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St. Louis, 1926 


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PART III— Continued 
The Regime of Governor Lewis 



Chicageaux 10th June 1808 
Dear Sir 

I arrived here a few days ago and expect to leave this 
in the Course of Six days for Detroit, I Hope my Dear 
Sir you have had the Goodness to drop me a few lines in 
answer to mine of March last, and that the information 
you may think proper to Communicate to me, may be 
favorable — You will Confer particular obligation on me 
by interesting yourself with Govr Lewis, and making me 
aquainted with his answer, and Ideas on the Subject, be 
assured I Shall feel myself Ever grateful for the friendly 
attention you have uniformly shewed me, and particu- 
larly in the present instance. — I am Sorry to give you 
so much trouble, but Hope you will excuse it, as it pro- 
ceeds from a Heart that will always be Happy to recip- 
rocate, if Ever in his power — . . . 

N. B. this will be handed to you by my brother Thos. 
by whom I Hope you will favor me with an answer 

D R . g IR Saint Louis 2nd July 1808 

Your favor from Cape Girardeau arrived safe to hand. 
It gave your friends In S Louis much pleasure to hear 
from you; & hope that you will return the Doctors Medi- 


6 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

cine Chest untouched, and continue your expedition with 
eaqual Success as to the greatest of all blessings, Sound 

Genl. Clark and family have arrived, and bring with 
them the beautiful and accomplished Miss Anderson? 11 a 
niece of the Genl. Great agitation In St Louis among the 
bachelors, to prevent fatal consequences a Town meeting 
has been proposed for the purpose of disposing of her by 
lot, no meeting has yet been had. Your Friend Tom how- 
ever does not mean to contend for the prize, a little girl 
not far distant has been so dextrous with her eyes as to 
completely make him Indifferent to all the fair beside, we 
have been coquetting, untill I believe both her and myself 
begin to be serious; some good or other must come of it. 

There has been for the last five or six days before the 
first of July a great number of land claims entered for 
record, Mr. Bouis 112 however would not attend to his busi- 
ness In the Office & I found it was a folly to persist in 
employing a man by the month that would not write more 
than three days. I settled up with him to the first of July, 
and have since made another bargain with him, he to be 

in Elizabeth, daughter of John and Ann Rogers Clark, and sister of 
William Clark, married Richard Clough Anderson, a Virginian, about 
1787. Anderson was a colonel and was appointed principal surveyor of 
lands granted by Virginia in 1783 to soldiers of the continental line. He 
opened headquarters at Louisville in July, 1784. He represented Jefferson 
County, Kentucky, in the conventions at Danville in 1784 and 1788. 
Elizabeth Clark Anderson died in 1795, leaving a son and three daughters, 
Ann, Cecelia, and Elizabeth. William Hayden English, Conquest of the 
Country northwest of the Ohio River, 1778-1783, and Life of Gen. George 
Rogers Clark, II, 1006-1008. 

112 Pascal Vincent Bouis was one of three young Frenchmen appointed 
from St. Louis to West Point by Jefferson in 1804. He resigned his 
commission of 2nd lieutenant in the United States artillery in 1808. 
Later he became a planter in Louisiana. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 7 

paid at the rate of five cents for recording every 100 words 
plats Included, you will thereby gain something and if he 
is Industrious he can easily make from one to two and a 
half dollars per day, under the old arrangement calculat- 
ing all I could get him to do at the rate of 12% Cents, he 
did not earn his wages, I have received the land warrants 
from Gov. Lewis, also fifty dollars from Mr. Dorr ; all your 
business shall be attended to. Nothing more new, strange, 
or Interesting. . . . Mr. Carr & Ladys, compliments. 


Fort Madison, 
$ lBf Village of Arkensas 113 July 22. 1808. 

I had the honor of addressing you, early in the month 
of June from Cape Girardeau, since which I have visited 
all the intermediate settlements. — 

The claimants of Arkensas not having attended gen- 
erally at Hope Field, 114 I thought it proper, altho not spe- 
cially required by the resolution of the commissioners, to 
come on to this place. — 

The business here was completed in one week, since which 

us Cuming, who visited Arkansas Post in 1808, says, "The settlement 
of Arkansas or Ozark is about fifty miles above the junction of that 
river with the Mississippi. It consists chiefly of hunters and Indian 
traders, of course is a poor place, as settlers of this description never 
look for any thing beyond the mere necessities of life, except whiskey." 

The post dated from 1686 when Tonti left a detachment of six men 
there under Couture. The place was maintained as a trading post and 
Jesuit mission throughout the French period. During the Spanish regime 
it was one of three principal centers for control of the Indians. Laclede 
had a branch warehouse there and died there in 1778. It should not be 
confused with Fort Madison, Iowa. Cuming, Tour, in Early Western 
Travels, IV, 298-299; Herbert E. Bolton, AtJianase Be MezUres, I, 74. 

n4 Hopefield, Arkansas, was originally Fort Esperanza. 

8 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 

I have been detained by the sickness of my men & other un- 
toward circumstances. 

Mr. Le Due, 115 the Translator, accompanied me no far- 
ther than the Chickasaw-Bluffs. 110 He had been taken sick 
at New Madrid, 117 but by an exertion of that fortitude for 
which he is remarkable, he had continued regularly, and 
promptly to discharge the duties of his office, until his 
indisposition became so seriously alarming that I thought 
it imprudent for him to proceed. The illness of Mr. Le 
Due compelled me to employ another Translator — and on 
the recommendation of Capt. Armstead, 118 the Comdt. of 
this Post, I engaged Andw. Fagot, Clerk of the late Spanish 
Comdt. and since commissioned a Notary Public by the 
Governor of this territory. He is believed to possess the 
requisite qualifications and deserves this confidence for 
the occasion. His demand is three dollars Per day, which 
I shall take the liberty of putting into the next contingent 

The claims in this part of the country have been brought 
forward with much irregularity. The People are for the 
most part so entirely unacqainted with every kind of busi- 
ness, except of that of the chase, it is not at all to be won- 
dered at that affairs requiring method, order and an ob- 
servance of legal forms, should be totally unintelligible to 
them. Contrary to my expectations, a great number of 
claims remained to be entered when I arrived on the 2d 
instant. The next day the People appeared to be ignorant 
that the time for receiving them had expired, and having 

us Marie Philip Leduc. 
lie Neighborhood of Memphis. 

n7 For an excellent description of New Madrid in 1808, see Cuming, 
Tour, in Early Western Travels, IV, 281-282. 
us Probably George Armistead. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 9 

procured Agents, presented themselves very generally with 
their Papers. These Agents thought proper to date all the 
notices of his clients on 29th June. But they could not 
now be received. I however thought myself justified in 
becoming the depositary of them, at the same time inform- 
ing the Agents explicitly that in doing so, I could be consid- 
ered only as a private individual ,and by no means as a 
public Agent. Considering the remote and sequestered 
situation of these claimants I was even induced to receive 
and reduce to writing the testimony in relation to these 
antedated and illegal entries. The Papers and the testi- 
mony will be carefully preserved, subject to those Orders 
which you may think proper to give with respect to them. — 

Had these People attended at Hope Field as contem- 
plated by the commissioners, these embarrassments might 
have been avoided. 

The large surveys of Messrs. Winters which lie in this 
vicinity are very valuable. 119 No where in the western 
country have I seen lands so fertile, and which lie so well 
as the tract of 250,000 acres claimed by Gabriel Winter 
between the St. Francis & White River. But the principal 
reliance appears to be placed on the validity and com- 
pleteness of the grant of William Winter, which has been 

us This grant was made in 1797 to Elisha, William, and Gabriel 
Winter, William Russell and Joseph Stillwell. The grant was invalidated 
in 1847-1848 on the ground of indefiniteness. For many years the region 
about Arkansas Post was retarded by the uncertainty of the title. 
Nuttall says, "Several enormous Spanish grants remain still [January, 
1819] undecided; that of Messrs. Winters, of Natchez, called for no less 
than one million acres, but the congress of the United States, inclined to 
put in force a kind of agrarian law against such monopolizers, had laid 
them, as I was told, under the stipulation of settling upon this immense 
tract a certain number of families." Thomas Nuttall, A Journal of 
Travels into the Arkansas Territory during the Year 1819 . . . , in 
Early Western Travels, XIII, 106-107. 

10 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

located in the Prairie adjacent to this place. The People 
appear to be very anxious for the confirmation of this 
grant, under an expectation of purchasing at more rea- 
sonable prices from the Proprietor than from the United 

Mr. Donaldson, the late Eecorder has asserted in the 
public Papers that these Titles are complete. Yet it ap- 
pears to me very questionable. The conditions have surely 
not been complied with in such manner, as the Spanish 
Government 120 had a right to expect. Either the preten- 
sions of Mr. Winter, are in his own estimation not well 
founded, or he has given extraordinary fees for manage- 
ment : For I understand that one Gentleman, for procur- 
ing the survey and smoothing if possible, the passage of the 
claim; and another for collecting and arranging testimony, 
have acquired interests almost equal to the original 

At Cape Girardeau and at New Madrid, the Corps of 
Witnesses were well organized and disciplined: Whenever 
I suspected a wandering from the fact, I endeavoured to 
detect and expose it — but it was not alwa}^s in my power — 

About the 10th of next month I hope to give to the com- 
missioners at St. Louis, a satisfactory account of my Mis- 
sion. — Every possible diligence and attention have been 
bestowed. Indeed during this whole tour, I have endeav- 

120 For the whole subject of Spanish land law, see Houck, History of 
Missouri, II, 214-230. Also American State Papers, Public Lands, II, 605- 
606; III, 607-608; V, 59, 251, 704-705, 709; Stoddard, Sketches of Louisiana, 
251-252; Scharf, History of St. Louis, City and County, I, 321; Eugene 
Morrow Violette, "Spanish Land Claims in Missouri," in Washington 
University, Studies, VIII, 167-200. For important cases, see Mackay vs. 
U. S., 10 Peters, 341; Chouteau's Heirs vs. U. S., 9 Peters, 145, 147; 
Menard's Heirs vs. Massey, 8 Howard, 305; Chouteau vs. Eskhardt, 2 
Howard, 349. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 11 

oured by the most patient assiduity to remove those preju- 
dices against myself, in common with the other commis- 
sioners which some of the settlements have been taught to 
entertain. — They complain of delay in the adjustment of 
their claims, and of the continual expence which this pro- 
crastination occasions. I accounted for the first; to the 
satisfaction of the liberal minded and intelligent; and in 
order to give them pledges of my own disinterestedness 
declined, at this place to receive those recording fees which 
I might by Law have demanded. — 


Sm St. Louis 13th Aug 1808. 

I had not until yesterday, on my return from the Ar- 
kansas the honor of receiving your letter of 28 May last. 
The reproof and admonition which it contains shall not be 
forgotten in the future settlements of the contingent accts. 
of my office. While exercising this government in the 
absence of Gov Lewis I was subjected to considerable extra 
expenses without additional emolument, and was so far 
mistaken as to imagine, that fuel & candles merely for the 
Office would be considered as part of the Office rent. I 
lament the error & will in future, adhere to the literal 
expressions of Mr. Gallatin's orders. 


Gentlemen, St. Louis Aug 15. 1808. — 

In discharge of the duties imposed on me by your reso- 
lution of the day of last, being a modification of 

12 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

your previous resolutions on the same subject, I have made 
the circuit of the lower settlements of this territory. — 
When descending the Mississippi, the business at Cape Gir- 
ardeau, at New Madrid and at Camp Esperance was taken 
up in prime conformity to your order of mission : but not 
being completed for want of time, and on account of 
obstacles thrown in my way by factious individuals, I 
thought it substantially correct to hold an extra session 
on my return. Your object was to obtain the testimony, 
and I could not think of disappointing those just expecta- 
tions by an unnecessary observance of minute forms. Your 
resolution contemplates my receiving testimony in relation 
to the claims to lands which lie in the neighbourhood of the 
Arkansas; but it was also expected that those persons or 
their Agents, would have attended at Camp Esperance for 
this purpose. Joseph Stillwell 121 was the only person from 
that part of the country who met me there, and I con- 
ceived it my duty as I was now within 200 miles of their 
village and about 2/3 of the distance from St. Louis to 
their principal settlements, to proceed to Fort Madison, 
where the evidence could be collected with little additional 
expense to the U States and with no possible inconvenience 
to the claimants. — I submit to you herewith, the Papers 
which have been laid before me by the parties concerned 
as well as those which I have collected from the Public 
Offices of New Madrid : — together with the oral testimony 
reduced to writing principally by myself. 

There is an Affair, which, to prevent misconstruction I 
beg leave to mention to you altho' it in no wise concerns 
the business which you have confided to, my management. 
On my arrival at the Arkansas after the first day of July 

i2i Joseph Stillwell was one of the five grantees of Winter's grant, 

The Regime of Governor Lewis, 13 

last, Jno. G. Clark of Natchez and Perly Wallis of Oua- 
chita 122 Agents for the claimants presented a number of 
notices to the Recorder dated 29th June. In my private 
capacity merely I received these Papers, recorded the tes- 
timony in relation to them, and informed Mr. Gallatin that 
they would be carefully preserved subject to any future 
arrangement which Congress might think proper to make. 

M. P. LeDuc, the Translator accompanied me as far as 
Camp Esperance and performed with diligence and 
promptness every duty appertaining to his office. On my 
departure from that settlement, a pleuretic affection which 
he had sometime previously contracted became so alarming 
that he found himself unable to prosecute the voyage and 
remained under the care of Doct Stewart of Port Pick- 
ering. 123 

At the Arkansas I employed Andrew Fagot as a Trans- 
lator or rather an Interpreter for the occasion. He was 
recommended to me by gentlemen of the most respectable 
standing, in that part of the country and is believed to 
have discharged this temporary trust with fidelity. 


glR St. Louis 19. Aug 1808 

I take the liberty of enclosing you the record of a demand 

12 2 Ouachita or Washita was located on the Arkansas River in latitude 
32° 29' 37.25". For an excellent description of the post and the surround- 
ing country, see "A Description of the Washita River, in Louisiana, and 
the Country bordering thereon, compiled from the Journals of William 
Dunbar Esq. and Dr. Hunter," in American State Papers, Indian Affairs, 
I, 733. 

123 Fort Pickering was on the Mississippi River two miles below the 
Fourth Chickasaw Bluff. It was originally called Fort Adams. For a few 
months in 1797 Merriwether Lewis was in command there. 

14 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

agt. Mr. William Eobison of the House of Eobison & Mar- 
tin for $32.93cts. 

The history of the transaction is this — The beginning 
of last winter Mr. Eobison hired a Horse of Joseph 
Morin 124 to ride to the Belle Fontaine Races; a number of 
us staid that night at the Cantonments on the Missouri, 
from which place the horse of Mr. Eobison escaped. On his 
leaving this country, the horse not being then found, he 
spoke to Major Christy, Capt. Clemson 125 and myself to 
adjust the business in a proper manner with Morin. I 
agreed to do so — And Christy gave his personal assur- 
ances to Morin, who sometime thereafter presented an ac- 
count of $44, — / also lately declined to adjust so exorbi- 
tant a demand, and advised Christy to stand a suit. Judg- 
ment was recovered as you will find in the record — I then 
paid the money in the name of Major Christy and obtained 
his assignment. Be so obliging as to ask of Mr. Eobison, 
the amount of this Judgment. He cannot hesitate in paying- 
it; altho' I must confess that there has been already, a 
greater delay than I had expected. Probably Major 
Christy's letters written both before, and after the judg- 
ment was rendered, may never have reached him. 

Colo. Thomas Hunt died two days ago. 126 The melan- 
choly event has aroused the sympathies of every individual 
of these settlements who had the pleasure of an acquain- 
tance with his worthy and amiable family. He will be 

124 Joseph Morin was a carpenter. In 1795 he was living near St. 

125 For biography of Eli B. Clemson, see Luttig, Journal of a Fur- 
Trading Expedition on the Upper Missouri, 1812-1813 (Stella M. Drumm, 
ed.), 145-146. 

