ; M. Roberta, born November 
20, 1874, and Cora M., born February 15, 1877. 

JOHN G. COWAN, 

farmer, stock feeder and breeder of Short Horn cattle, section 6, was born 
in Pulaski County, Kentucky, June 21, 1820, and was the son of William 
G. and Sarah (Gilmore) Cowan, who were natives of Virginia. The 
former was a farmer by occupation, and John was reared on a farm in 
his native county, although he received a very limited common school 
education. In 1842, he removed to Lafayette County, Missouri, and to 
Andrew County in 1843. In 1858, he went to Nodaway County, and in 
1865, came to this (Holt) County, and since that time has lived on the 
place where he now resides. This consists of 620 acres, and on the farm 
is an orchard surpassed by none in this neighborhood. For three or four 
months during the war he served in the State Militia. He is a member 
of the Masonic order, and belongs to the Presbyterian Church. Mr. 
Cowan was married in Andrew County, Missouri, November 20, 1844, to 
Mary E. Gresham. She was the daughter of Mr. William Gresham, and 
was reared in Lincoln County, Kentucky. The family of Mr. and Mrs. 
C. consists of: Charles, born May 22, 1849; Bryant O., born January 2, 
1852; John F., born October 26, 1856; Flora C. (wife of E. H. Messen- 
ger, of this township) born February 17, 1859; Caroline, born April [3, 
1861 ; Robert G., born May 8, 1863, and Daisy Irene, born July 13, 1870. 
Mr. C. is Democratic in politics. 



2 72 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 



4 



JOHN M. CRIDER, 

section 25, a leading agriculturist of this vicinity, was born July 3, 1835 
and is a native of Franklin County, Pennsylvania. His father, Jacob, 
was born in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania. In 1841 the family moved 
to Cumberland County, and there John was brought up on a farm, 
although unable to pass but a few months of each year in attending 
school. In April, 1869, he left there and removed to Holt County, Mis- 
souri, where for two years he rented a farm near Oregon. In 1871 he pur- 
chased and moved upon his present place, which embraces 140 acres of 
valuable and well improved land. His orchard contains 125 apple, 100 
peach, besides cherry, pear and plum trees. In 1864 he entered into the 
military service, and served until the close of the war. He was wounded 
while in action before Petersburg and participated in numerous smaller 
engagements. He is Republican in politics. Mr. C. was married Jan- 
uary 16, 1862, in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, to Hannah K. Gel- 
vin, of Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Mr. and Mrs. C. have six chil- 
dren : Vinson G., born February 13, 1867 ; Elmer J.,- born December 21, 
1870 ; Bertie M., born April 17, 1873 ; Sarah A., born June 6, 1875 ; John 
W., born October 16, 1877 ; David M., born May 19, 1880. He is a mem- 
ber of the United Brethren Church. 

HIRAM E. DENNY 

was born in Washington County, Indiana, June 5. 1849. His father, 
Thomas G. Denny, was a native of Mercer County, Kentucky, and his 
mother, whose maiden name was Jane Hobbs, of Washington County, 
Kentucky. Hiram's early days were passed on the farm and in clerking 
in a dry goods store. He received a common school education and in 
1861, with the family, moved to Moultrie County, Illinois. August 27, 
1861, he entered the army, becoming a member of the Fifth Illinois 
Cavalry, and served until the close of the war. In October, 1862, he was 
taken prisoner by Hindman's forces near Old Town, Arkansas, and con- 
fined a short time. He was discharged November 2, 1865. After this 
he came to Boone County, Missouri, where he resided for two years, 
and in 1867, he located in Holt County. Since then Mr. Denny has 
been engaged in the saw mill and lumber business, operating a thresh- 
ing machine during the fall of the year. He owned and ran the first 
steam thresher in the county in 1870. During the winter season he 
devotes his time to teaching vocal music, and as an instructor is a 
decided success. He is a member of the Christian Church, and polit- 
ically is a Republican. 

JOHN A. GOODHART, 

section 4, was born in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, September 29, 
1843, and was the son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Chisnell) Goodhart, both 



HICKORY TOWNSHIP. 273 

natives of Pennsylvania. John was reared on a farm, for some time 
attended the district schools and afterwards entered the graded or high 
school of Richland County, Ohio, where he received a liberal education. 
In 1856 the family moved to Richland County, Ohio, and the subject of 
this sketch came from there to Holt County, Missouri, in the spring of 
1874, an d for eight years has resided in this neighborhood. Since his 
arrival here Mr. G. has been engaged in farming, stock raising and feed- 
ing, and has also worked at the carpenter trade. He owns 120 acres of 
good land, and an orchard of 150 apple and 400 peach trees, besides 
cherries, and 200 grape vines. At the general election of 1878 he was 
elected justice of the peace for Hickory Township. He is independent 
in politics, and a leading member of the Methodist Church. October I, 
1868, Mr. Goodhart was married in Richland County, Ohio, to Minerva 
Buckingham, daughter of David Buckingham, Esq. She was born in 
that county. Mr. and Mrs. G. have two children : Clara May, born May 
16, 1872, and Oliver C, born July 10, 1876. 

ANDREW J. GWINN, 

farmer and feeder and shipper of live stock, section 6, was born in Saline 
County, Missouri, September 19, 1839. His father, M. C. Gwinn, was a 
native of Virginia, and his mother, whose maiden name was Mary A. 
Thrailkill, was a Tennessean by birth. The youth of A. J. was spent on 
a farm in Saline County, he obtaining his education in the common 
schools. August ?i, 1878 he removed from Saline to Holt County, and 
now owns 160 acres of land with a choice orchard of no apple, 60 peach 
and other fruit trees. During the war he was a member of Company F. 
Second Missouri Cavalry, of the Confederate army, and remained in 
service for three years. He was in the battles of Pea Ridge and Prairie 
Grove, besides numerous skirmishes. Mr. Gwinn was married May 22, 
1870, to Lucy A. Ham, daughter of Adam Ham, Esq. She was reared 
in Saline County. The family of Mr. and Mrs. G. consists of: Mary, 
born March 30, 1871 ; Minnie, born September 9, 1872 ; Jessie, born 
May 13, 1874; Otis, born February 28, 1876 ; Florence, born August 24, 
1878, and Robert, born November 22, 1880. Politically, he is a Demo- 
crat, and his religious preferences are with the Christian Church. 

ANDREW J. HAM, 

farmer, section 20, was born in Saline County, Missouri, April 2, 1823, 
his parents being Jacob and Margaret (House) Ham. The former, a 
native of Kentucky, was a farmer by occupation, and Andrew passed his 
time on a farm at his birthplace until he was twenty-three years of age, 
acquiring a common English education. May 1, 1845, he landed in Holt 

18 



274 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

County, Missouri, and has lived continuously in one neighborhood for 
thirty-seven years, and on his present place for twenty-four years. This 
farm consists of 225 acres, and upon it is an orchard of 200 peach and 90 
apple trees. He is a member of the Christian Church. Mr. Ham was 
married August 12, 1855, to Catherine Thrailkill, who was born in Saline 
County, but principally brought up in Grundy County, Mo. Her father 
was Mr. William Thrailkill. Their family consists of five children : Bel- 
din, born January 13, 1858 ; John, born December 25, 1859 ; Thomas W., 
born August 4, 1866; Robert C, born February 29, 1868, and Lizzie, 
born March 8, 1870. Mr. H. is democratic in his political views. 

JOSEPH HODGINS, 

section 17, a leading agriculturist and citizen of Hickory Township, is a 
native of Washington County, Indiana, and was born October 5, 1835. 
His father, Joseph Hodgins, was born in North Carolina, and his mother, 
formerly Mary Gordon, was a Kentuckian by birth. Joseph was reared 
as a farmer and was educated in the common schools. In October, 
1854, when but nineteen years old he left his native county and came to 
Holt County, having only enough money to pay the necessary bills on 
his journey. After his arrival he worked by the month for some time, 
but for twenty-three years past he has lived on his present farm. This 
contains 365 acres of fine land, with a good bearing orchard of no apple, 
200 peach and forty cherry trees. Mr. H. has improved this place him- 
self, and has gained what property he now owns by labor, economy and 
his industrious habits. For three years during the war he served in the 
State Militia. He is a member of the Christian Church and politically 
is a prominent Republican. Mr. H. has been twice married ; first, Octo- 
ber 23, 1859, to Harriet E. Lawrence. His second marriage occurred 
May 31, 1874, to Susan E. Denny, daughter of Thomas E. Denny. Mr. 
Hodgins has a family of four children : Melissa J. (wife of Jacob Kline), 
born March 31, 1861 ; Theodore E., born October 17, 1864; Nellie C, 
born February 6, 1877, and Joseph E., born August 28, 1879. 

JOHN HORNECKER, 

section 35, was born in Baden, Germany, December 4, 1826, and is the 
son of Jacob and Anna M. (Adolph) Hornecker, who were natives of 
Germany. John's earlier days were passed in his native country, work- 
ing on a farm and in a vineyard ; his education was obtained in the com- 
mon schools. In 1853 he came to the United States and spent his first 
winter in this country in St. Louis, Missouri. During the following spring 
he came to Holt County, and for three years resided in the southern part 
of the county, after which he purchased his present and now valuable 



HICKORY TOWNSHIP. 275 

farm of 164 acres, in Hickory Township. Upon this he has since lived, 
devoting his time to stock raising and farming. His orchard con- 
tains 200 apple, 50 peach and some cherry trees, besides a vineyard 
of 200 grapes. Mr. Hornecker was married in Germany, July 22, 1849, 
to Mary E. Schorb. They have four children : George L., born April 
23, 1850: Jacob, born November 23, 1856 ; Mary L., born December 24, 
1859, and John, born January 14, 1871. Mr. H. is a member of the Ger- 
man Methodist Church, and in politics is Republican. 

JOHN R. KEARNEY, M. D., 

was born January 27, 1856, in Andrew County, Missouri. His father was 
a native of Knox County, Ohio, and his mother of Boone County, Mis- 
souri. When quite young John entered a printing office at Falls City, 
Nebraska, to learn the trade of printer. He also began to study medi- 
cine under the tutorship of Dr. W. W. Shaw, of that city, though really 
at that time not much more than a boy, and continued under his instruc- 
tion for six years. From Falls City he went to Ohio, where he worked 
on a farm in order to obtain sufficient money to enable him to take his 
first course of lectures. He attended the Louisville Medical College, 
and after leaving that institution he subsequently entered the St. Louis 
Medical College, from which he graduated in March, 1877. He also 
graduated from the Bellevue Hospital College in 1881. Dr. Kearney 
has worked his own way through life, and is entitled to great credit for 
the manner in which he has built up his successful practice. In July, 
1877, he commenced practicing his profession at New Point. Politically 
he stands independent. The doctor was married in Mound City, Mis- 
souri, July 4, 1879, to Miss Lida Bloomer, daughter of Allen Bloomer, of 
this township. They have one child, Elmer Frank, born April 22, 1880. 
He is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

JOHN KEASTER, 

farmer and plasterer, section 25, a native of Union County, Pennsylvania, 
was born November 11, 1835. His father, Benjamin, was also born in 
that state, and was a farmer by occupation. His mother, Elizabeth 
Keaster, was from the same state. The youth of John Keaster was passed 
on the farm in Union County, his education there being obtained in the 
common schools. In April, 1849, n ' s parents immigrated to Wayne 
County, Ohio, residing there for eighteen months, when they moved to 
Illinois. John left home in 1855, and learned the plasterers trade, which 
he followed for sixteen years. In June, 1857, he came to Holt County, 
Missouri, and has since been a resident of this vicinity. His estate con- 
sists of 196 acres, with an orchard of 196 apple trees and a variety of 



276 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

peaches, cherries, plums and pears. During the war Mr. K. served nine 
months in the State Militia, being a member of Company F, Fourth Mis- 
souri. He is Republican in politics. October 28, 1856, he was married, 
in Mitchell County, Iowa, to Sarah J. Brown, a native of Indiana. Her 
father was George Brown, Esq. They have six children : Elizabeth A. 
(wife of Thomas Cooper, of this township), born April 27, 1859 ; George 
T., born February 23/1862 ; Ulysses G., born August 30, 1866 ; Amanda 
C, born September 11, 1864 ; Edwin, born February 8, 1872 ; Flora L., 
born January 1, 1874. 

MARTIN KEIFFER, 

farmer, section 25, was born in Rockingham County, Virginia, January 
19, 1819, and was the son of George and Catherine (Armantrout) Keiffer, 
the former of Maryland and the latter of Virginia. Mr. Martin Kieffer 
moved to Saline County, Missouri, in 1837, and to Mercer County in the 
spring of 1841. He resided there until 1857, when he came to Holt 
County, in the spring of 1858. He now owns 120 acres of land, and his 
orchard contains 83 apple, 100 peach, and other fruit trees. Mr. Keiffer, 
as was his father, is democratic in politics. He was married February 
21, 1839, to Jane Mullins, daughter of David and Rebecca (Robison) 
Mullins. Mrs. K. was born and raised in Cooper County, Missouri. 
They have six children : George R., born October 23, 1845 ; Pleasant 
M. and Paris J., born August 23, 1847 ; Samuel B., born May 2, 185 1 : 
Rebecca (wife of F. Meadows), born November 9, 1853, and Franklin, 
born June 19, i860. His religious preferences are with the Missionary 
Baptist Church. 

EDWARD KNEALE, 

farmer, section 2, is a native of Missouri, and was born in Andrew 
County, July 31, 1855. His father, James, was born on the Isle of Man, 
and his mother, whose maiden name was Ruth A. Wickham, was from 
Ohio. The subject of this sketch spent his youth on a farm, mostly in 
Holt County, and attended the common schools during the winter. In 
i860 the family went to Kansas, where they resided some five years, 
returning to Holt County in 1865, and settling in Nickols' Grove, Noda- 
way Township. Mr. Edward Kneale moved upon his present farm some 
two years ago. This contains 80 acres of fine land, and he makes a 
specialty of breeding fine Poland China hogs. There is a good orchard 
on the place. Mr. K.'s religious preferences are with the Methodists. 
He was married in Holt County, December 3, 1877, to Lizzie Bunty, a 
daughter of Michael Bunty. Mrs. K. is a native of New York State. 
They have two children : Maggie C, born August 16, 1879, and Martha 
E., born September 6, 188 1. He is a Republican in his political 
views. 



HICKORY TOWNSHIP. 27/ 

ezra s. Mcdonald 

is a native of Richland County, Ohio, where he was born on the 4th of 
December, 1840. His parents were Daniel and Lydia S. (Woodward) 
McDonald, the former of Tennessee and the latter of Ohio. Ezra 
remaine d on a farm until he was sixteen years of age, when he learned 
the carpenters' trade. He was educated in the common schools of his 
native state, and in 1862 left there and went to Detroit, Michigan, where 
he worked at his trade for one year, after which he returned to Ohio. 
In March, 1868, Mr. McDonald came to Holt County, Missouri, and has 
resided in the vicinity of New Point since that time, working at his 
trade. In September, 1880, he embarked in the wagonmaking and 
repairing business at New Point, succeeding Mr. Barnes, and has built 
up a good trade. He is Democratic in politics, and at the last general 
election he was elected justice of the peace for Hickory Township. 
February 6, 1868, he was married in Richland County, Ohio, to Martha 
Ruhl, who was born January 12, 1850, in Ohio. She is the daughter of 
William Ruhl, Esq. Mr. and Mrs. McDonald have four children : 
Luther E., born August 21, 1869; Jennie L., born December 30, 1871; 
Herbert J., born December 31, 1873, and Mattie Orie, born March 16, 
1880. Mr. McD. is a member of the Odd Fellows' fraternity. 

EDWIN H. MESSENGER, 

section 4, is a native of Clarion County, Pennsylvania, and was born 
November 6, 1853. His father, Alonzo Messenger, was born in the State 
of New York, and in 1856 the family moved from Pennsylvania to Stark 
County, Ohio. After residing there two years they moved to northern 
Indiana, and two years later located in Michigan. Remaining in that 
vicinity some six years, they again moved, this time to Whiteside County, 
Illinois, where the father, Alonzo, died. The subject of this sketch, with 
his mother, went to Richardson County, Nebraska, and after a six years 
sojourn there, removed to Stephens' Point, Wisconsin, and two years 
afterward came to Holt County, Missouri, in 1878. Edwin passed some 
of his time on a farm, but was principally in a lumber yard. He 
received a liberal education, attending the Nebraska Normal School and 
Highland College for about two years. Since coming to the county Mr. 
M. has been engaged in farming, and raising and feeding cattle. He 
has 240 acres of land, an orchard of 200 apple, 100 peach, and some 
cherry trees. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church. November 
21, 1878, Mr. Messenger was married in Holt County to Flora B. Cowan, 
daughter of J. G. Cowan, of this township. They have one child, Elta 
C, born August 13, 1879. He is Republican in his political views. 



278 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

JAMES H. MEYER, 

farmer, section 13, was born in Holt County, Missouri, December 31, 
1853. His father, Andrew Meyer, was born in Germany, and his mother, 
formery Mary B. Sechrist, was a native of Pennsylvania. James received 
a liberal education in the common schools of this county, also at the 
graded school of Oregon, and at Kirksville, Missouri. He has been one 
of the successful teachers of Holt County, and now has a fine farm of 
140 acres, with a good orchard of 160 apple trees, and other varieties of 
fruit. Upon his place are some Short Horn cattle and Poland China hogs. 
The senior Meyer was a Democrat, and the son has since continued to 
advocate the principles of that party ; his religious preferences are with 
the Protestants. October 21, 1875, Mr. Meyer was married to Fannie 
L. Poynter, daughter of Judge William H. Poynter. She was raised in 
this county. They have three children : William Andrew, born July 
1, 1876 ; Ralph M., born February 1, 1878, and Logan A., born May 12, 
1880. Mr. M. is a member of the Good Templar fraternity, and also of 
the Grange. 

ROBERT MORRIS, 

section 21, one of the well to do citizens of this township, was born Sep- 
tember 10, 1820, in Sussex County, New Jersey, and was the son of 
William and Mary (Merion) Morris, both natives of that state. The 
former was born September 15, 1787, and is still living, a man well pre- 
served in years. Robert was brought up on the farm, and received his 
primary instruction in the common schools. For two years he attended 
the graded schools of Knox County, Ohio, thereby receiving a liberal 
education. In the fall of 1843, he returned to New Jersey, and after 
seven years removed west and spent two years in Ohio, Michigan and 
Wisconsin. In the spring of 1852, he went to California, by way of 
Central America, and remained in that state for seven years, devoting 
three years to mining, and four years to farming in the valleys. In 
1859, he went back to New Jersey, and stayed with his father for one 
year. In March, i860, Mr. Morris came to Holt County, and has since 
been a resident of this neighborhood. He has a fine farm of 430 acres, 
and a good orchard of 140 apple trees. He makes a specialty of feeding 
cattle for market. June 2, 1863, he was married in Holt County, to 
Penina Ramsay, daughter of Thomas Ramsay, Esq. She was born in 
Indiana, November 14, 1837, but was principally reared in this county. 
Mr. and Mrs. Morris have five children: Governor, born July 16, 1864; 
Robert E., born December 14, 1867; John R., born January 5, 1870; 
Anna R., born March 2, 1873, an d R- Oakley, born December 6, 1879. 
He is Republican in politics. 



HICKORY TOWNSHIP. 279 

JACOB A. OREN, 

a leading tiller of the soil in this locality, was born in Randolph County, 
Indiana, October 26, 1844. His parents, Ephraim and Elizabeth (Fra- 
zier) Oren, were both natives of Ohio. Jacob passed his youthful days 
on the farm, and in attending the common schools in Indiana. In March, 
1865, he came from Randolph County to Holt County, and, in February, 
1869, moved upon his present farm, containing 320 acres of well-improved 
land, there being upon the place a good orchard of 500 apple, 200 peach, 
and choice cherry, plum and pear trees. He is greatly interested in feed- 
ing stock and has some thorough-bred Short Horn cattle and Poland- 
China hogs. Mr. O. was reared as a Quaker, and his religious prefer- 
ences are with that denomination. He was married in Holt County, 
Missouri, August 22, 1868, to Angeline Pollock, a native of Indiana and 
a daughter of David Pollock, Esq. They have two children : Rosa Lee, 
born April 6, 1872, and Ida Belle, born December 7, 1874. Politically 
Mr. Oren is a Republican. 

SAMUEL G. PARK, 

section 5, was born in Fleming" County, Kentucky, December 29, 1838, 
his parents being John H. and Elizabeth (Shanklin) Park, the former a 
native of Berkley County, Virginia, and the latter of Jessamine County, 
Kentucky. In 1849 the family moved to Brown County, Ohio, where 
they resided until April, 1877. Samuel G. passed the greater part ol his 
younger days on the farm, and attending the common schools. In the 
spring of 1877, he came to Holt County, Missouri, and since that time 
has been engaged in farming. His landed estate embraces 160 acres in 
cultivation, and he has an orchard of 100 apple and other fruit trees. 
Upon his place is some good graded stock. During the war he served 
in the One Houndred and Seventy-second Ohio Infantry. Mr. Park was 
married in Independence, Missouri, March 3, 1870, to Rachel Yocum, a 
native of Ohio, and a daughter of Mr. Franklin Yocum. Mr. and Mrs. 
Park have two children : Fred. W., born January 31, 1872, and Lee H., 
born August 21, 1874. Mr. P. is Republican in politics, and a member 
of the Presbyterian Church. 

JOSEPH T. PATTERSON, 

section 5, was born November 24, 1844, a native of Perry County, Ohio. 
His father, James, was born in Hampshire County, Virginia, and his 
mother, formerly Tacy A. McFarland, in Loudoun County, Virginia. 
The family left Perry County and moved to Franklin County, Ohio, 
where they resided some three years, and while living here Joseph wit- 
nessed the laying ol the first stone for the foundation of the present 



28o HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

State House at Columbus. They next removed to Vinton County, set- 
tling near McArthur, the county seat. After a residence there of twelve 
years, Holt County, Missouri, became their home. The subject of this 
sketch passed his youth at hard labor on the farm and also attended the 
common schools for a time, after which he commenced the study of 
medicine at Columbus with his brother, Wm. Patterson, a leading prac- 
titioner of that place. After pursuing his studies for twelve months he 
enlisted in the fall of 1863 in the Sixty-third Ohio Infantry. He was in 
the service for two and a half years, and was discharged May 27, 1865, 
having participated in several engagements, among which were the 
battles of Marietta, siege of Kenesaw Mountain, Resaca, and numerous 
skirmishes. He was in one engagement at Decatur, Alabama, before 
having obtained his uniform. Mr. Patterson was in the hospital at 
Rome, Georgia, for three months, detained bv sickness, and during two 
months was unconscious. He was afterwards transferred to the hospital 
at Columbus, Ohio, and was ward master for a short time. After being 
mustered out he attended school at the Athens University for two terms, 
and later took a commercial course at Columbus. He then went to 
Virginia and was in the employ of the Capital City Oil Company as 
engineer and superintendent. After one year he returned to Pickaway 
County, Ohio, was engaged in teaching and from there he came to Holt 
County, Missouri, in October, 1867. Since that time he has taught in 
the schools of Andrew, Nodaway and Holt Counties for ten years, and 
for six years resided in Nodaway County conducting a farm and teaching. 
As an instructor he is very successful. He now has a farm of 90 acres 
with an orchard upon the place. Mr. P. was married in Nodaway 
County February 13, 1873, to Mary Ann Southwell, daughter of Wm. 
Southwell, of Maryville. They have three children : Jesse L., born 
November 14, 1875 ; William James, born February 27, 1878, and Don 
Lester, born August 20, 1881. Mr. P. is a Republican. 

SAMUEL PRAISWATER, 

a native of Tennessee, was born on the 23d of November, 1829, is the 
son of George and Tempa (Wood) Prais water, both of whom were born 
in North Carolina. Samuel was brought up on the farm, passing a few 
months of the year in attending school. In 1852 the family removed to 
Indiana, and from there he came to Andrew County, Missouri, in 1856. 
After residing there for ten years he moved across the Nodaway River 
into Holt County. Mr. Praiswater has all his life been engaged in till- 
ing the soil, and is now one of the prominent and successful farmers of 
this township. His landed estate embraces 520 acres, with a young 
orchard of 200 apple trees and other smaller fruits. He makes a 
specialty of feeding cattle, and has some good graded stock. During 



HICKORY TOWNSHIP. 2&I 

the war Mr. P. served in the State Militia, and has always been promi- 
nently identified with the interests of the Republican party. In June, 
1852, he was married in Tennessee to Susan Nease. They have a family 
of seven children : George W., born March 28, 1853 ; Timothy, born 
December 15, 1854; Benjamin F., born December 30, 1856;. Mary, born 
September 11, i860; William, born March 2, 1862; Frances, born 
March 19, 1867, and John, born March 10, 1872. Besides these, who are 
living, three children are deceased. 

JOHN P. RUHL, 

a leading merchant of New Point, was born in Richland County, Ohio, 
March 17, 1839. His father, Levi Ruhl, who was a farmer, was born in 
Baltimore County, Maryland, and his mother, whose maiden name was 
Mariam Painter, was from Virginia. John P. grew up on the farm at 
home and attended the common schools of Richland County. July 7, 
1856, he came from there to Holt County, Missouri. In i860 he com- 
menced farming and, after tilling the soil for fifteen years, he engaged in 
merchandising, at New Point, in 1875. Since that time he has been car- 
rying on the business and has established a good trade. He also owns 
and conducts a farm. During the war he served in the State Militia. 
Mr. Ruhl was married in Holt County, Missouri, March 7, 1867, to Belle 
Cable, daughter of John Cable, Esq., and a native of Ohio. They have 
four children : Minnie O., born December 19, 1867 ; Jordan E., born 
March 7, 1869 ; Edwin E., born March 3, 1876, and an infant daughter, 
born January 15, 1882. Mr. Ruhl is a member of the Presbyterian Church, 
and politically is a Republican. 

A. SCHWARTZ 

was born in Morrow County, Ohio, in 1856, and is the son of Henry and 
Rebecca (Lentz) Schwartz, who were both natives of Pennsylvania. In 
1863, the family moved to Williams County, and there the subject of 
this sketch resided for four years, after which, in the spring of 1877, he 
came to Holt County. Mr. Schwartz spent his youth on the farm, and 
attended the common schools of Morrow and Williams Counties. After 
becoming of age, he learned the carpenter's trade, and worked one year 
at this business after coming to Holt County. In May, 1878, he com- 
menced the merchandise business at New Point, and has established a 
successful trade. He was married January 22, 1880, at New Point, to 
Miss Ella Marion. Mr. and Mrs. S. have one child, Edith Belle, born 
August 20, 1881. Mr. S. is politically a Democrat. 

WILLIAM SHIELDS, 

farmer, was born in Randolph County, Indiana, July 7, 1837. His par- 
ents were John Shields, a farmer by occupation, and a native of North 



282 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Carolina, and Deborah (Coffin) Shields, a Virginian by birth. William 
Was principally raised in Washington County, on a farm, and received a 
common school education. In 1865 he removed to Holt County, Mis- 
souri. During the year 1864 he served in the war, and in the last year 
was in Company A., Thirtieth Indiana Infantry. He was in the battles 
of Franklin and Nashville, Tennessee, and also participated in numerous 
skirmishes. He now owns 81 acres of land in section 29, but resides in 
section 4, and has an orchard of 275 apple trees. Mr. Shields, as was 
his father, is Republican in politics. He was married April 1 1, 1861, to 
Elizabeth Goodson, who was born and raised in Washington County, 
Indiana, and was a daughter of Joseph Goodson, Esq. Their family con- 
sists of eight children living : Ransom, born February 12, 1863 ; Sher- 
man, born April 1, 1866 ; Dora, born December 29, 1868 ; Cora, born 
January 17, 1870 ; John S., born January 15, 1872 ; Jonas, born October 
2, 1875 ; Daisy, born January 12, 1877, an d an infant son, born October 
2, 1881. Mr. S is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

JOHN Q. TRIMMER, 

farmer, section 18, was born February 3, 1835. and is a native of Warren 
County, New Jersey. His father, William Trimmer, and his mother, 
formerly Nancy Gulick, were both born in New Jersey. John passed his 
youthful days on a farm, and also on the Lehigh and Morris Canal, learning 
the blacksmiths' trade. He was educated in the common schools of his 
native state, and in 1854 went to the gold mines of California by way of 
Central America. He was there for four years, including five months 
spent on Vancouver's Island, and while in the Rocky Mountains he lost 
his hat and traveled one hundred miles on foot, bareheaded, carrying 
seventy pounds weight. In i860 Mr. Trimmer came to Missouri, and 
for four years resided in Harrison County. In March, 1869, he came to 
Holt County, and now has 120 acres of land, with an orchard of 250 
apple, 100 peach, and cherry and plum trees. He is a Republican in 
politics, and during the war he was in the State Militia. Mr. T. was 
married in the winter of 1859 to Mary E. Merrin, a daughter of John 
Merrin. She was born and reared in Knox County, Ohio. They have 
four children : Mary L., born May 14, 1863 ; Ora B., born November 29, 
1864; John W., born February 11, 1872, and Robert Q., born April 8, 
1875- 

JOHN M. TRIMBLE, 

farmer, section 13, was born in Staunton, Augusta County, Virginia, 
August 8, 1835. His parents, Charles D. and Sarah (Hoover) Trimble, 
were both natives of Virginia, the former being a farmer of Augusta 
County. In October, 1857, they removed from Virginia to Holt County, 



HICKORY TOWNSHIP. 283 

Missouri. John was brought up on a farm, and now owns 130 acres of 
land, with a bearing orchard of 240 apple, 300 peach and other fruit trees. 
Politically the senior Trimble was a Whig and the son is now a Demo- 
crat. He has been twice married and the last time his marriage occurred 
March 11, 1875, to Loma A.Boyd, who was born and raised in Ohio. 
She was a daughter of B. F. Boyd, Esq. They have a family of four 
children : John B., born December 23, 1875 ; Lizzie R., born August 3, 
1877 ; Edna M., born December 7, 1879, an d an infant son, born October 
31, 1 S3 1 . Mr. T. is a member of the Masonic fraternity. 

ALEXANDER VAN BUSKIRK, 

section 25, was born in Andrew County, Missouri, November 17, 1849. 
His father, E. VanBuskirk, who is one of the leading attorneys of the 
county, was a native of Richland County, Ohio, and his mother, whose 
maiden name was Eliza Hart, was born in the same state. In 185 1 the 
family removed from Ohio to Oregon, Holt County, Missouri. The sub- 
ject of this sketch spent his youth mostly at school and attended the 
high school at Oregon. He also took a course of study at the St. 
Joseph Commercial College. Mr. VanBuskirk has been one of the 
leading teachers of the county, having taught the high school at Oregon 
and others. He now owns a good farm of eighty acres, and has a young 
orchard of apple, peach and plum trees. In politics he is Democratic, 
and religiously is a member of the Presbyterian Church. October 12, 
1871, Mr. VanBuskirk was married in Holt County to Charlotte V. 
Cummins, daughter of George Cummins. She was born in Crawford 
County, Ohio, but came to Holt County in 1865. They have two chil- 
dren : Carrie, born November 19, 1872, and Rebecca J., born March 29, 
1875. 

WILLIAM WRIGHTMAN, 

section 14, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, February 5, 1846, and is the 
son of John and Rebecca (Blow) Wrightman, who were both natives of 
England. William attended school at Cincinnati until he was thirteen 
years of age, when, in August, 1859, the family removed from Ohio to 
Forest City, Missouri. During the war he served for two years and fif- 
teen days in Company D, Fourteenth Kansas Cavalry, and was in the 
skirmishing service. He now owns 100 acres of land, an orchard of 
100 apple and a few peach, cherry and plum trees, but makes a specialty 
of feeding and fattening cattle for market. He has ever voted the 
Republican ticket, and is an ardent supporter of the principles of that 
party. Mr. W. was married March 3, 1867, to Henrietta Noland, a 
native of Holt County, and a daughter of A. J. Noland, Esq. Mr. and 
Mrs. W T rightman have two children: James M., born December 30, 1867, 



284 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

and William, born September 7, 1871. He is a member of the Metho- 
dist Church. 