126 Billon (Annals of St. Louis in its Territorial Days, 225) gives 
July 17, 1808 as the date of his death. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis, 15 

buried this day at the Cantonments. Most of the Citizens 
of St. Louis left town early this morning in order to pay 
the last honors to this respectable veteran. I am truly 
sorry that the fatigues of a three months excursion to the 
lower country from which I have just returned, prevent 
my attendance. — I have never heard from you since I 
transmitted the powers of Atty that I recollect. — No diffi- 
culties have occurred? I congratulate you on the confirma- 
tion of your appointment. It was not in my power to be 
instrumental in it. — 


Whereas, by the 5th section of an act of the Congress of 
the United States entitled 'An act further providing for 
the government of the district of Louisiana' passed the 3d 
day of March 1805 it is provided that for the more con- 
venient distribution of justice the prevention of crimes 
and injuries, and execution of process, criminal and civil, 
the Governor shall from time to time, as circumstances 
may require, lay out those parts of the territory, in which 
the Indian Title shall have been extinguished, into dis- 
tricts, subject to such alteration as may be found neces- 
sary, and that he shall appoint thereto such magistrates 
and other civil officers as he may deem requisite : 

Now therefore, I have thought proper, for the promotion 
of these objects to divide the at present too widely ex- 
tended district of New Madrid, by a line commencing on 
the Mississippi, opposite the 2d Bluff, and running, indefi- 
nitely, in a due west direction : And I do hereby declare 
all that portion of country lying to the south of said line, 

127 Original in the Department of State, B. R. L., 3449. 

16 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 

as far as the 33d degree of north latitude to be, and the 
same is hereby established as a separate district, to be 
known and denominated, for all judicial purposes, 'The 
District of the Arkensas' prohibiting the exercise of the 
district authorities of New Madrid, beyond, or to the south- 
ward of the said East and West line, so as aforesaid estab- 
lished as the northern boundary of the newly created dis- 
trict of the Arkensas. 

In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the terri- 
tory to be hereunto affixed. — 

Given under my hand at Saint Louis, the twentieth day 
of August, in the year of our Lord, one thousand, eight 
hundred and eight, and of the Independence of the United 
States of America, the thirty third. 

By the Governor Meriwether Lewis 

~ , Frederick Bates 

Secy of Louisiana 

■ta g^ Michilimackinac, Augt. 23d. 1808. 

Many applications will no doubt be made this fall to 
Gov. Lewis by British subjects for permission to trade 
with the Indian tribes residing on the West side of the 
Mississippi. A Mr. Crookes 128 purchased goods at this 

128 Ramsay Crooks was born at Greenock, Scotland, in 1787. At the 
age of sixteen he entered the service of the North West Company. In 
1806 he was trading in Wisconsin. In 1807 he came to St. Louis where 
he entered into partnership with Robert McClellan. In their first trading 
venture they were balked by the Teton. Crooks became famous because 
of his connection with the Astoria project. After the failure of that 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 17 

place — applied to me for a License — The oaths necessary 
by the tenor of the 15. Sec. of the last Embargo Law was 
tendered to him — He refused taking it — alledging that he 
conceived himself an American Citizen, that he was con- 
cerned with one Mc.Cleland, an American born, in the 
Illinois, and that he was in no wise interested or concerned 
with the Macinac Company, I, therefore, thereupon, 
granted him a Common Clearance. 

Mr. Bouthillier 129 also called for a Clearance & made oath 
that he resided in this Country antecedent to the 1st of 
July 1796 and has ever since considered himself a Citizen 
of the U. States, He therefore also obtained a Common 
Clearance — It will I suspect be stated & urged to the Gov- 
ernor that this Crooks is a British subject (which circum- 
stance was not suggested to me until this morning). And 
that if he is allowed to go into Louisiana it will be repre- 
hensible & unpardonable partictily [sic] to prevent other 
Br. subjects trading in that Country — Much Clamour may 
ensue — I state these facts in order that misrepresentation 
shall not prevail. 

The contents of Gov. Lewis' letter of the 2d June last to 
the late Mr. Campbell 130 has been communicated to the 
Macinac Company — therefore in case of infractions they 
cannot profit by the plea of ignorance — As to Laws, rules 
& regulations on the subject of Indian trade & intercourse 
generally they had early, full & correct information. Here- 
with I transmit to you for your & the Governor's informa- 

enterprise, he was long identified with the Astor enterprises. For sketches 
of him, see Early Western Travels (Thwaites, ed.), V, 36-37; Wisconsin 
Historical Collections, IV, 95-102. 

129 Probably Francois Bouthillier, fur trader and early resident of 
Prairie du Chien. 

iso John Campbell who was killed in a duel with Redford Crawford. 

18 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

tion a List of Clearances granted at this Custom house 
this year. 

R. Dickson 131 has started for the states — It is said for 
the purpose of applying at Washington City for the ap- 
pointment of Indian Agent for the Upper Mississippi — I 
have seen & read a paper which you granted him giving 
him permission to trade in Louisiana, & have also been 
informed that Gov. Lewis feels very thankful & grateful 
towards Dickson on account of services rendered by him 
to our Government — I fear that neither of you know the 
man — He has done what has perhaps advantaged the U. 
States — But believe me not from any love he bears our 
Country. He is better known here than elsewhere. He is 
a Br. subject in heart & sentiment — connected in trade 
with two powerful & almost overbearing British fur trading 
companies — He possesses not the smallest wish for the 
happiness of the American people — understands the In- 
dians well ; and has great influence over many in the quar- 
ter where he heretofore traded & at Laprairie du Chien — 
Such an appointment will certainly be an alarming and 
dangerous weapon in the hands of an Enemy — Will it 
then think you be wise & prudent for our Gov. to appoint 
R. Dickson Indian Agent I have myself no personal or 
private antipathy or malice to this man — He will probably 
apply to you & the Governor for letters of recommenda- 
tion — Or perhaps use the testimonials of your high opinion 
of him which he now possesses — I write this merely that 
you may put your selves on your guard so that our Govt, 
shall not be imposed upon. As you understand the duties 
of a Collector perfectly it is almost useless to inform you 
that the Collector whose application is made for a Clear- 

i3i Robert Dickson. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis, 19 

ance can have no eye to the Laws on the subject of trade 
or intercourse with the Indians — This is hinted at because 
it has been & perhaps will again be pretended by British 
fur traders that the Clearance of a Collector is all they 
need — Mr. Reid 132 is just about to depart — I write in 
haste — I expect to get to Washington City about the 15 
of Nov. — On the subject of the duel between Mr. Camp- 
bell & Mr. R. Crawford Mr. Reid can give you a detailed 
account of the whole affair — You may hear false & con- 
tradictory reports — Campbell was always an eye sore to 
some one or all of the Br. traders here. Mr. Reid's infor- 
mation may I think be relied on — ... 

Mr. S. Abbott's 133 compliments to you. 

The production, by D., of your Licence to him com- 
menced the quarrel between Campbell '& Crawford — Your 
conduct in having granted it was however neither can- 
vassed nor censured — I haven't time. 
[P. S.] We (Mr. Abbott & myself) have also written to 
Gov. Lewis & Gov. Harrison 


SlR St. Louis Aug 28. 1808 

I have this day taken the liberty to draw on you in favor 
of Messrs. Falconer & Comegys for the sum of Three hun- 
dred & Sixty dolls, the amount of my travelling allowance 
while performing a circuit of twelve hundred miles by order 
of the commissioners for ascertaining & adjusting the titles 
and claims to Lands in the Territory of Louisiana. 

132 James Reid, Mackinac merchant. 

133 Samuel Abbott, Mackinac pioneer. 

20 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

The Certificate of the Corns, accompanies the Draft. In 
that certificate they have thought it sufficient to state the 
distance from St. Louis to the Arkensas — and that all 
my travelling allowances collectively do not exceed the dis- 
tance between the northern & the southern settlements. 


SlR ^ St. Louis Augt. 28. 1808. 

On the 12th of this month I returned to St. Louis, and 
on the 15th submitted the Report, a copy of which I have 
now the honor to enclose — 

I ask your indulgence while I state some unpleasant inci- 
dents which have lately occurred. 

Judge Lucas was opposed to the mission of a single 
member, tho' I hope he had no objections to myself — I 
had his vote. It is not recollected that he assigned his rea- 
sons at the Board. In his subsequent conversations with 
the People, many arguments were employed to shew the 
impropriety of the arrangement. I was hurt at this; 
because, if those dissatisfactions had been expressed at a 
proper time and place, they might have had weight; at 
least from the very great respect which I have never 
ceased to feel and to express for his superior good sense 
and integrity of principle, I should have attended to his 
observations with the utmost deference. They might and 
probably would have over ruled those preferences which I 
then gave to the plan which was adopted. But left to my 
own reflections in this business, I considered that our time 
was now passing away, and that it ought to be economized 
in every possible manner, consistently with the due dis- 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 21 

charge of that great trust which the government had con- 
fided to us. Indeed, for some days previously to the revis- 
ion of the first resolution on this subject, I had taken up 
an idea that the minds of Judge Lucas and Mr. Penrose, 
were made up, and that the Eecorder alone would be sent 
on this circuit. Besides, I had witnessed during our for- 
mer visits to the neighbouring settlements the extreme 
impatience of the Commissioners to return to St. Louis 
and foresaw that should we make this distant tour collec- 
tively the object would not, in all probability, be accom- 
plished. Permit me to make you the assurance, that the 
People are satisfied with the attention, which I have 
bestowed on their business, and that I confidently expect 
the future approbation of the Board, when it has leisure 
to examine critically, the performance of those duties, with 
wch. I was charged. 

Some few days after my return, I laid on the Table a 
resolution for meeting every day, instead of every third 
day. The necessity of this was too obvious to leave room 
f<5r reasonable opposition. The proposition was treated 
by Judge Lucas with much oblique asperity ; but, at length, 
after undergoing some amendments was reluctantly acqui- 
esced in. I have been since reproached, as being no better 
prepared for decision than my Colleagues. It is very true ; 
but surely if we intend to do the business at all it was time 
that we had commenced it. — 

The Judge has frequently spoken of the possible non 
extinguishment of the native right, and of other embar- 
rassments, with respect to which we ought to ask informa- 
tion or instruction from you. The suggestion, at this late 
hour of the day has not been attended to, and never regu- 
larlv submitted to the Board. — 

22 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

I took an early occasion, after several warm and unpleas- 
ant conversations to make to the board professions of cor- 
diality, and expressed a wish, that we might as men of 
business, labor in that great work the accomplishment of 
which appeared to be expected from us. Judge Lucas 
reciprocated my conciliatory dispositions with a warmth 
of feeling so peculiar to him; and I had, at that moment 
no doubt, that the business would go smoothly on. I am 
willing still to hope so. 

The Recorder has been desired to compile all the Ordi- 
nances, Official Letters, Instructions &c. which have rela- 
tion to the Land Subject. My mornings and evenings are 
now employed in this research. I shall transcribe them in 
a bound Book, and accompany the Report with an Index. — 

In May last, when going down the river I appointed the 
Clerk of the Board, my friend Thomas F. Riddick to act 
in the Recorder's office in my absence. He received pre- 
viously to the first of July, a considerable number of 
Claims in addition to those which were made with myself 
in the lower districts. It is impossible that all these should 
be yet actually recorded. The work goes on industriously, 
and I presume that in the meantime, the Board will con- 
sider them as sufficiently recorded in contemplation of Law. 

Since the arrival of Gov Lewis, I have had no interfer- 
ence in the business of Lead Mines — In one of the Letters 
which I had the honor to receive from you, it appeared to 
be expected that the Recorder would still act in that affair 
under the direction of the Governor. He has, however, with 
great propriety, I think, and I hope, with your approbation, 
assumed the whole management. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 23 


glB St. Louis Aug 30. 1808. 

You desire me to forget those unpleasant occurrences, 
which for a moment interrupted our harmony. I was sur- 
prized at this request, as the differences to which you 
allude, could not, in their very nature create a permanent 
alienation. At any rate they have had no such operation 
on my mind. The interest which I feel in your advance- 
ment (because I know that you deserve it) would induce 
me without hesitation to exert myself in your behalf, if I 
had influential friends to whom I could without a breach 
of decorum, address myself on such a subject. But my 
dear Sir, I have already been admonished on this score — 
in gentle terms it is true ; but in a style sufficiently peremp- 
tory, to prevent my making again the fruitless experiment. 
At Washington these things are not expected from me, 
except when they relate to that quarter of the country in 
which I reside — and then sparingly. — 

You complain of my neglect. That I never answer your 
letters — In this you wrong me. I believe I have answered 
every line which you have done me the favor to write. T 
recollect particularly well that I chatted with you, for half 
an hour at least in February last, and even threw out some 
suggestions, which I believed you would avail yourself 
of in procuring an exchange of Office. 


Dear Sir— Se P tr - lst 1808 

Together with every acknowledgement of gratitude For 
your politeness and attention while at Arkansas I would 

24 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 

observe I had a tolerable prosperous Journey to Ouachita 
and from thence to this place 134 although I have been exer- 
cised with the fevre Both then and since I return,d as you 
will Discover by the shaking of my hand we have had 
serious work and hard swearing here last week capt Arm- 
istead has had his hands head & heart full Burnet has 
been apprehended for the murder of Patterson and many 
others have been arraigned for felony and bound to the 
Peace Burnet is sent to New Madrid gaol I have lent 
capt Armstead every assistance in my Power which Per- 
haps was very imperfect as we have not the Laws of the 
Teritory I should Take it as a singular favour if you 
would favour us with a coppy of the Juditiary sistem of the 
Teritory as soon as you conveniently can if one could be 
furnished for my self bound I will Pay all necessary 
expence I likewise would observe the People are anxious 
for our seperation and organization I hope you will Take 
the earliest opportunity To inform us what is Done con- 
cerning our country and if it will not be too great a task 
amidst a multitude of complexed business which I know 
you to be ingaged in I would ask the Particular favour of 
a line to inform me how you Prospered on your Journey 
up the River when it is Probable the land claims will be 
adjusted and concerning other matters, whic[h] I have 
before mentioned Time fails. 


gm St. Louis Sept. 3. 1808. 

I have the honor to enclose the copy of an Account ren- 
dered to General Clark, on his return to this country. It 

134 Probably Arkansas Post. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 25 

embraces all the money transactions in which I was em- 
ployed, on his behalf, and has been provisionally accepted 
by him as correct. 

He has been good enough also, to suffer me to include 
in this account some other bills and disbursements which 
do not fall properly within his department, as balances 
had been carried from these latter settlements to the Cr 
of the Indian Account. By this arrangement he has taken 
upon himself, the final adjustment at the War Office, of 
all my disbursements and drafts, as well those, which you 
have done me the honor to accept, as others which were 
negociated at Louisville. My absence to the lower settle- 
ments of this territory prevented an earlier communication 
on this subject. — 

APRIL 1— SEPTEMBER 30, 1808 135 
Ap 4 Mackay Wherry 
Joseph Beaty 136 
James Calloway 137 


Benjamin Allen 


Of a troop of Cav- 
alry, in the District 
of Saint Charles 
3d Regiment — 

May 16 John E. Hart Lt. Colo. Comdt. of 5th (New Mad- 
rid) Regiment 

Stephen Ross Major 1st Bat : of 5th Regiment 

135 Original in Department of State, B. R. L., 3449. 

136 Beatty. 

137 Callaway. 

of Compy. in 1st 

26 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

James Trotter Captain in 1st Bat : of 5th Regiment 
Robert Trotter Lieut. — 1 Bat: of 5th Regiment 
Amos Rawls — Captain — in 2 Bat : of 5th Regiment 
Franklin J. Smith Surgeon of the 5th Regiment 
Joseph N. Amoureux 138 Pay Master of 5th Regiment 
Jacob Jacobs 139 Quarter Master of the 5th Regiment 
Thomas Ward Caulk Lieut, in 2d Bat : 5th Regiment 
James Faris 140 Ensign in 2d Bat : of 5th Regiment 

[May 17] Alexander McNair Aide de Camp to the Comr. 
in Chief with the rank of Major, vice Edwd. Hemp- 
stead resigned 
Nationiel Pope Judge Advocate for 2d Regiment 

June 10 Daniel Richardson 141 

James Brown Lieutenant 
John Maupin Ensign, 

July 11 Zephaniah Sappington Captain in 1st Regiment 
Uri Musick 142 Lieutenant in 1st Regiment 
Thomas Sappington Ensign in 1st Regiment 
Mary Philip Le Due Lieutenant in 1st Regiment 
Andrew Andreville 143 Ensign in 1st Regiment 
J. Cottle Captain in the 3d Regiment 
John McConnell 144 Lieut, in the 3d Regiment 
Peter Teaque 145 Ensign in the 3d Regiment 

iss See letter of Amoureux to Bates, June 6, 1810. 