BENJAMIN F. WINSLOW, 

druggist, New Point. The subject of this sketch was born April 28, 1842, 
in Washington County, Indiana, and was the son of B. and Sarah (Draper) 
Winslow, both natives of Indiana, the former having been born in Wash- 
ington County. His grandparents were from North Carolina. B. F. 
Winslow received a common school education, attending school during 
the winter and working on the farm in the summer months. He was in 
service for three years during the war, being a member of Company F, 
Sixty-sixth Indiana Infantry, in Sherman's command. He was in numer- 
ous engagements, among which were the battles of Buzzard's Roost, 
Snake Creek Gap, Lookout Mountain, Atlanta, Savannah and in minor 
skirmishes, having some narrow escapes. In August, 1866, Mr. Winslow 
came from Indiana to Holt County, Missouri, and for three years was 
engaged in farming! He subsequently embarked in the drug business, 
and was the first to start a store of this kind at New Point, but since that 
time has received a liberal patronage. He is Republican in politics. 
Mr. Winslow was married in Washington County, Indiana, January 27, 
1867, to Ruth A. Trueblood, daughter of Milton Trueblood, and a native 
of Indiana. Mr. and Mrs. W. have two children : Nora Belle, born 
August 19, 1869, and Frederick Newton, born December 10, 1872. 




CHAPTER XII 

LINCOLN TOWNSHIP. 



BOUNDARIES — PHYSICAL FEATURES— EARLY SETTLERS— HEMME'S LANDING-CORNING 
— TARKIO VALLEY BRANCH— MILLS AND ELEVATORS— NEWSPAPERS— BUSINESS 
DIRECTORY-BIOGRAPHICAL 

Lincoln Township, in the northwest corner of Holt County, consti- 
tutes the smallest municipal division of the same ; its entire area includ- 
ing not more than twenty square miles. Its territory was erected into 
the township of Lincoln, March 22, 187.1. Its outline is somewhat 
peculiar, suggesting the idea of a carpenter's square. It is bounded on 
the north, in a distance of six miles and a half, by the line of Atchison 
County ; on the east and south by Union Township ; and on the west by 
the state of Nebraska, from which it is separated by the Missouri River, 
by the encroachments of which the territory of the township bordering 
on this stream has been, since the organization of the county, reduced 
fully a mile in its northwest corner. 

The territory of Lincoln Township was formerly included in what 
was, for a short period in the early history of the Purchase, known as 
Allen County, though subject to the jurisdiction of the Holt County 
court ; and it was not until the organization of Atchison County, that it 
enjoyed the rights and privileges of a municipal division of Holt. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

The surface of Lincoln Township is generally level bottom land, 
not more than six square miles being included in the uplands. The Big 
Tarkio enters this township from Atchison County, about the center of 
the north line of the northwest quarter of section 21, township 63, range 
40, on a farm owned by J. VanGundy, and flows in an exceedingly ser- 
pentine course, bending into the northeast quarter of section 20, but 
flowing generally in a southeasterly direction through section 28, in the 
southern portion of which it enters the northeast quarter of section 33, 
in Union Township. • 

Shulte Lake, supposed to have been formerly the bed of the Mis- 
souri River, is a narrow strip of water in the form of a horse shoe, 
lying chiefly in section 8. It is about three and a fourth miles west of 



286 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

i 
Craig. Northeast of Corning one mile is a small lake at the foot of the 
bluff. This is known as Bertram Lake. Sharpe's Grove extends from 
the neighborhood of Craig a considerable distance into the eastern 
portion of this township. 

EARLY SETTLERS. 

The first white man to locate in what is now Lincoln Township, 
was John Henry Roselius, the father of Henry Roselius, now (1882) a 
representative citizen of the county. He was a native of the Kingdom 
of Hanover, and settled in the year 1841 on section 36, township 63, 
range 41. This pioneer met his death by a stroke of lightning. In the 
following year came Henry Dankers, the father of Henry A. Dankers. 
Henry Peters and Andrew Buck also came about the same period, and 
effected settlements in the same locality. Between the early part of 
1843 and the middle of 1844, came Henry Hemme, John Ahrens, and 
Henry Evers. In 1845 Conrad H. Walter arrived in the country and 
settled on section 25, township 63, range 41. This farm has long since 
disappeared in the bed of the Missouri River, which now flows over its 
site. In 1846 Henry Bertram settled in the neighborhood of the river. 
In the following year came James Thompson. Robert Hawke, another 
well known settler, arrived in 1848, and Thomas Lowell in 1852. These 
all settled in the neighborhood of what was once known as Hemme's 
Landing. Joseph Waits settled the first farm on Big Tarkio Creek. 
This is on the northeast quarter of section 21, township 63, range 40. 
It is now kown as the Volman farm. 

The first saw-mill of any importance in Lincoln Township was 
operated by Bruce Earl, now (1882) a prominent drug merchant of 
Corning and Judge of the Holt County Court. He moved this mill 
from the bottom in Bigelow Township, and erected it at a point two 
miles southwest of Corning in 1873. In the fall of 1879 this enterprise 
was discontinued. During Judge Earl's management of this business 
in the Missouri River bottom timber, he sawed up and shipped to 
market over ten million feet of native lumber. 

The first blacksmith to locate within what is now Lincoln Township 
was David Bertram. He settled in a very early day at the foot of the 
bluffs, just a mile north of the present town of Corning. 

The first church edifice erected in Lincoln Township was, and now 
is, the property of a German organization, known as St. John's Evangel- 
ical Lutheran Church. The building is a frame, thirty by forty feet in 
extent, and was completed in the fall of i860, at a cost of $1,500. It 
stands on the farm of Henry Roselius, on the northeast quarter of sec- 
tion 1, township 62, range 41, about half a mile from the Missouri River. 
The organizers of this church were C. H. Walter and wife, Henry Dan- 
kers and wife, and Henry Roselius, Sr., and wife. The first minister oi 



LINCOLN TOWNSHIP. 287 

this church was the Rev. Mr. Messalsky, of Nebraska. He was succeeded 
in 1867, by Rev. C. A. Nolte. August 13, 1870, Rev. F. W. Scholz, the 
present (1882) minister, took charge of the church. Professor Scholz 
also teaches a private German school in Corning. The present member- 
Ship is about twenty-five, a large proportion of the congregation having 
in 1879, withdrawn to organize the church in Union Township, on the 
Vanderschmidt farm, west of Craig. 

HEMME'S LANDING. 

The first attempt to start a town in this part of the county was 
inaugurated by Henry Hemme, another Hanoverian, who settled in the 
country in 1844. This settlement, which was known as Hemme's Land- 
ing, was about two miles west of the site of the present town of Corning. 
Its site is now within the limits of the State of Nebraska, and the Mis- 
souri River flows within three-fourths of a mile of Corning, and consid- 
erably to the eastward of the spot where the old town once stood. At 
one time Hemme's Landing was one of the most important trading 
points between St. Joseph and Council Bluffs. The first merchant who 
sold goods at the landing was David Greer, who commenced business 
there in 1845. He was shortly after succeeded by Henry Hemme, who 
in 1847, gave place to Vernile Thompson. In 1848, Robert Hawke 
bought out Thompson. The Hawkes and Dillon for many succeeding 
years carried on an extensive business at this point. They finally moved 
to Nebraska City, having sold out to Thompson. Thompson subse- 
quently sold out to Roland & Co., who, in 1861, moved their goods to 
Rock Port, in Atchison County. In 1849, Thomas & Lowell had opened 
a store a short distance below, on the river bank. In 185 1, John F. Low- 
ell succeeded to the business. He afterwards sold to J. F. Taylor, and 
others, of St. Deroin. In 1862, E. W. Holly, of St. Joseph, bought out 
the concern. Adrian Hoblitzell succeeded him in 1864, and, a short 
time after, Conrad Grab became by purchase the owner of the store. By 
this time the encroachments of the river threatening the entire destruc- 
tion and obliteration of the place, most of the inhabitants left, taking 
with them their buildings, some of which now stand in the town of Corn- 
ing. Grab, however, strong in the faith, hung on till almost the last 
moment, and finally, in the fall of 1868, moved eastward to the site of 
what is now the town of 

CORNING. 

This town, the most northern of Holt County, and less than one 
mile south of the line of Atchison County, was laid out in the fall of 
1868. Its original site occupies the northwest quarter of the northeast 
quarter of section 30, township 63, range 40. Martin's Addition, adjoin- 



288 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

ing on the north, was laid out in the spring of 1869 by Horace Martin, 
Esq., late of Crawford County, Ohio, a gentleman of distinguished 
scientific attainments, and long an honored member and colaborator of 
the Smithsonian Institute of Washington, D. C, and observer in the 
employ of the United States Signal Service. Mr. Martin was one of the 
earliest settlers of the town of Corning, having lived in the same since 
the month of October, 1868. The site of the town, which is in the bot- 
tom, about two miles westward of the bluff, is 893 feet above the level of 
the sea. It is 119 miles from Kansas City, 51 from St. Joseph, and 77 
miles from Council Bluffs. During the period of the late flood, to which 
full reference is made in the sketch of Craig, Corning also suffered from 
the overflow. 

The first to sell goods in the tovvn was Conrad Grab, who, as above 
■stated, had been driven from the banks of the Missouri by the encroach- 
ments of that stream. This was in 1868. Shortly after Sanders Bros, 
•opened a stock of goods in the place. The first blacksmith who estab- 
lished himself in the town was William Bertram. Ferris & Drake, in 
the same year, started the first lumber yard. Dr. J. Noel still (1882) a 
practicing physician of the town, was the first of his profession to locate 
there. He also settled in 1868. 

CHURCHES. 

The German Reform Church, of Corning, is a small frame building, 
•erected in 1878, at a cost of $900. Rev. T. Miller organized the church 
with a large membership. This included, with others, Peter Christen 
and wife, Fred Scheie and wife, Mrs. Roselius, William Bertram and 
wife, and William Ahlers and wife. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, on First Street, in Martin's Addi- 
tion, stands on lots 4 and 5, in block 5. This ground was donated by 
Esquire Horace Martin for the purpose of a church, and the building, 
a frame 28x42 feet, was erected in the fall of 1879, at a cost of $1,100. 
The congregation was first organized by the Rev. E. Edwards, with the 
following members : William E. Hurst and wife, E. Hodson and wife, 
Miss Laura Hodson, E. Longwell and wife, and Homer Martin and wife. 
The present (1882) minister of this church is Rev. M. F. Sapp. 

POSTMASTERS. 

The first postmaster of Corning was Conrad Grab, the pioneer 
merchant. He was appointed in 1868. In [869, he was succeeded by 
R. W. Frame. H. F. Ferris, druggist, became postmaster in 1870. He 
was succeeded, in 1875, by J. R. Dodds, editor and publisher of the 
Corning Herald, and, for many years railroad agent in the place, and an 



LINCOLN TOWNSHIP. 289 

enterprising and public spirited citizen. Dr. J. Noel succeeded Dodds, 
a short time after. In the same year (1875), H. F. Ferris was re-ap- 
pointed. He continued to fill the position up to the period of his resig- 
nation, in 1879, when he was succeeded by Frank Campbell. A short 
time after, during the same year, C. Casler, was appointed. Joseph 
Hogrefe became postmaster in 1880, and was succeeded in 188 1, by Mil- 
ton Earl, a brother of the county judge. 

TARKIO VALLEY BRANCH. 

In the fall of 1880, the Tarkio Valley Branch of the K. C, St. J. and 
C. B. R. R. was built from Corning, in a northeasterly direction, into 
Atchison County. This road extends a little more than a mile and 
a half through Holt County. 

MILLS AND ELEVATORS. 

The Corning Steam Flouring Mill was built in 1871-72 by W. B. 
Wilson, at a cost of $6,664. George Collor, the present (1882) proprie- 
tor, purchased this mill in the spring of 1872, and subsequently effected 
improvements in the way of added machinery in value to the amount of 
$3,000. The mill operates three run of burrs and is fitted up with all the 
modern improvements proper to a first-class mill. 

Sedwick, Walter & Co. built, in 1881, the grain elevator now owned 
by Fritz Walter. It was completed at a cost of about $6,000, and has a 
capacity of fifteen thousand bushels. 

NEWSPAPERS. 

The first newspaper started in Corning was the Herald, published 
by J. R. Dodds, from 1878 to 188 1, in the interest of the Greenback party. 

The Corning Eagle was started by Charles Tiller and Major Lyman. 
This was afterwards moved to Fairfax, Atchison County, where it made 
its first appearance under the name and style of the Fairfax Independent, 
February 11, 1882. 

The present business of Corning includes the following : 

Brown, John A., hotel. Mills, Walter & Co., dry goods, gro- 
Christen, Peter, furniture and ceries, and agricultural impl'ts. 

lumber. Milliken, Mrs., milliner. 

Collor, George, miller. Noel, Mrs. J., milliner. 

Conoughy, J., R. R. Agent. Reynolds & Bro., saloon. 

Earl & Earl, druggists. Roselius & Hogrefe, dry goods and 
Gilmore, G., wagonmaker. groceries. 

19 



29O HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Hogrefe, Joseph, hardware and Scholz, P. C, druggist. 

agricultural implements. Slaughter, C, saloon. 

Kirkland, L. W., hotel. Swan, W. & Son, livery stable. 

Masters, John, blacksmith. Walter, Fritz, elevator. 

Macaulay, carpenter and singing teacher. 

The physicians of the town are Dr. J. Noel, established in 1868 ; Dr. 
W. P. Sperry, in 1881, and Dr. J. M. Lovelady, in 1881. 

Professor C. O. Denny teaches the public school of eighty-five 
pupils. Rev. F. W. Scholz teaches a private German school. Mrs. M. 
Earl teaches vocal and instrumental music. 

W. E. Hunt and E. Hodson, justices of the peace for Lincoln Town- 
ship, reside in Corning. 



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Sbiographica L.R 



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JOHN J. ADKINS, 

farmer and stock raiser, is the owner of 400 acres of land, his residence 
being on section 21. He was born in Anderson County, East Tennessee, 
December 27, 1840. His early school advantages were limited, but he 
was taught habits of industry and study which have adhered to him dur- 
ing life. In 1865 he came to Nodaway County, Missouri, with his father, 
Richard Adkins, a native of Virginia, and settled in Lincoln Township, 
remaining with his father for two years. He assisted in improving a fine 
farm and then came to this township, locating on the place where he now 
lives. He has one of the best farms in this township and is truly a self- 
made man, successful in nearly everything and no one deserves it more 
than he. Mr. Adkins married Miss Elizabeth Spinner, in Nodaway 
County, Missouri, in March, 1867. Her father was Ransom Spinner, and 
her mother's maiden name was Susannah Johnson. Mr. and Mrs. A. have 
four children living : Margaret, Charles, George and John R. ; three are de- 
ceased. James A. R.,died December 1, 1870 ; Napoleon B., died Decem- 
ber 2, 1873, and Richard died April 1, 1880. Mr. A. is a staunch Repub- 
lican in politics and a Baptist in his religious preference. During the 
war he enlisted, as first lieutenant, in Company C, First Tennessee Reg- 
iment, of the Union Army. He started, with the regiment, on a long 
march, was taken sick, from which cause he became blind and for a long 
time hovered between life and death. He partially recovered, but was 
then in a country full of enemies, who knew him to be a Union soldier, 



LINCOLN TOWNSHIP. 291 

sick and on his way home. He was taken prisoner, by bushwhackers., 
and condemned to death the next day, but, having a fleet horse, and find- 
ing Union friends in the landlord and colored porter, he managed to 
pass his guards and finally reached the Union lines. He is an indus- 
trious and well respected agriculturist. 

JOHN A. BROWN, 

plasterer and mason, Corning, was born in Cooper County, Missouri, 
October 20, 1849. In 1853, his father, George Brown, moved to St. Joseph, 
but after remaining there for eight months, and not being satisfied with 
the prospects, he came to Holt County and settled at Hemme's landing. 
There he lived until 1855, when he died. Mrs. Brown was left with four 
young children, John A. being but a year old. In 1877 she married Mr. 
Henry Tieman. John remained at home working on the farm until 
eighteen years old, when he learned the carpenter's trade, at which he 
worked for five years. Having a desire to follow the mason's trade, he 
went with John Elmore, one of the best masons in the state, to learn 
the trade. He soon became an adept at the business, and remained with 
his instructor for six years, doing some of the best work in this part of 
the state. He married Mrs. Lucinda Catharine Hargis, widow of Dr. L. 
B. Landis, February 4, 1879. Dr. L. died in Mount Vernon, Missouri, 
May 10, 1871, and left one child. Maggie Bell, born September 27, 1869. 
In the winter of 1882 Mr. and Mrs. Brown moved from Craig to Corning, 
and rented the hotel opposite the depot, where they are keeping an 
excellent house. Mrs. B. presides over the household affairs, and is 
admirably fitted for her position. Mr. B. devotes his time to his chosen 
calling, and is unexceptionally successful therein. He has been brought 
up in this vicinity, and is well known by all. 

PETER CHRISTEN, 

proprietor of lumber yard and dealer in furniture, was born in Switzer- 
land, October 25, 1841. He received a good education in youth and 
then learned the cabinent trade, which he has made his life work. In 
1865 he emigrated to this country, and came directly to St. Joseph, 
where he was employed by Louis Hax. After remaining with him for 
three years, he went to Omaha, Nebraska, and stopped for one year, 
and in 1869 removed to this place. He soon embarked in business, and 
to his stock of furniture he has added a lumber yard and the undertak- 
ing business, in both of which he is doing well. He came to this coun- 
try without means, and now, by his strict attention to business and 
honorable dealing, has established a trade which has become an honor 
to Corning. Much of his success is due to his accommodating and 






292 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

pleasing manners. Mr. Christen was married to Miss Catherine Asen- 
dorf, of Omaha, in 1868. She was born in Hanover, Germany. They 
have an interesting family of five children : Emma, Bertie, Bernhart, 
George and Peter. 

GEORGE COLLOR 

was born in Portage County, Ohio, in November, 1826. After receiving 
his education he went to work in a flouring mill, learned the business 
thoroughly, and since then has kept pace with the various improvements 
in milling, having made it his life study. In 1838 his father moved with 
his family to Fort Wayne, Indiana, and built the large mills in that city 
which are still operated. The senior Collor became quite celebrated as 
being one of the best millwrights and workmen to be found in the coun- 
try, and consequently had charge of many important works in the vicin- 
ity of Fort Wayne. He died near Fort Wayne, in the fall of 1856. The ' 
subject of this sketch, then located at Rockford, Illinois, entered a mill, 
and soon after rented a mill in Pecatonica, where he remained for eight 
years, doing a large and profitable business. After remaining in 
Nebraska for about a year, in 1873 he came to this city and bought the 
mill which was partially built, completed it, and has since been doing 
an excellent business. He has expended, from time to time, some 
$2,000 on important improvements in the machinery, so that now his mill 
has all the modern facilities for producing the best flour known to the 
trade. Mr. Collor married Miss Emma A. Baker, of LaPorte, Indiana, 
in 1858. She was born in Dayton, Ohio, in 1840. They have five chil- 
dren : Dora A., George Frank, Ida Myrtle, Charles Edgar, and Leo. He 
is a staunch Republican, and a Methodist in religious preferences. He 
is also a member of the Odd Fellows. 

HENRY A. DANKERS, 

one of the leading residents and old citizens of Lincoln Township, was 
born in the city of Stade, Kingdom of Hanover, on the 20th day of May, 
1835. His father, Henry Dankers, left Germany for this country in the 
year 1841, when the subject of this biography was about six years old. 
They landed at New Orleans and came up the Mississippi and Missouri 
rivers, to Weston, in Platte County, where they parted with all their 
money in exchange for an old wagon, a yoke of oxen and four cows, and 
set out for Holt County, where they heard that John H. Roselius had set- 
tled the previous spring. In August, 1841, they arrived here. All this 
part of the county was a waste,, unbroken bottom land, and no signs of 
civilization were visible except where Roselius had erected a cabin in 
the timber near the Missouri River. Indians were the only inhabitants, 
and shared the solitude with the wild game, which was found in abun- 



LINCOLN TOWNSHIP. 293 

dance. Mr. D.'s father chose a location on section 36. One of the first 
enterprises was to get a school, and the first one which Mr. Dankers 
attended, and the first in the township, was taught by a man employed 
by his father, John H. Roselius and Andrew Buck. He only received 
about nine months schooling, and the remainder of his education he has 
obtained by his own study and exertions, now being exceptionally well 
informed. In the spring of 1858 he left home, and in partnership with a 
Mr. Price kept a grocery store across the Missouri River, at St. Stevens, 
Nebraska. Not succeeding according to his expectations, he returned 
the following year (1859) to Holt County, and went to work again on the 
farm and trading in stock. He was married on the 20th of January, 
1863, to Elizabeth Kunkel, who was born in Hesse Darmstadt, Germany, 
but a resident of Holt County, when married. They have eight children : 
Melinda, Andrew, Irvin, Rebecca, Anna, Fredrick, Ella D. and Charles 
Edmond. Mr. D. lived in the timber near the river until October, 1873, 
when he removed to his present home, on the farm adjoining the town 
of Corning. He has built a handsome brick residence, one of the best 
in the county, has been engaged in farming on a large scale, and now 
owns 1340 acres of land, apart of which is in Atchison County. He has 
also been occupied in dealing in stock, which has done much to place 
him in his present circumstances. His father died in August, 1870. Mr. 
D. was the second of a family of four children, and is now the oldest of two 
children living. His sister is now the wife of Fred W. Walter, Esq. 
He has grown up with Holt County, and is one of its most industrious 
citizens. Coming here, as he did, forty years ago, and settling on a 
tract of wild bottom land without means, and with little prospect of for- 
tune, he has succeeded in placing himself among the wealthy farmers of 
the county. 

JUDGE BRUCE EARL. 

Among the many men of mark who have earned for themselves a 
name and fortune who deserve special mention, is the subject of this 
sketch. He was born in St. Lawrence County, New York, March 10, 
1842. His father, Henry Earl, was a farmer, and his mother was form- 
erly Laura M. Watson, of Ballston, New York. Bruce left home when 
sixteen years of age, and, after working for three years, in March, 1864, 
he started for California.. He went to Portland, Oregon, and after four- 
teen months he returned to California, remaining for three months. 
He then went home, and in June, 1866, he came to Missouri and stopped 
in Atchison County, though possessed of but twenty dollars with which 
to engage in business. But having come here to stay, he commenced 
to work in a mill and chopping railroad ties for a dollar and fifty cents 
per day. This he continued until 1868, when he came to Holt County 
and bought a saw mill with J. C. Yantes, and from this time on labored 



294 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

harder than ever. In October, 1869, he bought out his partner's interest 
and operated the mill alone. He then purchased some 400 acres of 
timber of John B. Perkins, moved his mill on to that land and sawed the 
timber, and in this manner obtained quite a start. In 1874 Mr. E. 
moved his mill on to the farm of Henry Roselius, and there sawed the 
timber on 500 acres of land. After buying and selling several mills 
and sawing a large quantity of black walnut and other valuable lumber, 
he closed up his milling business and then, in March, 1880, bought the 
store which he now occupies, putting in a general stock of merchandise. 
He received his brother, Milton, into partnership and started with excel- 
lent prospects. In January, 1882, they changed their stock to drugs, 
medicines, groceries, boots and shoes. Politically he is a Democrat. 
Mr. Earl was appointed County Judge, by the Governor, to fill the vacancy 
of Henry Banganstock in the second district, who resigned, and the Gov- 
ernor also appointed him Presiding County Judge, to fill the vacancy of T. 
W. McCoy, resigned. He belongs to the Rock Port Chapter of Masons. He 
was married to Miss Emma Ann Perkins, of Atchison County, in 1869. 
She died October 14, 1869. His second wife was Mrs. Elizabeth Free- 
man, of Craig, to whom he was married May 15, 1871. She died January 
18, 1875, leaving two children, Emma and Vera, and a step-daughter, 
Bessie Alice Freeman. Mr. E.'s third wife was Mrs. Sarah Courchain, 
of Rulo, Nebraska. They were married August 1, 1875. He has 535 
acres of land in his farm, on sections 3 and 4, in Union Township. Judge 
Earl has been a fortunate and successful man in all his business indus- 
tries, prompt to his engagements, relying upon his own judgment for his 
success. As judge he is very mindful of the wants and care of the county 
interests. The firm of which he is a member is doing well. His brother, 
Milton, is the present postmaster of Corning, and is deserving of credit 
for the care and attention he srives the official business. 






t> ■ 



JOHN H. HOGREFE, 

a substantial settler of Lincoln Township, was born at Walsrode, in 
Hanover, September 2, 1816. He was raised on a farm, and lived in his 
native country until he was twenty-six years of age. In the summer of 
L842, he immigrated to America, and landed at Baltimore on the 10th of 
August, having been nine weeks on the ocean.. After stopping at Mari- 
etta, Ohio, for a few months, he came to St. Louis, Missouri. In the fall 
following he removed to Lexington, Missouri, and was engaged in farm- 
ing until the spring of 1S46. Mr. H. had long been connected with the 
German Methodist Church, and on leaving La Fayette County, he went 
to St. Charles County, as a minister of that denomination, and was 
employed in preaching there until October, 1846. He traveled as a 
Methodist minister in Howard. Chariton and Carroll Counties, from 1848, 



LINCOLN TOWNSHIP. 295 

to 1850, and had charge of other stations in different parts of the state. 
He was placed at Weston, in Platte County, and preached over a large 
circuit, embracing Clay, Platte, Buchanan, Andrew and Holt Counties. 
In 1850, he settled on the farm which he now owns, in section 8. Then 
there were only a few settlements, scattered here and there. Mr. H. has 
been acting as a local preacher of the German Methodist Church since 
that time, and has also been engaged in farming. He owns 394 acres of 
land. He was married April 19, 1847, to Rebecca Trook, who was born 
and raised in Ohio, but had moved to Andrew County where she was 
married. They have six sons and one daughter : Henry, Joseph, Abra- 
ham, Benjamin, Simeon, George W., and Matilda. Politically he is a 
staunch Republican. Mr. Hogrefe has a fine farm, an excellent orchard 
of choice fruit, and some forty stands of bees. 

GREENBURG B. LOUDEN, 

farmer, is the owner of 215 acres of land, and resides on section 27. He 
is the son of Joshua and Lydia (Little) Louden, and was born in Henry 
County, Kentucky, May 22, 1822. He was brought up as a farmer and 
had very limited advantages for acquiring an education. In 1852 he came 
to this state and settled in Holt County, on the farm where he has since 
lived. He has a good farm of his own improving, but had only $10 when 
he arrived in St. Joseph. Mr. Louden is giving his children good school 
advantages, and is much interested in keeping the school of his district 
in session the year round. He married Ann Eliza Mosier, in this county, 
in June, 1853. They have had fifteen children, of whom four are deceased. 
Those living are : Greenburg, Louisa, Clara M., Jacob, Jeptha, Alvessa, 
Allen, Eli, Elzara, Ernest and the babe. In politics Mr. L. is a Demo- 
crat. He is a member of the Odd Fellows fraternity. 

JAMES M. LOVELADY, M. D., 

son of William and Amanda (Thomas) Lovelady, was born in Riverton, 
Fremont County, Iowa, in 1856. His parents were both natives of Ten- 
nessee. He secured a good education at the Tabor College, in Iowa, 
and, subsequently, studied medicine with Dr. Evan F. Cowgar, an expe- 
rienced physician of Riverton. After becoming a thorough student, he 
attended a course of lectures at the Medical College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, of Keokuk, Iowa, the winter of 1879-80, and graduated from 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in St. Joseph, in the winter of 
1880-81. He was a careful and studious scholar, always striving to 
search for the mysteries of his profession, and in his practice he follows 
the same plan. He located at Corning, Holt County, in the spring of 
1881, commencing the practice of his chosen calling, and very soon he 
was enjoying a liberal patronage. His success would do credit to an 



296 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

older practitioner. He is a young man of good habits, and is keeping 
pace with the advancing science of medicine. October 20, 1881, Dr. L. 
married Miss Susie L. Smith, daughter of Coleman Smith, of Riverton, 
Iowa, but formerly of Pennsylvania. Mrs. Lovelady enjoyed excellent 
advantages for an education in youth, and is an accomplished musician, 
besides being one of the best of housewives. 

JOHN S. MAVITY, 

farmer and stock raiser, section [9, was born in Ripley County, Indiana, 
in July, 1840. He received a common school education, and worked at 
home until grown, when he bought some land, but it being heavy tim- 
ber, uneven and full of rocks, the improving of the farm was the work of 
a lifetime, and after several years he concluded to seek a home further 
west. Accordingly, in 1871, he came to Holt County, Missouri, and 
settled on his present place, one-half mile north of Corning, where he 
improved his first farm of 240 acres, to which he has added, from time 
to time, until now it is one of the best places on these rich bottoms, con- 
sisting of 520 acres. In 1880 he built his present commodious dwelling, 
and this, with other improvements and the location, renders his home 
and surroundings among the most desirable. He yet possesses the Rip- 
ley County farm, as a monument of his early struggles. Mr. Mavity 
married Miss Mary Ann Anderson, daughter of Dr. William Anderson, 
of Indiana, in i860. They have eight children living : William A., 
James S., Charles M., John F., Mary Ann, Laura Stella, Isabel Florence, 
and Robert A. Mr. M.'s father, James Maverty, and his mother, who 
was formerly Keziah Evans, were natives of Kentucky. Mrs. M.'s father, 
Dr. William Anderson, was born in the north of Ireland, and her mother 
was Christiana Blair, of Ripley County, Indiana. Dr. Anderson 
received a thorough education in Ireland and Scotland, and studied 
medicine and attended the medical schools at Edingburgh, where he 
graduated with honor. After coming to this country he graduated from 
one of the best medical schools in New York City, and later settled in 
Ripley County, Indiana, where he became quite prominent as a physi- 
cian. He was once commissioned surgeon of the Thirty-seventh Indi- 
ana Regiment, and served in that capacity, and as Medical Director, 
etc., with much distinction. His daughter, Mrs. Mavity, took a thorough 
course of study with her father, and has been an active and successful 
practitioner for many years. In 1862 Mr. Mavity enlisted in the Thirty- 
seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was attached to the Fourteenth 
Corps, and served through all the engagements from Murfreesboro, 
through the hard campaigning, to the close of the war. Politically he 
is a Democrat, and he belongs to the Christian Church. Few men have 
succeeded better in life than Mr. M. He has worked hard, been 



LINCOLN TOWNSHIP. 297 

economical, and now both he and his wife can enjoy the fruit of their 
hard toil in their declining years. 

HEINRICH MULLER, 

merchant, and son of Heinrich and Wilhelmine K. Muller, is among the 
younger class of business men in the county, but none stand higher for 
true worth and business ability. He was born in Wittenberg, State of 
Waldeck, Germany, October 15, 1848, and landed in this country Janu- 
ary 17, 1871. He received an excellent education in Germany, and also 
acquired a thorough training in the mercantile business. He was 
brought up to habits of industry, his early boyhood days being spent on 
a farm. After emigrating to America he came to St. Joseph, and 
entered the drug store of Joseph Schmitz, and in a short was employed 
in the drug establishment of T. Borngessor, only remaining with him 
until the 23d of June, 1871. At that time he came to Corning, and 
formed a partnership under the firm name of Sedwick & Muller, in the 
general merchandise business. They continued in this name until F. 
W. Walter entered it, when it was changed to Sedwick, Walter & Co. 
They have a branch house at Fairfax, where they are doing a leading 
business, and, as a firm, they stand among the most prominent in this 
vicinity, having ample capital to carry on a large and varied business to 
advantage. As a result, they enjoy a liberal patronage. Mr. Muller 
married Miss Hattie Sedwick, of Forest City, Missouri, May 15, 1877. 
They have two boys, Charles Waldick and Harry Benjamin. Mrs. M. 
was the daughter of Joshua T. Sedwick. Mr. Muller is a member of the 
Masonic order. He is a Democrat in politics, and a Lutheran in his 
religious preferences. He started in life with little means, but was so 
reliable and capable in his business operations that he at once gained 
the confidence of his employers, and has since succeeded beyond his 
most sanguine hopes. 