139 Jacob Jacobs moved from the District of Columbia to the District 
of Cape Girardeau in 1799. 

140 Farris. 

i4i Richardson settled in the St. Louis District in 1803. In 1818 he 
was one of the representatives of St. Louis County in the assembly. 

142 Uri Musick settled in the St. Louis District in 1805. 

143 Andre Andreville. 

144 John McConnell settled on the Dardenne in 1801. 

145 Pierre Teaque, a resident of St. Charles in 1801. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 


James (Jacques) Fietto Lieut, in the 3d Regiment 
David Bocher Ensign in the 3d Regiment 

25 Sylvestre Labbadie 146 1st Lieut of St. Louis-Dragoons 
Francois Valois 147 2d Lieut of ditto 

John Alexr. Mechan jr Cornet of ditto 

Peter Chouteau jr Burser of ditto 

Aug 4 John Dougherty ^i of the 2d troop of 

Burser I Cavalry in district 

Joseph Baker Cornet of Ca P e Girardeau 

Blank Commissions for the following Organization of a 
Battalion of militia at the Arkensas, were signed by the 
Governor, on the 18th May, and filled by the Secy, when 
he visited those settlements in July 

Francis Vaugine Major 
Daniel Moony 148 Captain 
Harrold Stillwell Lieu- 
Tenace Racine Ensign 

Baptiste Cailliot 149 

Peter Lefeve 150 Lieu- 

Charles Bougy Ensign 

of 1st Company 

of 2d Company 


146 Sylvestre Labadie, Sr., was a native of Tarbes, France. He came 
to St. Louis in 1778. He was a merchant, an extensive landowner, and 
preceded Pierre Chouteau as Spanish Indian agent. His son, Sylvestre 
Labadie, Jr., was born in 1778. The son speculated extensively in land. 

147 Francois Valois settled in the St. Louis District in 1790. 

148 Daniel Mooney, captain in the New Madrid regiment in 1812, 
major in the Arkansas County regiment in 1814. 

149 Probably Caillot. 
iso Probably Lefevre. 

28 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 

Stephen Vaugine Pay 

Andrew Fagot Judge 


Sep 8 Benjamin Wilkinson 
Risden H. Price Lieu- 
John Voorhis Ensign 
Francis V. Bouis Burser 

of the Arkensas 

of a volunteer com- 
pany of Infantry in 
town of St. Louis 

Secretary's Office 

St. Louis September 30th 1808 
Frederick Bates 




APRIL 1— SEPTEMBER 30, 1808 151 

Ap 4 Elisha Goodrich, 152 Justice of the Peace, township 
St. Charles, Dt. St. Charles 

Jno. E. Hart, Sheriff New Madrid, vice Saml. Ham- 
mond declined 

Andw. Scott, Justice of Peace, township Big Prairie, 
Dt. New Madrid. 

Thos. Evans, Justice of Peace, township & Dt. of 
New Madrid 

i5i Original in the Department of State, B. R. L., 3449. 
152 in 1799 Elisha Goodrich settled on the Missouri in the District of 
St. Louis. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 29 

Geo. Ruddle, 153 Justice of Peace, township little 
Prairie, Dt. of New Madrid 

May 16 Jos. Lewis, Sheriff of Dt. of New Madrid, vice 
Hart declined to accept 

Robert Mc Coy Coroner of the District of New 

John Baptiste Olive Treasurer of District of New 

Thomas Clarke Justice of Peace township Tywapity, 
Dt. of N. Madrid 

Joseph Lafernait Juste. Peace township & Dt. -of 
New Madrid 

June 6 John G. Heth 154 Clerk of the Courts of Common 
Pleas and quarter Sessions, Dist. of St. Charles, vice 
Robert Spencer removed. 

July 7 John G. Heth Justice of Peace townsp. St. Charles, 
District of St. Charles, vice Janis resigned. — 

Andrew Kincade, Justice of Peace for townp. Bon 
Homme Dt. St. Louis 

8 John G. Heth, Treasurer of the District of St. 

25 Manuel Andre Roche Justice of Peace, township of 
St. Charles District of St. Charles, vice Francis 
Duquette resigned. — 

Aug 5 Stephen Byrd, Judge of the Courts of common 
pleas & quarter sessions & of oyer & terminer for the 

153 George Ruddell or Ruddle in 1796 had a farm north of Little 
Prairie. He was a son of Isaac Ruddle of Ruddle's Station, Kentucky. 

154 John G. Heath. 

30 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

district of Cape Girardeau vice Christopher Hayes 

Benjamin Fooy Justice of the Peace, township of 
Arkensas District of New Madrid. 

George Armistead Justice of the Peace for the town- 
ship of the Arkensas, District of New Madrid — 

The hvo foregoing commissions were dated 18th 
May — left blank by the Governor, and filled by the 
Secy, when he visited the Arkensas in the month of 
July. — 

Civil organization on the reestablishment of the district 

of the Arkensas 

Aug 20 Francis Vaugine, 
22 Joseph Stillwell 

22 Charles Refeld 

23 Benjamin Fooy 

Judges of the Courts of 
Common Pleas and Quarter 
Sessions & of oyer & ter- 
miner for district of the Ar- 
kensas during good behavior 
for four years. 

Jno. Honey Clerk of the Courts of Common Pleas, 
Quarter Sessions & of oyer & terminer — District of 
the Arkensas 

John Honey, Treasurer, Recorder and Judge of Pro- 
bate for the District of the Arkensas 

Harrold Stillwell, Sheriff of the district of the Ar- 

Andw. Fagot, Coroner, Just. Peace & Noty. Public, 
Dist of the Arkensas 

Aug 23 John Burk Treat, John Honey and Benjamin 
Fooy Esquire directed, and impowered b}^ dedimus, to 

The Regime of Governor Lewis, 31 

administer oaths of office, within and for the district 
of the Arkensas. — 

George C. Sibley, Justice of the Peace, for township 
of Bon Homme district of Saint Louis. — He resides at 
Fire Praire. — 

Secretary's Office 

St. Louis September 30. 1808 
Frederick Bates 




LEWIS, APRIL 1ST — SEPTEMBER 30, 1808 155 

May 2 Ramsay Crooks, partner of Robert McClellan; to 
ascend the Missouri with provisions for their trading 

11 Charles Dorion; to trade with the Sieux and Iowas 
at the river Le Moin and on the Missouri. 

25 Augte. Chouteau by Agent Henry Deroulier; to 
trade with the Sieux Bands. 

Aug 23 Louis Coignard; to trade on the St. Francis; on 
White River at the Arkensas, not above Fort Madi- 
son; at Little Praire 

Sept 1 Francis Robidoux; 156 to trade at the Fire Praire, 
and (with the permission of the Agent or sub Agent at 
that place) with the Ottos & Panis. — 

155 Original in the Department of State, B. R. L., 3449. 

156 Francis Robidoux for many years was in business in St. Louis. 

32 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

3 Baptiste Vallet ; 157 Joachim Vallet, Baptiste Derwate 

and Gerlerno ; to hunt on the Missouri not higher 

up than Fire Praire unless with permission of the 
Agent or Sub Agent ; to take no more than 15 lb. Pow- 
der — & not to go into the Osage Eiver 

14 P. Vial, 158 Bapt. Le Beau, 159 Amable Quesnel, Bapt. 
Jeamdt, Gab. Morleau ; to hunt on the Missouri, on the 
same terms limitations as the foregoing — 

Sepr 14 F. Piqueure, Jos. Piqueure, J. M. Cardinal, 160 
Ant Laf ranchise ; 161 to hunt on the Missouri on the 
same terms and with the same limitations as the fore- 

Louis Berthelet, Joseph Quesnel, Francis Embroise, 
Bapt. Alary & Bap. Laurens; 162 to hunt on the Mis- 
souri — on same terms & with same limitations as the 

Francis Ragotte & Chs. Bissonett: to hunt on the 
Missouri on same terms & with same limitations as 
the foregoing. 

Peter Montardy ; to trade at the Fire Prairie — and 
(if the Agent or Sub Agent at that place permit) with 
the Sieux, Ottos, Missouris and with the well disposed 
Panis. — 

24 Etienne Cadron, Patron, Peter Decelle, Jos. Dayon, 
Louis Chatelereau, Jacques (Sauvage) Ranga (Sau- 

157 Probably Jean Baptiste "Valle, who was made civil commandant 
of Ste. Genevieve by Stoddard. 

158 probably Pedro Vial, who made the trip from Santa Fe in 1792. 
For the journal of that expedition, see Houck, Spanish Regime, I, 350-358. 

159 in 1809 Baptiste Le Beau had a tavern in St. Louis. 
i6o jean Marie Cardinal. 

i6i Antoine La Franchaise. 

162 Probably Jean Baptiste Laurain. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 33 

vage) Baptiste Gouniville, Louis & Jos: Le Blanc, 
Castor (Sauvage) Peter Plante, Baptiste Greza, 
Joseph Rivar, Joseph Greza, Peter Quesnel, Francis 
Belford, Joseph Gobey, Baptiste Le Court, & Nathl. 
Soucier, to hunt on the Missouri not higher up than 
the rock of Arrows on the right bank — nor on the left, 
higher up than the place opposite the Fire Praire; 
not to pass westward of a line drawn south from the 
Rock of Arrows to the Arkensas, nor to take collec- 
tively more than 100 lb. of Powder. 

Sep 24 Peter Berger; to hunt on the Missouri, on the 
same terms and with same limitations as the fore- 

Robert Mc Clellan & Compy ; to trade at the Fire 
Praire, with authority to the Agent or Sub Agent of 
that place, so to extend the licence, as to embrace such 
portion of the upper country as he (said Agent) may 
judge proper. — 

Secretary's Office 

St. Louis September 30. 1808 
Frederick Bates 



St. Louis Oct 3. 1808. 
Sir, Secretary's Office 

Your letter complaining of the unlawful issue of certain 

163 Pierre Antoine La Forge was exiled from France during the 
French Revolution. With other Frenchmen he settled at Gallipolis, but 
in 1791 moved to New Madrid where he acted as interpreter, commis- 
sioner of the police, syndic, and officer of militia. After the acquisition 
of Louisiana he was appointed civil commander and judge of the New 

34 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

executions from the Office of the Clerk of the General 
court, 104 has been received by the Governor. — 

His Excellency instructs me to say that you are probably 
mistaken in the statement which you have made of the 
transaction. Those suits are said to have been instituted 
under the Spanish government, and placed on the docket of 
the general court by order of Captain Stoddard. 165 — At 
any rate it is an affair in which the Governor is not dis- 
posed to interfere. If any wrong has been done or suf- 
fered, the general court will, on proper application award 
an ample redress. 


Sir, St. Louis Octo. 10. 1808. — 

Complaints of violence and a contempt of the Laws have 
been lately exhibited against you, and so conclusively sup- 
Madrid court of common pleas and quarter sessions. He was ill at the 
time of the earthquake (1811) and died from exposure. 

164 Section 8 of a law establishing courts of judicature, passed October 
1, 1804, provided that, "There shall be holden and kept twice in every 
year a supreme court of record which shall be called and styled the 
general court, the sitting of which court shall commence at St. Louis 
on the first Tuesdays in May and the last Tuesdays in October, yearly 
and every year." Mo. Territorial Laws, I, 60. For amendments, see ibid., 
I, 59-64, 105-125, 183-184. 

165 Amos Stoddard was born at Woodbury, Connecticut, on October 
26, 1762. He served in the Revolutionary War during 1779-1782. After 
the war he became clerk of the supreme court of Massachusetts. He 
practiced law at Hallowell, Maine, during 1792-1798. He became a cap- 
tain of artillery on June 1, 1798. He was appointed to receive Upper 
Louisiana and acted as governor until the creation of the District of 
Louisiana. He attained the rank of major in 1807 and in 1812 was ap- 
pointed deputy-quartermaster. He was wounded at Fort Meigs, and 
died of tetanus on May 11, 1813. His Sketches, Historical and Descriptive, 
of Louisiana is an invaluable work. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 35 

ported, as to render it highly improper, that you should be 
longer continued in the discharge of public duties. 

When an Officer acts in direct opposition to the best and 
principal objects of his appointment, and perseveres in 
that opposition, after being warned, cautioned & admon- 
ished, it is surely time to inform such misguided Officer, 
that his services are no longer required. 

I do therefore revoke your commission as a Justice of 
the Peace for the township of Breton, district of St. Gene- 




Secretary's Office 
Sir, St. Louis October 1808. — 

Notwithstanding all the precautions which the Governor 
has taken for the suspension of intercourse with the Osages, 
he regrets to be informed that they are still supplied, from 
your quarter, with military stores. It is particularly said, 
on authority which cannot be questioned, that a trader of 
your village, has lately taken into their country two barrels 
of gunpowder. 

I am instructed by his Excellency to require of you, a 
rigid compliance with the orders formerly transmitted; 
and to desire that you will employ every exertion, for the 
detection and punishment of those persons, who either 
have, or may hereafter, violate those orders. — 

The Governor has indeed taken under the protection of 

lee The Arkansas factory was established in 1805. Treat became the 
factor in 1810. American State Papers, Indian Affairs, I, 768, 769. 

36 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

the U. S. those of the great and little Osage who are about 
to establish themselves at the Fire Praire, 1 * 7 on the Mis- 
souri. But those arrangements have, for the present, only 
a local operation: They do not change those hostile rela- 
tions, which lately subsisted and which still continue, 
except with respect to those who manifest an amicable 
temper by joining the Osage- Villages in the Fire Praire, 
where a garrison is now building 168 for their Security. All 
others remain out of the protection of the U. S. and the 
Govr. reiterates those prohibitions of intercourse, which I 
had the honor to deliver you in July last. 

When these differences are adjusted, I shall lose no time, 
in advising you of so desirable an event. 

Deae Friend: Chilicothe, Oct. 21st, 1808. 

I am just now on my way to Washington City. I have no 
news to communicate. There is much talk in the State 

is? The region about Fort Osage was known as Fire Prairie. In the 
treaty with the Osages of November 10, 1808, Fort Osage was to be 
located on the Missouri, "a few miles above the Fire Prairie." American 
State Papers, Indian Affairs, I, 766; Kappler, Indian Affairs, Laws, and 
Treaties, II, 95. 

168 in June, 1808, General Clark was ordered by the secretary of war 
to fix on a suitable site for a factory. The place selected was on the 
south side of the Missouri River about 300 miles from its mouth, near 
modern Sibley, Jackson County, Missouri. Captain Eli B. Clemson with 
his company of regular troops, accompanied by George C. Sibley, the 
factor, ascended the river to erect Fort Osage, or as it was subsequently 
called, Fort Clark. On September 4 General Clark arrived with a detach- 
ment of militia. For the Indian situation and negotiations with the 
Osages, see Clark to Eustis, February 20, 1810, American State Papers, 
Indian Affairs, I, 765. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 37 

about the Embargo. The word Embargo issued from the 
mouth of almost every Woman & Boy I have met since I 
entered the settlements, and was often used by men who 
did not know whether it related to Vessels, Horses or Corn- 
fields. . . . 