HENRY NABER, 

farmer, is the owner of 250 acres of land, his residence being on section 
32. He was born in the Kingdom of Hanover, Germany, May 22, 1845. 
His father, Henry Naber, was a shoemaker by occupation, and his 
mother's maiden name was Dora Fricka. Henry spent his youth at 
school, obtaining a good common education. He came to this country 
in 185 1, locating in Missouri, and stopped in St. Louis for two years. 
In 1853 he came to this county. His father and step-mother died here 
two weeks apart, in 1854, his mother having died in Germany. They 
left two sons, Henry and Richard. Richard went to live with John F. 
Gerriny, who soon after died, and Richard then went to St. Joseph and 
lived with Mr. Killink, but was afterwards drowned in the Missouri 



298 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

River. Henry lived with Mr. C. H. Walter, until he was twenty-six 
years old, when Mr. W. gave him a farm, and he moved upon it. October 
29, 1871, he married Miss Bothena Voltmer, formerly from Germany. 
She was a daughter of Fredrick Voltmer, of this county. They have 
three children living : Anna Dora, Henry Fredrick Rudolph, and 
Martha Augusta Ragena. Mr. N. started on his farm in 1870, with a 
team and cow, commencing work by improving his farm. By hard work 
he has succeeded in making one of the fine homes in the county. He 
built his present commodious dwelling in 1878. He has added to his 
original farm considerably, and has it well stocked with horses, cattle, 
sheep and hogs. He is one of the respected citizens of this county, and 
is entitled to great credit for his faithfulness in work from his boyhood. 
Politically he is a Democrat, and religiously a Lutheran. 

JESSE NOEL, M. D., 

was born in Rockingham County, Virginia, September 27, 1817. His 
father was William T. Noel, M. D., who was born in Essex County, Vir- 
ginia, and who married Margery Harrison, of Virginia. Jesse was sent 
to school and acquired a good education, becoming a thorough student 
of medicine, both theoretically and practically, with his father. He also 
studied with Dr. Finley, of the city of Niles, Michigan, to which place 
Dr. Noel had moved in 1831. After completing his studies he practiced 
his profession until he came to this county in 1850. He is a member of 
the Northwestern Medical Association, of St. Joseph. After coming to 
this state, he determined to leave his practice, and accordingly bought a 
farm and mill, very few persons knowing that he was a physician. But 
after the fevers and chills began to assume a congestive form, his long 
experience in their treatment in Michigan was urged upon him, and he 
was obliged to again commence practice, in which he was very success- 
ful. In 1854, he moved to Brownsville, Nebraska, where he built a mill 
and took charge of it, and also soon came into possession of a lucrative 
practice. In 1857, ne was elected a member of the Legislature, and 
again in 1858. He was also a justice of the peace for two years. In the 
fall of 1865, he sold out his interests in Brownsville and returned to 
Corning, and again bought a very large mill, in which he invested 
$5,000. After operating it successfully and profitably for some time, it 
was burned to the ground, a total loss, supposed to have been set on 
fire. The doctor soon imagined that the practice of medicine was his 
first calling, and therefore he gave up all outside matters, and has 
devoted his time exclusively to study and practice. He has helped in 
many ways to build up the town, and he sawed and drew the first load 
of lumber that was used- for erecting the first building in Corning. Polit- 
ically he is a Democrat. He belongs to the Masonic and Odd Fellows 






LINCOLN TOWNSH1K 299 

fraternities. He married Miss Mary Ann Colton, of Niles, Michigan, 
daughter of William Colton, of Niles. They have four children living : 
Margery (married to A. J. Berry, of Brownsville, Nebraska), William T., 
John Franklin, and James Madison. The doctor has always had a great 
desire to travel, and has been in many of our western territories, through 
California, Oregon and Washington Territory. Mrs. Noel is a practical 
milliner and dressmaker, and is dealing in sewing machines, &c, in 
which she is doing quite a business. 

HARDIN DOUGLAS PARIS, 

deceased, was born in Kentucky, November 19, 1816. In 1819 his father 
emigrated to Missouri and settled near Hannibal. He lived at home 
and among the Indians until of age, when he went to Davis County, 
Iowa, and erected the first building in Bloomfield, the county seat, 
where he engaged in the grocery business. He bought a good many 
lots in the then small place. In 1850, in company with three brothers 
and some friends, he went to California, remaining for two years, when 
they returned, after a successful trip. Mr. P. settled nine miles west of 
Bloomfield, and bought a tract of land, and also some lots in the city of 
Bloomfield. He went to work and improved a farm, and then purchased 
a saw and flouring mill, which he operated until 1861, after which he 
traded his mill property for a farm in Holt County. After three years 
he sold out and bought the place where the family now live, consisting 
•of 104 acres, on section 26. He married Miss Rebecca Hopkins, in 
Davis County, Iowa, July 15, 1852. Of the children of this marriage 
three are now living : John Washington, Hardin Douglas, and Maria, 
who married Joseph Spencer. Mr. Paris was once thrown from a load 
of hay, falling upon a pitchfork, which caused his death, November 30, 
1870. Mrs. P.'s father was George W. Hopkins, and her mother was for- 
merly Mary Ann McFarland, of Kentucky. Mrs. P. was born in East 
Tennessee. Mr. P. was among the first settlers of Craig, and helped to 
build up the town. He was the acting justice of the peace for several 
terms before he died. He was a Republican in politics, and a thorough 
Union man. He was a man possessed of strong convictions of right, 
and transacted a large amount of business during his life time, and made 
a fortune. He left a good farm and home for his widow and two sons, 
who are now working it and living at home. 

HEINRICH PETERS, 

deceased, was born in Danst, Amtr. Hasfeld, Germany, January 25, 1808. 
His father, John Peters, was born in Danst, and was a farmer by occupa- 
tion. His mother was Rebecca Weabash, of Danst. Mr. P. was in pol- 



300 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

itics a Republican, and belonged to the Lutheran Church. He was mar- 
ried to Christena Klaus, daughter of Jacob Klaus. Their family consisted 
of : John, born June 13, 185 1 ; Henry, born December 1, 1856 ; Andrew, 
born April 5, 1859 ; Klaus, born October 20, 1861 ; Ann Eliza, born in 
1853, and died in 1875. She was married to Conrad Thomas. Mr. Peters 
came to this country with Andrew Buck and Henry Dankers, in 1841, 
and learned from real experience the trials of a pioneer life. He made a 
claim of 160 acres, on section 36, near the Missouri River, where he built 
a small log house, obtained a little rude furniture, and commenced with 
a will to make a farm. He had some money, sufficient to procure the 
necessaries of life until he could raise a crop. At that time roads and 
mills were few in number. Mrs. Peters could tell many a sad tale of her 
first impressions of America and her new home on the bottoms, but after 
a few years of toil and sufferings, by industry and economy, she and 
her husband found themselves in comfortable circumstances, and in pos- 
session of a home of their own. Mr. Roselius and some other friends 
early settled near them and they soon had a school, which was much 
appreciated. Mr. P. lived in his first cabin for thirty years, when he 
built a more commodious one. In 1856 he bought a fine 160 acre lot, on 
the prairie, east of Corning, on section 36, which added greatly to their 
farming facilities. In 188 1 the family built a barn and beautiful resi- 
dence on their new farm of 320 acres, located on section 29, and which 
Henry Peters is conducting, in company with the younger brothers and 
his mother. Mr. Peters died August 15, 1873. Johann Peters married 
Miss Annie Rebecca Bade, April 8, 1875, and they have two children, 
Annie C. R. and Johann Henry. Johann Peters, the eldest son, remains on 
the old farm. He and his brothers are all industrious young men. Mr. 
Peters, Sr., was one of the substantial men of the township. He labored 
hard and saved a good competency for his family. After a life of useful- 
ness he died, leaving an affectionate companion, loving children and a 
large circle of friends to mourn his death. 

HENRY ROSELIUS. 

A biographical history of the leading citizens of Lincoln Township 
would be incomplete without mention of the name of Henry Roselius. 
His father was the first permanent settler of the township, and the son 
is one of its most active and prominent business men. He was born 
near the city of Hanover, Germany, October 1, 1838. He was the youngest 
of three children, and is the only one now living. His father, John H. 
Roselius, left Germany with his family in the fall of 1840. They landed 
in New York City, then went to New Orleans, and up the river to St. 
Louis, and thence to Weston, in Platte County, Missouri. Obtaining a 
wagon, they came to Holt County, and settled in the northwestern cor- 



LINCOLN TOWNSHIP. 301 

ner, where they stopped in the wilderness, pitched their tent and made 
one of the first homes in the county. This was on section 1. The family 
lived alone in the bottom from the spring of 1841 till the following fall, 
when Mr. Dankers and Mr. Peters and their families arrived to keep 
them company. Mr. Roselius was at that time but a small boy, and, 
consequently, his life has been principally spent in Holt County. He 
attended the first school ever taught in Lincoln Township, kept by a Mr- 
Keiser, and supported by Mr. R.'s father, Henry Dankers and Andrew 
Buck. He has obtained the most of his education by his own efforts, and 
in transacting his immense business has gained an excellent knowledge 
of every day business life. He worked at home until the death of his 
father, which occurred in the spring of 1868. After this Mr. R. contin- 
ued his farming operations and buying and dealing extensively in stock, 
in which he was more than ordinarily successful. In December, 1876, he 
established a store in Corning, with Henry Hogrefe as a partner. This 
firm has since been, and still is one of the leading firms of the county, 
having ample means to carry on a large trade. Mr. H. takes charge of 
the store, and Mr. R. continues his farming operations. He has 750 
acres of land, nearly all in one body. He has recently erected a com- 
modious residence which has been furnished in good style, and Mrs. R.'s 
good taste and culture is shown not only in and about the house, but in 
the yard surrounding it. He married Miss Mary Schmutzer, of this 
county, in June, 1861. They have four children : Edmund A., Henry 
William, Minnie Lydia, and August. In politics Mr. R. is a Demo- 
crat, though not radical in his preferences. His father commenced 
here very poor, and it was only by great industry, hard work and rigid 
economy that they obtained a start. Mr. R. ranks among the best 
financiers in this locality, and is noted for his ability, integrity and busi- 
ness capacity. He is comparatively a young man, for the position he 
occupies, but is old in experience. 

PAUL C. SCHOLZ, 

druggist, Corning. The subject of this sketch is the son of Rev. F. W. 
Scholz, at present pastor of the Lutheran Church of this place. He was 
born in Nashville, Washington County, Illinois, in 1858. He received a 
good education in the schools of St. Louis, Missouri, and, after com- 
pleting it, he entered the drug store of Jacob Summers, and subsequently 
the large drug establishment of his brother, Phillip Scholz, where he^ 
remained for five years, making the compounding of medicines and 
prescriptions a specialty. During the last two years with his brother 
he took the entire charge of the business. After traveling for a few 
months for his health, he came to this village in 1879, an ^ bought the 
old drug establishment of Ferris & Campbell, which was the only drug 



302 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

store then in town. This he refitted and put in a new and fresh stock of 
drugs, chemicals, paints and oils, etc., etc., and has since been doing a 
thriving business, which is increasing from year to year, and extending 
into many of the adjoining towns. He is well informed, genial in his 
ways, and attentive to the wants of patrons. His father, who was born 
in Germany, came to this country in 1842. He was married, in St. Louis, 
to Miss Charlotte Alexander, and they have seven children : John, Philip, 
Paul C, Lydia, Aggie, Mattie and Mary. 

FRED. WILLIAM WALTER, 

one of the progressive business men of this county, was born in the 
Kingdom of Hanover, Germany, on November 6, 1834. His father 
immigrated to this country in 1844, arriving in New Orleans December 
24. He and his family came up the river to St. Louis, remaining there 
until March, 1845, when he came to Holt County, here locating and 
improving a large farm. Fred, worked on the farm with his father, the 
latter being engaged principally in wagonmaking. This was continued 
until 1870, when they divided the property, and he came to his farm 
adjoining Corning, where he now resides. In 1876 he built one of the 
best brick dwellings in the county, and has made such other improve- 
ments as a stock farm needs. He has in his home farm 640 acres, 
adjoining Corning, and has altogether, in this and Atchison County, and 
in Nebraska, 1,940 acres, mostly farming lands. Mr. W. married Miss 
Mary Dankers, January 30, i860. She was the daughter of Henry Dan- 
kers, Esq. They have four children living : Conrad McClellan, Alice 
Rebecca, George Emmet and John Andrew Fredrick. In religion he 
is a Lutheran, and in politics a conservative Democrat. In 1878 he 
started the store of Sedwick, Walter & Co., in this city, the business 
being conducted under this firm name until January, 1882, when it was 
changed to Walter, Muller & Co., the old firm having established a store 
in Fairfax. These firms are among the most responsible business 
houses in these counties, and are fast growing into favor with the people. 
Mr. Walter has the respect and confidence of the people in his private 
business as well as in his public affairs. While having had limited 
opportunities for an education himself, he is very public spirited in lend- 
ing his influence and using his means in the education of the children of 
the place and his own family. His eldest son, Conrad McC, is in the 
store with Mr. Muller, learning the mercantile business. Very few men 
in the county have been engaged as heavily in the stock dealing busi- 
ness as Mr. W., and this, with his large farming operations, together 
with giving some attention to the stores, gives him ample opportunities 
to try his business capacity. C. H. Walter, the venerable father of 
Fred. W., was born in Lingen, Germany, March 4, 1804. He attended 



LINCOLN TOWNSHIP. 303 

school from the age of seven to fourteen years, then learned the wagon- 
making trade. He carried on a shop in Germany and worked a farm, 
and in 1844 he came to this country with his family, consisting of a wife 
and two children, and located in Holt County, on the farm where he so 
long lived. In the freshet of 1881 this whole farm of 500 acres was 
washed away, and now forms the bed of the river. On his voyage from 
New Orleans the boat on which he had taken passage sank, and he* lost 
everything he had except a little money. Mr. Walter married Catharine 
Dora Voltmer, in Germany, in November, 1829. Her father was John 
Henry Voltmer. They have two children living : Fredrick William 
and Lena, the latter born April 3, 1838. She married George Hair, of 
this county, a prominent farmer in Union Township. Mr. W. was the 
first mechanic of the kind in this township and made the first wagon. 
He early became one of the prosperous men here, and his accumulations 
were very large. Since his home was destroyed by water he has lived 
with his son Fredrick. He has gained for himself a good reputation, 
and is honored by all. He is a Lutheran in his religious preferences, and 
a Jackson Democrat in political views. 




CHAPTER XIII. I 

LEWIS TOWNSHIP. 

BOUNDARIES— PHYSICAL FEATURES - EARLY SETTLEMENTS- THE FIRST CHURCH— FIRST 
DISTILLERY — FIRST POST OFFICE— PIONEER MERCHANTS — WILLIAM BANKS- 
BANKS' SPRING — MANX MEN — DANIEL ZOOK — THE FLOAT BRIDGE — POPULUS 
TREMULA— ROAD FROM OREGON TO FOREST CITY— MILLS. 

BOUNDARIES. 

One of the two original divisions of Holt County is Lewis Town- 
ship, organized at the April term of 1841, and described in the records 
as follows : " Beginning at the middle of the main channel of the Mis- 
souri River, where the range between thirty-seven and thirty-eight 
intersects said river ; thence north to the northern boundary line of this 
county ; thence west to the High Bridge Creek ; thence down said 
creek to the Missouri River; thence down the Missouri River to the 
place of beginning." 

It thus appears that the original limits of Lewis Township included 
besides its present territory, a portion of Forbes, one-half of Hickory 
and of Clay Townships, and all that territory included within the area 
of what is now (1882) Bigelow, Benton, Liberty, Union and Lincoln 
Townships, including about four-fifths of the present area of the county, 
as well as the greater part of Atchison County, and extending ten 
miles within the southern limits of the state of Iowa. 

In May, 1841, occurred the first election in Holt County. This 
election resulted in the choice of the following officers in Lewis Town- 
ship : John Gibson and Gallatin Adkins, justices of the peace, and John 
Lewis, constable. 

The organization, August 9. 1842, of Benton Township, by which 
the base line run by Oiler, surveyor of public lands, was made its 
southern boundary reduced the territory of Lewis Township to nearly 
its present limits. The subsequent erection of new townships, changed 
from time to time, the names and dimensions of the bounding divis- 
ions which are at present (1882) as follows : On the north in a distance 
of fourteen miles by Bigelow, Benton and Hickory Townships ; on the 
east by Nodaway and Forbes Townships ten and a half miles ; on the 
south, two miles, by Forbes Township, and on the southwest and south, 
in a distance of about twenty-three miles, by the state of Kansas, from 
which it is separated by the Missouri River. 



LEWIS TOWNSHIP. 305 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

The physical aspect of Lewis Township presents a diversity of sur- 
face. About seven miles east of its northwest corner the bluff formation 
sets in and extends in a nearly due southwesterly direction through its 
limits, in a distance of about ten miles. All to the westward of this bluff 
and extending to the Missouri River, including about thirty square miles 
of territory, is level bottom land. That lying to the eastward of the 
bluffs is high rolling prairie, interspersed with abundance of valuable 
timber and well watered by streams of different magnitude. The Tarkio, 
which rises in Montgomery County, Iowa, a distance by its course of 
more than one hundred and fifty miles, enters Lewis Township, in the 
northwest corner of section 6, and flows in a westerly dieection, just 
south of Oiler's Base Line, a distance of a little over two miles, into the 
Missouri River. 

The Little Tarkio enters Lewis Township in fractional section 4, 
and running in a southeasterly direction, through what was known in 
the original United States surveys, as Impassable Lake, and subsequently 
Tarkio Lake, an extensive swamp lying to the northwestward of Forest 
City, enters the former bed of the Missouri River, just above that town, 
and flowing through that channel, debouches into the present bed of the 
river about six miles below the town. This lake or swamp, according to 
a survey made in May, 1874, by Stephen C. Collins, who, for twenty 
years in the early history of the county, was its surveyor, and who has long 
been known for the unwavering accuracy of his work, contains three thou- 
sand one hundred and thirteen acres and a fraction. Thomas W. Collins, 
attorney at law in St. Joseph, Mo., was employed to secure to the County 
of Holt a grant of this land, which he effected through the agency of the 
Hon. I. C. Parker, at that time representative in Congress from this dis- 
trict, and now (1882) United States District Judge in Arkansas. The 
patent, granting this swamp, was presented by said T. W. Collins to the 
county court and filed in the clerk's office of that body on the 20th day 
of July, 1874. In obedience to petition the county court made an appro- 
priation for draining this marsh, and a contract was made in September, 
1874, to W. S. Cannon and H. Robinson, for cutting a ditch to subserve 
that purpose. The drainage, however, is said to be imperfect, and the 
locality, in consequence, unhealthful, and otherwise undesirable. The 
water of the Little Tarkio, where the same enters the Missouri River at 
the point above mentioned, contributes to form what was formerly 
designated as Solomon's Island. The latter stream, at one period, flowed 
in a southeasterly direction, below its present mouth, through the south- 
ern part of Lewis and Forbes Townships, entering the Missouri River 
near the southeastern corner of the county. 

20 



306 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

The first settler on the shore of Impassable Lake was Isaac Fill- 
more, a cousin of President Millard Fillmore. He came from New York, 
in 1841, and settled on the east side of the lake. The Widow May, George 
Wood and others were living on its south side in the fall of 1842. Sam- 
uel, Amos and Moses Wilds settled west of the lake in the winter of 1842. 
With the exception of Michael May a son of the widow, who now lives 
on section 27, township 60, range 39, these people are long since gone. 

Kimsey Creek enters Lewis Township in fractional section 4, town- 
ship 60, range 38, and flowing in a southwesterly direction, enters the 
Little Tarkio about a mile and a half above Forest City. 

Mill Creek, a considerable stream, which rises in the northeast 
quarter of section 24, township 60, range 38, flows in a southwesterly 
direction, a distance by its meanderings of fourteen or fifteen miles, into 
the lower bed of the Little Tarkio, which it enters in the northwest 
quarter of section 9, township 59, range 38, and thus affords running 
water in the old forsaken bed of Little Tarlcio from a point about two 
and a half miles below Forest City. In many places the old bed of this 
stream is filled up, and, in wet seasons, occasions disastrous overflows. 
These include the principal streams of Lewis Township. To the noted 
Banks' Spring reference is made under the head of " William Banks, the 
Pioneer." 

On the 20th of March, 1866, Lewis Township was divided, for the • 
convenience of election purposes, into East and West Lewis precincts. 
This dividing line commences at a point on the northern line of said 
township, where the line between sections four and five intersects said 
northern line, and extends due south eight and a half miles, to the Mis- 
souri River, which it reaches between sections 20 and 21. 

Since the first settlement of the county, in 1838, various changes 
have occurred in the contour of the territory included in what is now 
Lewis Township. These changes, confined to the western and southern 
boundaries, have been the result of the ever shifting course of the Mis- 
souri River, which is rarely known to flow for any extended period of 
time in the same channel. 

Immediately following the great overflow of 1844, began to appear 
the growth of cotton wood, which, with a later intermingling of other 
timber, now, to a considerable extent, where the same has not been 
cleared, overspreads these bottoms, which were formerly prairie, and 
which may be said to be fathomless in the depths of their exhaustless 
fecundity. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 

We have already referred, in our mention of Forbes Township, to 
the fact that while the first two white men who settled in Holt, happened 
to locate within the present limits of the last mentioned division of the 



LEWIS TOWNSHIP. 307 

county, the second arrivals, who appeared in the fall of the same year, 
also selected that vicinity, which being in a neighborhood cornering on 
the present Townships of Nodaway and Lewis, the two latter townships 
were among the earliest to receive population from immigration. 

The first white man to settle within the present limits of Lewis 
Township was R. H. Russel, present (1882) Judge of the Probate Court 
of Holt County. To the arrival of his brother and other settlers in the 
fall of 1838, we have already referred in the sketch of Forbes Township. 
Early in the spring of 1838, R. H. Russel started in a steamboat from 
his early home in Indiana, bound for the Platte Purchase. He had sent 
his horse by land with his brother, who, accompanied by the members 
of his family, the Sterritts, and one or two others, had started by land 
with ox and mule teams. He had, however, a new saddle which, as a 
matter of safety, he concluded to bring with him. Before he arrived at 
his destination, however, this was stolen by some one who had left the 
boat at some intervening landing. In due time he reached Liberty 
Landing, with very few dollars in his pockets, and eager for any employ- 
ment with the prospect of pay. 

Young and unsophisticated, and with little knowledge of the world, 
he undertook a job of excavating a cellar, at a stipulated price for the 
entire work. When he had accomplished this task he discovered that, 
outside of his board, his compensation amounted to about twenty-five 
cents per day. He then concluded to try farming, and went to work to 
raise a crop of corn on the property of a large land holder by the name 
of Hawkins. In this he met with better success. By the time he had 
plowed his corn for the last time, the proprietor, pleased with the 
industry and intelligence manifested by his young renter, offered him, 
at a good salary, the position of overseer of his plantation. 

Russel, however, had started for the Land of Promise, and did not 
propose to stop short of his destination. He declined the compli- 
mentary offer of his friend,, and, leaving his crop to ripen, bent his 
course northward. On starting, he managed to purchase, on credit, at 
the rate of twenty-five cents per gallon, two barrels of whisky. Borrow- 
ing the running gear of an antiquated wagon, he fitted it up with two 
or three loose boards, and, loading on his whisky, started on his hun- 
dred-mile trip through the wilderness to the new settlement in Holt 
County. On his way up, he reached the neighborhood of the trading 
point of Robidoux, now St. Joseph, and halted a short distance below 
the landing, at a shanty in which a man by the name of Hall had a 
stock of furs and pelts. Young Russel was the owner of an antiquated 
bull's eye silver watch, to which the proprietor of this establishment 
taking a fancy, he gave him for the same four good buffalo robes, which 
he afterwards sold for five dollars each. On reaching Ellington's Ferry 
on the Nodaway River, not being far from his destination, Russel met a 



308 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

man by the name of John Spence and his brother who together promptly 
made him an offer of one dollar per gallon for his whisky if he would 
transport it to Jeffrey's Point on the Missouri River. This offer he 
promptly accepted, and, heading towards the Point, via the "Big Spring" 
now Banks' Spring, below Forest City, he delivered his freight and 
starting back with his money, by evening, reached the neighborhood of 
his new home where the rest of his party had already arrived. This 
was early in the fall of 1838. About the beginning of winter, he 
returned with several of his friends and the necessary wagons for mov- 
ing his corn. By the time they had gathered the crop and started 
homeward, the month of January had arrived ; snow was on the ground; 
and by the time they reached the Nodaway River, the weather was 
intensely cold. They succeeded in crossing three of their wagons on 
the fiatboat ferry. The fourth, however, proved too weighty for the frail 
bark, and the entire load was precipitated into the waters of the Noda- 
way, after having been safely transported a distance of nearly one hun- 
dred miles. In the darkness of the night, amid the bewildering snow of 
the wilderness, R. H. Russel lost his way, and, halting his jaded team, 
as well in apprehension of wandering from his destination as in consid- 
eration of their condition, he passed in the woods a night of no trifling 
suffering, to find, by the morning light, that he was but three miles from 
his home, which he lost no time in reaching. 

The farm settled by this pioneer of Lewis Township was in section 
12, township 59, range 38. The land is now (1882) owned by the heirs 
of Simeon Conn. Here he put up a rude cabin of small logs or, rather, 
poles. 

Among the early pioneers referred to as arriving in the fall of 1838, 
was James Kee, also from Indiana, a man who met with a sudden and 
accidental death, under very peculiar circumstances. Kee was a noted 
bee and deer hunter, and generally kept his neighbors in meat and 
honey. Regular laborious work he had little taste for, and did not often 
engage in. For some time after his arrival, he shared with R. H. Russel 
the pole cabin erected by the latter on the above-mentioned spot. Hunt-, 
ing, which he made his business, was his delight, and the house was 
always well stocked with deer meat, and with wild honey, which they 
kept in a large trough hewn out of a linden log. Before the close of 
the first decade of this liberal-hearted pioneer in the west, he was 
summoned to his last account. In the winter of 1848, while at Grand 
Island, Nebraska, on his way to the war, with his company, then under 
the command of Captain, afterwards General Craig, of St. Joseph, Kee 
started out, in company with Alexander Boyles, an intimate and par- 
ticular friend, to have, as it subsequently proved, his last hunt. Mistak- 
ing him far a turkey, in the gloom and distance, Boyles shot, and 
instantly killed his friend. He was overwhelmed with grief at the result 



LEWIS TOWNSHIP. 309 

of the terrible accident, and long mourned the disastrous consequences 
of his last hunt. He resided in Oregon, in this county, many years after 
his return from the war, and finally moved to California, where he died. 
By the spring of 1839, the population began to gather in, and the 
beauty and fertility of this portion of the county soon attracted settlers. 
Among others came H. G. Noland, afterwards judge of the county court, 
Roland Burnett, Larkin Packwood, Judge John Gibson, James Crowley, 
from Clay County, Missouri, Thomas Crowley, Jacob Martin, William 
Thorp, John Thorp, Owen Thorp, the Rev. Dr. G. B. Thorp, of the Hard- 
shell Baptist Church, the first minister of the Gospel to locate within the 
limits of Holt County, Isaac Massey, Valentine Worley, commonly 
called "Pelty Worley," Daniel Sypes, B. B. Grigsby, Alexander Boyles, 
Eli Asher, Daniel Hahn, Col. John W. Kelley, the first attorney admitted 
to practice at the Holt County bar, William Banks, Judge Samuel Wat- 
son, Henry Watson, William Zook, S. C. Collins, for twenty years county 
surveyor, Michael May, Felix Frelich, since dead, the original vine- 
grower and first man to make wine in the county, William Cook, Rich- 
ard Hahn, A. Gemeker, Andrew Meyer, Sr., who, with a numerous family 
settled in 1843, (many of his sons are now, 1882, representative citizens 
of different parts of the county), Henderson Pinkston. 

Judge John Stewart, who was on the county bench from 1842 to 
1845, was one of the earliest settlers of the county, and put up the first 
blacksmith shop ever started within its limits. This "was in 1839. His 
stand was at what was in those days known at the Big Spring, on the 
southwest quarter of section 4, township 59, range 38, about two and a 
half miles southwest of Oregon, and the same distance southeast of the 
site of the present town of Forest City. This is the spot now known as 
Banks' Spring, to which full reference will be found elsewhere in this 
chapter. 

Of the original settlers who came to the county in 1838, but two now 
(1882) are living within its limits. These are Judge R. H. Russel, and 
Roland Burnett, both of whom reside in Oregon. 

THE PIONEER SCHOOL. 

The early settlers of Holt County seem to have been fully alive to 
the importance of educating their children, and steps in that direction 
were early instituted, Lewis Township enjoying the distinction of being 
the first to inaugurate within her limits an enterprise of this character. 

In the fall of 1839, Uriah Garner began to teach the first school 
opened in Holt County. This was in a log cabin, 14x16 feet in extent, 
and built by R. H. Russel for a residence, a very rude and primitive 
structure. It was located on the southwest corner section 12, township 
59, range 38, three and a half miles southeast of Oregon, on a farm now 



310 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 









(1882) owned by the heirs of Simeon Conn. Population, in that early 
day, was sparse, and the entire school included the children of John 
Russel, Thomas Crowley, James Crowley, G. B. Thorp and John Sterritt. 
With the influx of population, this temporary shelter soon gave way to 
more extensive and better appearing buildings, and perhaps more culti- 
vated teachers, but to Uriah Garner undoubtedly belongs the distinction 
of being the pioneer teacher of Holt County. He met with a sudden 
and violent death, some years after, by being struck over the head with 
a spade or pick, in the hands of a man with whom he was working the 
road. 

THE FIRST CHURCH 

built in Holt County was erected in 1843 by the Hard Shell Baptists. It 
was a rude frame structure, and stood on section 36, where the west 
line of the southeast quarter crosses Mill Creek, in township 60, range 
38, about two and a half miles southeast of the town of Oregon, and 
within the present limits of Lewis Township. The building has long 
since disappeared. The members of the congregation at the organiza- 
tion of this church were Judge James Kimsey and wife, Judge James 
Adkins and wife, Rev. Dr. G. B. Thorp, John Thorp, Abraham Brown, 
and Ethelbert Brown. The wives of the above were also among the 
original members, as was also Mrs. Margaret Stephenson. John an< 
Daniel Baldwin were also enrolled with the original organizers of the 
church. The Rev. Dr. G. B. Thorp, the pastor of this church, was the 
first local preacher ever established in Holt County. He began his 
labors in 1841, and continued a period of thirty years, up to the time of 
his death,, which occurred in 1871. He was also a practitioner of medi- 
cine. 

The first physician to locate in the township was Dr. Norman, also 
the first in the county. 

In 1858 the organization moved to the town of Oregon, where they 
erected for a place of worship a brick building, to which reference may 
be found under the head of "Oregon." 

THE FIRST DISTILLERY 

in the county was established probably as early as 1840, if not before, 
by Daniel Sypes, Sr., the father of Buck Sypes, whose narrow escape 
from the conflagration of a lightning-stricken building is fully detailed 
in the sketch of Oregon. This distillery was located in Lewis Town- 
ship, near the north line of the southeast quarter of section 13, town- 
ship 59, range 38. Ten years after its erection, all traces of the build- 
ing had disappeared. 



LEWIS TOWNSHIP. 3 1 1 

FIRST POST OFFICE. 

The first post office established in Holt County was located in 
Lewis Township. Judge R. H. Russel was the first postmaster appointed. 
This was in 1839. He kept the office which was known by the name and 
style of " Thorp's Mill," in a hewed log house, which he had erected on 
his farm, in section 12, about two hundred yards from the old log cabin, 
which he had put up on his first arrival in the country, and in which, in 
the following year, he had allowed Uriah Garner to start the pioneer 
school of the county, as above stated. Russel was also the contractor 
for carrying the mail to Savannah, in Andrew County. This he did 
once a week. The mail bag was never very weighty. Four letters were 
considered a heavy mail ; and such a thing as a newspaper passing over 
the route was unheard of. Postage in those days was twenty-five cents 
on a single letter. The post office continued to be maintained here till 
the town of Oregon started, in 1842, when Judge Russel appointed Wil- 
liam Zook, Sr., who had just opened the first store in that town, to act 
as his deputy, and without any other warrant or authority the office was 
moved to Oregon. 

PIONEER MERCHANTS. 

Of George and Augustus Borchers, the first to engage in mercantile 
business in the county, mention has already been made in the chapter 
on Forbes Township, where their store was located. 

WILLIAM BANKS. 

Among the pioneers of Holt County who yet remain to tell their 
early experiences, is William Banks, who resides on a fine farm in Lewis 
Township, about a mile and a-half south of Forest City. Mr. Banks is 
the proprietor of several valuable farms in the county. He was born in 
the Isle of Man, October 21, 181 1. When a boy of fifteen years of age 
he left his native home, went to Liverpool and shipped as a three-years 
apprentice on a westward bound vessel. His compensation was seven 
pounds sterling, per annum, (less than $34), and out of this he was 
required to clothe himself. He made a seven months voyage to Mobile 
and back to Liverpool, when he deserted. He subsequently shipped on 
board a vessel bound for St. Andrews, and thence went to Baltimore. 
After various fortunes he found himself, in 1830, in New Orleans, and 
hired as a deckhand on a steamboat. In this capacity he reached St. 
Louis, Missouri, about the close of the year 1831. In the spring of 1832 
he shipped as a deckhand on the steamboat Yellowstone, commanded 
by Captain Bennett. This boat was in the service of the American Fur 
Company, and was the first steamer to ascend the Missouri River as far 
as the mountains. He relates that, on this trip, he cut ash wood for the 



312 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

boat on a piece of land three and a-half miles below the site of the 
present town of Forest City, on which, nine years afterwards, he settled, 
and which he afterwards entered. He claims to be, next to Lewis and 
Clark, who came up the river in 1803, the first white man who ever trod 
the soil of what is now Holt County. He remained three years in the 
service of the American Fur Company. When he first shipped as a 
deckhand his compensation was fifteen dollars a month. In the service 
of this company he soon rose to be mate of the steamboat Howard, with 
a salary of one hundred dollars per month. He had continued unin- 
terruptedly to follow the river from New Orleans to the mouth of the 
Yellowstone for a number of years, and in his day enjoyed the reputa- 
tion of knowing the Missouri better than any man who at that time fol- 
lowed it. 

Determining, at length, to embark in a less laborious calling than 
the business of steamboating, in which he had been so long engaged, he 
concluded to try merchandising. Accordingly, in partnership with John 
C. Mcintosh, clerk of the Thames, he chartered that steamboat, loaded 
her with cypress shingles, and other material for erecting a house, and 
a seven thousand dollar stock of merchandise. With this cargo he 
landed, on the 9th day of August, 1841, on the spot below Forest City, 
above referred to as having so forcibly attracted his attention on his first 
trip up the then almost unknown stream. This was on a quarter section 
of land, on which a mulatto, by the name of Jeffrey Dorway, had squat- 
ted. From this squatter he purchased his pre-emption, paying him 
therefor the sum of six hundred dollars, one-half in merchandise and the 
other half in cash. Mr. Banks, in mentioning this Jeffrey Dorway,speaks 
of him as a person of unusual intelligence for his class, as well as a man 
of incorruptible integrity. He spoke fluently English, French, and five 
Indian languages, and was interpreter between the whites and Indians. 
He had been at one time a slave of Joseph Robidoux, the founder of St. 
Joseph, but was at the period of his settling, in what was afterwards 
Holt County, a free man. It appears that " Dorway " was a corruption 
of his original name, Dorine. The spot where Banks settled was called, 
from this man, Jeffrey's Point. It was a projection included in south- 
west quarter section 15, township 59, range 38. Banks and Mcintosh, 
on taking possession of the claim, named the spot Iowa Point. Here 
thev proceeded, immediately after landing, to erect their store-house. 
It was a building of hewed logs, thirty-six by twenty feet in dimensions, 
and one and a half stories high. This they stocked with the goods 
which they had brought with them and commenced business. Theirs 
was the second mercantile enterprise started in the county. At the end 
of fourteen or fifteen months the venture proved a failure, and Mr. Banks 
was a considerable loser by the result. In the summer of 1844 he started, 
at Iowa Point, Missouri, where his old store and warehouse stood, a flat 



LEWIS TOWNSHIP. 313 

boat ferry across the Missouri River. Except the people at the Indian 
Agency and the Mission there were, at that time, no white people resid- 
ing west of the Missouri River, and this was the only ferry on its waters 
above Robidoux Landing. His enterprise was regarded as a wild exper- 
iment, but it was ultimately crowned with success. In the summer of 
1844, just as he had completed his boat, a command of three hundred 
United States cavalry appeared on the river bank. For transporting 
these across, which undertaking he effected in the course of half a day, 
he was paid the sum of fifty dollars. This was the first money received 
by him for ferriage, and with it he entered forty acres of land. 

Iowa Point was for many succeeding years a noted crossing on the 
Missouri River, and William Banks long enjoyed the reputation of being 
the most expert ferryman on its waters. During the great California 
emigration Banks' Ferry, though propelled by hand power, did an 
immense business, frequently paying in a single day over one hundred 
and forty-four dollars clear of all expenses. Banks continued to operate 
the ferry till 1856, when he sold it. He also, for many years, cut and 
supplied wood to the boats passing up and down the river. The original 
quarter on which he settled in 1841, when he first purchased the pre- 
emption of Jeffrey Dorway, he entered in 1844. Nearly, if not all, the 
original tract has long since been engulfed in the encroachments of the 
Missouri, and with it, of course, the original Iowa Point. 

By permission of William Banks, the point in Kansas opposite the 
original Iowa Point, Missouri, was so named by John Pemberton and 
Harvey Foreman. 

Mr. Banks' landed possessions in Holt County at one time extended 
from a point below the present site of Forest City, two and a-half miles 
along the bank of the Missouri River, and included a tract of eight hun- 
dred and forty acres. 

BANKS' SPRING. 

On his present home place, which is about a mile and a-half south- 
east of Forest City, and about the same distance southwest of Oregon, is 
a remarkable fountain, known as Bank's Spring. The water here gushes 
from the base of the rocky bluff in a stream of considerable volume and 
remarkable purity, flowing in a westerly direction. This stream sup- 
plies a tank of the Kansas City, St. Joseph and Council Bluffs Railroad, 
which runs diagonally through the southwest corner of his quarter sec- 
tion, number 4, of township 59, range 38, Lewis Township, about a 
quarter of a mile from his residence, and the source of the spring. This 
residence is strikingly peculiar. It is a small, two story structure, and 
would be scarcely worthy of mention, but from the enormous thick- 
ness of its walls, which are of limestone, two feet through. Mr. Banks is 
the owner of over a thousand acres of valuable farming land in the bot- 



314 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

torn and uplands. He was never married. He is a well preserved man 
in full possession of his faculties, and endowed with a remarkably accu- 
rate and retentive memory. The varied experiences of his early pioneer 
life he delights to impart, and many of these incidents he relates in a 
manner which renders them attractive and pleasing, while an air of sin- 
cerity marks his utterance, entirely disarming any suspicion that may 
arise of a desire on his part to indulge in that propensity for romancing, 
for which pioneers and travelers are proverbially distinguished. 

MANX MEN. 

Mr. Banks is not the only Manx Man in the county. In the spring 
of 1847, Thomas Cottier arrived from the Isle of Man, and settled his 
present (1882) home place in Lewis township, on the southeast quarter 
of section 9, township 60, range 38, on the waters of Kimsey Creek. This 
is now one of the best farms in the county. It includes twelve acres of 
an apple orchard, (six hundred bearing trees) besides a peach orchard of 
as many trees, also pear trees and a vineyard. Mrs. Catharine Cottier, 
his mother, who resides with her children is still, at the advanced age of 
eighty years, living in the enjoyment of excellent health and spirits. 
Through the influence of Mr. Cottier, more than five hundred people 
have been induced to leave the Isle of Man and settle in Holt County, 
besides others who, on arriving in the United States, selected Kansas 
for their new homes. 

DANIEL ZOOK, 

the third to sell goods within the limits of Holt County, also began in 
Lewis Township. This was Daniel Zook, Sr., who, in the fall of 1841, 
came from Ohio. He sold a few goods in a house on a farm now owned 
by the Widow Polluck, and included in the southeast quarter of section 
15, township 59, range 38, on the waters of Little Tarkio Creek, about 
three and a half miles south of the site of the present town of Oregon. 
He remained here a very short time, when he returned home. Arriving 
again, in the spring of 1842, he built on the site of the town of Oregon, 
the first house ever erected in the place, as specially referred to under 
the head of Oregon. 

Of the original settlers of Holt County, but two now survive. 
These are Judge R. H. Russel and Roland Burnett, both residents of the 
town of Oregon. 

In the early days of the county's history, when the population was 
scattered and neghborhoods were widely separated, camp meetings 
were a recognized necessity. One of the earliest, if not the first, of 
these was held by the Methodists, in the summer of 1844, up a hollow 
leading from the old mill in the north part of Forest City. Its site was 



LEWIS TOWNSHIP. 3 I 5 

a farm at that time, owned by Thomas Edwards, and now the property 
of Mr. Smith. The attendance at this meeting, though small, compared 
with the gatherings of the present time, included, for those days, a very 
large attendance. 

THE FLOAT BRIDGE. 

As early as 1839 there was built across the Little Tarkio, on the 
southwest corner of section 15, township 59, range 38, a rather remark- 
able crossing of the road extending between the Thorp settlement, in 
the eastern part of Lewis Township, and Hetrick's Landing, on the 
Missouri River, the oldest established thoroughfare in the county. The 
latter point, which was in section 20, township 59, range 38, has long 
since disappeared by the encroachments of the Missouri. This crossing 
was known for several years as the " Float Bridge," and was so designa- 
ted from the circumstance that it rested on floating logs, attached to 
each other and secured by fastenings to either bank. The Little Tarkio, 
in those days a deep, bold stream, was at this point not less than sixty 
feet wide, with a depth, at low water stage, varying from four to over six 
feet. William Hetrick and his brother Joseph had a small trading post 
at this landing, their stock in trade consisting chiefly of whisky, which 
they sold surreptitiously to the Indians. It was for a time an entrepot 
for Oregon, and goods were hauled from the boats which landed here to 
that locality, as well as to neighboring stores. 

One of the most remarkable natural features of Lewis Township is 
an extensive grove of the 

POPULUS TREMULA, 

or quaking-aspen, said to be the only sight of the kind in the state, or, 
indeed west of the Mississippi River. This grove is about a mile and a 
half southeast of Oregon. It is chiefly on the farm of James L. Allen, in 
the northeast quarter of section 2, township 59, range 38, near the waters 
of Mill Creek, but extends considerably beyond it. The grove, which is 
a spontaneous growth, covers an area of about twenty acres, and, in the 
season of foliage is a truly singular and beautiful sight. The trees, 
which appear to be of uniform shape, a characteristic resulting, perhaps, 
from the denseness of the growth in this spot, suggest the idea of a 
gigantic cane-brake. One of the striking peculiarities of these trees is 
the silvery appearance of the bark of even the largest and oldest among 
them, most of which seem to range from sixty to eighty feet in height. 
The aspen is a graceful tree when growing in solitary contrast to more 
familiar timber, but viewed in a dense mass, like this grove, it is as strik- 
ingly beautiful as it is novel. The bark of the aspen is considered by 
many to possess certain valuable medicinal properties, and the fame of 
this celebrated grove, at one time, drew those who esteem the remedy, 



3l6 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 






from remote districts of Nebraska and Iowa in quest of the healing cuti- 
cle. It is estimated that the average yield of this grove, if cut down, 
would be, at least, forty cords of wood to the acre. 

ROAD FROM OREGON TO FOREST CITY. 

Among the important improvements of Lewis Township is the dirt 
road extending in a bee line, east and west, between Oregon and Forest 
City, a distance from the railroad depot in the latter town, to the streets 
of the former, of two and a half miles. The distance on this road 
between the corporate limits of the two towns is about a mile and three- 
fourths. This road, which is the result of some very heavy grading, was 
built in 1874 at a cost of five thousand dollars, and is one of the best con- 
structed in the country. Its Oregon terminus is two hundred and thirty- 
five and one-half feet higher than the site of the depot in Forest City. 

MILLS IN LEWIS TOWNSHIP. 

The first mill built within the limits of what is now Lewis Town- 
ship was the first put up in Holt County. It was, in its day, known as 
Thorp's Mill, and was operated by water power. It stood on the waters 
of Mill Creek, on the northeast quarter of section 2, township 59, range 
38, about two and a-half miles southeast of the town of Oregon, on a 
farm now owned by W. H. Sterritt, a merchant of that place. William 
Thorp, who, in 1844, built this pioneer structure, came from Clay County, 
Missouri. He is now (1882) living, at an advanced age, in the State of 
Oregon. About the period of the Mexican War he sold out to Judge 
R. H. Russel and others, who, in turn, sold the mill to William Hobson, 
Sr. It was for years after a noted institution in this section of the coun- 
try. It finally fell to the possession of John Deffenbaugh, and was long 
known as the Deffenbaugh Mill. It was originally fitted up with one 
run of burrs. As it grew in importance another run was added. It was 
for years a noted mill, and was latterly propelled by a Leffel Turbine 
Wheel. A pool below the dam, which collected the water for this mill, 
was for many years used by different Christian denominations of the 
vicinity for baptismal purposes. Its establishment, in 1841, was an era 
in the history of the county. For three years prior to that period resi- 
dents of that infant settlement were under the necessity of going to mill 
to Weston, a distance of sixty miles, and often as far as Liberty, in Clay 
County, one hundred miles distant. Hence originated the common say- 
ing of that day, "One hundred miles to mill." The machinery was 
moved from this mill about 1875. 

The second mill erected in Lewis Township was built, in an early 
day, by Samuel Foster, Sr., and was known as Foster's Mill. It was 



LEWIS TOWNSHIP. 3 17 

originally a log house, but was afterwards rebuilt a frame. It stood on 
the east fork of Mill Creek. The machinery was moved out, and the mill 
abandoned about the close of the year 1874. It had become the prop- 
erty of T. W. Collins, who sold the machinery and building to J. L. 
Gomel, of Whig Valley. The elevated stone foundation and decaying 
frame superstructure of this mill still (1882) stands. 

Samuel Watson's Carding Machine and Fulling Mill was built in 
1846, on the waters of Mill Creek, which supplied the power of the 
machinery. It stood on the southwest quarter section 36, township 60, 
range 38, about two miles southeast of Oregon. For many years this 
mill did an extensive business, commanding a large trade with portions 
of Atchison, Nodaway and Andrew Counties. In consequence of the 
steady decrease in the supply of water in the creek the site was aban- 
doned, and in 1862 the machinery of the factory was transferred to Ore- 
gon and set up in a building in that town, as mentioned in our notice of 
the manufacturing interests of that place. There are few changes in the 
general aspect, not only of the county, but of the entire Purchase, more 
remarkable than the present absorption of streams that were, in an early 
day, of sufficient volume to afford motive power to machinery, and the 
stranger is surprised to learn that, on the road leading from Forest City 
to Oregon, and about half a mile from the latter place, there was built, 
in 1845, on the southwest corner of section 27, township 60, range 38, on 
Clark's Branch, a grist mill, turned by the water of that now feeble and 
often scarcely visible stream. This mill was built by Russell Turney, 
with an undershot wheel, and operated by him for many years, though 
it had been numbered with the things of the past long prior to the civil 
war. The mill house was a two story building, fairly appointed. S. C. 
Collins, a pioneer, and for upwards of twenty years surveyor of the 
county, speaks of having grist ground at this mill, which, in its day, did 
a good business. 

Russell Turney also afterwards built a saw-mill on Kimsey Creek 
on the southeast quarter of section 19, township 60, range 38, one mile 
above Forest City. This he operated from the time of its completion in 
1850 till the breaking out of the war in 1861. As early as 1854, Daniel 
Kunkel.had built on Kimsey Creek, on the northwest quarter of section 
9, township 60, range 38, a saw-mill, which was turned by the water of 
this stream. 

About ten years prior to this, P. Jackson had a saw-mill on the 
same creek. This was also a water-power, and stood on the southeast 
quarter of section 18, township 60, range 38. These are all numbered 
with the things of the past. Martin Lewis' saw-mill built in 1856, stood 
on the northeast quarter of section 3, township 59, range 38. It has 
long since disappeared. The site of the mill is now owned by John 
Weis. 



3 18 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

In the same year Samuel Hahn built a steam-power saw-mill on a 
a slough in the southeast quarter of section 21, township 59, range 38. 
The boiler of this mill exploded, and the mill took fire and burned 
down before the war. 

On the southeast quarter of section 4, township 59, range 38, about 
two and a half miles southwest of Oregon, on Mill Creek, and about 
three-quarters of a mile below the site of the Martin Lewis saw-mill, 
stood the old Scott mill, built by George Scott in 1849, and long since 
numbered with the things of the past. It was, in its day, one of the 
most important institutions of its kind in this section of country, and 
as late as 1858 was in full operation, with six run of burrs, four saws, 
four looms, one spinning-jack, one picker, four carders and condensers, 
with fulling mill, scouring and shearing machinery. The portable 
steam saw-mills of a more recent day, however, superceded the waning 
power of water-fall in the gradually and steadily diminishing streams, 
and a corresponding degree of power being required to operate the 
larger woolen mills, they, in turn, were moved from the failing water 
courses and subjected to the power of steam. Daniel Hahn built and 
operated, before the war, a saw-mill on the southwest quarter of sec- 
tion 3, township 59, range 38. This, in common with many others, has 
long since disappeared. 

Philander Johnson built, in 1857, a grist-mill on Little Tarkio, on 
the northeast quarter of section 9, township 60, range 39. After the late 
war a steam saw-mill was added. Both mills have long since disap- 
peared. Van Camp's steam saw-mill, on the southeast quarter of sec- 
tion 15, township 60, range 37, is still (1882) in operation. 

Of the others, at present, in operation, the most comprehensive are 
the Kunkel Mills located on the North Fork of Mill Creek, on the south- 
east quarter of section 26, township 60, range 38, one half mile east of 
the town of Oregon. The original building, which was erected by 
Daniel Kunkel in 1850, was a frame structure on a stone foundation. 
The extensive brick addition was put up during the war. The works 
included a flouring mill and woolen factory. The firm is known by the 
name and style of Daniel Kunkel & Sons. Each member owns a third 
interest in the concern. This is one of the institutions of Northwest 
Missouri, and is worthy of more than a passing notice. 

The woolen factory and grist mill have an area of thirty-six by 
ninety-eight feet. It is built on a stone basement eleven feet high. 
The superstructure, chiefly of brick, consists of two full stories with a 
hip story, constituting, in all, four floors. This building cost, with the 
machinery with which it is supplied, upwards of twenty-five thousand 
dollars. This machinery was manufactured at the Buckeye Engine 
Works of Salem, Ohio. The engine and boiler were built to order for 
Kunkel's factory. These were shipped in through cars from the place 



LEWIS TOWNSHIP. 319 

of manufacture to Forest City and hauled over the splendid road which 
connects that town with Oregon, by means of heavy ox teams, to the 
mill premises. The boiler and engine each weigh four tons, and the 
smoke stack, etc., four more, making the entire weight about 20,000 
pounds. The engine, a one hundred and ten horse power, is one of the 
largest and most powerful ever brought to the Upper Missouri Valley, 
and cost, including transportation, about four thousand dollars. 

The cloth factory is fitted up with one broad Compton loom for 
double width cloth, and four narrow looms. These operate in all three 
hundred and sixty spindles, and turn out on an average one hundred and 
twenty-five yards per day of cloth. The appliances are one set of forty 
inch machinery for carding and spinning, a first and second breaker, a 
seven roll condenser, one set of twenty-four inch machines, one carding 
machine for common rolls, shearing machine, fulling machine and 
scourer. In fact, all the necessary appliances for manufacturing cloth. 
This factory was first established in 1863, and has proved a success from 
its earliest inception. The grist mill attached to this institution was a 
water power, operated by an overshot wheel twenty-five feet in diame- 
ter, until the summer of 1881, when the growing uncertainty of water 
supply induced the substituting in its stead of steam. This first went 
into operation in 185 1. It is fitted up with four run of burrs and one 
pair of rolls, making it equivalent to a five run mill. It has besides, all 
the appliances of a first class mill with a grinding capacity of many 
thousand pounds per day of flour, of which it turns out an excellent 
quality. 

There are, besides the above, two other flouring mills in Lewis 
Township, both of which are located in Forest City: East Forest Mills 
and Zook & Cannon's Mills, but known as the Forest City Mills. There 
is also a saw mill in the town. A full reference to these interests will 
be found under the head of Forest City. 




!;[&«-*• 



CHAPTER XIV. 

OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 

WHEN LAID OUT AND NAMED FINLEY-CHANGED TO OREGON-FIRST AND SECOND SALE 
OF LOTS-SPECIAL ACT OF CONGRESS - EARLY SETTLERS- BUILDINGS-COUNTY 
COURT— FIRST SCHOOL— FIRST PREACHER-PHYSICIANS— POST MASTER— LIGHT- 
NING— MILL-CHURCHES-SECRET SOCIETIES- WOMAN'S UNION- LITERARY SOCIE- 
TIES—NORMAL AND PUBLIC SCHOOLS-NEWSPAPER ENTERPRISES-IMPROVEMENTS 
- BANKS-BUSINESS— MAYORS — CONCLUDING REMARKS — POSTMASTERS — FOREST 
CITY— EARLY BUILDINGS— SCHOOLS— HOTEL— EARLY BUSINESS— BREWERY— TOWN 
INCORPORATED— CHURCHES— SECRET ORDERS— BANKS— NEWSPAPERS— MILLS AND 
MANUFACTURERS-PRESENT BUSINESS — ORIGINAL SETTLERS — INDIAN BURIAL 
GROUND— SHIPPING INTERESTS— BIOGRAPHICAL. 

THE CITY OF OREGON. 

We have seen in a former chapter that Finley (now Oregon), the 
county seat of Holt County, was laid out on the 21st day of June, 1841,1 
by John A. Williams, Edward Smith and Travis Finley, the commission-j 
ers who were appointed for that purpose by the legislature. 

At the October term, i88i,held at the house of Jacob Martin, Judges 
Noland, Crowley and Kimsey on the bench, the commissioner, John 
Thorp, presented his plot of the town, which was ordered to be certified 
to the recorder's office for record. 

On the following day, October 22, 1841, the original name of the 
county seat, Finley, was changed, and it was "Ordered that the county 
seat of Holt County be called and known by the name of Oregon, and 
which name is hereby given to said county seat." 

FIRST SALE OF LOTS. 

The first sale sale of lots occurred on the 21st and 22d days ofOcto 
ber, 1841, and the commissioner was granted till the next term of court 
to complete said sale. His report of the same does not appear to hav( 
been rendered till the May term, 1842, of the county court, which was 
held at the house of the Widow Jackson, as the following entry of tha' 
period shows : 

"John Thorp makes the following settlement as commissioner o 
the seat of justice of Holt County, as follows : 

A list of money received upon sale of Town Lots in the County Seat 
Holt County : 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 321 

James Kimsey . .• $ 3 9° 

George Borchers 4 OO 

B. B. Grigsby 1260 

B. B. Grigsby 13 20 

Richard Linville 8 80 

William Estes 10 50 

Cornelius Dorland 15 30 

John Russel 6 00 

James S. Noland 3 80 

Smith Mclntyre 10 00 

William Thorp 6 50 

C. Dorland 2 32 

John Gibson 2 06 

Total $99 58 

Paid by order of the county court and allowed 85 90 

$14 08 
Four per cent., allowed by law 3 98 

Balance in hands of commissioner $10 10 

SECOND SALE OF LOTS. 

We have already referred to the first sale of lots in the town of 
Oregon, which occurred in October, 1841. The embarrassment on the 
part of the court in view of their mistaken action in locating the town 
site on two different quarters, has already been mentioned. Probably 
in view of this perplexity it was ordered by that body, at their April 
term, 1842, that all persons who had bought lots in the town of Oregon, 
the county seat of Holt County, be allowed the privilege to relinquish 
said lots to the county of Holt, providing said relinquishment be made 
by May 14, 1842, and that the commissioner advertise this order. The 
records show that several purchasers availed themselves of the benefit 
of this order. 

After various attempts to right the matter before the courts and the 
land office, on a memorial to congress rendered April, 1842, a special 
act was passed by that body to relieve the difficulty by legalizing the 
location of the town site ; and the space of twelve months was given 
the commissioner wherein to enter the land On appearing a day or 
two before the expiration of the year, the authorities at the land office 
in Plattsburg declined, in view of the existence of the dispute, to accept 
the tender. The matter was finally decided in favor of the town by the 
United States Commissioner of the General Land Office, in Washing- 
ton. On the 16th day of May, 1842, occurred, by special order, the 

21 



322 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

second sale of lots in the town of Oregon, and the same was reported 
by Commissioner John Thorp at the June term of the Holt County 
Court, held at Mrs. Rachel Jackson's house, as follows : 

James Landingham, lot 4, in block 15, $62 oo| 

Wesley Plumer, lot 1, in block 14, 42 00 

A. P. Jackson, lot 1 , in block 1 1, . . . . *. 115 00 

Richard Linville, lot 8, in block 6, 105 00 

John Thorp, lot 7, in block 6, 36 ool 

William Cashbarger, lot 6, in block 7, 93 ool 

William Zook, lot 2, in block 15, 97 ool 

John Zook, lot 3, in block 15, ... 92 ool 

Franklin Cooley, lot 8, in block 7, 90 00 

Daniel Hahn, lot 7, in block 8, 86 00 

Noah Sypes, lot 2, in block 16, 81 00 

Richard Linville, lot 5, in block 6, 50 00 



$949 00 
EARLY SETTLERS AND BUILDINGS. 

In the fall of 1841, Daniel Zook, Sr., emigrated from Ohio, and set- 
tled in Holt County, in the neighborhood of what was afterwards the 
town of Oregon. He brought with him a portion of a stock of merchan- 
dise, and, though not regularly engaged in the business, is said to have 
sold a few goods during that fall. In the following winter he went back 
to Ohio, and in the spring of 1842, returned with his family, which 
included his son, William Zook, who afterwards became a well-known 
banker of St. Joseph, Missouri, where he died in the spring of 1876; 
John Zook, who died in the spring of 1843, in Oregon ; Sarah A. Zook, 
afterwards the wife of W. Hill, of Holt County; Daniel Zook, Jr., now 
(1882) a leading member of the Holt County bar, and Thomas, his twin 
brother, who died young ; Levi Zook, a capitalist of Oregon. 

Daniel Zook, Sr., and his son William, built in Oregon, the first 
house in the place. This was on a lot on Missouri Street, on the south side 
of the court house, and was purchased at the sale above mentioned. In 
this house they opened in June, 1842, the first stock of goods ever offered 
for sale in the town of Oregon. In the fall of the same year, Daniel 
Zook, Sr., died. On the occasion of his death, the county court located 
the present cemetery at the southeast corner of the town site, and the 
body of Daniel Zook, Sr., the pioneer merchant of the infant town of 
Oregon, was the first to rest beneath the sod of its virgin soil. 

William Zook, on the death of his father, continued to sell goods in 
Oregon, till 1856. He was, however, engaged in business in Forest City, 
and elsewhere in the county, up to the period of his death. He was also 
prominently identified with the pork packing interests of Forest City and 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 323 

St. Joseph, and assisted in organizing the First National Bank, of St. 
Joseph, and afterwards the Colhoun Bank in that city. Of both these 
institutions he was the first president. An eminently successful busi- 
ness man, he was also recognized as a liberal and public spirited citizen. 

The second store started in the town of Oregon was opened by 
McLaughlin & Robidoux, in October, 1842. P. L. McLaughlin, the 
senior member of the firm and manager of the business, afterwards 
became a wealthy merchant and representative citizen of St. Joseph, 
Missouri, where he died, late in life. Jule Robidoux, the other member 
of the firm, was a son of the founder of St. Joseph. 

Edward Poor, in partnership with a man by the name of Ross, 
started, in the fall of the same year, the first blacksmith shop in the place. 

The first hotel in the town was built by Richard Linville, in the 
summer of 1842. This, though the second raised in the town, was not the 
second house completed. It was a log house, with four rooms below, and 
a hall running through the center. Above this were two rooms. This, 
in that day and locality, important structure stood on the northwest by 
north outside corner of the public square, the site of the present spa- 
cious three story brick block, in which are the business houses of Ira 
Peter and of D Martin, the Masonic Hall, etc. 

It appears that the Honorable County Court, of Holt County, assem- 
bled for the first time in the county seat, at their August term, 1842, on 
the eighth day of said month. The court house, however, not being 
completed, the unfinished bar room of Linville's Hotel was made to sub- 
serve the purpose of a court room. The building indeed was covered 
with a roof, but otherwise it presented the appearance of a vast pen. 
The interstices between the logs were neither chinked nor pointed. As 
yet, no floor had been laid ; the aperture for a window contained no 
sash, and the doorway was unprovided with a door. This extemporized 
hall of justice, however, presented the redeeming feature of coolness, 
for its ventilation was unstinted. The assembled court assumed no airs 
of undue importance, and the luxuries and superfluities of chairs and 
tables were dispensed with, while the judicial wisdom of Holt County 
seated itself astride the sleepers of the building on which a floor was, 
some day, intended to be laid ; and those who waited on its august 
decrees either stood or seated themselves on chunks of timber lying 
conveniently around. This picture of Spartan simplicity and lofty 
indifference to surrounding circumstances, was described to the writer 
by a representative citizen of the town of Oregon, who, then a small 
boy, and wonderfully impressed with a sense of respect for the dignity 
of a court which, in his infant mind, was associated with the idea of 
authority to hang or otherwise punish people, could not restrain an 
expression of amazement and disgust at the astounding difference 
between the imaginary and actual court. 



324 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

The first saloon in Oregon was started by Ross, the pioneer black- 
smith, in the fall of 1842. His stand was on the north side of Nodaway 
Street, one block west of the court house square, where it remained for 
several succeeding years. 

The third store established in the town was moved, in the fall of 
1842, by Mcintosh & Banks, from a trading post at Iowa Point Landing, 
Missouri, about four or five miles southwest of Oregon. This completed 
the mercantile business of the first year of the existence of the county 
seat. 

FIRST SCHOOL. 

The first school in Oregon was taught by John Collins. It was 
opened in the fall or winter ol 1843, in a squatter's cabin, which stood in 
a hollow in the northeast quarter of the town. Among the first pupils 
who attended this initial school, to the number of about thirty, were Levi 
Zook, now (1882) a representative citizen of the town : Isam Prior, John, 
Mary and Sarah, children of Roland Burnett, who had pre-empted the 
eighty on which a part of the town was afterwards located ; George Rus- 
sel, a nephew of Judge R. H. Russel, of the present probate court of Holt 
County ; the children of the Thorps, of Jacob Martin, and of Larkin 
Packwood, who had pre-empted the other eighty on which the town was 
located ; Paris Pfouts, Cora Pfouts, afterwards wife of P. L. McLaughlin, 
and Col. Kelley's sons. Mary Burnett, one of the pupils above referred 
to, afterwards became the wife of John Collins, the teacher. Mr. Collins 
died in 1854. Sarah Burnett married Thomas Collins, Esq., a well known 
attorney of St. Joseph, Missouri. The winter of 1843-44, during which 
this school was taught, is remembered by the early settlers as one of the 
coldest in the annals of the Purchase. Snow birds, in vast numbers 
were rendered so tame by the protracted snow and cold weather, that 
they would fly into the cabins of the settlers on the openings of their 
doors or windows. 

FIRST PREACHER. 