It is with a good deal of reluctance I make the following 
request. You are already informed of the death of Mr. 
John Campbell. After my return to Detroit I was per- 
suaded to become a candidate for the office of Indian Agent 
for the Upper Mississippi. Sensible that I am far from 
being perfectly qualified for such an appointment I hesi- 
tated long before I agreed to it. The Governor, Major 
Atwater, brother-in-law to S. E. Bradley, Mr. Sibley, 169 & 
the officers of Detroit Garrison gave me almost unasked 
for, very flattering recommendatory letters. Judge Griffin 
has also written to Governor Harrison requesting him to 
use his influence in my behalf. "Will you venture to be- 
friend me? From your representations Gov. Lewis will 
perhaps write in my favor. I wrote to you from Macinac 
soliciting letters but be assured that I did not think of 
applying for this office until after I had been a week at 
Detroit. The office of Factor with the usual salary was 
what I then intended applying for. I have not yet seen 
Gen'l Worthington nor Doctor Tiffin from both of whom 
I expect letters ere I leave this place. 

Excuse me for having written to you on the subject con- 
tained in the latter part of this letter at the same time 
that I have been acknowledging the receipt of your friendly 

The third judge had not reached Detroit when I left 

169 Solomon Sibley. 

38 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

there, and no one had heard from him since he was ap- 

I have no doubt but that everything the late Mr. Camp- 
bell told you respecting James Aird was true. Aird cer- 
tainly is a British subject, and I know him to be one of the 
members of the Michilmackinac Company. 

He may perhaps from his having resided in the Indian 
Country previous to the time of the evacuations of the 
Western & No. Western Posts by the British claim under 
Jay's treaty all the rights & privileges of an American 
citizen. But still his interest is connected & interwoven 
in that of many powerful British fur traders, and he con- 
siders himself as one of the King's loyal subjects. 

Write to me soon if you please, directed to W. City. 


glR ^ St. Louis Nov 10. 1808. 

I have lately received the depositions of St. Gamine 
Beauvais, 170 Amable Partnay 171 and Louis Grenier 172 in 
relation to a riot, on the 2d of this month, in which John 
Perry jr, Saml Perry and others were principally con- 
cerned. It would appear to me, from the evidence which 
has been transmitted, that it would be the duty of a Jus- 

i7o St. Geminin or St. Gemenin Beauvais was born near Montreal 
about 1770. He came to St. Louis in his early manhood. On December 
5, 1799 Delassus granted him a vacant half block at the north end of 
the village, and there he built a blacksmith shop. It stood on what is 
now the northwest corner of Main and Cherry streets. He sold this and 
in 1807 moved to Ste. Genevieve, but eventually returned to St. Louis. 

171 Probably Amable Partenais who moved from Kaskaskia to Ste. 
Genevieve. He was living at the latter place as early as 1797. 

172 Louis Grenier was at Mine a Burton as early as 1802. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 39 

tice of the Peace to issue his process for the arrest of the 
offenders. You will therefore be pleased to review the sub- 
ject, and compel the execution of your warrant, by the aid 
of the militia of the neighbourhood, if necessary. The 
delinquents should be bound in heavy penalties to keep the 
peace, and answer for its late violation, at the next court 
for the district of St. Genevieve, or otherwise they should 
be committed to jail. 

I desire that you will cause an estimation to be made, of 
all the Lead Mineral which has been raised on the Lands 
of the United States, adjacent to the lands of Moses Austin 
Esquire. After an account has been made of this estima- 
tion, you will permit the proper owners, that is, the persons 
who have dug and raised it, to take it away. And if any 
resistance be made by an armed force, the militia, are to 
be called to your assistance, and in the event of a continued 
forcible opposition, they are hereby ordered to fire on the 
lawless Banditti, employed in the resistance. 

^ g^ Washington City Nov. 15th. 1808. 

I reached this place two days ago, and yesterday 
received your letter of the 30. of August last — the style & 
contents of which gave me infinite pleasure. My feelings 
on the subject alluded to by the second paragraph thereof 
were never other than those of sorrow & regret — for I 
never entertained dislike nor ill will towards you — On the 
contrary I felt exceedingly unhappy whenever the circum- 
stance occurred to my recollection, which was frequently, 
that any part of my conduct should have ever given you 
cause to suspect either my candour, or my friendship for 

40 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

you — However, thanks to fortune, all, it appears, is now 
fairly understood; and, we can again go on with the same 
unreserve & free interchange of idea, & information that 
we ever did or could have done — And I pray most fer- 
vently that all remembrance of the affair may be hurled 
into oblivion ere this reaches you. 

Your reply to my request for letters to your friends is 
plain, candid and generous — And I believe that I feel as 
grateful for it as I could have done had you written a 
quire full in my behalf. I was wrong in soliciting your 
interference for me — But what is much worse the impro- 
priety was repeated by a letter I wrote to you from Chili- 
cothe in October last. When I wrote from Macinac I had 
no particular object in view — But when I came down to 
Detroit the argument, flatteries & persuasions of my friends 
induced me to become a candidate for an office for which 
I never thought myself sufficiently qualified — Under a 
belief that you had not only the ability but also the dispo- 
sition to aid me, whenever you could consistent with pro- 
priety, I ventured to invoke your friendship once more. 
Your last letter is, however, a sufficient and satisfactory 
answer to both my requests. 

Yes, my dear friend, I feel very anxious to make an 
exchange of office — But I have no reason to expect such 
good luck — I was with the Secy, at War yesterday, who, 
after reading my letters, informed me that the President 
did not intend to appoint another Principal Indian Agent 
for the Upper Mississippi — that he conceived it unneces- 
sary at this time to run the Govt, to the expence incident 
to such an appointment — that he means to send to that 
Country merely a Sub-agent with a salary of 5 or 600$. 
And that a Frenchman of your Country, recommended by 
Genl. Clarke, was already fixed upon for that purpose — 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 41 

Of course I said no more on that head — He treated me 
politely — The residue of the letters I brought, altho ' they 
might possibly be of service in other ways, I shall not 
deliver. I was at the Treasury office also, but did not see 
Mr. Gallatin. I set the people there to work at my 
Accounts which I expect will all be adjusted in the course 
of two or three days — They are obliged to pass through 
so many different officers hands that it requires much more 
time to settle them than one would at first imagine — I 
shall, before I leave this place, pay into the Treasury all 
I owe to the Govt. — But whether I shall return to Mac- 
inac, or what else I shall turn my hands to for an honest 
livelihood is to me as yet perfectly unknown. 

I neither expect nor deserve thanks for this letter for I 
have written nearly three pages altogether concerning my- 
self — As to the business of Congress I can give you no 
more information than the public prints contain — For 
even the Members of Congress, individually, know no 
more — They find themselves in a very intricate path. 
They hardly know what is best to be done — For we 
can't make successful war against either of the damn'd 
nations who have so wantonly & grossly insulted & invaded 
our rights & sovereignty — And the operation of the Em- 
bargo, it seems, has not brought and is not likely to bring 
either to a right sense of justice. A total non-intercourse 
law with both the belligerent powers and their respective 
dependencies making it felony for any American to have 
Commercial intercourse with either, or the subjects of 
either, or to be found aiding or supplying either in any 
manner, it is thought will be resorted to as the most likely 
to produce the desired effect — There is little doubt but 
our Govt, will do France & England all the injury it can — 

42 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

A Motion is now pending to permit free trade to & from 
the West India Islands and the Canada's — It will hardly 
grow into a Law — The subject of the Embargo will hardly 
be argued before Monday — The Documents which accom- 
panied the President's Message will not all be printed until 

R. Munroe is here writing in the office of the Treasurer. 

OBannon the celebrated heroe of Derne I am informed 
lies under imputations not very honorable — Such as im- 
mense and unwarrantable speculations & peculation during 
his Command at Macinac — Selling public property of con- 
siderable value without authority & disposing of the pro- 
ceeds to his own private use — Hiring out the Soldiers 
under his command to Citizens & receiving wages for their 
services to his use — and of being guilty of many other 
acts equally dishonest, low and mean — Having seen depo- 
sitions on the subject I can't well doubt the truth of these 
charges until he disproves them or some way destroys the 
credibility of the deponents which I suspect is impossible 
for him to do — I guess the Laurels he gained under Eaton 
have withered & faded. 

I shall quit this place for Chilicothe in the course of ten 
or 14 days — I shall be happy to hear from you at De- 
troit — 


g IR Saint Louis 26th November 1808. 

The Board conceive it to be their duty to inform you of 
the progress made in the business which Government have 

173 The original manuscript is in House Files, 3451. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 43 

confided to them. In a great majority of claims in which 
testimony will be offered all the witnesses have been exam- 
ined, and the claims laid over for decision, this was con- 
ceived by the Board to be the most correct method until 
the records were completed and before them, as they would 
then have at one view all the claims of each individual, 
indeed it was indispensably necessary in the claims of 
persons under the 2d Section of the Act of 1805 that it 
might be ascertained whether they claimed any other land 
in their own name in the Territory: the Eecorder has not 
yet been able to complete his entries in his books, of course 
he cannot lay his records before the Board. It has been 
stated to the Board by him that the claims & the written 
evidences thereof which were entered for record in the 
course of last June, will on the most moderate computation 
cover seven hundred and fifty pages of eighteen inch rec- 
ord books. The Recorder having been himself, during the 
months of June and July engaged in a mission from the 
Board to the Districts of New Madrid & Arkansas to 
receive the testimony, hath not been able to return to Saint 
Louis before the middle of August, it is obvious that some 
more time hath elapsed before he could have made the 
necessary arrangements in his office, with respect to the 
claims that have been entered at his office during his 
absence, and those that had been put in his hands while 
he was taking testimony in the before mentioned districts. 
This together with the increase of business which neces- 
sarily followed a revision of all former proceedings will 
exclude the possibility of making a report this Session 
of Congress, as was by them contemplated. 

It will probably occupy three months to complete the 
testimony, about nine to make decisions and give certifi- 

44 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

cates, & to make monthly returns, and not less than six to 
close the business and make report; perhaps it is unneces- 
sary to observe that the provision for compensation of the 
Commissioners Clerk & Translator ends on the first of 
January next. 



Deak Sir Fort Madis o n174 30th Novr 1808 

Your letter by Mr Honey 175 was handed me by that young 
Gentl. Mr Mc Farling 176 arrived some time after him he 
is now waiting the return of the Arkansas Indians from 
hunting I presume to give them a talk; he then proposes 
assending this river with a party of Indians and Militia 
to bring down the white hunters and traders I believe he 
will find but very few traders and not one has gone as 
far as the Osage Indians. I wrote you some time since 
inclosing a talk of the Osage Indians they have since left 
this as the Indians East of the Mississippi could not attend 
to hold a talk untill the spring. I have since been informed 
by Mr Mc Farling that the Governor is determined to have 
them drove off this river if they do not of there own accord 
move to the Mesura in all there talks at this place their 
was and evident determinat in them never to return they 

174 See note 113 above. In his list of government forts, Heitman does 
not mention the Arkansas Fort Madison. Historical Register and Dic- 
tionary of the United States Army, House Docs., 57 Cong., 2 Sess., Doc. 
446, II, 521. 

175 John W. Honey in 1814 was a partner of Christian Wilt in the 
ownership of a shot tower near modern Illinois Station. In 1816 he 
was one of the representatives from St. Louis County in the Missouri 
territorial assembly. 

i7fi James McParlane, McFarling, or McFarlin. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 45 

complain much of a Mr Shoto 177 and observed that, it was 
his wish for them to return that his son would have the 
benefit of there hunts. It appeared to be the wish of those 
that visit this post to be at peace with the U. S. and all the 
Indians. Mr Treat gave them a few presents and they took 
there leave appearently much pleased, promised to return 
the horses taken from the hunters last spring and never 
again to stain the path with blud — I am realy pleased to 
think that a Verga. will be our next president I have ever 
herd the amiable accomplishments of Mr Madison an no 
doubt but what he will follow the amiable qualities of Mr 
Jefferson god grant he may. A soldier should never inter- 
fer or hasard an opinion relative to politiks that they are 
in duty bound to esteem merit and the virtuus correctors 
who are placed at there head 

The judges have Excepted there commissions and nex 
monday we shall have a cort — Mr Mc Farling has excited 
much allarm among the inhabitants from his threats and 
bosting authority &c &c the particulars of which I do not 
realy think worth mentioning as I presume you are 
acquainted with him — I shall leave this in a few days for 
Washington I have only to assure you that it will at all 
times give me pleasure to hear from you, and, beg you to 
present my respects the Governor 


Dear Sir — Arkansas Deer. 18th 1808 

After my compliment to you I send you by Mr Mc Farlin 
who goes to St. Louis with Claremont 178 an Ossage Chief 

177 Pierre Chouteau. 

"8 He was variously known as Clermont or Clermore. His Indian 

46 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

to gether with a number of his fellows an acount of the 
Situation of the Inhabitants of this Place The Difficulty 
occationed by the Depredations of the osage indians and 
their being Declared out of the Protection of the United 
States has occationed Serious alarm among those inhabi- 
tants who have been acostomed to Depend upon hunting 
for their subsistance Some few of them I understand 
have ventered up the river to hunt how far they went I 
cannot say but most of them returned when the aforsd. 
Indians came Down there was Ten or Eleven of them came 
here soon after you lef this Place and Taried considerable 
Time which would inevitably have been killed by the Chac- 
taws and other Indians had it not been for the vigilanc 
care and Perservereanc of captain Armistead together with 
the other gentlemen of this Place they returned and thus 
have came which were very obstinate about going to St 
Louis they Declare they have been betrayed cheated and 
belied but this was the channel through which they would 
wish to Treat and no other That they were the True and 
Substantial friends of the white People and they implored 
their Pity and Protection but the agent have Declared he 
could not Treat withem Claremont which I believe to be 
a great and a good man says White Hare and Shoto are 
his mortal enemies the one be cause his father was the 
only great Cheaf of Ossages and that Dignity belonged to 
him (Claremont) and the other because he wished him to 
leave his village on the Arkansas River and move over to 
Missori which he never would in consequence of which 
he had been striped of his Dignity and incapasitated to 
render that Service to the white People which he other 

name was Tawagahe, Builder of Towns. He was the lawful chief of the 
Osages, but his right was usurped by White Hair while Clermont was an 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 47 

ways could, for the Truth of which his assertions he call 
Grod and the ground to witness who he said were the two 
greatest Powers That they both heard him and knew he 
spoke truth but with much perswasion he has agreed to 
go which I hope may come ta a favourable issue and he 
Permitted to retain his Dignity and return in Time to his 
village I think this man Deserves attention and has been 
illy Treated by white hair the People of this country say 
he has never suffered injury to be Done to the white People 
when he could Possibly Prevent it and has often risqued 
his life for that Purpose the People of this Place impa- 
tient Desire me to write to you concerning their claims 
If you have Leisure from business I wish you would write 
me something concerning them I have sent you a line 
before concerning The laws of the Territory we have them 
in manuscript in Part which was sent by Mr. Honey I 
wish you to inform me by the Earlyest oportunity The 
event of the Indian Negociation I hope it will soon be so 
that the Por hunters of this Place may return to the wods 
(without a breach of the Laws of the United State) to 
Procure themselves food and cloathing and some thing to 
Pay their Debts They think it hard to brak of all of a 
sudden Agriculture will be their object as soon as the 
Land claims are adjusted and hunting of Little consequence 
many families have no claims to Land in this country I 
hope a Land office will soon be open for the sale of land 
that all may Purchase Time fails. 


Sir, St. Louis Dec. 25. 1808. 

I fear that in obtruding myself so frequently upon you 
I have counted too largely on your indulgence. The em- 

48 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

barrassing situations in which I have been occassionaliy 
placed, appeared to require some explanations; in making 
which I hope that official decorums have not been violated. 
With the sincerest personal respect, and a just sense of 
what is due to the first Officer of the Treasury, I never 
have adventured to trouble you, with misunderstandings 
merely personal. If they have ever been mentioned, it was 
because I thought them so interwoven with the public 
business as not to be susceptible of a separation from it. 