The first to preach the Gospel in the town of Oregon was E. M. 
Marvin, afterwards the renowned Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. His first sermon was delivered in the fall or winter of 1842, in 
the old frame court house, the building now owned by William H. Ster- 
ritt, on the northwest by east, inside corner of the square, or northeast 
corner of Washington and Nodaway Streets, opposite the public square 
In those days the future Bishop, who achieved long before the period 
his death a national reputation, was a young circuit rider, and, in com- 
mon with others of his calling and position in the newly-trodden west 
was endowed with but few of the world's goods. It is said that on th( 
occasion of his first appearance in his missionary capacity in Oregon th< 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 325 

seedy and dilapidated condition of his garments excited the compassion 
of the pioneer merchant of the town, who presented him with jeans suf- 
ficient to make him the suit of clothes of which he stood sorely in need, 
and which he gratefully accepted. William Zook, the merchant refer- 
red to, was at that time a member of no religious organization. He 
afterwards, however, united with the First Presbyterian Church in 
Oregon, in building which, with Dr.' Peter, he was largely interested. 

F. S. Rostock, Sr., now a resident of Oregon, taught, in 1846, the first 
singing school in the town. He settled in Oregon in 1845, and for twenty 
years after pursued his avocation of teacher of vocal music. Mr. Rostock, 
a native of Germany, immigrated to Ohio, in 1832, and thence to Holt 
County, Missouri, in 1845. 

PHYSICIANS. 

The first physician to settle in the town was Dr. J. C. Norman. 
About the same time, or shortly after, came Dr. Jabez Robinson and Dr. 
Carr. Dr. Norman settled in Oregon about 1842. He was the first phy- 
sician to locate in the town, as well as the first in the county. 

The first post office established in the county was, as before stated, 
in Lewis Township, near Thorp's Mill, and the first postmaster was R. H. 
Russel, the present (1882) Judge of the Probate Court. On the estab- 
lishment of the county seat Russel moved the office to Oregon, and 
appointed there, as his deputy, William Zook, in whose store it contin- 
ued for some time after. The first to hold the office, by appointment, as 
postmaster of the town of Oregon was Dr. J. C. Norman. He was for 
many years a resident of the county and town, but subsequently moved 
to California, where he died in 1870. M. S. Norman, of the firm of Pat- 
terson, Noyes & Co., St. Joseph, a son of the late Dr. Norman, was the 
first white child born in the town of Oregon. His birth occurred in Jan- 
uary, 1842. 

The first tailor to settle in Holt County was G. W. Baxter, a brother- 
in-law of Peter and Blank Stephenson. He located in Oregon, in 1842, 
and built the second house in the town. 

The log hotel described as standing on the northwest corner of 
Nodaway and Washington streets, and built by Richard Linville in 1842, 
was kept by him for several successive years. It finally became the 
property of Francis M. Pollock, who enlarged the building, weather 
boarded the entire structure without, and plastered it within. Previ- 
ously to this Daniel Zook, Sr., and afterwards his son, William, had as a 
matter of accommodation, entertained during the sessions of the courts, 
the officials and many of the attendants on the same. Pollock's improve- 
ments on the original hotel, however, added a reputation which gave the 
house a sudden popularity, and it was liberally patronized. But alas, 
for the stability of human affairs ! On the evening of the 8th of July, 



326 , HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

185 1, a terrible visitation befel the doomed structure and its unfortunate 
inmates : About 8 o'clock on the evening of July 8, 185 1, while a party 
composed of Daniel Sypes, Jr., commonly called " Buck Sypes," a lad of 
about seventeen years, and son of Daniel Sypes, who started in 1842, 
about four or five miles southeast of town, the first distillery in the county, 
Francis M. Pollock, the landlord, James Fortune, John Job, James Thorp, 
a hostler, and an Englishman, whose names are now unknown, were 
assembled in the bar room of the hotel, the building was struck by light- 
ning, with the most disastrous results. The bolt fell upon the southeast 
corner of the room, the electric fluid communicating instantly along the 
wall to the northeast corner, and there exploded a barrel ot brandy, one 
of alcohol and one of Bourbon whisky. The flaming contents of the 
barrels instantly flooded the room, enveloping in flames every occupant. 
Job, who at the time was standing near the counter, was knocked down 
by the concussion, and almost entirely consumed by the devouring ele- 
ment, nothing but his skull and a few scattering pieces of bone being 
afterwards recovered. Fortune and Pollock were badly burned, the 
former dying before daylight, and the latter at sunrise. The hostler 
died in about seven days, and Thorp a day or two after. The English- 
man also died. The only one of the entire party who recovered was 
Buck Sypes. Standing near the window at the time, he was completely 
overcome by the instantaneous and powerful results of the stroke, but 
fortunately, with the instinct of self-preservation rather than from any 
presence of mind, he dashed out the window sash, and jumped through 
to the street. In the frenzy of terror, he started on a run for his home, 
five miles and a-half distant. Though the rain at the time was falling in 
torrents, the flames from his burning clothes were not extinguished when 
he reached Mill Creek, a stream three-fourths of a mile southeast of the 
burning building. He plunged into a mill pond, through which the 
stream ran, and waded through to the opposite side, thus completely 
extinguishing the fire in his clothing. He was terribly burned, and was 
confined to his bed eight weeks, in consequence of injuries sustained in 
the catastrophe. He ultimately recovered, but retained upon his person 
up to the period of his death, which occurred in the spring of 1881, the 
marks of his terrible experience. Frank M. Pollock, who died as above 
stated about sunrise on the following morning, directed before he 
breathed his last, that he should be buried with his head to the east, 
thus facing the west. His reason for this request has been variously 
interpreted. He was a man of reputable standing in the community. 
He had served several terms as constable, and was sheriff of the county 
from 1846 to 1850. 

The first attorney to settle in Oregon was James Foster, from Ohio. 
He had been boarding at Mrs. Jackson's, and moved to Oregon in 
1842. 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 327 

The first livery stable in the town of Oregon was started by Alder- 
son Keaton, in 1853. This was located on Nodaway Street, two blocks 
east of the Court House Square, on the site now occupied by the stable 
of Samuel Stuckey. 

MILL. 

The first and only mill ever erected in the town of Oregon was built 
by Utt & Watson, in 1854. It was a steam flouring mill. The mem- 
bers of this firm were John H. Utt, now a representative citizen of White 
Cloud, Kansas, and Judge Samuel Watson, for many years an honored 
member oi the county bench. The deserted structure, a tall frame build- 
ing, on a lofty stone basement, still (1882) stands in the southeast part 
of the town, a gloomy relic of other days. It was, when first built, pro- 
vided with two run of burrs. In the following year a circular saw was 
added. In 1862 Judge Watson moved the machinery of his carding and 
fulling mill from Mill Creek to Oregon, and located it in this building. 
This change was made in view of the failure of the volume of water in 
the creek, which had supplied the power of the original mill. The flour- 
ing mill was operated in Oregon four years, and the carding and spin- 
ning mill six years. In 1858 Utt & Watson dissolved partnership, 
whereupon John H. Utt, the senior member of the firm, moved the 
machinery of the flouring mill to White Cloud, Kansas. In 1864 Judge 
Watson sold his machinery for the manufacture of cloth to Daniel Kunkel, 
Sr., who moved it to his mill on Mill Creek, about one-half or three- 
quarters of a mile east of Oregon. An attempt was made by one John 
Mclntyre, in 1878, to start a corn mill in the long-deserted building, but 
the enterprise proved a failure. The ghostly and unsightly structure of 
this relic of early enterprise is now the property of J. B. Payne, of Oregon. 

CHURCHES. 

The structure of the Old School Presbyterian Church was the first 
ecclesiastical edifice erected in the town of Oregon. It is a brick build- 
ing, on Main Street, opposite the court house square, and was completed 
in 1853, chiefly through the exertions of William Zook and Dr. H. W. 
Peter. Its cost was about $2,500. The church was organized by the 
Rev. S. M. Irvin and the Rev. William Hamilton, of the Iowa and Sac 
Mission in the Indian Territory, and of the Presbytery of Nebraska, in 
the old court house building on the northwest corner of Nodaway and 
Washington Streets, the building now (1882) owned and occupied as a 
store by H. Sterritt. The original ten members were Samuel Dunn, 
Margaret Jane Dunn, Joseph Evens, Hila Evens, Dr. H. W. Peter, Jane 
Peter, R. G. Emmerson, Jane Emmerson, John Meyer and Sarah Meyer. 
After a sermon, John Meyer and H. W. Peter having been previously 



328 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

chosen by the members, were ordained Ruling Elders according to the 
form of government of the Presbyterian Church. On the Sabbath fol- 
lowing, the 2d, of January, 1853, the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was 
administered by Rev. William Hamilton, at which time Miss Sarah 
Cooper, upon examination, and after being baptized by the Rev. S. M. 
Irvin, was admitted to full membership in the church. 

The above proceedings are certified on the church book as correct, 
by Rev. S. M. Irvin, of the Presbytery of Nebraska. At the session of 
April 5, 1856, William Zook and Elizabeth Sterritt were received into 
the church by certificate. The first regular minister of this church was 
the Rev. William Fulton. He served from 1853 to i860. 

During a considerable portion of the period of the civil war, the 
church was without a regular pastor. Services, however, were held from 
time to time, by Rev. William Hamilton, S. M. Irvin, McCane, Jennings 
Symington and others from the Mission and elsewhere. In 1864, Rev. 
Nathaniel H. Smith was called to the pulpit, and continued to preach in 
this church till the year of 1868, when he was succeeded by Rev. William 
Cummins. He served the church till 1871, when he was succeeded by 
Rev. James Lafferty. In 1873, Rev. James M. McClung was called. He 
continued to fill the pulpit till September 1875. From that period the 
church was without a regular pastor, till October 14, 1876, when Rev. 
George Miller having been called, entered upon his duties as pastor. 
He served till the fall of 1881, when he was called to the charge of the 
Second Presbyterian Church, in St. Joseph, Missouri. In December, 
1881, Rev. W. E. Williamson accepted a call to the pulpit of the church. 
The present (1882) membership is about two hundred, of whom about 
eighty are active members. 

The Sunday school superintended by Robert Montgomery, Esq., 
includes about seventy-five or eighty pupils and is in a prosperous con- 
dition. 

BAPTIST CHURCH. 

The second church building erected in the town of Oregon was the 
Regular (Hard Shell) Baptist Church. It was a small brick house, 
which stood on the north side of the graveyard. It was built in 1858. 
Twenty years after, the building being deemed unsafe, the same was 
taken down and the material sold to different parties, S. C. Collins 
being the principal purchaser. This is the church that was organized 
ass early as 1843, two an ^ a half miles southeast of the town, and referred 
to as the first religious organization in the county. It moved to Oregon 
from Mill Creek on the building of the brick church. The Christians 
subsequently purchased a half interest in, and, for a long period after, 
used this church with the Baptists. The earlier records of the former 
church, however, were lost. In 1879, about a year after the Baptists 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 329 

had taken down their building in Oregon, they purchased for the 
extremely low price of $350, a good frame building, worth at least 
$1,000, and converted it into a church. The circumstance of their 
securing so excellent a. bargain was due to the fact that the district in 
which the building stands had been consolidated with another in which 
there was also a school house, and consequently this building was ren- 
dered useless for its original purposes. This church stands in a beauti- 
ful grove on the road leading from Oregon to Forest City, about three- 
fourths of a mile from the latter town. In December, 1881, the mem- 
bership of this church was thirty-one. Elder Pollard was pastor of the 
congregation. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

The third church organization instituted in the town was that of the 
Christians, in an early day. As before stated, they long shared the 
brick church erected by the Baptists. The terms on which this arrange- 
ment was effected were that the Christians should complete the internal 
finish of the church, provide seats, etc. This partnership arrangement 
continued till 1878, when, as a matter of safety, it became necessary to 
takedown the tottering*building. 

In 1877 the Christians erected a neat and substantial brick church 
on Washington Street, about one block south of the public square. It is 
a plain structure with a graceful spire. The early records of this church 
are lost, and the only means of acquiring information of its primitive 
days are derived from the imperfect memories of a few of the surviving 
pioneers who still reside in the county. The first to preach to the mem- 
bers of this church was Elder Duke Young. This was probably as early 
as 1849 or l 8$°> an d perhaps earlier. The first meetings occurred at the 
residence of Israel Beeler, about one and a half miles north of the 
town of Oregon. Among the other ministers who had charge of the 
congregation were Elders Cox, Trapp, Tate, White, Hudgens, Hopkins 
and Barrow. Of the re-organized church the ministers in succession 
have been Elders W. A. Gardner, P. K. Dibble, Gardner again for two 
additional years, and in 1880 the present (1882) minister, W. T. Mau- 
pin. It was during the seven years of Elder Gardner's ministry that 
the present church edifice on Washington Street was erected. Its mem- 
bership is very large and a prosperous Sunday School is taught in the 
building. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church, of Oregon, is an outgrowth 
of the original organization instituted in the year 1841, and organized 
by Rev. Edwin Peary within the limits of what is now Forbes Township, 
as fully set forth in our report of that locality. 



33° HISTORY OF HOLT COUNT! . 

The structure of the M. E. Church, in Oregon, stands on Main 
Street, on the first corner south of the public square. It is a neat frame 
building, 55x35 feet in extent. The original edifice was erected in 1866. 
In the course of succeeding years, the superstructure appeared insecure ; 
and, in 1879, it was deemed advisable to take down the building, which 
was accordingly done. The present neat and well appearing edifice 
was erected, in 1879, on the foundation of the old building, and com- 
pleted in 188 1. It is the most elegant church in the town as well as 
the most spacious. Its cost was about $3,000. We have referred to the 
fact that the Rev. E. M. Marvin, afterwards Bishop of the M. E. Church, 
was the first minister of the Gospel to preach in Oregon. The church 
edifice of this denomination, however, was not the first house of worship 
erected in the county ; that distinction belonging to the Hard-Shell 
Baptists, as set forth in the chapter entitled " Lewis Township." 

Prior to the year 1864 there exists no records of this body. On the 
9th of June of that year the church was reorganized in Oregon, by the 
Rev. Edward Rozell, with the following members : Benjamin Allen and 
wiie, Edgar Allen and wife, Mrs. Elizabeth Bunker, L. D. Barnes and 
wife, Jacob Cronk and wife, Dr. J. A. Callan and wife, Rev. Dr. A. J. 
Evans and wife. Dr. Evans was the first recording secretary of the 
quarterly conference at Oregon. The other members, some of whom, 
perhaps, did not join the organization till 1865, included Dr. Reuben King 
and wife, A. Hoblitzell and wife, Mrs. Nancy Jackson, for thirty 
years a resident of the town of Oregon ; Mrs. Elizabeth Creek, Samuel 
Whitmer and wife, John Proud and wife ; Joseph Martin and wife were 
members in 1865. Mr. Martin still (1882) lives, at the advanced age of 
seventy-five years. His wife died some years since. George W. Lucas, 
originally from the State of Iowa, where he was at one time a member 
of the House of Representatives and afterwards of the State Senate, was 
a prominent member of the church in Oregon, and died at his residence 
near that place, January 2, 1882, at the advanced age of seventy-four years. 
In the funeral sermon preached on that occasion by the Rev. Samuel 
Caruthers, pastor of the church, he referred to the fact that Mr. Lucas 
had been an active member of the M. E. Church fifty-one years. Silas 
Pierce, one of the original settlers of Holt County, has been a prominent 
member of the church since the year 1868. Andrew Gemeker and wife, 
who united with the church here in 1869, have also long been regarded 
as representative members of the congregation in Oregon. The minis- 
ters of the Oregon church since its organization have been : First, Rev. 
Edward Rozell, from 1864 to 1866 ; Rev. F. S. B;ggs, 1866-67 J R- ev - Sam- 
uel Huffman, now (1882) Probate Judge of Andrew County, pastor from 
1867 to 1868 ; Rev. J. L. Hatfield, 1868-69 ; Rev. J. F. Boyle, 1869-70; 
Rev. William Hanley, 1870-71 ; Rev. F. H. Graham, 1871-72 ; Rev. S. W. 
Thornton, 1872-74 ; Rev. Oscar Williams, 1874-75 ; Rev. W. L. Edmonds, 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 331 

1875-77 ; Rev. S. H. Enyart, 1877-79 ; Rev. Isaac Chivington, 1879-80 ; 
Rev. James Showalter, 1880-81 ; Rev. Samuel Caruthers, April, 188 1. 
This church has a Sunday school of one hundred and thirty scholars, 
superintended by J. W. Hasness, assisted by ten teachers. 

THE GERMAN M. E. CHURCH. 

The first to preach in Oregon for this church was the Rev. Henry 
Hogrefe, a circuit rider. The first services were held in 1847, at the resi- 
dence of F. S. Rostock, Sr. They continued regularly for three successive 
years to meet at his house for religious services, till about the year 1850, 
when the congregation purchased for a church, a school building which 
stood on the site of the present brick edifice, opposite the Normal School. 
The Rev. Henry Hogrefe w?.s succeeded by Rev. Ellis, and the latter 
by Rev. Charles Walters. Rev. Koeniky was the first presiding elder. 
In 1859, the present brick church, above mentioned, was erected at a 
cost of $3,650. The church was then organized by Rev. H. Muehlen- 
brock, with the following members : F. S. Rostock, Sr. and wife, George 
Meyer, Daniel Kunkel, Philip Rostock, Ferdinand Simero, Michael 
Spoerle, Fred. Mart, Jacob Herman, Herman Schulte, Andrew Gemeker, 
Jacob Kuentzle, Jacob Mart, C. Schlotzhauer, Philip Schneider, Philip 
Kollmer and Henry Hogrefe. The wives of the above mentioned were 
also members of the church and organization. 

The following are the ministers who have served this church : Rev. 
H. Muehlenbrock, from 1859 to ^62 ; Rev. Henry C. Dryer, from 1862 
to 1863; Rev. Peter Hehner, from 1863 to 1864; Rev. Charles Stein- 
meyer, from 1864 to 1865 ; Rev. John Philip Miller, from 1865 to 1867; 
Rev. H. F. Arnsberger, from 1867 to 1869; Rev. George Schotz, from 
1869 to 1872; Rev. Henry Fiegenbaum, from 1872 to 1875; Rev. Wil- 
liam Fiegenbaum, from 1875 to 1876; Rev. F. Unland, from 1876 to 
1879; Rev. C. Herrmann entered on his pastoral duties in 1879, an ^ is 
still (1882) minister of the congregation. 

THE REORGANIZED CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS, 

is an important religious body in Holt County. Tarkio Branch was 
organized April, 1869, at the residence of Walter Brownlee, its Presid- 
ing Elder, on the southeast quarter of section 23, township 59, range 38, 
in Forbes Township, just south of the line of Lewis. This organization 
as effected by Elder Davis H. Bays, with nine members. On the 20th 
jf October, 1874, Tarkio Branch was disorganized, and the members 
ormed into Oregon Branch, with about thirty members. Reuben Hoyer 
■vas Presiding Elder. The present (1882) membership is twenty-three 
<vith Ben H. Fisher, Presiding Elder. They have as yet no public place 
)f worship, but hold religious service? in private residences. 



332 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

COLORED BAPTIST CHURCH 

was erected in 1867, is a frame building, and contains a large mem- 
bership. 

SOCIETIES— I. O. O. F. 

Pursuant to appointment and warrant of the Right Worthy Grand 
Lodge of Missouri, the D. D. G. M. Crane proceeded on the 10th of 
May, 1852, to institute in the town of Oregon a subordinate lodge, 
under the jurisdiction of said Grand Lodge. After producing his 
authority, the D. D. G. M. administered the proper obligation to the 
petitioners for charter, delivered to them their warrant and hailed them 
by the name of Oregon Lodge, No. 54, I. O. O. F. 

The following were the first officers elected: James Foster, N. G.; 
William E. Pickett, V. G.; William Zook, Treasurer, and A. E. Morriss, 
Secretary. The other charter members were Dr. H. W. Peter and W. 
D. Beeler. The first initiated were F. S. Rostock, Sr., and J. S. Grimm. 
The institution has prospered abundantly, its membership in 1882 
amounting to sixty-five. 

Oregon Encampment, No. 43, I. O. O. F., was organized under 
charter granted May 21, 1869, and signed Albert Trevor, Grand Patri- 
arch, and Robert E. McNeely, G. Scribe. The present (1882) member- 
ship of the encampment is forty-five. Their hall is neatly appointed, 
and its general appearance creditable to the order. 

MASONIC. 

Oregon Lodge, No. 139, A. F. and A. M., was organized in a room 
in the original court house building, now owned and occupied as a store 
by H. Sterritt. This organization was effected August 15, 1853, by vir- 
tue of a Dispensation granted by the Grand Lodge of Missouri. The 
officers constituted in said Dispensation were : J. W. Moodie, W. M.; 
James M. Tuton, S. W., and Galen Crow, J. W. The lodge was set to 
work by the Worshipful Master, who appointed the following officers : 
William E. Price, Secretary; Samuel B. Cannon, Treasurer; John F. 
Jackson, S. D.; C. F. Cayton, J. D., and Jacob Mosier, Steward and 
Tyler. 

At the second meeting of this lodge, held September 5, 1853, the 
petitions for initiation of A. W. Rodgers, F. S. Rostock, E. R. Brown, 
James Foster, Elijah Merrill, H. M. Upton, A. C. Bevan, W. P. Birch- 
field, and Dr. John Dozier, were read and referred to proper committees. 

At a regular meeting held in their hall October 3, 1843, James Fos- 
ter, H. M. Upton, F. S. Rostock, Sr., and E. R. Brown were initiated in 
due form. This was the first " Work" done in this lodge. They were 
all subsequently, in due time, passed and raised. The lodge prospered 






OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 333 

abundantly, and continued to work under Dispensation, holding their 
last session by virtue of that instrument, May 7, 1855. 

The first meeting under charter, which designates the organization 
as Oregon Lodge, No. 139, and is dated May 31, 1855, occurred in Oregon, 
June 16, 1855. The officers mentioned in the charter are : John W. 
Moodie, W. M.; James Foster, S. W., and Daniel Zook, J. W. The 
other officers mentioned in the report of that meeting are H. Patterson, 
Treasurer ; Daniel Zook, Secretary ; G. W. Crow, S. D. ; G. W. Bratton, 
J. D., and F. G. Rostock, Steward and Tyler. 

The first election under charter, for officers, occurred June 24, 1855, 
with the following result: James Foster, W. M.; Levi Zook, S. W.; G. 
W. Bratton, J. W. ; Hiram Patterson, Treasurer ; Daniel Zook, Secre- 
tary; G. W. Crow, S. D.; Henry Meyer, J. D.; F. S. Rostock, Steward 
and Tyler.- 

At the annual election held June 24, 1856, the following were chosen: 
Daniel Zook, W. M.; G. W. Bratton, S. W.; M. S. Moodie, J. W.; Hiram 
Patterson, Treasurer; John Dozier, Secretary; F. S. Rostock, Sr., 
Steward and Tyler. 

At the election held June 24, 1857, the following were chose'n : 
James Foster, W. M.; G. P. Luckhardt, S. W.; J. M. Patterson, J. W.; 
Daniel David, Treasurer, and Daniel Zook, Secretary. 

The election of June 24, 1858, resulted as follows: James M. Patter- 
son, W. M.; James W. Chadduck, S. W.; W. W. Williams, J. W.; G. B. 
Shadduck, Secretary ; Daniel David, Treasurer ; F. S. Rostock, Sr., 
Steward and Tyler. 

The election of June 24, 1859, resulted as follows: James Foster, W. 
M.; J. W. Chadduck, S. W.; W. H. Williams, J. W.; Galen Crow, Treas- 
urer, and G. B. Shadduck, Secretary. 

At the election held June 24, i860, James W. Chadduck was chosen 
W. M.; W. H. Williams, S, W.; I. L. Reynolds, J. W.; W. B. Wilson, 
Treasurer; G. B. Chadduck, Secretary; and F. S. Rostock, Sr., Tyler, 
for the ensuing Masonic year. 

The election of officers, held June 24, 1861, resulted as follows; 
James Foster, W. M.; James S. Hart, S. W.; J. C. Bear, J. W.; P. H. 
Buckley, Treasurer; G. B. Chadduck, Secretary, and Geo. A. Rigdon, Tyler. 

The election held June 24, 1862, was as follows : James Hart, W. M.; 
G. P. Luckhardt, S. W.; F. S. Rostock, J. W.; R. D. Markland, Secretary; 
Daniel David, Treasurer. 

The officers elected in 1863 were G. P. Luckhardt, W. M.; F. S. 
Rostock, S. W.; James Hart, J. W. 

At the anniversary meeting held, as usual, June 24, 1864; George 
P. Luckhardt was elected W. M.; P. H. Buckly, S. W.; J. S. Hart, J. W.; 
L. VanBuskirk, Treasurer ; G. B. Chadduck, Secretary ; F. S. Rostock, 
Steward and Tyler. 



334 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

The records of election of this lodge for the years 1865, 1866 and 
1867 are lost. 

At the annual election, held June 24, 1868, Charles David was elected 
and installed W. M.; John C. Vess, S. W.; E. L. Allen, J. W.; Daniel 
David, Treasurer ; Daniel Zook, Secretary, and F. S. Rostock, Steward 
and Tyler. 

The officers elected June 24, 1869, were F. S. Rostock, W. M.; T. 
H. Parrish, S. W.; Levi Thompson, J. W. ; J. G. Cotterell, Treasurer ; E. 
L. Allen, Secretary, and Isaac Hullinger, Tyler. 

Officers elected June 24, 1870: James S. Hart, W. M.; M. M. Smith, 
S. W.; S. P. Jewell, J. W.; John G. Cotterell, Treasurer ; T. C. Dungan,i 
Secretary ; F. S. Rostock, Sr., Tyler. 

The election of June 24, 187 1, was as follows : Edgar L. Allen, W 
M.; S. P. Jewe'l, S. W. ; George Anderson, J. W. ; E. VanBuskirk, Treas- 
urer ; T. C. Dungan, Secretary ; F. S. Rostock, Tyler. 

The next election of officers occurred December 21, 1872, with the 
following result : Edgar L. Allen, W. M.; Charles David, S. W.; Levi 
Oren, J. W. ; E. VanBuskirk, Treasurer ; S. W. Morrison, Secretary ; F 
S. Rostock, Tyler. 

At the annual meeting held December 20, 1873, the following offi- 
cers were elected for the ensuing year : M. M. Smith, W. M.; E. Van- 
Buskirk, S. W. ; R. Montgomery, J. W.; Levi Oren, Treasurer ; John C 
Vess, Secretary ; F. S. Rostock, Steward and Tyler. 

December 19, 1874, the following officers were elected : M.M.Smith, 
W. M.; E. VanBuskirk, S. W.; W. G. Mclntyre, J. W.; John Wallace, 
Treasurer ; J. C. Vess, Secretary ; F. S. Rostock, Steward and Tyler. 

At the annual election held December 18, 1875, the following officers 
were elected : W. G. Mclntyre, W. M.; Robert Montgomery, S. W. ; F. 
M. Joslyn, J. W.; John N. Masters, Treasurer, and J. C. Vess, Sec 
retary. 

The election for officers held December 16, 1876, resulted as follows 
Robert Montgomery, W. M.; M. H. Soper, S. W.; Charles Brown, J. W.; 
Levi Oren, Treasurer; J. C. Vess, Secretary and John Wallace, Tyler. 

At the regular communication held December 15, 1877, the follow- 
ing were elected and installed officers of the Lodge for the ensuing year: 
Robert Montgomery, W. M.; O. C. Hill, S. W.; A. J. Dooley, J. W.; VV. 
C. Noble, Treasurer ; Levi Oren, Secretary, and John Wallace, Tyler. 

At the regular annual election held December 21, 1878, the follow 
ing were elected and installed officers of the Lodge : E. VanBuskirk, 
W. M.; A. J. Dooley, S. W.; Samuel Senior, J. W.; J. B. Curry, Treas 
urer ; John Wallace, Secretary ; J. E. Cummins, S. D.; W. O. Noble, J. D., 
and F. S. Rostock, Steward and Tyler. 

The election for officers held December 20, 1879, resulted as follows : 
Robert Montgomery, W. M.; S. D. Senior, S. W.; J. E. Cummins, J. W.; 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 335 

E. VanBuskirk, Treasurer ; M. H. Soper, Secretary; F. S. Rostock, Stew- 
ard and Tyler. 

At the regular election held December 18, 1880, the following 
officers were chosen : Robert Montgomery, W. M.; E. L. Allen, S. W. ; 
J. N. Masters J. W. ; James B. Curry, Treasurer ; J. T. Thatcher, Secre- 
tary, and F. S. Rostock, Steward and Tyler. The Worshipful Master 
appointed J. E. Cummins S. D. The S. W. appointed S. W. Morrison 
J. D., for the ensuing year. These officers were all duly installed. 

The annual election, held as usual, in their hall in Oregon, occurred 
December 17, 1881, with the following result: T. H. Parrish, W. M.; 
Robert Montgomery, S. W.; S. W. Morrison, J. W.; E. VanBuskirk, 
Treasurer ; Dr. J. F. Thatcher, Secretary. The W. M. elect, then 
appointed the following officers: J. E. Cummins, S. D.; E. D. Senior, J. 
D.; E. L. Allen, S. S.; J. F. Howell, J. S., and F. S. Rostock, Sr., Tyler. 
The above named officers were then duly installed. 

In 1856, the Odd Fellows began, in connection with the Masonic fra- 
ternity, to erect the large three-story brick structure which stands on 
the northwest corner of Washington and Nodaway Streets, fronting the 
former fifty feet, and extending back on the latter one hundred feet, 
thus forming the northwest by north outside corner of the court house 
square. Finding themselves unable to complete the structure, after 
having excavated the cellars and laid the foundations, they sold out to 
James Foster, a prominent attorney and capitalist of the town, as well 
as an active and influential member of both orders, who proceeded to 
complete the building. The Odd Fellows either purchased from him 
afterwards, or reserved the right to build the third story for their hall, 
which they afterwards did, selecting the corner site. 

The Masonic fraternity did likewise with the north half of the third 
floor. Thus the entire third floor of the building is owned by these two 
bodies. About the close of the war James Foster sold his share of the 
building, including the entire two lower stories to Cotterell, Keenes & 
Co., who occupied the southwest room as a general store. In the spring 
of 1867, Cotterell, Keenes & Co. sold the south half of the building to 
Hoblitzell Bros. T. W. Collins became, in 1869, proprietor of the whole 
first and second floors. He subsequently sold to other parties. At 
i present (1882) Ira Peter, general merchant, occupies the south store 
room, which is rented from John T. Hoblitzell, and Daniel Martin, in the 
saddle and harness business, owns the adjoining lower floor. 

The other Masonic organizations in Oregon, included Keystone 
Royal Arch Chapter, No 46, originally chartered in Oregon, was subse- 
quently moved to Mound City, in which chapter of this work its history 
will be found. Holt County Council, No. 15, R. and S. M., was chartered 
July, 1872, withE. L. Allen, T. I. G. M.; R. N. Howell, T. CDungan. 
This body surrendered its charter in 1880. 



336 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Besides the secret and benevolent societies already mentioned, 
Oregon, which of i late years is achieving somewhat of distinction as a 
literary center, enjoys the possession of several organizations whose 
objects point to that end. Of these the most prominent and important 
is the Woman's Union, which celebrated its tenth anniversary on the 
6th day of January, 1882. The County Paper of January 13, 1882, 
edited by D. P. Dobyns, thus refers to that event : " On the 6th day of 
January, 1872, Mrs. S. Q. Goslin, S. A. Goslin, M. M. Soper, Mary Curry, 
Annie Batchelor, Ann K. Irvine and Elvira Brodbeck assembled at the 
residence of Dr. Goslin, in this city, and organized themselves into a 
society having for its object the mental, moral and physical improve 
ment of woman. 

"'The Woman's Union,' for such was the title selected at its first 
meeting, has gradually increased in members, until to-day over one 
hundred names are enrolled as members, and the society is well and favor 
ably known, not only in Holt County, but throughout Northwest Missouri. 

"On Saturday evening last the Union celebrated at the Christian 
Church, in this city, the tenth anniversary of its organization. The 
programme was opened by a song, Golden Years, after which the 
anniversary address was delivered by Mrs. M. M. Soper. Miss Mar) 
Koucher recited The First Settler's Story in a most excellent manner 
The society's paper was then read by Mrs. Birdsall Fiegenbaum, whose 
style of delivery did ample credit to the interesting and ably writter 
articles with which its columns were replete. Hannah Jane was ther 
recited by Miss Belle Cotterell in her usual happy style. Miss Emm; 
Hershberger read a most excellent essay, entitled, Advancement vs 
Promotion. Mrs. Foster and Mrs. Dobyns read humorous selections 
The Boy Convict was recited by Miss Elma Hershberger in very excel 
lent style. Little Carrie and Lema Schulte sang Evelina in a styli 
which elicited unbounded applause. Music, both vocal and instru 
mental, was afforded between each exercise by Misses Maupin, Hill 
Cotton, Bradrick, Goslin and Howell, and Messrs. Hoffman and Kel 
logg, and was first-class in every particular." 

In her address on this interesting occasion, Mrs. Soper referred, at som 
length, and with no insignificant force, to the sentiments that had calle 
into existence this society, and, in modest and dignified terms, adverte 
to the fact that in the past years of its existence, besides other exercise 
of an intellectual character, over six hundred essays had been written b 
its members upon almost all subjects of popular interest. The furthe 
interesting facts were disclosed, that the society had received and pai 
out in that period about $3,000, and still had on hand a lecture fund ( 
over $100; that the enrollment summed up a total membership of on 
hundred and five names — of these, ten had been removed by death, an 
others by change of residence to remote lecalities. 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 337 

That a very large share of the literary and scientific tastes for the 
encouragement of which Oregon is becoming widely known, is due to 
the efforts of these cultivated and enterprising ladies, is a fact univer- 
sally conceded, and there is certainly no institution of a moral and 
intellectual character within. the limits of Holt County of which the 
friends of true progress have greater occasion to be proud than the 
Woman's Union, of Oregon. 

OTHER LITERARY SOCIETIES. 

The other literary societies, past and present, of Oregon, include 
the Philomathean, which was organized in 1873, ' n the public school 
building. It continued to meet regularly, every Friday evening, for the 
period of two years, when it ceased to exist. 

The Normal Literary Society, founded in 1876, had a large member- 
ship, and prospered abundantly up to the period of its demise, which 
occurred in 1881. 

The Oregon Literary Society, organized October, 188 1, is still 
(1882) in a prosperous condition. 

The Mutual Club is a literary organization, instituted in 1877. Its 
object is mutual improvement in matters pertaining to literary and phil- 
osophical subjects. This very select society, which holds its sessions at 
the residences of its members, has a membership of about a dozen. 

NORMAL AND PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

We have already referred to the fact that the first school taught in 
the town of Oregon was a private enterprise, inaugurated in the winter 
of 1843, by John Collins. The people of Oregon have always been known 
for their earnest appreciation of the advantages of education, and early 
availed themselves of such means and appliances for promoting the cause 
as the law provided. 

Prior to the year 1857, the town of Oregon included two school dis- 
tricts, known as East and West, numbered respectively 14 and 15, each 
being provided with a separate building. 

In 1857, these two districts were united, and a new brick building 
was planned and commenced. The structure was twenty-four by sixty 
feety, two stories high, and included four rooms and two halls. This 
building was first occupied, in the fall of 1858, by Cyrus Cook, as Princi- 
pal, G. W. Bayless and Mrs. C. Cook as assistants. 

Professor Cook was retained for two or more terms, after which the 
following named were successively employed as Principals : T. W. Col- 
lins, Ancel Watrous, Green O. Dersham. During the school year of 
1864-65, Colonel Clarke Irvine was Principal, assisted by Mrs. Welta and 
Miss Bettie Collins. 

22 



338 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

After him, the following, for a number of years, filled in succession 
the position of Principal : Noah Huntsman, Rev. — M orrison, Thomas 
Miller and J. C. McKnight. During the terms of 1870-71 and 1871-72, H- 
Hershberger was Principal, first, with Daniel Schulte, Miss Fannie Scott 
and Miss Nannie McDonald, as assistants, £nd during the second school 
year with Samuel M. Ruley, Daniel Schulte and Miss Ellen Kennedy, as 
assistants. The colored school was taught by Samuel P. Clark. 

For the term of 1872-73, W. F. Drake was Principal, with Miss Belle 
Sweetman, Miss Fannie Soper, Miss Lucy Christian and Miss Fannie 
Cooper, as assistants. The colored school was taught by W. S. Mitchell. 

In the spring of 1873 bonds were voted and all arrangements made 
for the erection of a building to cost $25,000. The old house was torn 
down and the present (1882) structure was erected on its site. The 
Public School of Oregon, with its efficient normal department, is an insti- 
tution of which her people have just cause to be proud. 

The edifice is a spacious and elegant brick structure, modeled on 
the latest and most approved plan. A lofty basement extends under 
the entire area of the building. This is, in part, occupied by the four 
hot-air furnaces by which the twelve rooms contained in the building are 
heated. The appliances for promoting ventilation are very complete 
and efficient. 

Two lofty stories rise above the substructure, and the whole is 
crowned with a Mansard roof of elegant design and sufficiently commo- 
dious proportions to afford the purpose of a third story. But eight rooms 
are as yet occupied, the Mansard, which is not for the present needed, 
being unfurnished within. The elegantly designed tower, which rises 
above the main front of the edifice, is ninety-six feet in height. From 
the belfry in this tower a wide and magnificent prospect of the surround- 
ing country is afforded. Highland, White Cloud, Iowa Point, Troy, and 
other towns in Kansas, as well as Rulo, Nebraska, are distinctly visible, 
while, to the eastward, several Missouri towns are clearly discernible, 
about sunset, on a clear day. The cost of this building, inclusive of the 
lot on which it stands, was $18,125. The furniture of the rooms, now 
occupied, cost one thousand dollars. It is all of the most convenient and 
approved style. M. Angelo Powell, of St. Joseph, was the architect. 

Professor W. F. Drake was the first Principal in the new building, 
for the term of 1873-74, with H. Hershberger, Miss Emma Kimberlay, 
Mrs. Rachael Kirkpatrick and Miss Alice Parker assistants. 

T. L. Griger taught, during this period, the colored school. 

During the term of 1874-75, M. V. Babbitt was Principal, with H. S. 
Gardner, Miss E. H. McLung, Miss Alice Parker and W. R. Springer, 
assistants. T. L. Griger taught the colored school. Before the expira- 
tion of the first half of his term M. V. Babbitt resigned, and was suc- 
ceeded by Ctiarles J. Harris, of St. Louis. 




OREGON NORMAL SCHOOL BUILDING. 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 339 

During the term of 1875-76, H. Hershberger was Principal, with 
Lewis Kirkpatrick chief assistant. Mrs. R. L. Kirkpatrick and Miss Ida 
Cheesbro were assistants in the lower grades. 

T. L. Griger continued to teach the colored school. 

During the term of 1876-77, O. C. Hill was Principal, assisted by 
Miss Alice Heath, Mrs. R. L. Kirkpatrick, Miss Fannie Soper, Mrs. S. O. 
Hunnicutt, and Mrs. Lucy Koucher. During this term was instituted a 
normal department, conducted by Professor O. C. Hill and his assistant, 
Miss Heath. Hill continued to exercise supervision over all the other 
departments of the school. Miss Lizzie Patterson was teacher of the 
colored school during this academic year. 

For the term of 1877-78, Professor O. C. Hill was Principal, assisted 
by Miss Alice Heath in the normal department, and Miss Julia Gear- 
heart, Miss Fannie Soper, Mrs. R. L. Kirkpatrick and Mrs. A. M. Kel- 
logg, in the public school. Miss Lizzie Patterson, continued to teach 
the colored school. 

For the term of 1878-79, O. C. Hill was retained as Principal, with 
Miss Alice Heath assistant, in the normal department, and Miss Nettie 
Gardner, Miss Fannie Soper, Miss Helen Lehmer and Mrs. A. M. Kel- 
logg, assistants in the public school. 

The colored school this year was taught by Miss Alice Armstrong. 

During 1879-80, O. C. Hill- was Principal, with R. B. Whittaker as 
assistant in the normal department, and Miss Nettie Gardner, Mrs. S. 
Thomas, Miss Ella Evans and Mrs. A. M. Kellogg, assistants in the 
public school departments. 

Mrs. L. McKnight taught the colored school. 

In term of 1880-81, O. C. Hill was again Principal, with Mrs. S. 
Thomas assistant in the normal department, and Miss Nettie Gardner, 
Miss Alice Kline, Miss Nannie Nesbit and Mrs. A. M. Kellogg, assist- 
ants in the public school departments. 

Mrs. L. McKnight taught the colored school. 

For the year 1881-82, C. L. Ebaugh was Principal, with Miss Annie 
Dysart as assistant in the normal department, Professor Samuel M. 
Ruley, Miss Bessie Lehmer, Miss Susie Lukins and Mrs. A. M. Kellogg, 
assistants in the public school departments. 

Mrs. Kate Fry tauglit the colored school. 

The compensation paid to principals has ranged from $75 to $100 
per month, and to assistants from $35 to $60 per month. 

NEWSPAPER ENTERPRISES. 

The first paper printed in Holt County was the Holt County News, 
tts first issue appeared July 1, 1857, in the town of Oregon. It was a 
even column weekly, published by S. H. B. Cundiff. April 15, 1859, 



34° HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Cundifif sold the paper to Cyrus Cook and A. Watrous. April 29, 1859, 
J. W. Biggers became a partner of C. Cook & Co., in the publication of 
the paper. July 1, 1859, Cyrus Cook became sole proprietor of the News. 
November 11, 1859, tne paper became the property of A. Watrous, Jr. 
May 11, i860, Charles W. Bowman purchased an interest in the paper, 
which was thenceforth published by Watrous and Bowman. November 
24, i860, the paper again changed hands, and A. R. Conklin was 
announced as its proprietor. January 8, 1861, he changed the name of 
the paper, styling it the Courier and News. February 2, 1861, this much 
owned paper again changed hands, Jabez Robinson and J. W. Biggers 
becoming proprietors. Its bold advocacy of the doctrine of the right of 
secession provoked the wrath of the military authorities, and, a short 
time after the last change in ownership and management, Major Peabody 
came up from St. Joseph, with several companies of militia, took posses- 
sion of the office and moved away the press and type. He was, how- 
ever, induced soon after to bring back this material, the type, however, 
in a pied condition. The press and other material of the office was 
afterwards sold to Sheriff Campbell, of Troy, Kansas, who started there- 
with a Republican paper. 

The second newspaper started in the county was the Monitor, a 
weekly journal published in Forest City by J. R. VanNatta and A. R. 
Conklin. It first appeared in September, 1858. Towards the of close' of 
the following year the paper came out as the Courier, published by A. 
R. Conklin. It was succeeded July 10, 1861, by the Holt County Senti- 
nel, published by Daniel Zook & Co., also a weekly journal. Only five 
issues appeared when the publication of the paper was suspended. 
August 14, 1863, the Sentinel again appeared, after an interval of two 
years, coming out with No. 6. It was again published by Daniel Zook 
& Co. The Co. was a printer by the name of Bodenhamer. With No. 
17, which appeared October 30, 1863, the publication of the paper was 
suspended. 

The Missouri Expose was started in Forest City, July, 1868, by S. 
M. C. Reynolds and D. O. Wasson. 

February 27, 1869, the Holt County Journal made its first appear- 
ance as the successor of the Expose. This was also a weekly. It was 
published by Thomas H. and Robert A. Frame. After the eighteenth 
issue the publication suspended. 

December 3, 1869, C. W. and G. W. Bowman started, in Forest City, 
the Independent. This they continued to publish till October 22, 1870, 
when D. P. Ballard assumed control of the paper. He suspended pub- 
lication, November 11, 1870, when the press and other material were 
moved to Rock Port, Missouri, and a Democratic paper started with the 
same. This closed the journalistic enterprises»of Forest City. 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 34 1 

In July, 1865, the Holt County Sentinel made its first appearance in 
the town of Oregon, where it continued to be published by C. W. Bow- 
man till July, 1869, when Adam Klippel bought the paper. He contin- 
ued to edit and publish the Sentinel till October, 1876, when he sold out 
to W. W. Davenport, who changed its name, styling it the County Paper. 
In the summer of 1881, Davenport sold out to D. P. Dobyns & Co., the 
present (1882) proprietors and publishers. It is a handsome seven col- 
umn, eight page paper, and the recognized organ of the Republican 
party in the county. 

% The Missouri Valley Times was started in Oregon, July, 1874, by 
Kaucher & Hasness. It was a neatly printed, seven column sheet, 
Republican in politics. In 1876, Captain Kaucher sold his interest to 
Henry Shutts. The paper then underwent a political change, appearing 
as a Democratic sheet, under the name and style of the Holt County 
Press. In June, 1877, Mr. Shutts sold his interest to Colonel Clark 
Irvine. September, 19, 188 1, Leigh Irvine, Esq., became the owner of 
Colonel Irvine's interest in the paper, which was forthwith enlarged to 
an eight page, seven column journal. It is neatly and handsomely 

printed. 

BANKS. 

The first bank in the town of Oregon was organized in the fall of 
1866, by Levi Zook and James Scott. This, like all its successors in tha 
town, was a private bank. It was located in the old court house build- 
ing on the northwest corner of Washington and Nodaway Streets, the 
house now owned by H. Sterrett. The style of the firm was Zook & 
Scott. They continued the partnership three and a half years, when, 
Zook retiring, the business was conducted by Scott alone for the period 
of-.a year, ending June 29, 1871, when he retired, and the firm of R. 
Montgomery & Co. succeeded to the business. This partnership con- 
tinued till January, 1, [872. The firm then became Zook & Montgom- 
ery and continued three years. January 1, 1875, Levi Zook retired 
from the partnership and M. S. Norman associated himself with the 
business, which, under the name and style of Montgomery & Norman, 
was continued till January, 1877, when, Norman retiring, Captain Albert 
Roecker- became a member of the firm, under the present (1882) style 
of Montgomery & Roecker. 

In 1872, the bank moved from its original location to a room in the 
rear of Ira Peter's store, on the opposite corner. This room fronted on 
Nodaway Street, below the corner. It continued in this location till 
the fall of [877, when the present elegant brick building on Washing- 
ton Street, now (1882) occupied by the bank, was completed at a cost of 
$3,700. 

Through all its changes and modifications this bank has enjoyed 
the reputation of a substantial and reliable institution. Both Mr. 



34 2 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Montgomery and Captain Roecker are gentlemen, not only of recog- 
nized ability as business men, but rank with the enterprising and pub- 
lic spirited citizens of the northwest. 

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE TOWN. 

Prior to the summer of 1876, when James A. Keeves & Co. erected, 
at a cost of five thousand dollars, their spacious two story brick business 
house, on the corner of Main and Nodaway Streets, there was, with the 
exception of the court house, but one brick building in the town, and 
that was the antiquated three story block on the northwest by north out- 
side corner of Washington and Nodaway Streets, in the third story of 
which are located the halls of the Odd Fellows and the Free Masons. 
Shortly after the erection of Keeves' building Daniel David erected, on 
Washington Street a two story brick business house, twenty-six and a 
half by fifty feet, with a one story rear extension of twenty-five feet. 
This is now (1882) occupied by the general store of Schulte Brothers. 

The sun of August 6, 1877, set upon a row of dingy, rickety, dilapi- 
dated, and altogether hideous looking frame buildings on Nodaway 
Street, fronting the public'square, presenting a spectacle alike discredit- 
able to the enterprise of the citizens "of the town, and offensive to the 
gaze of the stranger arriving in the same, and especially striking in its 
contrast with the neat and attractive structure of the court house, and 
the luxuriant growth of the beautifully-kept park, in the center of which 
that then primitive temple of justice reared its graceful proportions. In 
the eternal fitness of things, however, it was decreed that this abuse of 
the bounty of the Giver of All Good should no longer be tolerated. 
The morning of the 7th of August rose upon another scene. The eye- 
sore, the blot upon the fair picture of Oregon's wealth of vine, of fruit 
tree and of graceful shade was a sheet of devouring flame. In one 
short hour naught but the smouldering embers and foundation stones 
remained to tell the story of departed hideousness and delapidation. 
The people silently acquiesced in the justice of the visitation, only 
regretting that they had not long before taken down the old rat- 
harbors, which would have afforded fuel and kindling wood for a con- 
siderable period of time. They went to work and rebuilt their town 
speedily and with a hearty will. No ephemeral frame buildings, with 
ginger-bread decorations, however, rose upon the ruins, but neat, 
elegant and substantial brick structures, which would be creditable 
to a city of many times the population of Oregon, speak, to-day, of a 
spirit of enterprise which only slumbered in the old shanties of a bygone 
generation, till awakened by the cracking voice of all-devouring fire, 
and to-day, doubtless, these prosperous people thank Providence for the 
lesson so emphatically taught, as in the enjoyment of their cheerful and 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 343 

elegant places of business, regret that the old tottering buildings had 
not been burned down long before the 7th day of August, 1877. 

The rebuilding of the destroyed houses prompted others (for enter- 
prise begets enterprise) also to build, and by the fall of the fire summer 
the handsome row of contiguous buildings were put up by the following 
parties, and at the cost annexed to their several names : F. and G. 
Seamans, $2,000 ; T. I. Kreek, three buildings, two at a cost of $3,000 
each, and one at a cost of $1,250; N. Stock, $2,500 ; Dr. M. Lehmer, 
$2,200; William Hawkins, $3,200, and Amos Castle, $1,600. These 
buildings constitute a solid block of two-story structures of uniform 
height, and generally corresponding external appearance. In the same 
season the Christians erected on Nodaway Street, on the corner one 
block south of the court house square, a neat brick church, with graceful 
spire. Before the close of 1877, the brick banking house of Montgomery 
& Roecker, on Nodaway Street, was completed and occupied. 

For upwards of fifteen years after its start the town of Oregon was 
the most important trading point above the Nodaway. After the 
removal of the county seat of Atchison County from Linden to Rock 
Port, the latter grew to be a place of considerable business importance, 
and cut off a large part of the country trade from Oregon. The growth 
of the surrounding country, however, was so rapid that the business of 
the town suffered no diminution. 

To William Zook we have already referred. Many others who after- 
wards became representative men in their several departments of busi- 
ness, were originally residents of Oregon. Gen. James Craig, of St. 
Joseph, once practiced law there. P. L. McLaughlin, the Tootles, Nave 
& McCord, Turner & Frazer, B. B. Frazer, John Ovelman, Hiram Patter- 
son and M. S. Norman, have all since been leading wholesale dealers of 
St. Joseph. Paris Pfouts, formerly editor of the St. Joseph Gazette, sub- 
sequently a wholesale grocer of St. Louis, and ultimately publisher of a 
daily paper in Texas, was originally an Oregon man. Among others 
may be mentioned Samuel Wood, a leading lawyer of Montana ; J. H. 
Utt and Joseph Lehmer, ol White Cloud, Kansas ; Dr. H. W. Peter, now 
a leading physician of Louisville, Kentucky ; R. L. Hatten, of Denver ; 
C. W. Bowman, of Las Animas, and John Thatcher, of Pueblo, Colorado. 
Many of the surrounding towns in Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska, were 
founded by men from Oregon, among them Forest City and Mound City, 
Missouri and White Cloud, Kansas. Brownville, Nebraska, was named 
in honor of Richard Brown, a prominent farmer of Holt County, whose 
place adjoined the town site of Oregon. 



344 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

THE PRESENT BUSINESS HOUSES OF OREGON. 

Berres, August, furniture dealer. 
Chadduck, George, general merchant. 
Cook, William, blacksmith. 

Castle, Amos, manufacturer and dealer in boots and shoes. 
Dobyns, D. P., publisher County Paper. 
Edwards & Fry, butchers. 
Edwards, L. H., manufacturer of wagons. 
Foster Brothers, livery stable, hack line, etc. 
Foster & Ely, butchers. 

H. Faragher, clocks, watches, jewelry and silverware. 
Hasness & Irvine, publishers Holt County Press. 
Hershberger & Anderson, dealers in general merchandise. 
Hinde, T. S., dealer in drugs, groceries, etc. 
Hill, L. H., barber. 

Hoblitzell & Co., dealers in lumber and building material. 
Hoetter, E. P., restaurant, confectionery and bakery. 
Inghram & Baker, manufacturers of kitchen safes, lathe works, etc. 
Keeves, J. A., general merchant. 
Creek & Watson, general merchants. « 

Kyger, N. J., saloon. 

Kinsley, Jacob, harness maker and saddler. 
King & Proud, druggists, etc. 

Lehmer, Dr., drugs, paints, glass and fancy goods. 
Martin, Daniel, manufacturer of saddles, harness, and dealer in 
wagons, buggies, etc. 

Montgomery & Roecker, bankers. 

Nies, George, dealer in fancy goods, ladies' dress goods, etc. 

Nies, J. H., & Co., tinners, and dealers in stoves, etc. 

Peter, Ira, dealer in clothing and general merchandise. 

Pilbrick, Clark, barber. 

Privet, Clark, blacksmith. 

Peret, J. W., barber. 

Rostock, F. S. & Son, boot and shoe makers. 

Schulte Brothers, dealers in general merchandise. 

Stock, Nick, merchant tailor. 

Sterrett, W. H., dealer in general merchandise. 

Stout & Bartram, confectioners. 

Stuckey, Samuel, livery stable. 

Shutts, Samuel, blacksmith. 

Seaman, Fred., exclusive dealer in boots and shoes. 

Whitmer, Samuel, manufacturer of sorghum. 

The practicing physicians of Oregon are A. Goslin and J. T. Thatcher. 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 345 

MAYORS. 

The city of Oregon was chartered by special act of the Legislature 
passed November 5, 1857. 

On March 24, 1870, the same was amended so as to extend its juris- 
diction over subsequent additions. 

The elections for Mayor have always occurred on the first Tuesday 
in April of each year. 

Daniel David, 1857. James S. Hart, 1868. 

B. B. Frazer, 1859. G. M. Edson, 1869. 

Peter Price, i860. . R. D. Markland, 1870. 

Daniel David, 1861. Samuel Stucky, 1871. 

Daniel David, 1862. Samuel Stucky, 1872. 

No civil government from 1863 to Samuel Stucky, 1873. 

1864. Samuel Stucky, 1874. 

William Hawkins, 1864. Henry Shutts, 1875. 

James S. Hart, 1865. Samuel Stucky, 1877. 

S. C. Collins, 1866. Samuel Stucky, 1878. 

A. Walters, 1867. He failed to qual- M. H. Soper. 1879. 

ify and Wm. Smith was elected 

in his place in May following. 

J. Limbird was elected in April, 1880, and served till January, 
1881, when he resigned to fill his position in the state legislature, 
Clark O. Proud then filled the position till the period of the election in 
April, 1881, when James E. Cummins was chosen mayor. At the same 
election the following were also chosen : Henry Cook, Marshal, and A. 
W. King, Assessor. The following members of the city council were 
also at that time elected : J. H. Nies, Dr. J. T. Thatcher, James Watson, 
W. R. Springer, Ira Peter, J. B. Hoblitzell, Samuel Whitmer, Samuel 
Hershberger, and Daniel Martin. 

CONCLUDING REMARKS. 

In respect of one peculiarity, there is perhaps no town in the Union 
resembling Oregon, and that is in the matter of fruit grown within its 
limits. Not only the immediate suburbs, but the town itself is a vast and 
continuous orchard of the finest varieties of apples, peaches and other 
pomological products. It is estimated, without any exaggeration, that 
there are growing within the limits of the town not less than ten thou- 
sand fruit trees, to say nothing of the wine producing vineyards that 
abound in many of the enclosures of the town. Of those adjoining the 
town site on the west side, is the orchard of T. I. Kreek, containing 900 
apple, 300 pear, and 500 peach trees, and also about 500 grape vines. 
On the northwest corner is the extensive orchard of George P. Luck- 



346 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

hardt, described in the chapter on " Nurseries," of which he has the 
most extensive in the county. On the southwest. Ab Zook has between 
800 and 900 trees. On the southeast side, C. Hoblitzell has an apple 
orchard of 1,100 apple trees, besides peach, pear and other fruit trees. 
Stephen Blanchard, on the east side, has an apple orchard of about six 
hundred trees. Stephen C. Collins has about two hundred and twenty 
of different varieties. 

POSTMASTERS. 

Oregon, Holt County, Missouri, established January 17, 1843. The 
following is a list of the postmasters appointed at this post office from 
1843 to 1881, inclusive, together with the date of their appointment : 
John C. Norman, January 17, 1843. John P. Halbach, January 2, 1861. 
William Zook, January 13, 1845. Howard T. Combs, May 11, 1861. 
George W.Kelly, December 9, 1845. W. H. Sterrett, March 15, 1862. 
John Dozier, February 7, 1848. William Hawkins, February 24, 1865. 

Galen 'Crow, March 19, 185 1. Benjamin F. Potter, April 25, 1866. 

Henry W. Peter, December 5/1853. Samuel P. Jewell, March 16, 1869. 
W. H.Williams, December 23, 1856. Mrs. Kate G. Holtz, March 10, 1871. 
James J. Ruley, January 20, 1857. Edgar L. Allen, November 14, 1881. 
Burkitt J. Bowen, February 20, i860. 

FOREST CITY, 

an important commercial town of the county, and, as late as the sum- 
mer of 1868, a well-known shipping point on the Missouri River, was 
laid out by a company composed of Tootles & Fairleigh, of St. Joseph, 
Missouri, Zook & Patterson, and Nave & Turner ; the two latter firms 
from Oregon, Missouri. 

The land on which this town was laid out, a tract of 520 acres, was 
purchased by the company of the original proprietor, Joel Baldwin, for 
about ten thousand dollars. It is in Lewis Township, twenty-eight miles 
north by west of St. Joseph, on the main line of the Kansas City, St. 
Joseph and Council Bluffs Railroad, on sections 29, 30, 31 and 32, town- 
ship 60, range 38, and occupies a surface 877 feet above the sea level. 
The first sale of lots occurred May 15, 1857, and the place, forthwith, 
began to be settled and improved rapidly. The first store building in 
the place was put up by Tootles, Fairleigh & Co. It is a large two-story 
frame building, on the northwest corner of Commercial and Holt Streets, 
fronting on the latter, and now (1882) occupied by Joseph Groves, dealer 
in general merchandise. It was built in the summer of 1857. In the 
same year, Nave, Turner & Co. put up the store building now occupied 
by J. M. Ford & Smith. Others followed in rapid succession, and the 
town was soon built up. The first brick building in the town, a two- 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 347 

story business house, was commenced in 1857, and completed in the fol- 
lowing year, by Zook & Baldwin, and occupied by them as a drug store, 
the first established in the place. The senior member of this firm, 
Daniel Zook, Esq., is a prominent lawyer of the county, and now a resi- 
dent of Oregon. The building is now, and has been, since 1872, occupied 
by the drug store of John France & Co. 

The first postmaster in the town was Daniel Zook, appointed in 
1857. He was succeeded by Alvin Conklin, who, in i860, was succeeded 
by George Weber. The fourth in succession was Hon. H. K. S. Robin- 
son. He became postmaster on the resignation of George Weber, in 
1877. Miss Mary M. Canon was appointed to succeed the former in 
188 1, at which time Messrs. Weber and Robinson accepted positions in 
the Frazer & McDonald Bank. 

The first blacksmith established in Forest City, was John W. Moody, 
formerly of Independence, Missouri. He removed from Oregon, Mis- 
souri, to Forest City, where he opened his shop in the summer of 1857. 

SCHOOLS. 

The first school taught in Forest City, was during the winter of 
1857-58, in a small frame building. The first teacher of this- school was 
James Walden, from Kentucky. He was succeeded, in 1858, by Miss 
Mary Hart. This was a private enterprise. About ten years after, a 
brick public school building was erected on the summit of the abrupt 
hill-range, which divides the business from the residence portion of the 
town. This was a house fifty by twenty feet in area, with a hall through 
the center. M. Howley did the brick work, and G. W. Hitt, one of the 
pioneer carpenters of the town, the wood work. The cost of the build- 
ing was about two thousand dollars. The first who taught in this school 
was Rev. Prof. Thornton, assisted by Miss Mary Canon. The building 
was destroyed by fire in the winter of 1874-75. The location of this 
house was not a little remarkable, and about the only claim to be ad- 
vanced in favor of the site was the fact that, in the summer season, when 
schools were not generally in session, it was, from its extraordinary 
elevation (about one hundred and fifty feet above the level of Commer- 
cial Street) an airy situation, and one that commanded an extensive 
prospect of the surrounding country. The ascent from the level of the 
town to the summit of the elevation on which this house was perched, is 
exceedingly abrupt and, in some conditions of weather, must have been 
impossible from more than one way of approach. 

The present (1882) graded school of Forest City was commenced in 
July, 1875, and completed in October of the same year. It is a two- 
story brick building, containing four rooms, two of which are on the 
first, and the others on the second floor. The architects of the building 



348 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

were Stigers & Bcettner, and the contractor R. K. Allen, all of St. 
Joseph. The building stands on Grand Avenue, in the eastern part of 
the town. Its cost was about $5,000. The first session of the public 
school in this building opened in November, 1875, Prof. Samuel Ruley, 
Principal, assisted by Miss H. Lehmer. The school opened in the fall 
of 1876, with the same teachers. In the fall of 1877 Lee Helsley became 
Principal, assisted by Miss Helen Lehmer and Mrs. E. F. Welch. 

The session of 1878 opened with Rev. John Anderson as Principal, 
assisted by Miss Jose Wilkinson. In the fall of 1879 the school opened 
with Rev. John Anderson as Principal, assisted by Miss Julia Gearhart 
and Miss Jose Wilkinson. 

In the fall of 1880 the teachers were Rev. John Anderson, Principal, 
and Miss Helen Lehmer and Miss Jose Wilkinson, assistants. These 
were succeeded, in the fall of 1881, by Prof. M. Murphy, Principal, 
assisted by Miss Kate Howley and Miss Gertrude Whobrey. The pub- 
lic schools are in session here eight months in the year. 

The colored school is taught in a frame building at the north end of 
Commercial Street. This first opened January 4, 1878, with William 
Barnes as teacher. He also taught the session which opened Septem- 
ber, 1878. October, 1879, tne school opened in charge of Miss Lizzie 
Patterson. September, 1880, Mrs. A. N. B. Sprague had charge of the 
school. 

THE FIRST HOTEL 

in Forest City was kept in a two story frame house near the northern 
extremity of Commercial Street. It was built by the town company in 
1859, and was opened by G. W. Glasgow, who continued to keep it 
about one year, at the end of which period he was succeeded by L. B. 
Green, who purchased the property of the town company. The build- 
ing is now (1882) owned by Mrs. Blackleach. The town company sub- 
sequently erected the two story brick building on the northeast corner 
of Commercial and Holt Streets. This has always, since its completion, 
been kept as a hotel, and often changed hands. It is now (1882) kept 
by B. B. Foster & Co., who own the building. 

EARLY BUSINESS. 

As early as 1857 Nave, Turner & Co. started a grocery jobbing 
house in the store room now occupied by J. M. Ford and Smith, on Com- 
mercial Street. This they continued till about 1859. I n those days 
whisky was abundant, cheap and readily attainable anywhere, and it was 
not till 1858 that James Simpson opened the first saloon in Forest City. 
Whisky in those days sold at from eighteen to twenty-five cents per 
gallon, and it is claimed by the early settlers of the county that there 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 349 

was then in the country, generally, less drunkenness, in proportion to its 
population, than there is at_ present. 

Forest City, from the period of its foundation, till the summer of 
1868, when the Missouri River suddenly turned westward and left the 
town two and a half miles inland, was a place of no inconsiderable im- 
portance as a shipping point, and it early became the port from which a 
vast amount of produce of all kinds was shipped by water. The great 
staple in those days was hemp, and as many as thirteen steamboats have 
been tied up at one time, at the wharf, awaiting freight. By the caving 
of the river banks, before that uncertain stream left the town, a consid- 
erable portion of Forest City, amounting, probably, to one-third its origi- 
nal area, which was spread over the bottom, had disappeared. In the 
summer of 1868 the last boat landed at Forest City, and was moored to 
the rails of the Kansas City, St. Joseph and Council Bluffs Railroad track, 
which, on the loth day of August of that year, had been completed from 
St. Joseph to that point. This was the Carrie P. Kuntz. On this boat 
W. and J. W. Zook made their last shipment, by water, of a lot of corn 
from this point. This shipment amounted to three thousand and seven 
sacks of corn. By the following day the Missouri was flowing two and a 
half miles west of the town, and naught remained but the sluggish sedi- 
ments of the forsaken river bed, through which the Little Tarkio now 
flows, to tell of the late bustle and animation of thronging boats, which 
were to visit her extinguished port no more. 