The consciousness of acting under the dictates of the 
purest convictions is not a sufficient reward: I aspire to 
the approbation of those who have reposed in me so liberal 
a confidence. — 

Until very lately, the right of the Spanish Lt. Governor 
as Sub Delegate to make orders of survey after the pro- 
mulgation of the Intendants' Regulations, 179 was never 
questioned. The late Board was unanimous in a confirma- 
tion of claims of this description. A difference in opinion 
arises now, for the first time, on this subject, and like all 
former differences, have degenerated into personal hos- 
tility. These regulations were published at St. Louis on 

179 The regulations of the Intendant Morales were put forth at New 
Orleans in July, 1799. They are in translation in American State Papers, 
Public Lands, V, 731-734. Under the regulations of O'Reilly (February 
18, 1770) and of Gayoso (September 9, 1797) the commandants of St. 
Louis and New Madrid, as sub-delegates of the Governor General at New 
Orleans, made land grants. The regulations of Morales placed the 
granting of lands in the hands of the Intendant. Several of the Spanish 
officials insisted that the Morales regulations were never in effect in 
Upper Louisiana, and certainly many grants were made by the officials 
of Upper Louisiana after the promulgation of the Morales instructions. 
The question of the legality of these grants was one of the knotty prob- 
lems which had to be solved by the commissioners. For excellent discus- 
sions of the entire subject, see Houck, History of Missouri, II, 214-230; 
Violette, "Spanish Land Claims in Missouri," in Washington University, 
Studies, VIII, 167-200. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 49 

the 6th Feby 1800 from which time until the 1st of October 
following I have been of opinion that the Lt Governor, in 
capacity of Sub Delegate of the Intendency (as recognized 
in the preamble to the 38 articles of Morales) did possess 
the power to order the survey. In this opinion Mr. Pen- 
rose concurs, tho', as he is pleased to say, for very different 
reasons from those which I have assigned. I do not know 
what his reasons are, but this, with a thousand other cir- 
cumstances of a similar kind, afford me the painful assur- 
ance, that tho' we agree in sentiment an unhappy spirit 
of repulsion, or perversity of temper will incessantly 
divide us. Judge Lucas is greatly and decidedly opposed 
to these orders, and has employed all the vast resources 
of a fertile fancy, in combating them. 

I take the liberty to enclose you the translation of one 
of those orders, which so far from being a contradiction 
of the Articles, is, as I think, a practical commentary, 
demonstrative of the course marked out by the Intendant, 
as far as circumstances permitted that course to be trod- 
den. — 

The 15th Article, 180 on which the Judge principally relies, 
says 'All concessions shall be granted in the name of the 
king, by the General Intendant, who will order the surveyor 
&c.' I take this Article, however, merely as a declaration 
of the manner, in which the complete title will issue, and 
not as a restraint of that power, which the Sub Delegates 

iso Article 15 read as follows : "All concessions shall be given in the 
name of the King, by the general intendant of this province, who shall 
order the surveyor general or one particularly named by him to make 
the survey, and mark the land by fixing bounds, not only in front but 
also in the rear; this ought to be done in the presence of the commandant 
or syndic of the district, and of two of the neighbors, and these four 
shall sign the proces verbal, which shall be drawn up by the surveyor." 
American State Papers, Public Lands, V, 733. 

50 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

(formerly the subordinate officers of the civil and military 
government) were expected to exercise. These officers 
formed a part of the Intendancy, and transacted matters 
of detail within their respective limits. They commenced, 
but did not perfect the title and the head of the department 
might, no doubt, order a re survey, if he was dissatisfied 
with the original. If all the requisites of this Article were 
complied with, the claimant would have nothing to ask 
from our government. His title would have been complete 
without its interposition. But it is now our business to do 
that which the Intendant would have done, under the late 
order of things: to foster and mature those germs which 
our Predecessors planted; to grant confirmations to those 
who by three years residence and cultivation had acquired 
the right of domain. 

The Lt. Governor, as Sub Delegate had the initiative, by 
virtue of his office, as appears by the 2d Article 181 of the 
Regulations; and this initiative, tho' not a 'Concession* 
as mentioned in the 15th Article, assumes the language of 
one, as a bill assumes the language of the Law, before it 
acquire the constitutional sanctions. 

If this construction be a false one, the Regulations of 
Morales are impracticable. The policy of the Spanish Gov- 
ernment was to create in Louisiana, population, industry 
and a market, which might relieve them from a precarious 

isi The second article read: "To obtain the said concessions [grants 
for newly arrived families], if they are asked for in this city [New 
Orleans], the permission which has been obtained from the governor to 
establish themselves in the place ought to accompany the petition, and 
if in any of the posts the commandant at the same time will state that 
the lands asked for are vacant and belong to the domain, and that the 
petitioner has obtained permission of the government to establish himself, 
and referring to the date of the letter or the advice they have received." 
American State Papers, Public Lands, V, 732. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 51 

dependence on the United States, for indispensable sup- 
plies. For the promotion of this object, liberal induce- 
ments were held out to those Americans who would estab- 
lish themselves as Planters or Farmers in the province. 
1 cannot conceive, that it was the intention of government 
to compel these People, on their arrival in the country to 
suspend their labours, until an order of survey could be 
procured from the Intendant at the distance of fifteen hun- 
dred miles. And no man I presume, would think of making- 
expensive establishments until his limits were permanently 

The principle for which I contend, accomplishes the 
object contemplated in your instructions of 2d of April 
1807 the ' Confirmation of all equitable claims' founded as 
in the instances before us, on good faith, less in their quan- 
tity than 800 arpens and supported by actual residence and 
cultivation. It is, I think impossible that either the inter- 
ests or honour of our government, should be compromitted 
by this just, and at the same time, cautious and guarded 
construction. On the other hand, the idea of Judge Lucas, 
would in its operation, be greatly injurious to those claim- 
ants, under the orders of Colo. Lassus, 182 who settled sub- 
sequently to the 6th of Feby and before the 1st of Oct. 
1800 and who did not happen to inhabit on the 20th of 
Deer. 1803. No provision is made for these People, in our 
statutes, and the Spanish Eegulations will not embrace 
their case, if we deny to their claims a legal commence- 
ment. For no equity can be extracted from those preten- 

182 Charles Dehault Delassus arrived at New Orleans in 1794. In 1796 
Carondelet appointed him commandant at New Madrid. In 1799 De Lemos 
appointed him lieutenant-governor of Upper Louisiana, a position which 
he held until the transfer to Stoddard in October, 1804. 

52 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

sions which were ab initio 1 ** contrary to the usages of the 
country. This, confirms me in the supposition, that gov- 
ernment has anticipated the decision of this question, and 
intended that there should be no discrimination between 
the orders of survey made before and after the promulga- 
tion of the Intendant's Regulations, unless special frauds, 
either proven or suggested, should cast a darker veil of 
suspicion over the one than the other, and thus create an 
accidental difference which did not exist in principle. 

At the instance of Judge Lucas, and to the disappoint- 
ment of the wishes of Mr. Penrose, I have consented to the 
postponement of these claims till the 15th of March, during 
which time we shall be employed on cases of unquestioned 
merit, and on which no difference of opinion is expected to 
arise. This deference I thought due to the Government, 
who, if we are wrong will set us right, and prevent the 
unpleasant business of revision. 

A claim of 400 arpens 184 founded on a concession or order 
of survey of the Lt. Gov : has been lately confirmed. Habi- 
tation and cultivation for about nine years were proven. 
Judge Lucas opposed it, and protested on the minutes, — 
as the order contained a condition for the building of a 
Bridge, which condition had never been performed. It was 
my opinion that the Ordinances had prescribed the terms 
of contract between the Government and the settler and 
that additional obligations created by the Lt. Governor, 
(The Claimant indeed himself proposed this condition in 
his Petn. to the Lt. Gov : but it is known that these Papers 
were always dictated by the Govt: Agents) ought by us 

183 Ab initio, from the beginning. 

is* "The arpent is to the statute acre nearly in the proportion of 
eighty-three to one hundred." Bradbury, Travels, in Early Western 
Travels, V, 196. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 53 

to be disregarded, when the claim was of no greater extent 
than the individual might have demanded, for himself and 
family under the provincial policy. This is the spot, on 
which the town of Herculaneum, has been lately laid out, 
at the mouth of the Joachim. 

I do not know by what authority it has been familiarly 
spoken of here, that the board would probably be reformed, 
on the model of those on the east of the Mississippi, 185 with 
a design to suppress that acrimony and those fervors of 
parliamentary debate, which have heretofore, as is alledged, 
retarded the public business, and contributed to keep alive 
the flame of former animosity. Should it be my fate to 
give place to some more deserving Officer, my chief morti- 
fication would arise, not, assuredly, from the loss of Office, 
but from the displeasure of those, whose good opinion I 
have been so solicitous to deserve. I have never for a 
moment forgotten, that my country pays a high price for 
my services, and that those services should be faithfully 
rendered to her, — or rather that she confides in my honour 
and that I have no right to disappoint her. 

Thomas F. Riddick the Clerk of the Board has more 
than justified that favorable opinion, which was at first 
entertained of him. He is a man of business and con- 
tinues to give new proofs of his capacity. His friends 
mistaking my standing at Washington, have pressed me to 
recommend him as Eeceiver of Public Monies when that 

185 For Indiana Territory an act of congress of March 26, 1804 estab- 
lished three land offices, one at Detroit, one at Vincennes, and one at 
Kaskaskia. For each office a register and receiver of public monies was 
to be appointed. For each district the register and receiver were to be 
commissioners for examination of claims based upon French and British 
grants. The various boards were to meet in their districts on or before 
January 1, 1805 to hear claims. U. S., Statutes at Large, II, 277-278. 

54 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 

Office should be created. To these solicitations I have 
replied that I well know the worth of Mr. Riddick; his 
qualifications for the Office and his attachment to the gov- 
ernment ; but that I had no influence and that the Secretary 
of the Treasury, to whom alone, I could write, did not 
expect to hear fiom me on such subjects. 


Treasury Department 
g IR January 5th 1809 

I have the honor to enclose the copy of a letter from the 
Commissioners appointed to settle the land claims in Louis- 
iana; from which it appears that they cannot complete the 
business within the time fixed by law, and apply for a con- 
tinuation of compensation. Their case is similar to that 
of the Commissioners West of Pearl river in the Missis- 
sippi Territory who acted several months after the time 
during which they were entitled by law to compensation 
had expired. The Register of that district still urges the 
justice of the claim; & so far as relates to himself, no 
officer is better entitled to an allowance for the time above- 
mentioned, if the principle shall be admitted in any one 

Dear Sir Arkansas 12th Jany. 1809 

His Excellency Meriwether Lewis having done me the 
honor of entrusting me with several offices of trust in this 

186 Original in the Treasury Department, Mail "E," 3455. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 55 

District, Considering myself at present a Citizen of the 
same, I consider it my duty to make known the several 
inconveniences which the Citizens of this District labour 
under at present and also those which they have laboured 
under (and which I am afraid are not entirely removed) 
at least such as has come to my knowledge, And having 
a more particular personal acquaintance with yourself 
than with his Excellency, and doubting whether he is at 
present in St. Louis I take the liberty of addressing you 
on the Subject. In the first place I shall endeavour to 
give you an account of Mr. James Mc Farlane who was 
sent on here by the Governor on a special Mission to regu- 
late the trade and Intercourse the several tribes of Indians 
in this quarter. 

Having engaged a passage with Mr. Mc Farlane from 
St. Louis to Arkansas he was very particular before leaving 
St. Louis in requesting that I would not mention to any 
person whatever, the cause of his Mission or to what place 
he was bound thinking that perhaps his business might be 
of a secret Nature But in reality not knowing the cause 
of his Mission I was particular in not mentioning it to any 
person untill after we had left St. Louis. In few day how- 
ever finding that he did not keep the secret himself But 
told it and braged of his importance to every person we 
met with, I no longer considered myself bound to keep my 
tongue tied any longer But mentioned to several persons 
here the oppinion I had of Mr. Mc Farlane and the cause 
of his Missions which I heard him repeat more than once 
in descending the Mississippi — 

I accompanied Mr. Mc Farlane as far as the river St. 
Francois where having hired two men and Bought a small 
Canoe I came on immediately to this place and he ascended 

56 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

the St. Francois where having remained for some Days at 
the risk of his life he returned down the St. Francois and 
came to Arkansas. Finding Mr. Mc Farlane to be rather 
illiterate and knowing that he boasted of more authority 
than he really was clothed with I was suspicious that dur- 
ing his Stay up the St. Francois he had Committed some 
unlawfull act which would be a disgrace to himself and 
perhaps prejudice some people against the good and ami- 
able man who sent him among us, impressed with this idea 
I took the Liberty of enquiring how he succeeded among 
the Cherokees and obtained the following account from 
himself in presence of several respectable Gentlemen in this 
place among whom was Capt. George Armistead. 

Mr. Mc Farlane ascended the St. Francois without any 
thing particular occuring, But on his arrival at the Cher- 
okee Village he found that a Certain Mr. Jones of Vin- 
cennes had sent a Considerable quantity of Merchandise 
to their Village among which was about six Barrells of 
Whiskey which he found in the hands of their Chief Named 
Connatoo, he immediately attached them in the Name of 
the United States as Goods belonging to an illicit trader, 
but thinking that he might take them away as well another 
time this mighty man of reason left them in the hands of 
the identical Man from whom he took them and in the hands 
of a man that was interested in the sale of them and who 
had been selling whiskey to the rest of the Indians ever 
since he first received them in so much that all the Indians 
were drunk on Mr. Mc Farlanes arrival among them and 
continued so untill his departure. 

But his Career among the Indians does not cease here he 
found among them a white man who the Indians informed 
him had been marking out several tracts of land and had 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 57 

told them that the land did not belong to them — meaning 
the Cherochee But that it belonged to their great father 
the president of the United States who gave him leave to 
mark out the land and reside among them as he had done. 
Mc Farlane instead of taking that man and bringing him 
to a Court of Justice where he might have a fair and just 
trial he took him without any process whatever and I say 
without Justice (for it all ways has been a principal among 
Americans that a man is entirely inocent let him be accused 
of what Crime whatsoever untill he is found guilty by his 
Country) and having disarmed him of his Gun and Cut a 
whip Mc Farlane drew his dirk approached the man & 
ordered him not to move upon pain of instant Death when 
he gave him as he observed about forty stripes well laid on. 

Mr. Mc Farlane left the Cherochee nation and descended 
the St. Francois on his arrival at the little prairree at the 
mouth of that river this Enlightened Stateman in endeav- 
ouring to inforce the Laws of his Country as he thought, 
tho in too rough a manner got himself into another Scrape 
I will not attempt to discribe it to you for I dare say he 
will make it known himself at St. Louis and you will have 
a better oppor. of knowing more concerning his Conduct. 

He arrived here in Arkansas about the 23d — 24th or 
25th of November last where he has produced universal 
terror, a few day after his arrival here he demanded 
thirty men from Capt. Armistead the then Commanding 
Officer at this poste and gave out that he should go with 
those men together with the Militia and Indians recon- 
noitour the woods and Drive every hunter home that if 
they made the least resistance he would tie them and whip 
at the first tree he should find, a Messenger was sent to 
the hunters by some of the Inhabitants as I have understood 

58 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

to inform them of the intentions of Mr. Mc Farlane the 
hunters hearing this and that all their property was to be 
Confiscated many of them returned to Arkansas terrified 
almost to Death expecting that otherwise they would have 
been sent home in Chains. — 

He threatened to take our sheriff, and our judges away 
with him in order to bring down these hunters and as to 
myself he threatened to put me, (I having taken the liberty 
of telling him I would not obey his Commands) into Prison 
if I did not — 

Some time before he left this which was on the 15th of 
December a Party of the Ossage Indians consisting of about 
ten men came to this place in order to hold a Counsel with 
Mr. Treat. Mr. Treat in his Counsel advised them to go 
to St. Louis with Mr. Mc Farlane the Indians said that 
they were afraid of the Cherochees and other nations with 
whom they were at war, But Mc Farlane having assured 
them that while he was with them no person dare lay hands 
upon them! they Consented and left this place with him, 
and got as far as the Cherochee village on the St. Fran- 
cois river where (as I understood by a Gentlemen immedi- 
ately from there) the Osage Indians were detained by the 
Cherochees who said that the whites had been triing a 
long time to make peace between the red skins But had 
never succeeded and as they had the Osages then there 
they would keep them untill they could assemble the Shaw- 
nees, Delawares, Chicasaws and Choctaws to trie to make 
a peace among themselves and the Osages say as Mc Far- 
lane has brought them into trouble they will keep him untill 
he take them out so that there is an embargo laid on him 
he has his foot in the fire and I doubt very much whether 
he knows how to get it out, the Indians call him a liar and 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 59 

say that he is sent on here by Chouteau who they be- 
lieve is the cause of their being Declared out of the pro- 
tection of the United States. — 

Of Mr. Mc Farlane I'll say no more the subject is so 
mysterious and there is so many instances of his absurd 
Conduct that I do not know where to begin or end But 
was I with you I could tell you more about him than you 
can possibly imagine — 

Mr. Fooy 187 excepted his Commissions, I administered to 
him the oaths of office and came on here as quick as pos- 
sible But can assure that my passage was not very short, 
I arrived here on the 15th of November last and on the 
Day after my arrival here I waited on Mr. Charles Refeld 
for whom I was the bearer of a Commission appointing him 
a Judge of the Court of Common pleas of this District But 
he immediately refused acceptance though not without 
expressing his Gratitude in the highest term and with many 
Gestures to the Governor for the honor which he done him 
in placing so much Confidence his Integrity and abilities, 
Mr. Vaugine and Stillwell 188 excepted But knowing them 
not to be (tho very good men) very well acquainted with 
the proceeding in Courts I was particular in making 
enquirees for a suitable person to recommend to the Gov- 
ernor in place of Mr. Refeld, Mr. Daniel Mooney has been 
frequently mentioned to me and I am Confident that there 
is not an other who would please the Citizens of this Dis- 
trict more to see on the Bench of Justice, Neither do I 
believe there is one more worthy of the trust, Mr. Vaugine 

187 Benjamin Fooy, a surveyor then located at Esperanza, modern 
Hopefield, Arkansas. 

188 Probably Harold Stillwell, a lieutenant in the New Madrid regi- 
ment in 1812. 

60 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

and Stillwell will write by this opportunity and they being 
better acquainted with Mr. Mooney than myself will give 
you a better account of him 

The Governor having neglected to give me Commissions 
for Commissioners of rates and Levies and not having had 
an opportunity of obtaining a Copy of the Law regulating 
the same no property has been assessed and no taxes col- 
lected Mr. Vaugine will recommend some persons in his 
letter as Commissioners and Mr Bates will greatly oblige 
the District if he will send on Commissions by the first 
favourable opportunity together with the Law regulating 
rates and levies — 

The papers with which you entrusted me I delivered to 
Mr. Treat and took up your receipt which I send enclosed. 

By a Gentleman from Oautchitau I learn (tho from what 
source he derives his information I know not) that war has 
been declared between the U S. and France that George III 
of Great Britain is Dead and that George IV has ascended 
the throne. 

I am sorry that I have no news very interesting. . . . 
P. S. enclosed I send you a piece of poetry 189 composed 
by a Gentleman of this place which I presume you will 
understand without any remark I forgot to observe that 
we have no seals for this District — 



This Contract made and entered into at Saint Louis the 
23d day of February one thousand, eight hundred and 

189 The poem is missing. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 61 

nine, between His Excellency Meriwether Lewis, Governor 
of the territory of Louisiana, on the one part, and William 
Mathers Esquire of the other part, witnesseth, that for and 
in consideration of the stipulations herein after mentioned 
the Governor on his part engages that the said William 
Mathers shall, for the term of twelve months from the date 
hereof, have, hold, use, occupy, possess and enjoy four 
lots of ground of twenty acres each, all of which are above 
the mouth of the little Meramec, and lie on both sides of 
the main river of that name — and embrace, each, as said 
Mathers alledges, a Salt-Petre-Cave, the property of the 
United States : — And the Governor engages that the said 
Mathers shall, during the said term, be permitted to make 
use of as much of the timber and fire wood of the United 
States, to be found on their adjacent lands, as may be suf- 
ficient for the establishments, which he said Mathers, shall 
make, at the several caves above mentioned. 

And the said William Mathers, on his part, engages, and 
binds himself, his Heirs, Executors and administrators, in 
consideration of the above Lease, to pay to Meriwether 
Lewis Governor as aforesaid, or to his successors in office, 
the sum of Five hundred dollars, money of the United 
States, — With these conditions, nevertheless, that if the 
said William Mathers, shall manufacture the Salt Petre 
of the said Caves, in conformity with such regulations, as 
the Government of the United States, may think proper 
to establish ; if he shall furnish to the United States all the 
Salt-Petre, which he shall make or cause to be made at the 
said Caves, at such prices as government may determine 
on, not less than seventeen cents per pound; if he shall 
not dispose of any of the Salt Petre to any person, until 
the pleasure of government shall be known ; and, if he shall 

62 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

(in the event of government's declining to take the Salt 
Petre, at the rate of seventeen cents per pound or the gun 
powder manufactured therefrom, at the rate of fifty — 
cents per pound, which they stipulate for the privilege of 
doing) give to the Governor, quarterly, a just and true 
account of the quantity of the Salt Petre manufactured at 
the said Caves, and pay to him, for the use of the United 
States, at the town of St. Genevieve or St. Louis to such 
agent as said Lewis shall appoint to receive the same, five 
per cent of the Salt Petre so manufactured, then, to wit, 
on a compliance with these several conditions, the obliga- 
tion which the said William Mathers has herein before 
taken upon himself, to be void, else to remain in force. 

It is moreover stipulated between the parties that if it 
should appear that those lots or either of them is or are 
the private property of any person or persons or claimed 
as such before the Board of Commissioners, this lease is 
to be thenceforth void as to such lot or lots. It is also to 
be void on the forfeiture of any of the conditions of the 
foregoing obligation. — 

In witness whereof, the parties have set their hands to 
duplicates hereof, at St. Louis, the day and year first above 

Sealed and delivered Meriwether Lewis (Seal) 

in presence of Wm Mathers (Seal) 

Wm Clark 

F. Bates as to 

Wm. Mathers 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 63 


glR St. Louis April 1. 1809 

I send herein enclosed, the Certificate of the Commis- 
sioner confirming to you 400 arpents of Land on Bon 

If you are desirous of conveying this Land to Mr. Lewis, 
as I think you mentioned to me, you have only to execute 
the deed with reference to the Certificate of confirma- 
tion ; — acknowledge the same before a Justice of the 
Peace, and deliver all the Papers to Mr. Lewis. — He will 
then, at his leisure present them to me in exchange for a 
Patent Certificate. 


Secretary's Office 
glR St. Louis April 13. 1809. 

By order of Gov Lewis, I take the liberty to enclose you 
a Commission for Mr. Pryor as a Justice of the Peace for 
the township of Cuivre, 191 district of St. Charles. Also, a 
Dedimus by which you are empowered to administer his 
oaths of Office. — 

I also take the liberty, at the instance of the Governor, 
to transmit you two letters, which it is said have relation 
to a Deposition, which Mr. Kingsley is expected to give in 
an affair at law, in the Indiana. — 

190 Abram or Abraham Musick was from Albemarle County, Virginia. 
During the Revolutionary War he served as a spy on the North Carolina 
frontier. In 1797 he was living in the Bon Homme district. 

i9i Now in Audrain County, Missouri. 

64 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

I hope you will have the goodness to attend to this busi- 
ness. If certificate of the qualification of Mr. Pryor be for- 
warded to me, together with the Deposition I shall be 
enabled to give assurances to the Court, in which the suit 
is depending, that the forms have been complied with — 


Dear Richard: A P ril 15 > 1809 

I have spoken my wrongs with an extreme freedom to 
the Governor. — It was my intention to have appealed to 
his superiors and mine; but the altercation was brought 
about by a circumstance which aroused my indignation, and 
the overflowings of a heated resentment, burst the barriers 
which Prudence and Principle had prescribed. We now 
understand each other much better. We differ in every 
thing; but we will be honest and frank in our intercourse. 

I lament the unpopularity of the Governor; but he has 
brought it on himself by harsh and mistaken measures. He 
is inflexible in error, and the irresistable Fiat of the People, 
has, I am fearful, already sealed his condemnation. Burn 
this, and do not speak of it. 


Dear Sir, St - Louis A P 20 - 1809 

• •••••• 

I am happy to hear of the smoothness & exemption from 
difficulty with wch. you are about to complete the Land- 
Business. Ours cannot be finished in less than 18 mos. — 

The Regime of Governor Leivis. 65 

Our personal quarrels retard the adjustment. We have 
a mighty stir & bustle about Indian War; but those who 
are best acquainted with Indian matters, say, there is no 
danger — There certainly is none except in the event of 
a British War. Accept my best wishes for your prosperity 
& happiness. 

Deae Sik ^ t Gt enevieve May 2d 1809 

By the time you receive this line, you will have seen Doct 
Farrar 192 who will inform you of the unpleasant trip we 
have had on his return home. 

I return my sincere thanks to you for the use of your 
horse; and regret that he should not be in better order. 
The continued rains and the badness of the roads will 
reduce any thing formed of flesh. I assure you my best 
exertions have been used to treat him well. 

The Gen. Court met on Monday, and determined to 
adjourn; my impression is, that by continuing the Court 
open, we should have embarrased the inhabitants of the 
Territory; between their business as Suitors, Witnesses & 
Jurors, and their Services as Militia Men. — 

I am induced to believe we should have been instrumental 
in defeating the projected expedition ; and have performed 

192 Dr. Bernard G. Farrar was born in Goochland, Virginia, in 1785. 
The Farrar family moved to Kentucky. After studying medicine in 
Philadelphia, Dr. Farrar located at Frankfort, Kentucky. Judge Coburn, 
his brother-in-law, was appointed a judge of the Territory of Louisiana, 
and this caused Farrar to locate at St. Louis in 1807. In 1810 he fought 
a duel with James A. Graham, a young lawyer. Graham's injuries 
eventually proved fatal. In 1812 Farrar was elected to the territorial 
assembly. In 1815 he helped to found the Western Journal. In 1817 he 
served as surgeon at the first Benton-Lucas duel. 

66 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

very little business in Court, provided we had not 

Under this conviction I was averse to placing obstacles 
in the way of the orders of the Executive. How far the 
safety of the Territory is endangered by the movements 
of the Indians, I am unable to say; But I am convinced 
the cautionary steps taken in the defense of the Territory 
are highly proper. It would afford me pleasure to have 
seen you, but I shall return to Kentucky without delay. — 


Secretary's Office 
Sni, St. Louis May 20. 1809 

I have the honor to transmit for the information of the 
President the copies required by the 2d Sec of the 'Act 
further providing for the government of the district of 
Louisiana. ' 

The Report should have been made on the 1st day of 
April last — I pray you to pardon the delay. 

The Executive proceedings of the six months preceding 
that day were so inconsiderable as to be made up in a few 
moments ; but I thought it best not to transmit them, unac- 
companied by the Laws. 193 These latter were in press 
and I had weekly assurances of being supplied with a copy. 
Some accidental derangement in the business of the 
Printer delayed the completion of the work, much longer 
than was expected. 

103 Fifteen acts were passed between October 1, 1808 and April 1, 
1809. See Mo. Territorial Laws, I, 195-236. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 67 

The General Orders and other military arrangements, 
are not deposited for record in my Office. 

j) R SlR St. Louis May 25. 1809 

Mr. Cheney will hand you this letter. He is a gentleman 
of very respectable standing in our town and merits on his 
own account, rather than on my recommendation, every 
civility which you can show him. 

I had the pleasure to receive by last Post, yours of the 
7th March, from Detroit. The restoration of our commer- 
cial relations with G. Britain, which takes place the 10th 
of next month, will fix you permanently at Mackinac. 

I have a two fold pleasure in congratulating you on this 
desirable event, the prosperity of our country and the pro- 
motion of your individual interests. 

I will give some account of Louisiana very soon — 111 
health and a pressure of business now prevent me. 


St. Louis July 14, 1809. — 

When yr. Friend Stuart 194 arrived in town he called at 
the Land Board before the usual hour of the meeting of 
the commissioners & left yr. letter with the clerk. I waited 

is* Alexander Stuart was a Virginian. He practiced law at Kaskaskia 
as early as 1806. He was an intimate friend of Governor Lewis and was 
one of the three executors of his estate. 

68 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

on him in the afternoon of that day & on the following- 
morning, pressed him to call on me and in fact tendered to 
him all those civilities which were due to yr. request and 
to his merits. Notwithstanding which I was not favored 
with a visit until yesterday. We live indeed in different 
parts of the town & at considerable distance from each 
other. Besides which I have attached myself to the French 
circles into which he appears to avoid an introduction. 
The Seat of the Illinois Government (Kaskaskia) is no 
more than 60 miles from this place, on the other bank of 
the river. The Judge has procured apartments in our 
town, and appears to be permanently settled among us. — 
He will get office here as soon as he can. 

Gov Lewis leaves this in a few days for Phila. Washingn 
&c. He has fallen from the Public esteem & almost into 
the public contempt. He is well aware of my increasing 
popularity (for one scale sinks as the other rises, without 
an increase of gravity except comparative) and has for 
some time feared that I was at the head of a Party whose 
object it would be to denounce him to the President and 
procure his dismission. The Gov: is greatly mistaken in 
these suspicions; and I have accordingly employed every 
frank & open explanation which might have a tendency to 
remove that veil with which a few worthless fellows have 
endeavoured to exclude from him the sunshine. He called 
at my Office & personally demanded this explanation. It 
was made with that independence which I am determined 
shall mark my conduct on all occasions; and accompanied 
with an assurance that the path of life, which I had long 
since prescribed to myself did not admit of prevarication. 
As a Citizen, I told him I entertained opinions very dif- 
ferent from his, on the subject of civil government, and 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 69 

that those opinions had, on various occasions been 
expressed with emphasis; but that they had been unmixed 
with personal malice or hostility. I made him sensible that 
it would be the extreme of folly in me to aspire above my 
present standing: that in point of Honor, my present 
Offices were nearly equal to the government and greatly 
superior in emolument — And that the latter could not, 
from any motives of prudence be accepted by me, if offered 
by the President. 'Well' said he 'do not suffer yourself 
to be separated from me in the public opinion; When we 
meet in public, let us, at least address each other with cor- 
diality.' My very humanity yielded a prompt assent to 
this Eequest, and for this I am resolved to take every oppor- 
tunity of convincing the People that however I may have 
disapproved & continue to disapprove the measures of the 
Governor, that as a man, I entertain good opinions of him. 
He used me badly, but as Pope says 'Twas when he knew 
no better' — In one particular case when he had deter- 
mined to go to Washington (tho' he did not go) he left 
certain Executive Business to be performed by Genl. Clark; 
tho' the Laws have expressly provided for his absence. I 
waited on His Excellency & demanded that the General 
should be called in. The Gentlemen were then told that 
I would suffer no interferences &c. &c. &c. — How unfor- 
tunate for this man that he resigned his commission in the 
army: His habits are altogether military & he never can 
I think succeed in any other profession — 

When I sat down to write this letter, I intended that it 
should have been a very short one; but since I have gone 
so far into a relation of my misunderstandings with the 
Governor, I will briefly state to you those contests which 
for the last 11 months I have been obliged to maintain 

70 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

with my colleague Judge Lucas. 195 You have heard of this 
man : He was formerly a member of Congress from Pitts- 
burgh & a Judge of one of the circuit courts of Pennsyl- 
vania. He was never my friend, since I began to gain a 
little credit at Washington; and commenced his attacks 
(in business I mean & shielded by his official character) 
on my return from the lower districts, last year. It was 
imagined by the whole country that I had done my duty 
faithfully — & this good word was sufficient to excite all 
the angry malignity of the Judge. He attacked my Report 
which was contained in three quires of Paper, & which was 
no doubt, in many respects defective with so much precipi- 
tance, as not to discover its vulnerable points, and it had 
the good fortune to triumph, at length, over all his cen- 
sures. Foiled in this object he commenced a system of 
poignant pleasantry at some times, and of sarcasm at 
others by which he has frequently raised a storm from 
which he has been willing enough to retreat. A winter 
campaign was carried on with vigilance & activity on both 
sides — but at length the People so unanimously took part 
with me as to reduce the Judge to silence, except at long 
intervals. — He is indeed a man of superior order, but so 
completely the child of passion the creature of impulse, as 
to run every hour into the grossest & most palpable incon- 
sistencies. He has absolutely no attachments & his ani- 
mosities are immortal. He is capable of the darkest & 
most desperate intrigues, yet a skilful antagonist may, at 
all times develope his machinations & draw him from his 
ambitions by playing on those passions which have of late 
become too strong for his Control. 