In its palmiest days the mercantile business of Forest City amounted 
to not less than $300,000 a year, to say nothing of the vast shipping 
interests of the place. The original heavy dealers of the town were 
Turner, Frazer & Co. and Tootle, Fairleigh & Co. In 1865, the heavy 
firms doing business there were Frazer & Brittain and W. & J. W. Zook. 
Of the original settlers of the place, but few are now numbered with its 
population. These include Dr. H. M. Wilson, the first physician to locate 
in the town. He came in 1857, as did also George Weber, the banker. 
Of those who came in the following year, are J. M. Ford, the merchant, 
M. T. Collins, carpenter, William Burgess, G. W. Hitt, the undertaker 
and builder. W. H. Williams came in the succeeding year. 

In 1839, William Burgess, in partnership with Thomas Cunningham, 
started near the north end of the town a pottery, which they continued 
to operate for some time, but finally abandoned for more directly remun- 
erative pursuits. Among the early established business men of the town 
still in the place is O. Graves, of the present firm of Graves & Weber, 
and in 1865, a member of the firm of Graves & Faucett. 

One of the early enterprises yet extant, of the town, is the 






350 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

FOREST CITY BREWERY. 

This was first started in a small frame building, put up for the purpose 
in 1859 by a man by the name of C. Krauss. In the beginning of the 
following year Krauss & Engel erected the brick structure on stone 
foundation which now constitutes the brewery building. These parties 
pursued the business here four or five years. Capt. Albert Roecker, a 
prominent citizen of the county, and at present engaged in the banking 
business in Oregon, was at one time identified with the interests of this 
brewery. Jacob Schweinfurth purchased it of William Zook, of St. 
Joseph, into whose hands it had subsequently fallen, and in January, 
1881, commenced the manufacture of beer, which he has since success- 
fully pursued. The original cost of the building was about $15,000. It 
was sold to Jacob Schweinfurth for $2,500. 

Forest City was incorporated by special act of the Legislature, 
passed March 12, 1861. The first Mayor elected under this charter was 
George Weber. 

The present 1882 officials of the town are S. M. Glass, elected Mayor 
April, 1881 ; H. H. Brady, Marshal and Collector ; Joseph Fergusom 
Assessor ; W. R. Smith, Treasurer ; and George Poindexter, Register. 

The members of the Council are Dr. H. M. Wilson, Vine Hovey, J. 
M. Ford, John Puncheon, William Burgess, William Ferry, A. Weber, 
Joseph Groves and John France, 

CHURCHES. 

The first church built in Forest City was erected by the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South. It is a brick structure on Grand Avenue, 
thirty-four by fifty-one feet. It was built in i860, chiefly by means of 
the material aid and through the exertions of Hiram Patterson and L. 
Zook, then selling goods in the town. These gentlemen contributed 
$500 toward the enterprise. Joshua T. Sedwick was also a liberal con- 
tributor, and superintended the erection of the building, which cost 
about $4,000. 

In 1866, the M. E. Church South, sold this building to the Mission- 
ary Baptists, who still (1882) continue to own the building. 

The first to preach the gospel in Forest City was the Rev. Benjamin 
Baxter, of the M. E. Church South, and an active organizer of the same 
in the town. This was several years before the erection of their house 
of worship. The records of this church are incomplete and unsatisfac- 
tory, and it is impossible to provide anything like a complete history of 
the organization. In 1869, less than three years after the sale of their 
church to the Baptists, the M. E. Church South erected another building. 
This was a gothic frame, on Walnut Street. H. Patterson, of St. Joseph, 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 351 

and J. T. Sedvvick, now of Craig, in Holt County, were especially active 
in the building of the church, and succeeded in raising in a few days, 
the necessary funds (about $2,200) for its erection. Among the other 
organizers of this church were Hiram Wiggins, L. B. Green, H. Patter : 
son, and their wives. The present (1882) membership of this church is 
fifty-two. The Rev. C. D. Davis is pastor of the congregation. Joseph 
Groves, a prominent merchant of the town, is the popular superintend- 
ent of a large Sunday School attached to this church. 

The Missionary Baptist Church was organized March 31, 1866, with 
twenty-four members, among whom were C. J. Hart, G. W. Hitt, John 
S. Pugh, Mrs. Elizabeth Turner, Mrs. Alice Archer, William A. Joy, 
Henry C. Oflfutt, Miss Lizzie Offutt, H. E. Offutt, Mrs. Emma J. Hitt, 
Charles E. Joy, Isaac D. Brown, Miss Susan F. Hanks, Miss Virginia 
Offutt, Miss M. F. Riley, Mrs. M. J. Williams, Mrs. Jemima Pugh, 
Mrs. Mary J. Hart and Mrs. Turner. 

The first minister of this church was the Rev. G. W. Huntley. He 
was succeeded April, 1870, by Rev. R. M. Rhodes. In 1874, Rev. E. S. 
Irely was pastor. Rev. S. J. Cook succeeded to the ministry of this 
church in 1877, and served till 1879, since which time the church has 
been without a pastor. 

The Christians began in 1875 the erection of a frame church near 
the eastern extremity of Grand Avenue. It was not entirely com- 
pleted till the winter of 1881-82. Its cost was about $1,500. Elder T. 
J. Williamson is pastor. The third ecclesiastical edifice built in Forest 
City was the Roman Catholic Church, near the northern extremity of 
Commercial Street. Its erection was superintended by the Rev. Father 
Welch, of St. Joseph, in 1869. It is a frame building, completed at a 
cost of $1,500. The dedication sermon was preached to a large con- 
gregation by the Right Rev. Bishop Hogan, of St. Joseph. Rev. Father 
Baker is (1882) present minister. 

The 015 School Presbyterians have an organization in Forest City. 
They are without a church edifice of their own, but occupy the M. E. 
Church, South. 

FOREST CITY LODGE, NO. 214, A., F. AND A. M. 

was organized U. D. from the Grand Lodge of the State of Missouri, 
and set to work by the D. D. G. Master, July 8, i860. The officers con- 
stituted under this dispensation were Milton S. Moodie, W. M.; Levi 
Zook, S. W., and Hiram Patterson, J. W. The following subordinate 
officers were then appointed and installed : Daniel Zook, Secretary ; H. 
L. Williams, Treasurer: E. V. Upton, S. D.; E. W. Rynehart, J. D.; 
Hiram Wiggins, Steward and Tyler. The lodge continued to work 
under this dispensation until June 17, 1861, when they assembled for 



352 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

the first time by virtue of a charter granted by the Grand Lodge of the 
state and dated May 30, 1861. 

On the 24th of June, 1861, occurred their first election of officers, 
with the following result: M. S. Moodie, W. M.; Levi Zook, S. W.; H. 
Patterson, J. W.; Lewis Leach, Secretary ; H. L. Williams, Treasurer; 
William Proffitt, Tyler, and R. L. Hatten, Chaplain. 

At a subsequent meeting held July 6, 1861, the Senior and Junior 
wardens resigned, and J. M. Frazer was elected to succeed the former 
and Richard Leach the latter officer. 

On the occasion of the second election of officers, which occurred 
December 27, 1862, the following were chosen for the ensuing Masonic 
year and were duly installed : H. Patterson, W. M.; E. V. Upton, S. W.; 
T. H. Hatten, J. W.; R. E. Turner, Secretary; H. L. Williams, Treas- 
urer, and PL Wiggins, Tyler. 

The annual election of officers held at their hall in Forest City, 
December 28, 1863, resulted as follows: J. M. Frazer, W. M.; Lewis 
Leach, S. W.; J. M. Ford, J. W.; R. E. Turner, Secretary ; H. L. Williams, 
Treasurer ; and Hiram Wiggins, Tyler. 

The election of December 27, 1864, was held with the following 
results : Hiram Patterson, W. M.; J. T. Sedwick, S. W.; J. M. Ford, J. 
W.; J. S. Brittain, Secretary; H. L. Williams, Treasurer; Hiram Wiggins, 
Steward and Tyler. 

The election of December 27, 1865, resulted as follows : H. Patter- 
son, W. M.; J. T. Sedwick, S. W.; J. M. Ford, J. W.; H. L. Williams, 
Treasurer; Albert Roecker, Secretary, and Hiram Wiggins, Tyler. 

The election of December 27, 1865, was as follows : J. T. Sedwick, 
W. M.; J. M. Ford, S. W.; C. W. Harris, J. W.; H. L. Williams, Treasurer ; 
H. R. Johnson, Secretary, and Hiram Wiggins, Tyler. 

The annual election of December 27, 1867, was held with the follow- 
ing results : W. H. Williams, W. M.; C. W. Harris, S. W.; J. W. Zook, 
J. W.; R.J. Poindexter, Treasurer ; Hiram Patterson, Secretary, and C. 
R. Conklin, Tyler. 

The annual election day, the 27th of December, occurring on Sun- 
day, the regular election for officers for the ensuing Masonic year, was 
held on the day previous, the 26th of December, 1868, and resulted as] 
follows: Jacob M. Ford, W. M.; John H. Hill, S. W.; John Dyche, J. 
W.; Orville Graves, Treasurer ; Albert Gooch, Secretary, and Hiram 
Wiggins, Tyler. 

The election of December 27, 1869, resulted as follows : H. Pat- 
terson, W. M.; W. H. Williams, S. W.; John Dyche, J. W.; J. W. Zook, 
Treasurer ; James A. Gooch, Secretary, and M. D. Brown, Tyler. 

At the regular anniversary communication held December 27, 1870, 
the following officers were elected and installed : W. H. Williams, W. 
M.; W. B. Orr, S. W.; W. S. Canon, J. W. J. M. Ford, Treasurer, and 






OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 353 

James A. Gooch, Secretary. The following were appointed : R. M. 
Rhodes, Chaplain ; H. M. Wilson, S. D.; Thomas Teare, J. D., and 
Richard Hartwell, Tyler. 

The election of December 27, 1871, occurred with the following 
results ; Hiram Patterson, W. M.; H. M. Wilson, S. W.: George B. 
Chadduck, J. W.; J. M. Ford, Treasurer, and L. R. Ely, Secretary. The 
following were then appointed : R. M. Rhodes, Chaplain ; John R. 
Dyche, S. D.; R. P. Zook, J. D., and M. V. B. Cass, Tyler, 

December 27, 1872, the following were elected and installed : W. 
H. Williams, W. M.; G. W. McKinney, S. W.; R. P. Zook, J. W,; J. M. 
Ford, Treasurer ; L. R. Ely, Secretary, and M. V. B. Cass, Tyler. 

The election of December 27, 1873, occurred with the following 
results : H. W. Wilson, W. M.; John R. Dyche, S. W.; M. V. B. Cass, J. 
W.; J. M. Ford, Treasurer ; L. R. Ely, Secretary. The appointed offi- 
cers were : O. C. Plummer, S. D.; M. D. Brown, J. D.; W. S. Canon and 
J. P. Adams, Stewards ; H. Wiggins, Tyler. 

The 27th occurring on Sunday the anniversary communication was 
held on December 26, 1874, when the following officers were elected and 
installed: Joshua T. Sedwick, W. M.; John R. Dyche, S. W.; John Hill, 
J. W. ; Joseph P. Adams, Secretary ; Robert P. Zook, Treasurer ; Hiram 
Wiggins, Tyler. 

At the annual election of December 27, 1875, the following officers 
were elected and installed by Past Master Sedwick : W. B. Orr, W. M.; 
0. C. Plummer, S. W.; Hiram Wiggins, J. W.; R. N. Howell, Treasurer ; 
J. M. Canon, Secretary ; Thomas Teare was appointed Tyler. 

The election of December 27, 1876, resulted as follows : R. P. Zook, 
W. M.; H. M. Wilson, S. W.; Orville Graves, J. W.; J. M. Ford, Treas- 
urer ; W. R. Smith, Secretary ; Thomas Teare, Tyler. 

December 27, 1877, the following officers were elected : M. V. B- 
Cass, W. M.; G. M. Williams, S. W.; R. Hartwell, J. W.; W. S. Canon, 
Secretary, J. M. Ford, Treasurer. 

The following officers were elected December 16, 1878, and were 
installed December 27, 1878 : J. M. Ford, W. M.; W. H. Wilson, S. W.; 
M. V. B. Cass, J. W. ; O. Graves, Treasurer; W. S. Canon, Secretary. 
Thomas Teare was appointed and installed Tyler. 

December 15, 1879, the following were elected, and on the 27th of 
the same month were duly installed : H. M. Wilson, W. M.; R. P. Zook, 
S. W.; D. S. Alkire, J. W.; O. Graves, Treasurer; J. M. Ford, Secretary; 
M. V. B. Cass and F. Linsel, Deacons, and Thomas Teare, Tyler. 

At the regular election held December 20, 1880, the following were 
chosen, and on the 27th of the same month were duly installed : H. M. 
Wilson, W. M. ; George Weber, S. W. ; W. R. Smith, J. W. ; Orville Graves, 
Treasurer ; J. M. Ford, Secretary ; J. H. Wilson, S. D.; J. P. Adams, J. 
D., and M. V. B. Cass, Tyler. 

23 



354 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

The annual election held December 19, 1881, resulted as follows : 
H. M. Wilson, W. M.; R. P. Zook, S. W.; Thomas Teare, J. W.; Orville 
Graves, Treasurer; J M. Ford, Secretary. With the above were also 
installed on the 27th of the same month, M. V. B. Cass, Tyler ; D. S. 
Alkire and W. R. Smith, Deacons. 

The Lodge, at the period of its organization, convened in a hall 
occupying the second floor of the building on the northwest corner of 
Commercial and Holt Streets, now owned and occupied by Joseph Groves. 
About 1862, the institution was moved to the second floor of the brick 
building now occupied by the store of Graves & Weber, on Commercial 
Street, near the corner of Grand Avenue. 

The present (1882) lodge room is 60x24 f eet , including ante rooms, 
and occupies the third floor of R. P. Zook & Co.'s large brick building, 
on Grand Avenue, opposite Commercial Street. This building, with its 
rear extension, one story, forty feet, was erected in 1879. 

The first yard in which pine lumber was sold in Forest City, was 
opened by Robinson & Platter, in 1865. 

BANKS. 

The Frazer & McDonald Bank was started as a private bank, in 1873, 
by B. B. Frazer and Dr. D. McDonald. It was chartered July 30, 1878, 
under the laws of the State, with a capital of $30,000. This, in April, 
1881, was reduced to $20,000. At that period, Dr. McDonald the cashier, 
and W. F. McDonald, the teller, resigned, and were succeeded by George 
Weber, the present (1882) cashier, and Hon. H. K. S. Robinson, telle 
The bank building is a small two-story brick structure, on Grand Avenu 
erected and furnished in 1874, at a cost of over $1,800. It is provided 
with a fire-proof vault and burglar-proof safe. The bank is regarded as 
a solid institution. 

Forest City has had in her day, several 

NEWSPAPERS. 

Of these, the first was the Monitor, a weekly journal, started iw 1858, by 
J. R. Van Natta & Alvin R. Conklin. Some time after its start, in the 
latter part of 1859, the name of this paper was changed, and it continued 
to be published as the Courier. This paper appeared regularly till about 
the period of the breaking out of the civil war. There were, at different 
successive periods, some six or seven similar enterprises started in Forest 
City. Special reference to these will be found under the head of the 
Newspaper Press of Holt County. 

Forest City was also the seat of the three first fairs held in the 
county. Reference to these will also be found under the general head 
of County Fairs. 






OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 355 

Forest City rejoices in the possession of two grist 
MILLS AND MANUFACTORIES. 

The first, a two run mill, is located on block 88, in the north part of 
the town. It was built in 1867, by George and Gabriel Mauck, and is now 
(1882) owned by J. W. Zook, of St. Joseph. For a year previous to Jan- 
uary, 1882, this mill was idle. It was then put in operation by Capt. W. 
S. Canon. 

East Forest Mills, built by Lewis M. Kaull & Co. in 1868, and com- 
pleted in 1869, are located at the southern extremity of the town. Of 
the present company Captain William Kaucher, a scientific and practical 
millwright is secretary and manager, and J. P. Adams, miller. The 
present company have owned the mill since 1874. About two-thirds of 
the stock is owned by J. H. C. Curtis, Clerk of the County Court of Holt 
County, and J. P. Adams, the miller. The balance is divided among 
numerous other parties. The capacity of the mill is one hundred and 
twenty barrels every twenty-four hours. This capacity is based on the 
average run. This is a new process mill and, besides the ordinary 
appliances proper to such institutions, is provided with eighty-one linear 
feet of bolting reels and a George T. Smith purifier. The cleaning 
machinery consists of separator, smutter and brush machine, besides two 
sets of magnets, to intercept any metallic substance that might chance 
to be in the grain. The capacity of the elevator and sheller is from 500 
to 700 bushels per hour. The storage capacity of the mill and elevator 
is ten thousand bushels of grain. 

J. A. Richardson's saw mill is in the immediate neighborhood of the 
East Forest Mills. It was established in 1869. The firm was Richard- 
son & Plummer. 

J. Demuth started a foundry in the town in 1865. He continued to 
operate it there till January, 1882, when he moved the works to St. 
Joseph. M. V. B. Cass, for many years a well known and popular 
blacksmith of Forest City, started his foundry in the place on the 
removal to St. Joseph of J. Demuth. 

France & Co., representative druggists of the town, started in 1878 
a rendering tank in the town. They run out about three car loads or 
200 barrels of grease every year. 

In January, 1882, the firm of O. C. Plummer & Co. started in the 
business of manufacturing dimension walnut lumber and veneering. 
The firm includes O. C. Plummer, Vine Hovey, and Blair Harrison. 

THE PRESENT BUSINESS 

of Forest City is as follows, beginning at the northern extremity of 
Commercial Street: 



356 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 






The flouring mill of Zook & Canon, revived January, 1882, with 
Captain W. S. Canon, manager and miller. 

Wagon and blacksmith shop of G. W. Nuflf, 188 1. 

Hotel of B. B. Foster & Co., October, 1881 ; this building corners, 
on Holt Street. 

General store of Joseph Groves opposite, established in 1872. 

Mrs. Chadwick, millinery, 1881. 

W. H. Williams & Co., stoves and tinware, 1858. 

Furniture store of John Puncheon, in which is the post office, kept 
by Miss Mary M. Canon, 1881. 

General store of Ford & Smith, 1878. This was the stand of the 
firm of Brittain & Ford, started in 1869. 

E. C. Wells & Son, general store, 1881. 

Giles Norton, barber, 1878. 

John Jackson, boot and shoemaker, 1879. 

George W. Baldwin, grocery and confectionery, 1880. 

J. Limp, butcher. 

Minton Bros., general stock, 1881. 

D. Beeler, saloon, 1881. 

William Burgess, saloon, 1858. 

Graves & Weber, general store, 1875. 

Sandford Lympus, confectionery, 1878. 

W. H. Willis, inventor and patent right man, 1865. 

On Grand Avenue : R. P. Zook & Co., general store, 1877. The 
original firm was W. & J. W. Zook, established in i860. 

The Frazer & McDonald Bank. * 

Office of the lumber yard of George Poindexter & Co., 1880. 

M. V. B. Cass, blacksmith, wagon shop, and foundry, 1869. 

Dr. M. D. Brown, dentist, watchmaker, etc., 1863. 

G. W. Hitt, carpenter, builder and undertaker, ,1858. 

Thompson Collins, carpenter, 1858. 

Fred Schaffer, shoemaker, 188 1. 

James Hayley, blacksmith, 1880. 

L. A. Hill, butcher shop, 1881. 

Brewery revived by Jacob Schweinfurth in 1881. 

On C Street : Zook & Terry's livery stable. 

Office of S. T. Lucas, grain dealer. 

Mrs. Trissal's Hotel. 

Kane, Miller & Glass, live stock dealers. 

Zook & Terry, wood yard. 

The dates annexed indicate the origin of the present firms, many 
of the members of which are old representative merchants of the 
town. 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 357 

The professional men are Dr. H. M. Wilson and Dr. E. B. Bullock, 
physicians ; Dr. M. D. Brown, dentist, and D. S. Alkire, attorney-at- 
law. Of the 

ORIGINAL SETTLERS 

of Forest City, few now (1882) continue to reside there. They include 
Captain W. S. Canon, manager of Zook & Canon's mill ; Dr. H. M. Wil- 
son, the pioneer physician of the place; George Weber, the banker, and 
George Turnham. These were all in the town when it first started, in 

1857. William Burgess, G. W. Hitt and Thomas Collins were there in 

1858. W. H. Williams came in 1859, and J. M. Ford in i860. R. P. 
Zook is among the earliest settlers. Dr. H. M. Wilson, the pioneer phy- 
sician of the town, is also an active promoter of the fruit interests of the 
neighborhood. Near his residence, in the north part of the town, he 
has an orchard of two hundred apple trees, one hundred and fifty bearing 
pear trees, large peach and cherry orchards, besides currants, goose- 
berries and small fruits without end. He has also sixty-five stands of 
bees. 

Forest City is no less noted for the longevity of its people. Among 
the most remarkable instances of this character was Mrs. Elizabeth Pope, 
a native of Lincoln County, Kentucky. At the period of her death, 
which occurred October 7, 1878, at the residence of her grandson, A. B. 
Brady, in the country, she was one hundred and four years old. For 
the twenty years previous to her death, she had made her home in Forest 
City, with Dr. Wilson, whose wife was her grand daughter, and to the 
last seemed to be in almost full possession of her faculties. Squire J. D. 
Perkins, another pioneer of Holt County, and a native of Virginia, died 
at his home in Forest City, in 1880, at the advanced age of eighty-six 
years. 

INDIAN BURIAL GROUND. 

On the summit of the abrupt elevation of about one hundred and 
fifty feet, which divides the town of Forest City, were recently found, 
but a short distance below the surface, numerous human bones, and in 
some instances complete skeletons, supposed to be the remains of 
Indians, whose bodies were buried there at a period long anterior to the 
arrival of the whites in the country. Some of these relics are in the pos- 
session of Dr. H. M. -Wilson. 

SHIPPING INTERESTS. 

Forest City, in the days of its early and vigorous prosperity, was, as 
before intimated, a noted shipping point by steamboat on the Missouri 
River, which left it shortly after the completion of the Kansas City, St. 



358 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

Joseph and Council Bluffs Railroad to that town. Though its shipments 
by rail amount, in the course of the year to no trifling figure, they are 
inconsiderable compared with the amount of produce hauled by wagon, 
every year, through its streets, northward, southward and westward. In 
the matter of apples alone, of which Holt County has an immense acre- 
age, as many as one hundred and sixty wagon loads have crossed the 
White Cloud Ferry to Kansas, in a single day. In the fall of 1880 John 
Lyons, the ferryman at this point, took in over four thousand dollars for 
crossing apple wagons alone. The landing place on the Missouri side 
of the White Cloud Ferry is a considerable distance above Forest City ; 
nothing but the old bed of the river through which the Tarkio now 
flows separating the town site from Rush Island, or, as it was formerly 
called Solomon's Island, a body of land including between three thousand 
and four thousand acres of inexhaustibly fertile soil. 



-^s^s*^^ 



P^ 



^BIOGRAPHICA Li* 



CAPTAIN EDGAR L. ALLEN 

was born in Howard, Steuben County, New York, April 23, 1834. His 
parents, Benjamin and Annie (Rogers) Allen, were both natives of the 
same state. Edgar was reared to manhood at his native village, receiv- 
ing fair educational advantages. Upon arriving at maturity he com- 
menced teaching and taught for several terms. He immigrated west- 
ward, in 1854, settling near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, where he was engaged 
in teaching and farming. In May, 1858, he came to Holt County, Mis- 
souri, and followed his profession until August, 1862, when he enlisted in 
Company F, Thirty-third Missouri Infantry, and served until 1865. He 
was mustered in as sergeant and was afterwards promoted to captain. 
He took part in the Red River campaign, under Gen. Banks, and in the 
battles of Helena, Arkansas, Nashville, Tennessee, Tupelo, Mississippi, 
and many others. His company went to the field with one hundred men, 
and there were but thirty-two present when mustered out. At the close 
of the war Captain Allen again settled in Holt County and resumed 
farming. In 1866 he was elected Circuit Clerk and Recorder of Holt 
County and served until the close of 1874, when he moved on a farm near 
town. In the spring of 1881 he moved into town and accepted the posi- 
tion of Deputy Clerk and Recorder. In December, 1881, he received the 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 359 

appointment as Postmaster at Oregon, and took charge of the office Jan- 
uary i, 1882. Being an old settler he is widely and favorably known, 
and in the discharge of his official duties exercises scrupulous care and 
fidelity. Politically he is a staunch Republican, and has voted for every 
president since that party was organized. He is an active member of 
Oregon Lodge, No. 139, A. F. and A. M., and has filled every position 
within the gift of the lodge, holding the office of steward at present. He 
is also a member of Keystone Chapter, No. 46, of Mound City, and was 
formerly a charter member of Holt Council. He owns a fine farm ot 280 
acres in the northern part of the county. Captain Allen was married 
January 1, i860, to Miss Eliza Risk, daughter of Cornelius and Mary 
Risk, formerly of this county. She was born in this county in October, 
iS4i,and was here reared. Himself and wife are active members of the 
M. E. Church of Oregon, in which he holds the office of steward and 
trustee. They have a family of seven children : George H., twenty years 
of age ; Floyd, now thirteen ; Emma, eleven years old ; Lilly, nine years 
old ; Edna, seven years old ; Ella, aged four years ; Eddie, two years of 



age. 



JUDGE GEORGE ANDERSON, 



stock raiser and dealer in general merchandise, is prominent among the 
enterprising citizens of Holt County. His parents, David Anderson 
and Rachel nee Dixon, were both natives of Pennsylvania, and in 1831 
moved to Crawford County, Ohio, when it was a wilderness, and settled 
in the heavy timber. George was born in the town of DeKalb, Crawford 
County, Ohio, June 10, 1838, and was the seventh child in a family of 
twelve children. He spent his boyhood days on the farm, and received 
fair educational advantages, completing his schooling at the DeKalb 
Seminary. When sixteen years old, he accompanied his parents to 
Shelby, Richland County, Ohio, and when nineteen years of age he com- 
menced dealing in stock, following the business for some three years. 
He then turned his attention to agricultural pursuits. He came to Holt 
County, Missouri, in March, 1863, and purchased a farm some three miles 
east of Oregon, but returned to Ohio and engaged in the mercantile bus- 
iness at Gallia. In June, 1865, he again came west, and settled on a 
farm on the outskirts of Oregon. In the fall of 1865, he engaged in the 
hardware business with G. W. Cummins, forming the firm of Anderson 
& Cummins, under which name the business was conducted for about 
two years. His health failing, Mr. Anderson retired and improved a 
farm south of town, where Mr. Hoblitzell now resides. He disposed of 
this property in January, 1874, and settled on another farm near Forest 
City, which he also improved. In 1877 he returned to Oregon, and in 
1879 ne erected his present residence, which is one of the finest in the 
city. He owns 65 acres of land adjoining the town, where he lives, 



360 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

besides two fine farms in this county, one of 320 acres in Hickory Town- 
ship, and 400 acres in section 25, township 62, range 38, all under culti- 
vation, and well stocked. Two good orchards are on the home farm. 
During his residence in the county Mr. A. has put out six orchards, and 
has done much towards building up the county. February 1st, 1879, he 
purchased an interest in a general merchandise store, with a Mr. Hersh- 
burger, and they continued the business until the 15th of January, 1882, 
when Mr. H. retired, and the firm became George Anderson & Co. They 
carry one of the heaviest stocks in the county. On the 29th of May, 
1869, he became a member of the Holt County Agricultural and Mechan- 
ical Society, and served five years. He became President of the society, 
September 21, 1872, filling this position two years. In 1872, he was 
elected County Judge, on the Republican ticket, and served six years. 
He has also served some eight years on the school board, and helped to 
erect the school house. He has been an active member of Oregon 
Lodge, No. 139, A. F. and A. M., since 1867. He has made three trips 
to the home of his childhood, taking his family with him twice. Judge 
Anderson was married February 26, 1861, in the village of DeKalb, 
Ohio, to Miss Rebecca Cummins, an accomplished lady, daughter of 
George and Caroline Cummins, who were early pioneers of Ohio. She 
was born August 6, 1835, in DeKalb, and was the sixth in a family of 
eight children. She was educated at the DeKalb Seminary. They have 
had two children : Carrie R., born February 2, 1862, and David C, born 
May 26, 1867. Miss Carrie is a graduate of the Oregon Northwest Nor- 
mal School. She also took a course of painting lessons at Linwood Col- 
lege, St. Charles, Missouri. She shows a wonderful talent for the art, 
and has some beautiful specimens of her work. The Judge and his 
family are members of the Presbyterian Church, at Oregon. 

GEORGE W. BALDWIN, 

dealer in staple and fancy groceries and confections, is a leading business 
man of Forest City. His father, Joel Baldwin, born in 18 10, in Rich- 
mond, Indiana, was one of the pioneers of Holt County. He came here 
in 1850, and located at this place. He once owned the town site, but 
sold it to the town company, having had it all in one farm. He held an 
interest in a drug store and also in a fine farm south of town. He died 
June 5, 1874. His wife, whose maiden name was Nancy M. Vinsonhaler, 
was born in Ross County, Ohio, October 9, 1819. She married Mr. 
Baldwin in 1841, and they moved to Nodaway County, Missouri, the same 
year, with her father, Jacob Vinsonhaler. George W. Baldwin was born 
April 14, 185 1, in Forest City. He was reared to manhood in the then 
small village, and received his education in the common schools. In 
1876 he opened a confectionery and restaurant establishment at Forest 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 36 1 

City, which he conducted one year, but his health failing, he sold out 
and retired from business until April, 1880, when he purchased a stock of 
staple and fancy groceries. He again commenced business, and now has 
his store well filled with a complete stock, and has secured a large patron- 
age. Having grown up to manhood in this vicinity, Mr. B. is well 
known. He has filled the position of City Register for several years, in 
an acceptable manner. He is an active member of the Presbyterian 
Church of Forest City. His father was raised as a Friend, and carried 
through life those sterling principles of honesty and integrity taught 
him in childhood. He was a man honored and respected by all who 
were favored with his acquaintance, and his residence was a rendezvous 
for the young people to gather, they always being certain of having a 
pleasant time at Uncle Joel's. 

WILLIAM BANKS, 

farmer and stock raiser, section 4. Among the earliest pioneers of Holt 
County may be mentioned the subject ofthis sketch. His parents, Thomas 
and Catharine Banks, were both natives of the Isle of Man. William 
was born at that place on the 21st of October, 181 1. He was reared on 
a farm and received a common school education. When seventeen 
years old he went to Liverpool, England, and bound himself out for 
three years' service on the high seas, for the sum of £7 per year, he to 
furnish his own clothing. He made a voyage to Mobile, Alabana, thence 
to St. Andrews, thence to Jamaica and the West Indies, and back to 
Liverpool. While there he ran away from his captain and went aboard 
another vessel bound for Baltimore, and thence to New Orleans. He 
then commenced steamboating, which he continued for ten years. He 
made three trips up to the headquarters of the American Fur Company, 
at Fort Union, and has had two. narrow escapes from being blown up on 
steamboats ; at one time, when an explosion took place, some forty 
persons died from the effects of the steam. In the fall of 1841 Mr. B. 
started from St. Louis with a stock of general merchandise, landing on 
the Missouri side of the river opposite Iowa Point, on the 9th of August. 
Having sold the goods, he started a ferry and woodyard, and also 
improved a farm. He moved to the farm he now occupies in 1855, and 
has been engaged in agricultural pursuits since. He owns some 1,280 
acres of land in Holt County, though he commenced life at the bottom 
of the ladder. He is of a jovial disposition and hospitable in his manners- 

AUGUST BERRES, 

undertaker and dealer in furniture, was born in Bavaria, Germany, on 
the 13th of February, 1833. His parents, Frank and Elizabeth Berres, 
were both natives of Germany. August remained at his birthplace until 



362 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

nineteen years of age, and while there learned the furniture trade. He 
crossed the ocean in May, 1852, and landed at New York City, where 
he stayed for about eighteen months, working at his trade. He then 
went to Chicago, and one year later moved to Fort Wayne, Indiana, 
working there and at Huntington, Indiana, for some time. In August, 
1866, he came west and settled in Oregon, and opened a furniture and 
undertaking establishment, where he has since been engaged in business, 
his being the oldest established business house in town. Mr. B. is well 
known in St. Joseph, Chicago, St. Louis and New York City, and other 
places, and is a reliable, hard working man. He was formerly a member 
of the I. O. O. F. Mr. Berres was married while in Indiana, on the 6th 
of July, 1862, to Miss Elizabeth Hurst, daughter of John and Ursula 
Hurst, of Baden, Germany. She was born in that place December 22, 
1832, and came to this country when thirteen years old. They have been 
blessed with six children, four of whom are now living : Frederick, born 
September 25, 1856; Mary, born December 26, 1863; Emma, born 
December n, 1866, and Josephine, born September 5, 1871. 