195 About three thousand claims were decided by the commissioners. 
For these decisions and the votes of the commissioners, see American 
State Papers, Public Lands, II, 388-603. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 71 

C. B. Penrose, the other Commissioner, as he has been 
always accustomed to lean on some body, rests for the 
present on Lucas, from whom he fears to differ in opinion, 
on any question of moment. P. is, indeed a man of sense, 
but too weak minded & versatile to be entrusted with the 
transaction of important business. When Lucas & myself 
quarrel, as we had the indecorum to do last winter, before 
crowded Audiences of Claimants, Penrose had the good 
sense to hold his tongue. He is however a willing Dupe & 
shares with Lucas the public execrations. These two men 
have treated the People with so much harshness & travelled 
out of their own sphere with so little dignity, that the most 
respectable individuals of the country have been on the 
point of compelling them to cross the Mississippi. Their 
insolence of Office is boundless; their usurpation of power 
unparalelled. The U. States have counsel at the Board a 
Lawyer by profession and in all respects worthy of the 
trust reposed in him: Yet they take the business out of 
his hands ; they plead the cause & pronounce the doom of 
affluence or poverty afterwards. They voted the necessity 
of the commissioners personally making a survey when the 
U. States have surveyors 196 (very intelligent ones too) 
regularly appointed for that object : But on my refusal to 
accompany them, they shrunk from the ridicule of such 
wanton and illegal interference and rescinded the order. — 

i9« By act of congress of February 28, 1806 the surveyor general was 
given authority to have surveys made of the United States lands in the 
Territory of Louisiana to which Indian title had been or might be extin- 
guished. It was his duty to appoint skilled surveyors as his deputies, 
one of whom was to be designated as the principal deputy. The principal 
deputy was to reside in and keep an office in the territory, and under 
the general superintendence of the surveyor general, was to cause sur- 
veys authorized by law, as might be directed by the commissioners, to 
be made. U. S., Statutes at Large, II, 352-353. 

72 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Lucas is a man of the finest fancy & most brilliant imag- 
ination with whom I was ever acquainted, and when he 
chuses to be pleasant, his conversations are obsolutely 
fascinating. But (as I think) he wants judgment, he wants 
principle & will one day become, in the opinions of all a 
designing old Euffian. I am myself astonished at the suc- 
cess with which I have repelled the protean like attacks 
of this crafty old Cerberus. 197 I was once on the brink of 
despair, but animated by a consciousness of right & by 
the popular support, I have at length obliged him to grind 
his teeth in silence. A circumstance, besides has lately 
transpired, as much for me, as against my Colleagues, and 
I really feel so triumphant on the occasion that I cannot 
forbear mentioning it to you. The People had appointed 
a committee of correspondence on the subject of their 
claims to Lands depending before the commissioners. A 
part of the business of this committee was to procure, if 
possible an amelioration of those principles by which the 
Board have been heretofore governed; & for this purpose 
the gentlemen addressed themselves to certain members 
of the Senate who replied that 'the opinions of Mr. B if in 
favour, would have great weight in inducing government 
to grant the Petition, ' — I had, indeed, no doubt, that 
those liberal & concilitory constructions which I had placed 

197 Proteus was the prophetic old man of the sea. He was placed 
by Homer on the Island of Pharos; by Virgil on the Island of Carpathos. 
At mid-day Proteus rose from the sea and slept on the shore with sea- 
monsters about him. Those wishing to learn the future from him must 
seize him at that time. As soon as seized, he assumed various shapes to 
escape prophesying. If he saw that his efforts were of no avail, he 
resumed his usual form and told the truth. 

Cerberus was the dog stationed at the entrance of Hades. Hesiod 
gave him fifty heads, but Sophocles and most of the Latin poets described 
him as triple headed. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 73 

on the Law would be acceptable to government; but such 
a direct reference to myself, in exclusion of my Colleagues 
was somewhat more than I had counted on. It places me 
however in the most dangerous & delicate of all imagin- 
able situations, to conduct myself in which with prudence 
& exempt from imputation will require all the wariness & 
circumspection of which I am master. . . . 


glE St. Louis July 16. 1809. 

I have the honor, in compliance with the earnest wishes 
of Gov: Lewis, to state, that previously to his making a 
contract for the printing of the Laws of this territory, he 
conversed with me on the subject, and appeared to entertain 
an opinion that the work should be paid for, by me, from 
the contingent fund in my hands. — 

The Governor was informed that the fund was too incon- 
siderable for such an object; and indeed barely sufficient, 
(as I then conceived it) for Office rent, Stationery and 
printing (occasional) as mentioned in your instructions. 

I stated to the Governor also, that before and after his 
arrival in Louisiana, I had, with him felt the necessity of 
a promulgation of the Laws ; and believing that the labour 
of manuscript copies was not properly chargeable on my 
Office, I had, notwithstanding employed a young man, for 
a considerable length of time in that work, for which I 
neither had nor intended to make an account, as there had 
been no appropriation. 

This was in relation to the Laws of the Territory : But 
when the Governor has desired me to supply him with 

74 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

copies, of any of the United States' Statutes, such as the 
Indian intercourse Law, I have thought that I might employ 
a young man for the occasion (not my own clerk) and 
make it a public charge. 

I have vouchers for disbursements of this kind, but am 
yet to learn, whether or not they will be admitted. — I beg 
you to excuse this liberty which I have very hastily taken 
at the instance of Governor Lewis — 


SlR St. Louis July 20. 1809 

I have the honor to enclose an authenticated copy of an 
Indictment, found by the Grand Jury at the last court of 
quarter Sessions for the district of St. Louis against Simon 
Vannorsdale for obstructing the execution of Process and 
beating a Constable in the regular discharge of his duties. 

Information has been given me of his escape and flight 
to the Territory of Illinois. I have therefore to request, 
by authority of an Act of Congress, concerning Fugitives 
from Justice, passed the 12th Feby 1793, 199 that your 
Excellency will cause said Simon Vannorsdale to be appre- 
hended and secured, and that notice of his arrest be given 
me as soon thereafter as circumstances will permit, in order 
that the purposes of said Law, respecting Fugitives, may 
be fully accomplished. — 

198. For his career, see Ninian W. Edwards, History of Illinois and 
Life of Ninian Edwards, and The Edwards Papers, Chicago Historical 
Society, Collections, III. 

199 U. S., Statutes at Large, I, 302-305. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 75 

Dear Sir, St. Louis July 25th. 1809 

Our Gov. Lewis, with the best intentions in the world, 
is, I am fearful, losing ground. His late preparations for 
Indian War 200 have not been popular. He acted for the 
best. But it is the fate of great men to be judged by the 
results of their measures. He has talked for these 12 Mos. 
of leaving the country — Every body thinks now that he 
will positively go, in a few weeks. 


Recorder's Office 
SlR St. Louis Augt. 12. 1809. 

I have this day taken the liberty to draw on you in favor 
of Edw Hempstead Esquire for the sum of one hundred 
& forty dollars fifty four cents the amt. of the contingent 
expenses of the Board of commissioners for ascertaining 
and adjusting the titles and claims to lands in this territory 
from 1st day of January till 30th of June last 

I also transmit herewith the acct. & receipts. 

200 Throughout the fall of 1808 and the winter of 1808-1809 the settlers 
were disturbed by insistent rumors of an Indian uprising along the 
northern frontiers. By order of November 28, 1808 Governor Lewis called 
out a special force. A second call was issued in the spring, five companies 
being asked to rendezvous on May 4. A detachment under Captain Pratte 
was sent to reinforce Fort Madison. On June 5 Captain Pratte returned 
to St. Louis and reported that the border was quiet. On July 6 Lewis 
issued a general order saying that, as the immediate dangers on the 
frontier had subsided, the troops especially assembled by order of Novem- 
ber 28 were to be discharged and again enrolled in ordinary with the 
general militia. Missouri Gazette, July 26, 1808; December 7, 1808; April 
26, 1809; June 7, 1809; July 26, 1809. 

76 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 




g m St. Louis Angt. 16th. 1809. 

I was favored some few days ago with your letter of 
the 1st inst [?] and regret that the Record The United 
States versus Simon Vannorsdale 202 should not have been 
authenticated in such manner, as in your opinion the Act of 
Congress requires. I take the liberty to enclose a second 
Copy of that record authenticated in more ample form. 

Simon Vannorsdale after committing the misdemeanor 
set forth in the indictment, fled from the justice of this 
government, and as my informations state, has taken 
refuge in the territory of Illinois: I have therefore to 
request that you will be pleased to cause the said Simon 
Vannorsdale to be arrested and secured and that notice 
may be given me as soon thereafter as convenient to you. 
You justly remark that the proximity of the two territories 
greatly facilitates the escape of offenders from the one to 
the other, and I beg you to be assured, that I shall feel an 

201 Nathaniel Pope was born at Louisville, Kentucky, January 5, 1784. 
He was educated at Transylvania University. He moved to Illinois Ter- 
ritory and in 1809 became secretary. In 1817 he was elected congressional 
delegate. When Illinois became a state, he was appointed judge of the 
United States district court, an office which he held until his death in 

202 The following notice appeared in the Missouri Gazette, February 
1, 1809: "THE PUBLIC are cautioned against purchasing a certain note 
of hand, given by me to Wm. Morison of the Point of the Missouri, of 
the purport following to wit. 'That I was to pay him Four Hundred 
Dollars upon condition that I should not deliver to him this day at 
Camp Belle Fontaine a certain bay stud horse that I traded to said 
Morison and dated the 26th instant.' I am determined not to pay said 
note, as the horse was in the first instance obtained from me under false 
pretences and by fraud, and the note under duress of imprisonment. 

St. Louis, Jan. 27, 1809. Simon Vannorsdel." 

The Regime of Governor Lewis. 11 

equal promptitude with yourself in bringing them to jus- 
tice — and in such manner as the Laws of our Country 
appear to have provided. 


Secretary's Office 
Sir, St. Louis Augt. 19. 1809 

Your letters to the Governor of the 1st & to myself of 
the 11th inst. were, this morning, delivered by your son. 

I am instructed by His Excellency to say, that no charges 
of any kind, either specific or general have been exhibited 
agt. you. Should the propriety of your conduct be here- 
after called in question, in relation to those offices holden 
at the pleasure of the Executive, he desires me to add, that 
the most ample opportunities of defence shall be afforded 
to you. 

Your letters appear rather intended as a vindication of 
yourself, than as an accusation of others. Whenever 
charges are specifically exhibited against the individuals 
alluded to, an inquiry into their conduct shall be instituted, 
if the alledged violation of duty be of sufficient moment to 
permit the attention of the government. 


Dear Sir Mine a Burton Au £- 27tn 1809 

I have thought many times that I would not put pen to 
paper again on any subject whatever except such as imme- 
diately concerned myself. Whether in the present case, I 
shall receive thanks, or be considered as a troublesome 
meddler I cannot tell, but so it is that when I see and know 

78 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

of plans maturing to wound the reputation of those for 
whome I profess friendship, I cannot forbear doing unto 
them as I could wish them to do unto me. Whether what I 
shall communicate to you be of moment, or not you will 
judge, be that as it may. I have to tell you that you are 
to consider & receive what I write as given in strict con- 
fidence. I this day had a conversation with one of the 
members of the Grand Committee. The substance of that 
conversation I shall communicate, he said, the Drafting 
a memorial to Congress was postponed because it was 
found to be all important to examine the Corns. Books 
& to take such extracts as would answer the intentions of 
the party. They are to be taken from time to time and in 
such a way as not to give alarm to the Comrs. it was also 
hinted that if the extracts could not be obtained in any 
other way, a friend in Court would furnish them. I will 
not say w r ho this friend is, but the board you know has 
three members, and a Clerk. I have the ... to be- 
lieve that B. C. L. esq. . . . 203 are the men against 
whom the Extracts are intended to operate. B. C. L. 204 
esq is more particularly pointed out. how far the board 
of Comsrs. are bound to suffer a mutilated Statement to 
be taken from the Books is not for me to say, nor do I 
know what authority the member with whom I conversed 
has for supposing a friend in Court will furnish the Ex- 
tract. It may be on his part supposition, the drawing the 
memorial is suspended untill Octb 2 next. The object of 
the Enemies of Judge Lucas are not only to displace him 
as Comsr. but as Judge or in other words to prevent him 
beeing appointed again, as I have reason to believe that 
an attempt to obtain extracts from the Corns Books will 

203 The manuscript is mutilated where the dots are inserted. 
sot John B. C. Lucas. 

The Regime of Governor Lewis, 79 

be made immediately & that such Extracts are not intended 
to make a friendly or favourable impression on the Gov- 
ernment of the U 8. & knowing as I do that first impres- 
sions are not only dangerous but hard to remove, I felt 
it a duty incumbent on me to apprize both yourself and 
Judge Lucas of the plans preparing to stab your reputa- 
tion with the Government. You have liberty to make known 
to Judge Lucas as much of this letter as you think proper 
but you will remember and bear in mind the conditions. 
I need not tell you how much I have suffered by this same 
party. You know what I should suffer was it known that 
I made a communication to either of you. I therefore pray 
you, as you value my safety and the peace of my family 
who have been already sufficiently oppressed, not to . . . 
seen or spoken of. . . . 

NB nothing I have said will induce you to doubt Mr Thorns. 
T Riddicks friendship — 


Secretary's Office 
SlE ^ St. Louis Septr. 2d. 1809. 

By order of His Excellency the Governor, I have the 
honor to acquaint you that the accustomed trade, with the 
Indians of the Arkensas-River and its waters may be again 
opened. You have been already supplied with Blanks for 
this object. On the application for Licences it is his Ex- 
cellency's instruction, that you take a Bond in the usual 
manner; administer or cause to be administered the Oath, 
receive the Schedule of the merchandize intended to be 
traded, and transmit the whole to this Office. 

80 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Dear Sir Pointe Coupee September 3d. 09 

Five weeks after my arrival at this place, I had the 
pleasure of writing to you, and have not yet had the honor 
of an answer. — I cannot Dear Sir give you a favorable 
account of my journey to this Country, having been sick 
with the Fever & aigue from the time I wrote you (which 
is about three months) till few days past. 

A great Discord, Cabal & desorder, exist here among 
the Inhabitants, occasioned by intrigues, which has set, 
half of the Country against the others ; this will not (very 
probably) end without effusion of Blood — The Negroes 
which are in great number here, have already showed dis- 
obedience & ill disposition. — The Heads of Militia, civil 
& clergy of this Country "wishing one another destituted 
from office" are the cause of intrigues, and in fact intrig- 
ants themselves whom carry all before them. — Nothing 
more worth mentioning can be said of this place. 

My Brother P. V. Bouis, present you his respects and 
repent of having neglected to write you, according to his 
promess, when he left St. Louis, he assure you, that it is 
not for want of friendship for your person. — Remember 
me (if you please) to Mr. Riddick & Brother, also to any 
of my Friends. . . . 

N. B. — Should there be (to your knowledge) any vacant 
office, which would worth my attention, I would desire you, 
(if you do me the honor to write to me) to advise me of it. 

The Second Acting-Governorship 


glB St. Louis Sept. 20. 1809. 

Soon after the receipt of your letter of 23d of Novr last 
enclosing a draft of 1503 06/100 dollars for the payment 
of Capt. Wherry's detachment, 2 I had the honor to inform 
you that the men were so dispersed in the Indian country 
and elsewhere, as to render it very uncertain when the 
returns could be made to you. But few of the men now re- 
main unpaid. Every possible attention has been bestowed, 
and the receipts shall be transmitted as soon as circum- 
stances will permit. — 


Secretary's Office 
SlE St. Louis Sept. 26. 1809. 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of the 15th to Gov Lewis, in whose absence from the 

i Robert Brent was from Maryland. He was appointed paymaster of 
the United States Army on July 1, 1808, and became paymaster-general 
on April 24, 1816. 