ANDREW BURRIER, 

farmer and stock raiser, section 28, was born in Harrison County, Ohio, 
on the 13th of September, 1812. His parents, Philip and Mary Bur- 
ner, were both natives of Maryland, and Andrew accompanied them to 
Jefferson County, Ohio, when quite small. He was reared on a farm, 
early assisted in clearing land, and has given his attention to agricultu- 
ral pursuits through life. Upon reaching his majority, he moved to 
Tuscarawas County, Ohio, where he remained some eight years. He 
then came to Holt County and settled near Oregon, which, at that time 
was a small place, containing only six or eight houses. The county 
was thinly settled and roving bands of Indians frequently passed 
through. Since that date the subject of this sketch has been actively 
engaged in tilling the soil. He owns 320 acres adjoining the city of 
Oregon on the northeast. His farm is well improved and he has a 
handsome residence upon it, also an orchard. Mr. Burner was married 
to Miss Sarah Ridenour, in 1838. She was born December 17, 1820, in 
Harrison County, Ohio. They have five children living : Daniel, born 
April 8, 1847 ; Margaret, born May 13, 1849, (now the wife of James 
Bumps, of St. Joseph); Eliza J., born September 2, 1853, (now Mrs. E. 
Roulette, of Holt County); Hughey, born April 30, 1856; Andrew, 
born October 13, i860. Seven are deceased. Mrs. Burrier is a member 
of the Lutheran Church. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM S. CANON, 

of the firm of Zook & Canon, proprietors of the Forest City Mill, was 
born in Leesville. Ohio, October 24, 1833. His father, Samuel R. Canon, 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 363 

was a native of Pennsylvania, and his mother, formerly Rachael Singery, 
was from Maryland. Until he was at the age of fifteen, William lived at 
his native village. He received a good common school education, and 
also attended one term at College. He accompanied his parents to 
Oregon, Holt County, Missouri, in October, 1852, his father purchasing 
a farm some six miles east of Oregon. He filled the position of County 
Judge some twelve years. On the 1st of January, 1853, young Canon 
commenced clerking in Oregon. In October, 1853, he went to what is 
now known as Council Bluffs, with Tootle & Jackson. Their store was 
burned in December, 1853, and he then returned to Oregon, and remained 
with Zook & Peter until April, 1854, when he crossed the plains with 
Crow & McCrosy, who drove a herd of cattle to California. Mr. Canon 
again came to Oregon in June, 1856, and began clerking for Zook & 
Patterson. In 1857 he came to Forest City with them, they keeping one 
of the first business houses in town. In 1859 the subject of this sketch, 
in company with William Zook, purchased the hardware and tinware 
store at this point. This they carried on until December 25, 1861, when 
he enlisted in Company B, Fourth Missouri State Militia, cavalry. He 
recruited this company and was elected captain. They went to St. 
Joseph, then to Kansas City, and from there to Neosho, where they 
joined the army of the frontier, and later served through Southern Mis- 
souri and Arkansas. His father died on the 20th of December, 1863, and 
William Canon resigned and came home to settle up his father's estate. 
He then engaged in dealing in horses and mules, and in 1865 he bought 
the Forest City saw mill, which he operated until 1866. In 1865 he also 
commenced contracting and building railroads. He followed this busi- 
ness until 1876, when he embarked in the grain business. In 1877 he 
made a trip to. the Black Hills, but after remaining there a short time, he 
returned and resumed the grain and stock business. In June, 1879, ne 
went to Mound City and opened the grain business at that point, but the 
short crop in 1881 making the business dull, he discontinued his transac- 
tions there for a short time. In January, 1882, he took charge of the 
Forest City Mills. Mr. Canon has eight acres of land and a neat resi- 
dence, situated on a hill between Forest City and Oregon, from which he 
has a view of both places. Also of Iowa Point, White Cloud, Kansas and 
Rulo, Nebraska — five towns and three States. He was the first member 
admitted into the Forest City Lodge, No. 214, A. F. and A. M. He also 
belongs to the A. O. U. W. He has been a member of the City Council 
and of the School Board several terms. Mr. C. was married in October, 
1857, to Miss Julia A. McCrary, a native of Missouri. She died in July. 
1877. He has four children, Credelia, born August 13, 1859, (now Mrs. 
L. H. Luckhardt); Kitty K., born March 22, 1861 ; Charlie R., born 
August 28, 1863, and Nellie M., born April 3, 1866. He is an active 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, of Forest City. 



364 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

AMOS J. CASTLE, 

dealer in boots and shoes and gents' furnishing goods, was born in Wash- 
ington County, Maryland, July 27, 1838. His parents, John and Eliza 
Castle, were both natives of Maryland. Amos was reared to manhood 
at his birthplace, receiving a common school education. He commenced 
to learn the shoemakers trade in 1854, at Boonsboro, in his native 
county, and in 1858 he immigrated to Indiana, where he remained some 
six months, being at Hagerstown, Wayne County, during that time. In 
the fall of 1858 he came to Oregon and worked at his trade here until 
June, 1861, when he enlisted in Company F, Thirteenth Missouri Infan- 
try, and took part in the battle of Lexington, Missouri. He, with his 
regiment, were taken prisoners and paroled. He returned to Oregon, 
and in February, 1862, re-enlisted in Company F, Fourth Missouri 
Cavalry. They were discharged in September of that year on account 
of being paroled. Mr. C. held the position of orderly sergeant while in 
the cavalry. He once more settled in Oregon and resumed work at his 
trade. He occupies a room which is filled with a well assorted stock of 
boots. He is an active member of Oregon Lodge, No. 54, I. O. O. F., in 
which he has filled all of the offices within the gift of the lodge. Mr. 
Castle was married February 28, 1865, to Miss Rebecca Jackson, daughter 
of John F. Jackson, of Holt County. She was born in Uniontown, Penn- 
sylvania, February 27, 1848. He and his wife are active members of the 
Presbyterian Church, of Oregon. They have had six children : Otho, 
born October 30, 1866 ; Charles, born August 26, 1869 ; Edward, born 
August I, 1871 ; Clarence, born May 26, 1873 ; Ellen, born November 
11, 1875, and Jessie, born August 19, 1881. 

THOMAS COTTIER, 

farmer and stock raiser, section 9, is among the early pioneers of North- 
western Missouri. His parents John and Catharine Cottier, were both 
natives of the Isle of Man. Thomas was born on that island on the 3d 
of February, 1829. He remained at his birthplace until eighteen years 
of age, spending his boyhood days on the farm, and receiving fair educa- 
tional advantages. He crossed the ocean in February, 1847, and after a 
voyage of nine weeks, landed at New Orleans, going from there by 
steamboat to St. Louis, and thence to Western Missouri. From that 
place he came by team to Holt County. Soon after he engaged in team- 
ing in Oregon, and also for the government on the plains during the 
Mexican War. His mother came here in 1849, an d is still a resident of 
this county. She is now eighty-eight years of age, but is still active and 
in possession of all her faculties. On the 7th of February, 1850, Mr. C. 
married Miss Minerva Beeler, a daughter of one of the early settlers of 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 365 

this county. She was a native of Indiana, and came to Missouri with her 
mother's family in 1844. They settled in the bottom, but the high water 
in the spring of 1844, compelled them to move. This they did by put- 
ting their household goods on a raft and wading to the bluffs, some two 
miles distant, pushing the raft before them. Mr. Cottier and his wife 
subsequently located on the farm where he now resides. He had pre- 
empted it in the fall of 1847, and since then he has given his attention 
to farming. At that time he owned a yoke of oxen and one horse. The 
cattle were used to break the ground and the horse to tread the corn. 
During the war he served in the Enrolled Missouri Militia, assisting in 
defending the property of the citizens. He has filled the district offices 
several terms, but is no office seeker. Mr. C. owns upwards of a 1,000 
acres of fine land in Holt County, and some 200 in Nebraska. The home 
farm contains 270 acres, is well improved, has a good residence and an 
excellent orchard, twelve acres in extent, of 600 bearing trees, two peach 
orchards, and a large amount of small fruit. His farm is one of the finest 
in the county. He also has an excellent stock farm in Liberty Town- 
ship. He and his wife are active members of the Christian Church. 
They have had eight children, seven of whom are living: Hannah J., 
born September 10, 1852, (now Mrs. J. G. Elliot, of Mound City); John 
T., born January 24, 1854; James C, born December 13, 1855 ', Lizzie, 
born September 13, 1857, (now Mrs. James Ward, of Minnesota Valley, 
Holt County); Mary S., born August 13, 1859, (now Mrs. John A. Hall, of 
Minnesota Valley); Emma, born March 20, 1862, and Robert, born 
August 21, 1864. 

GEORGE W. CUMMINS, 

of the firm of Anderson & Co., dealers in general merchandise, was born 
in Crawford County, Ohio, March 29, 1844. His father, George Cum- 
.mins, was born in Pennsylvania, of Scottish parentage. His wife, form- 
erly Caroline Hoblitzell, was of German descent and a native of Mary- 
land. George was reared to manhood at his birthplace and received fair 
educational advantages, attending for some time the DeKalb Seminary. 
When thirteen years old he commenced clerking in a general merchandise 
store, in which he remained until he was seventeen. In September, 
1861, he enlisted in Company H, Sixty-fourth Ohio, in what was known 
as Sherman's Brigade. They served with the Army of the Cumberland, 
receiving their bloody baptism at Shiloh. They then took part in the 
battles of Murfreesboro, Prairieville, Chickamauga, and through the entire 
Atlanta campaign. Coming back under Thomas they took part in the 
battles of Nashville and Franklin, and were mustered out at Nashville, 
Tennessee. The subject of this sketch was twice wounded, once at Mur- 
freesboro' and once at Chickamauga. At the close of the war he came 
west, and, in May, 1865, settled in Oregon. In the fall of that year he 



366 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

engaged in the hardware business, with Mr. Anderson, under the firm 
name of Anderson & Cummins. They continued for some two years in 
the business, and Mr. C. then purchased the stock and operated it one 
year on his own account. Purchasing an interest in a dry-goods line, 
he remained in this about one year. He settled on a farm, near Oregon, 
in February, 1872, and, after about six years, he moved back to town, in 
1878, and in 1879 he became associated with Anderson & Co. He filled 
the position of Secretary of the Holt County Agricultural and Mechani- 
cal Society for about four years. In his manners he is much of a gentle- 
man and an excellent salesman. He still retains his fine farm, near Ore- 
gon. Mr. Cummins was married, in 1867, to Miss Eliza Cahill, a daughter 
of R. W. Cahill, of DeKalb, Crawford County, Ohio, where she was also 
born, in October, 1846. They have two children : Guy, born May 23, 
1869; Gertrude, born July 2, 1870. Mrs. Cummins is a member of the 
Presbyterian Church of Oregon. 

JOHN S. CURZON, 

farmer and stock raiser, section 10, is the son of Charles and Sarah 
(Hindley) Curzon, who were natives of England. They crossed the 
ocean and settled in York State about 1840. John S. was born on the 
13th of February, 1848, in Onedia County, New York. He spent his 
boyhood days on the farm at his birth place and received the benefits of 
a common school education. In 1865 he came west and settled where 
he now resides. He farms the Carpenter farm, which contains 582 
acres. He is quite largely interested in stock raising, is an energetic, 
enterprising citizen, and, being among the early settlers, is widely and 
favorably known. Politically he is a Republican. Mr. C. was married 
April 10, 1879, to Miss Cinda Adams, daughter of W. H. Adams, of this 
county. She is a native of Sibley County, Minnesota, and was born on 
the 29th of April, 1858. They have one child living, Johnnie W., born 
the 17th of September, 1881 ; lost one, Elgie, who died July 31, 1881. 
Mr. C.'s mother resides with him. She is now seventy-five years of age 
and is still enjoying good health. Curzon Station was named in honor 
of the subject of this sketch. 

J. H. C. CURTIS, 

clerk of Holt County, was among the early settlers of this county. His 
parents, Jacob and Harriet Curtis, were both natives of Virginia. John 
was born January 1st, 1830, in Berkley County, West Virginia. He was 
reared to manhood at his birth-place, spending his boyhood days on the 
farm, and receiving his education in the neighborhood schools. In 1853, 
he moved to Butler County, Ohio, and in 1858 he settled in Knox 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 367 

County, Illinois, where he remained for some two years. Then he came 
to Missouri, locating in Holt County. He commenced to learn the mill- 
wright's trade while in Ohio, and has followed that occupation through 
life. He has been engaged in building, repairing or operating almost 
every mill in this section of country, or Northwest Missouri, Southern 
Iowa, and the eastern parts of Kansas and Nebraska, and has contrib- 
uted largely toward the growth and improvement of the county. In the 
fall of 1874, he was elected clerk of Holt County, and has since contin- 
ued to fill the position with credit to himself and all parties interested. 
He is at present interested in the Forest City Flouring Mills. During the 
war he served in the Enrolled Missouri Militia. He is an active member 
of Oregon Lodge, No. 175, A. F. and A. M., also of Oregon Lodge, No. 
54, I. O. O. F. Mr. Curtis has been twice married ; first, in May, 1857, 
to Magaret Alleybaugh, who died in December, 1872. He was married 
again in March, 1874, to Charlotte Henry, a native of Ohio, and a daugh- 
ter of Cyrus and Maria Henry, of that state. 

SAMUEL DICKSON 

was born in August, 1830, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His parents, 
Stuart and Agnes Dickson, were born in the northern part of Ireland, 
and were of Scotch-Irish descent. Samuel was reared to manhood in 
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and received the benefits of a common 
school education ; also learning the blacksmiths trade in his youth. In 
1854 he moved to Champaign County, Illinois, where he commenced 
work on the Illinois Central Railroad. At the breaking out of the war he 
was among the first to offer his services. In June, 1861, he enlisted in the 
Twenty-fifth Illinois Volunteer Infantry as a private, and was mustered 
out in September, 1864, holding the position of first-lieutenant. He 
served in many of the hardest fought battles of the rebellion, among 
which were Pea Ridge, Perryville, Stone River, and others. He was 
wounded at the battle of Stone River, and was placed on detached duty. 
At the close of the war Mr. Dickson returned to Champaign County, 
Illinois, where he remained until 1858, when he came to Forest City. 
He has since been engaged in railroading, has held different positions on 
the road, being at present section foreman. He was married on the 
14th of April, 1870, to Mary E. Long, a native of Kentucky. They have 
had four children, two of whom are living ; Agnes, born January 19, 
i87i,and Nevilla, born August 16, 1875. Mrs. Dickson is a member of 
the Baptist Church. Mr. D., religiously, was raised a Presbyterian. 

DAVID P. DOBYNS, 

of the firm of Dobyns & Co., editors and proprietors of the County 
Paper, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, January 25, 1845. His parents, 



368 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

James R. and Mary Dobyns, were natives of Kentucky. David was 
reared to manhood at his birthplace. Having several uncles engaged in 
the printing business, he concluded to learn that art, and consequently 
commenced setting type when but twelve years of age, devoting his 
spare moments to it when not in school. This occupation he has fol- 
lowed principally through life. He was among the first to respond to 
President Lincoln's call for troops, during the war, and although only 
sixteen years of age he enlisted, in April, 1861, in Company H, First 
Missouri Infantry, under Col. Frank P. Blair. He assisted in taking 
Camp Jackson, and also took part in the St. Louis Walnut Street riot. 
From there he went to Boonville, thence to Wilson's Creek, where he 
was severely wounded in the foot, and with his company he marched 
one hundred and fifteen miles, walking most of the way. He was then 
discharged on account of disability. Mr. D. afterwards re-enlisted in 
Company H, Fortieth Missouri Infantry, and was assigned to duty as 
keeper of Gratiot Street Military Prison at St. Louis. He held this 
position for several months, and then again joined his regiment at Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, taking part in that battle, and also those of Franklin, 
Mobile and Fort Blakeley, besides many others. He was mustered out 
at St. Louis in August, 1865. Mr. Dobyns subsequently turned his atten- 
tion to the newspaper business. He published the Macon Argus and 
Macon Republican for several years, and during the winters of 1867-8 he 
was one of the enrolling clerks for the Missouri Legislature in the House. 
He fiiled the position of county clerk and auditor of Macon County, 
Missouri, from 1869 until 1872, and was also police judge for two years 
He was then called to take charge of the books of the St, Joseph Herald, 
and after remaining some time with the Herald Company he came to 
Oregon, in company with W. W. Davenport, who purchased the Holt 
County Sentinel, in 1876. In January, 1880, the name of the paper was 
changed to The County Paper. In June, 1881, Mr. Davenport sold his 
interest to D. P. Dobyns and W. F. Waller, moving to Jacksonville, 
Illinois, in October of the same year. In December, 1881, Mr. Waller 
sold his interest back to Mr. Davenport, and the company is now known 
under the firm name of D. P. Dobyns & Co. Mr. Dobyns publishes a 
spicy sheet, interesting and full of news, and has a large circulation. He 
is an active member of Oregon Lodge, No. 54. I- O. O. F., and has held 
the position of Dietrict Deputy Grand Master and Grand Representa- 
tive. He is also a member of Cour de Leon, No. 11, Knights of Pythias, 
of Hannibal, Missouri. He was married April 20, 1870, to Miss Emma 
Greer, daughter of W. A. Greer, of Macon, Missouri. She was born in 
Monroe County, Missouri, on the 11th of March, 1850. They have had 
four children : Lulu B., born December 11, 1872 ; Edwin B., born July 
4, 1874 ; Leigh B., born November 30, 1878, and James F., born Decern 
ber 1, 1880. Mr. D. and wife are each members of the Christian Church 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 369 

HON. THOMAS C. DUNGAN, 

attorney and counselor at law, was born in Belmont County, Ohio, April 
3, 1840. His father, B. Ellis Dungan, was a native of Pennsylvania, 
while his wife, formerly Miss Sarah S. Fox, was born in Philadelphia. 
The former was naval constructor in the United States ship yards for 
several years. Thomas was reared to manhood at his birth place, spend- 
ing his boyhood days on the farm, and receiving excellent educational 
advantages. He completed his education at the Vermillion Institute, in 
Ohio. Arriving at maturity, he became engaged in teaching and reading 
law, and taught for some two years. In May, 1864, he enlisted in Com- 
pany E, One Hundred and Seventieth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and 
served with the Sixth Army Corps in the Shenandoah Valley, taking 
part in the battle of Winchester and other minor engagements. He 
held the position of sergeant, and was mustered out at Camp Chase, 
Ohio, in September, 1864. At the close of the war, Mr. D. resumed the 
study of law, under Hon. W. S. Kennon, of St. Clairsville, Ohio, and was 
admitted to the bar in September, 1866. In the November following he 
emigrated westward and settled in Oregon, where he commenced the 
practice of his profession. Since that time he has been a prominent 
member of the Holt County bar. In June, 1868, he was appointed city 
attorney, and in April, 1873, at the special election, he was elected circuit 
attorney for the Twenty-ninth Judicial district, embracing four counties. 
In the fall of 1873, he was elected prosecuting attorney, and filled this 
position for two years. In the fall of 1880, he was elected State Senator 
from the First Senatorial district, embracing the four counties of Holt, 
Atchison, Nodaway and Andrew, and served his constituents in a very 
creditable manner. Mr. D. stands among the leading attorneys of 
Northwest Missouri. He has filled the position of notary public some 
ten years. He owns two fine farms east of Oregon, and a large one of 
680 acres near Forbes. He has dealt largely in real estate, and made the 
first set of Abstract books in the county. Politically, he is a staunch 
Republican, having been brought up to the principles of that party. He 
has been a self-made man, and during life has given his attention entirely 
to his own business. He is an active member of Oregon Lodge, No. 
139, A. F. and A. M., also of Oregon Council No. 15. Mr. Dungan was 
married May 13, 1879, to Miss Fanny I. Soper, daughter of Hannibal and 
Wolvina Soper, of Holt County. She was born in Ohio. They have 
one child, Estella Francis, born February 25, 1880. 

HARRY FARAGHER; 

jeweler and watchmaker, was born in Toronto, Canada, September 29, 
i860. His father, Thomas Faragher, was born on the Isle of Man and 
his wife was a native of Ireland. Harry was reared and educated at 



370 HISTORY OF HOi/l' COUNTY. 

Toronto and graduated from the public schools of that city. His father 
was a jeweler and watchmaker, and the son commenced to learn that 
trade, with his father, when about thirteen years of age. He worked 
there until May, 1880, when he started out on his own account. After 
visiting Chicago, and spending some three months there in sight-seeing, 
etc., he immigrated westward and located in Oregon, where he started a 
jewelry store. He now carries a large and complete stock, one of the 
best in the county, and, having been raised to the business, understands 
it thoroughly. He is a member of the Good Templar order in Toronto, 
and belongs to the Presbyterian Church of Oregon. 

DR. GEO. A. FIEGENBAUM, A. M., 

of the firm of Goslin & Fiegenbaum, physicians and surgeons, was born 
in Galena, Illinois, January 1, 1855. His father, Henry H. Fiegenbaum, 
was a native of Prussia, Germany, and his mother, whose maiden name 
was Clara C. Kastenbutt, was from Hanover, Germany. The former 
was an itinerant minister in the German M. E. Church, and conse- 
quently made various moves. He went with his family to Wapello, 
Iowa, in i860, then to Pekin, Illinois, in 1864, thence to Quincy, Illinois, 
in 1867, and in 1870 to St. Joseph, Missouri. George now started out 
on his own account by first engaging himself as clerk in a mercantile 
establishment. In the fall of 1873 he moved to Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, and 
took a classical course at the Iowa Wesleyan University and a theolog- 
ical course at the German Wesleyan College, attending the two col- 
leges together. After five years study he was graduated in June, 1878, 
with the degree of A. B. In 1877 he commenced the study of medi- 
cine under Dr. Ray Beattie, and in the tall of 1878 he attended his first 
course of lectures at the St. Joseph Hospital Medical College. By the 
removal of Dr. Beattie to South America Mr. F. was obliged to choose 
another preceptor, which he found in the person of Dr. T. H. Doyle, of 
St. Joseph. He graduated in the spring of 1880, and that same year 
the Wesleyan University conferred upon him the degree of A. M. In 
July, 1880, he came to Oregon and formed a partnership with Dr. Gos- 
lin. In the spring of 1882 he received the appointment of physician of 
Holt County. Dr. F. is a member of the Medical Society of Northwest 
Missouri. He was married in October, 1880, to Miss Anna B. Brodick, 
daughter of the Rev. I. A. Brodick, of Mt. Pleasant, Iowa. She was 
born in Burlington, Iowa, on the 16th of August, 1856. She is an active 
member of the Woman's Union of Oregon. 

PATRICK FITZMAURICE, 

farmer and stock raiser, section 13, a large land owner of Holt County, 
was born on the Island of Mayo, in March, 1822. His parents, Thomas 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 371 

and Catharine (Hunt) Fitzmaurice, were both natives of the same island. 
Patrick was the second child in a family of eight children. He was 
reared at his birth place, and in the fall of 1844, he crossed the ocean in 
the ship Pantheon. After landing at New York City, he settled in Bal- 
timore. When the call was made for troops during the Mexican war, he 
enlisted in 1846, in Company A, Walter Gear's Battalion Light Infantry. 
He served under General Scott, and took part in the campaign from the 
coast through to the city of Mexico. He was discharged at Baltimore, 
Maryland, on the 31st of August, 1848. In 1849, Mr. F. made a trip to 
Oregon Territory, and in 1850 he went to California, where he worked 
in the gold mines. After celebrating the fourth of July, 185 1, in San 
Francisco, he Started for the states by way of the Isthmus, and thence 
to New Orleans. He came up the river to St. Louis, and then took a 
trip through western Missouri. Returning to Baltimore, he was married 
December 23, 185 1, to Miss Mary A. Fitzmaurice. In the spring of 1852, 
they started west by cars, thence by steamboat to Weston, Missouri, and 
from there by team to St. Joseph, which, at that time, was but a small 
place. Leaving his wife there, he started out afoot to look up a location. 
He soon purchased the farm on which he now resides, and has since been 
engaged in agricultural pursuits. He owns upwards of 1100 acres of 
bottom land, well improved, there being upon it a good orchard, brick 
residence, etc. It is one of the best stock farms in the county. Mr. F. 
has filled the position of school director several terms, taking a deep 
interest in educational matters. His first wife died on the 13th of Sep- 
tember, 1859, and left three children, two of whom are now living : 
Mary Ann, born January 13, 1858 ; Thomas A., born September 13, 1858. 
He was again married in i860, to Miss Mary A. Stanton, a native of 
Mayo Island. By this union they have seven children : Sarah E., born 
December 7, 1*862 ; John M., born September 7, 1864 ; P. Timothy, born 
September 7, 1866 ; Edward M., born October 25, 1868 ; Robert E., born 
September 2, 1870; Joseph W., born January 14, 1877; Stephen W.,born 
July 30, 1 88 1. Himself and family are active members of the Catholic 
Church of Forest City. 

JACOB S. FOSTER 

was born in Baltimore, Maryland, June 4, 1808. His parents, Elijah and 
Annie (Singley) Foster, were also natives of that place. Jacob accom- 
panied them to Richland County, Ohio, in 1817. They settled in the 
heavy timber, among the Indians, and i« this wilderness young Foster 
was reared to manhood, his education being obtained in the old log 
school-house, with slab benches, puncheon floors, etc. He helped to 
open several farms in that vicinity, and, in 1830, he was married to Miss 
Mary Ely, a native of Washington County, Pennsylvania. They immi- 
grated west, in the fall of i860 and settled in Oregon, since which time 



37 2 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

he has been a resident of Holt County. During the war he filled the 
position of First Lieutenant of the Silver Grays, a company of 106, organ- 
ized in this county. His father took part in the war of 1812, and he, 
himself, although quite young at that time, remembers quite distinctly 
the bombardment of Baltimore. Mrs. Foster died at Oregon, on the 17th 
of June, 1875. From this union there had been born nineteen children, 
seventeen boys and two girls. Of these five are now living : David, born 
July 25, 183 1 ; Jehu, born February 25, 1835 ; Jacob, born March 20, 1841 ; 
Solomon, born in February, 1842 ; Rebecca, born March 6, 1846, (now 
Mrs. R. L. Coleman.) Mrs. Coleman keeps house for her father and 
brothers. She has a daughter, Annie L. Coleman, born February 27, 
1877. Mr. Foster has retired from active life and is living with his chil- 
dren. He is still quite hale and hearty and bids fair to see many more 
years. 

D. FOSTER & BROTHERS, 

are proprietors of a meat market and also of livery and feed stables. 
This firm was organized in 1871. They have one of the best stables in 
the county, fitted with a good stock, and are doing a flourishing business 
in the livery line. They run a line of hacks from Oregon to Forest City, 
for the accommodation of passengers, and carry the mail and express. 
For the past ten years they have not missed a mail, and during the high 
water in the spring of 1881, they carried it through to St. Joseph. They 
are enterprising citizens, and besides the business mentioned, they 
operate a superior meat market. David Foster is the eldest living son 
of Jacob and Mary Foster. He was born on the 25th of July, 183 1, in 
Morrow County, Ohio. He spent his boyhood days on the farm at his 
birthplace, and received the benefits of a common school education. In 
1854, he accompanied his parents to Noble County, Indiana, where he 
remained until the fall of 1859, working on a farm in the summer season, 
and teaching school during the winter months. He then moved west 
and settled on a farm in Holt County, Missouri. He gave his attention 
to agricultural pursuits until the spring of 1870, when he located in 
Oregon and kept the City Hotel for one year. In 1871, he engaged in 
the livery business with his brothers, which he has since continued. He 
has filled the position of city marshal, and has been a member of the 
city council. He devotes the most of his time to the care of the meat 
market. Mr. Foster was married on the 28th of September, 1858, to 
Miss Clara Cline, daughter of John Cline, Esq. She was born in Ohio. 
They have nine children : Albert J., born May 5, 1858 ; James F., bornj 
July 19, 1859; Charles H., born September 5, 1863 ; Christian, born May 
28, 1868 ; Edward, born March 1, 1870; Robert L., born December 4, 
1871 ; Lillian A., born January 29,1866; Cattie, born September 14, 
1874, and Myrtle D., born September 6, 1877. 



OREGON AND FOREST CITY. 373 

JEHU FOSTER, 

the second son of Jacob and Mary Foster, was born in Morrow County, 
Ohio, February' 25, 1835. He remained at his birthplace until he was 
eighteen years of age, when he accompanied his parents to Noble 
County, Indiana. He spent his boyhood days on the farm and received 
a common school education. In 1858 he took the California fever and 
started for the land of gold. While en route he stopped at Oregon and 
finally located here. He went to Iowa Point in the spring of 1859 and 
for one year conducted a livery stable for Dr. Robinson. In the spring 
of i860 he settled on a farm near Oregon, where he remained some six 
years. During the war he served in the Enrolled Missouri Militia for 
about six months. In 1866 he moved to Oregon and engaged in the 
stock business. In the spring of 1870 he took charge of the City Hotel 
at Oregon and operated that one year, after which he became associated 
with his brother in the livery business, and has since followed that occu- 
pation. Mr. Foster was married the 17th of December, 1863, to Miss 
Ellen Markland, daughter of Colonel R. D. Markland, who served in 
the Enrolled Missouri Militia in this section of country for some time. 
Mrs. F. was born near Cincinnati in June, 1840. They have two chil- 
dren : Emma C, born Febrnary 25, 1868 ; Frank F., born March 17, 
1870. Mrs. Foster has been an active member of the Christian Church 
since 1868. 

WILLIAM H. FRAME, 

Sheriff of Holt County, was born in Brown County, Ohio, on March 12, 
1848. His parents, W. R. and Nancy (Hook) Frame, were both natives 
of Ohio. William remained at his birthplace until nineteen years of age, 
spending his boyhood days on the farm and receiving his education in 
the neighborhood schools. In 1863, when only fifteen years of age, he 
enlisted with the one hundred day men, in Company D, One Hundred 
and Thirty-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and was mustered in at 
Gallipolis, Ohio. After serving his time he re-enlisted in Company I, 
One Hundred and Ninety-first Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and served 
nearly a year. He took part in some of the engagements in the Shen- 
endoah Valley, although on post duty most of the time. The regiment 
was mustered out at Winchester, Virginia, in November, 1865. The sub- 
ject of this sketch then returned to his old home, in Ohio, and remained 
there until 1868, when he came westward and settled on a farm near 
Mound City. In 1869 he moved to a farm near Craig, on which he lived 
one year, next turning his attention to the mercantile business, in Craig. 
In 1878 he was elected Sheriff of Holt County and was re-elected in 1880. 
He makes an excellent official, and discharges the duties of this position 
with credit to himself and to the entire satisfaction of all parties inter- 



374 HISTORY OF HOLT COUNTY. 

ested. He is a member of Craig Lodge, No. 21 1, I. O. O. F., in which he 
has filled all the offices of the subordinate lodge. He is also a member 
of Oregon Lodge, No. 197, A. O. U. W., in which he has filled most of 
the offices. Mr. Frame was married June 28, 1874, to Miss Fannie 
Arnold,