2 Dr. Mackay Wherry came to Louisiana during the Spanish regime. 
In 1805 he was sheriff of St. Charles District. In 1807 he commanded 
a troop of horse in that district. When General Clark was negotiating 
with the Osages in the summer of 1808, Captain Wherry's troop accom- 
panied him. Houck, History of Missouri, II, 55, 60, 96, 384, 409; Missouri 
Gazette, July 26, 1808, February 22, 1809. 

s Horatio Stark was a Virginian. He entered the army in 1799 and 
attained the rank of captain on May 3, 1808. At the time of this letter 
he was in command at Port Madison in modern Iowa. 


84 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

territory, the Executive business is transacted at my Office. 
The Medal and Papers of the Ioway chief were also 
received. The Ioway-Fugitives the subjects of your mis- 
understanding with Hard Heart were tried by our courts 
last year; and after the Jury had found them guilty, the 
court sustained a Plea to its own jurisdiction. They could 
not then be punished by our Laws, and it ever appeared to 
me that their escape was fortunate, both for themselves 
and for us. 4 It saved them, the vexations of a further im- 
prisonment, and us the mortification of manifesting our 
own inability to punish — For our's is a government of 
Laws, and those whom the courts absolve or fail to punish 
cannot be punished by the Superintendent. 

After the trial, the dispositions of the Bench were well 
known: they would have restored those People to their 
liberty by the writ of Habeas Corpus if their counsel had 
not been deterred from that course, by a fear of incurring 
the displeasure of the Governor. — 

I cannot account for the new demand which has been 
made for these unfortunate yet guilty People. We can do 
nothing with them, and in such cases the transgression 
ought to be forgotten as silently as possible. 

Hard Heart has acted with too much haste and passion 
and I believe him to be a man of native viciousness of tem- 
per; Yet we know that the Indian manners are greatly 

* On July 23, 1808, two Iowa Indians were tried for the murder of 
Joseph Tibbeau (Thibault). During the trial "the streets of St. Louis 
teemed with Indian warriors," who incessantly harassed the governor 
and General Clark beseeching pardon for the offenders. The accused men 
were convicted but were granted a new trial, which was held on August 
3. They were found guilty and put in jail until the advice of the Presi- 
dent could be obtained. They were held in the jail for nearly a year 
when they made their escape. Missouri Gazette, July 26, August 2, August 
10, August 17, 1808; ibid., July 26, 1809. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 85 

different from ours. They inherit from a long", uncounted 
List of Ancestors not the chartered but the prescriptive 
and traditionary rights of the forest, and are themselves 
born and brought up amidst the ruggid scenes of nature. 
Much licence ought then, to be expected from them in their 
public talks — Even a common idea is uttered by them 
with rude abruptness, and an intrepid Chief when repre- 
senting his nation in council, has decorums no doubt, of a 
particular kind, but which cannot always be measured by 
our standards. — 

It is the express expectation of the President that the 
Indians will not be treated with the harshness of military 
coercion, but with a conciliatory justice enforced or rather 
recommended by the manifestation of a paternal solicitude 
for their welfare. This man Hard Heart was made a 
Chief by the President himself, and I doubt our power to 
degrade him. At the instance of the respectable part of 
the nation our emblems of distinction might indeed be con- 
ferred on others but it is my first impression that a depri- 
vation of Honors already bestowed is an Act exclusively 
of his own People. We furnish them with Insignia of 
power or preeminence in their nation or tribe, and these 
supplies should not be made unless with the consent at 
least of the Elders. — The subject, at any rate, requires 
more consideration than I have now time to bestow upon 
it; but will write you by Mr. Julien 5 who will leave this 
[place] in 10 days. — 

I am much surprized at the suspension by Gov Lewis, 
of the trade with the Ioways. The first informations which 
I had on the subject were from your letters. No record of 
the transaction has been deposited in the Offices — And as 

5 Probably Julien Dubuque. 

86 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

the measure is supported by no principle of Law, Justice, 
or Policy that I know of I beg that those traders who have 
regular licences may suffer no interruptions. 

I regret that I was not in town when you ascended the 
Eiver. It would have given me much pleasure to renew 
that acquaintance wch. I once had with you in Detroit. 

[Notation] The Medal & Papers given to Mr. Blondeau 6 
to be redelivered to the Chief. 
12. Julv '10. 


SlR ^ St. Louis Sept. 28. 1809. 

I have the honor to advise, that Gov Lewis, left this 
place for Washington on the 4th instant. 7 In his absence 
the superintendance of Indian Affairs devolves on this 

There is a policy subordinate to, and in execution of the 
Law which the President may doubtless institute for the 
regulation of Indian Intercourse. But as the Governor 
has never confided to me the wishes of administration on 

6 The Blondeau family were early settlers of Mackinac. About 1798 
several of the family migrated to Missouri and obtained Spanish grants. 
The best known member of the family was Maurice, a Fox half-breed. 
He was trading with the tribe as early as 1801. Pike encountered him 
on the Mississippi in 1805. During the War of 1812 he was taken prisoner 
by the Sacs and his goods were confiscated. He was later made sub-agent 
of the Sacs and was employed as an interpreter in the treaty making of 
1815. In 1818 he entered the employment of the American Fur Company. 
Wisconsin Historical Collections, XX, 356, 357. 

7 This was the journey on which Governor Lewis met his untimely 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 87 

this, or indeed on any other subjects (except on one special 
occasion) and as he has left me neither records of his own 
acts, nor any of his official correspondence, I have nothing 
but the statute as my guide. 

Genl. Clark also departed for Virga. a few days ago by 
the shutting up of whose office, I am totally deprived of 
every species of information on Indian Affairs. No list 
of Sub Agents or Interpreters has been left with me and 
I do not know, even accidentally, their situations & duties. 
The press of business on this department is almost inces- 
sant, and deprived of all the requisite information, it is 
impossible that it should be transacted with intelligence 
and dispatch. 

My judgments will compel me to abandon the paths here- 
tofore trodden. The merchants complain of restrictions 
beyond the Provisions of the Law ; of arbitrary regulations 
established without a motive and relinquished without a 
reason and of various other irregularities by which their 
commerce has suffered a damage, during the last twelve 
months to the amount of forty thousand dollars, at least. 
I should not be the Herald of these censures, if I esteemed 
them empty and frivolous. — I would not be the organ of 
the complaints of the People, unless for the purpose of 
justifying that liberal course which I conceive it my indis- 
pensable duty, in future, to pursue. 

It is not my province to arraign the conduct of Gov. 
Lewis, and it is surely as distant from my inclination as it 
is from official decorum: yet in speaking of the present 
situation of territorial business it is scarcely possible to 
forbear a retrospect into the past. — 

It has appeared to me that the right to trade is a right 
which the Citizen derives from the Laws, and that it is sus- 

88 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

ceptible of very little modification, beyond what the laws 
themselves have established. The privilege of hunting is 
probably resumable at the will of government, and on this 
subject I must confess that I feel very considerable embar- 
rassments. I have imbibed the opinion that it was the 
wish of the President that the hunting of white persons 
should be discountenanced. The cultivation of the soil 
affords more certain subsistence, contributes to the popu- 
lation of the country, and is a pursuit, in all respects more 
congenial to the habits (generally) of the People of Louis- 
iana, than the chase; Yet there will always be found on 
the frontier a class of People, who will starve if deprived 
of the latter privilege. 

The Governor, previously to his departure insisted that 
hunting Licences should not be granted. I took the liberty 
of enquiring why they should now be refused, since he had 
been in the practice of granting them almost without limita- 
tion! He replied that the indulgence would create disorder 
in the Indian Country. The Blank which I have the honor 
to enclose will show you the wide range and liberal encour- 
agement which has been heretofore given to People of this 
description: And I have not known any rule of right, by 
which privileges of this kind can be conceded to particular 
persons and withholden from others. I beg that you will 
have the kindness to instruct me in my duties. When 
possessed of your views on these subjects as on all others 
incidental to Indian intercourse, they shall be inflexibly 
pursued. — 

When at the settlements of the Arkensas last year, as a 
commissioner for the adjustment of Land Title, I saw the 
instructions of Mr. Treat the Agent, by which he was em- 
powered to grant trading Licences. Gov Lewis, notwith- 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 89 

standing, continued still to grant them for that river and 
its neighbourhood, and was desirous that I should do so, 
in his absence. I declined, believing that, as Mr. Treat 
corresponded directly with the War Department, on the 
business of that remote and sequestered part of the coun- 
try, the interposition of the Superintendent could produce 
only derangement and confusion. — 

May I be permitted to enquire whether Peter Chouteau 
esquire the Agent for the Osage Nations of Indians has 
been so unfortunate as to lose the confidence of the Presi- 
dent? Insinuations have been made to this effect tho' I 
have heard nothing alledged against him, except his absence 
by order of the Superintendent. Mr. Chouteau must have 
presumed that Gov Lewis acted in this affair under the 
orders of the President; and surely sufficient time had 
elapsed after the commencement of the preparations to 
have obtained his sanction or his censure. Previously to 
his acceptance of the command of the Mandan Escort, 8 
the Osage business had from time to time and under various 
pretexts been almost entirely taken out of his hands, and 
I am very certain, (being in habits of daily intimacy) that 
his principal inducement in undertaking this distant charge, 
was, to escape from the official degradation into which he 
had fallen. It is greatly to be feared that the character 
of Mr. Chouteau has not been entirely understood at Wash- 
ington. I do not fear to hazard the assertion that he pos- 
sesses a respectabilit}^ and weight in this country, beyond 

s Early in 1809 the Missouri Fur Company agreed to convey Shahaka, 
the Mandan chief, to his nation. Pierre Chouteau commanded the escort. 
The expedition left St. Louis June 16 and reached the Mandan village 
on September 24. Some of the party remained in the North to trade. 
Chouteau arrived at St. Louis November 20. Missouri Gazette, March 8, 
September 27, November 16, November 23, 1809. 

90 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

any other person employed in the transaction of Indian 
business. — And this reputation, together with the influ- 
ence of an extensive family connection, has, on all proper 
occasions, been thrown into the Amercan Scale, when the 
policy of our government has been in collision with the 
prejudices of former times. 

There was a time when the public mind was impressed 
somewhat differently with respect to this Gentleman; but 
he has outlived the malice of that day ; not by entering into 
useless vindications ; but by treading a high and open path, 
exposed to the view of his fellow laborers in the public 
service and of Society. — 

His son, 9 an active, intelligent and very worthy young 
man has the entire conduct of his fathers private business, 
and with the tacit approbation of the Superintendent has 
also discharged that portion of his public duties which had 
not been wrested from him previously to his ascending 
the Missouri. By him some of the expences of the Osage 
department have been defrayed, and his accounts of dis- 
bursements approved by the Superintendent. It was 
expected by Mr. Chouteau jr that I would have drawn 
bills for this money; but I have thought that a draft by 
himself will be a less exceptionable mode. He will have 
the honor of enclosing you in his letter of advice, one set 
of his vouchers. 

9 This probably refers to Pierre Chouteau, Jr. He was born January 
19, 1789. In 1804 he became a clerk for his uncle, Auguste Chouteau, Sr. 
In 1806 he accompanied Julien Dubuque to the lead mines. He remained 
there as a clerk until 1808 when he returned to St. Louis. He accompa- 
nied his father to the Mandan country in 1809. In 1813 he married Emilie 
Anne Gratiot, a daughter of Charles Gratiot. In his later years he 
engaged in many large business enterprises, and was one of the most 
influential citizens of St. Lonis. J. T. Scharf, History of St. Louis City 
and County, I, 182-184. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 91 

I take the liberty of enclosing copies of a correspondence 
with Capt. Horatio Stark Comg. Fort Madison. 

Several Salt Petre caves 10 on the Gasconade and the 
Meramack Eivers were, some time ago, leased by Gov 
Lewis. The contracts contained a stipulation by which 
the Lessees were bound to sell their Petre to Government, 
provided you were desirous of taking it at the rate of 17 
cts Per Pound at St. Louis, and restraining them from 
making any other disposal of it until the pleasure of gov- 
ernment should be known. As we have no orders on this 
subject I have permitted one of these contractors to make 
sale of his Petre or to manufacture it into gun powder for 
domestic supply. 

The Delaware & Shawanoe Indians who sought an asylum 
in this country after their defeat by Genl. Wayne claim a 
very valuable tract of Land by grant from the Spanish 
Government. It is bounded by the Mississippi on the East ; 
by Apple Creek on the North; by Cape St. Comb's Creek 
on the South and b}^ the ridge separating the waters of the 
Mississippi & St. Francis River on the West. 11 This claim 
lies in the District of Cape Girardeau and is so nearly 
surrounded by our white settlements as to make these 
Indians desirous of exchanging it for lands farther west- 
ward on the Meramack. This is a wish long since expressed 
and repeated to me two days ago, by some of their People 
who were at St. Louis for the purpose of procuring the 

10 For a description of Ashley's Cave, which was located on Cave 
Creek in modern Texas County, about eighty miles southwest of Potosi, 
see Henry R. Schoolcraft, Journal of a Tour into the Interior of Missouri 
and Arkansas, 11-12. 

ii The Delawares abandoned the tract in 1815, but the Shawanee did 
not formally relinquish their claim until November 7, 1825. Charles C. 
Royce, Indian Land Cessions in the United States. Bureau of American 
Ethnology, 18th Rpt.. Part II, 715. 

92 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

surrender of twelve of their Horses, which the whites had 

The Pay Master General long since remitted to me 
1503 06/100 dollars for the payment of Capt. Wherry's 
detachment while in public service at the fire Praire. This 
payment has been made many months ago, except to six or 
eight men who are yet absent. The delay in making the 
returns has not been attributable to my negligence. 


SlR ^ St. Louis Sept 29. 1809 

I beg leave to mention that Thomas F. Riddick the Clerk 
of the Board of Commissioners has resigned his office for 
the purpose of attending to some private business in Ken- 
tucky. The Commissioners, unwilling to lose his services 
have appointed his half brother John W. Honey to supply 
his place, with an understanding that Mr. Riddick shall 
be restored on his return. 

It is not in expectation of obtaining a reply; but for the 
purpose of shielding my conduct from that misconception 
to which it is liable, at the distance of a thousand miles, 
that I beg permission to state to you the grounds of an 
opinion which I lately gave, in relation to a tract of land 
said to contain a Coal-Mine. 

All the conditions of the Spanish Usages had been com- 
plied with, and the question was, whether it should be con- 
firmed ivitk or without the reservation of the coal. The 
Lieut. Governor in his order of survey had stated, that 
the Coal should remain for public use, until the General 
Government at Orleans made another disposal of it. My 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 93 

Colleagues voted that the reservation ought to be perma- 
nently made. I was of an opposite opinion because I con- 
ceived it an individual assumption and exercise of power, 
on the part of the Lieut. Governor which the usages of the 
country had not delegated to him. The established usages 
of the late Government to which we are referred in the 
4th Sec of the Law, 12 did not, that I know of, make reser- 
vations of Coal-Mines. These usages prescribe the terms 
upon which the cultivator shall acquire the right of prop- 
erty in the soil, and the Public agent who is but an organ 
of the law could superadd nothing to those conditions. 
Besides the order of survey was but an incipient process, 
and not a title made and completed by competent and su- 
perior authority — all was referred to this superior author- 
ity ; as well the coal as the title to the land itself. — 

This first step is an evidence merely of the Party's being 
put into possession in a regular manner — And his rights 
must now be ascertained, not, I should think, by the capri- 
cious expressions of his order of survey but, by the known 
and established laws of the Spanish Government. — 

I had the honor of writing you on the 28th of August 

i 2 Section 4 of an act respecting claims to land in the territories of 
Orleans and Louisiana, passed March 3, 1807, read: "And be it further 
enacted, That the commissioners appointed for the purpose of ascertaining 
the rights of persons claiming land in the territories of Orleans and 
Louisiana, shall have full powers to decide according to the laws and 
established usages and customs of the French and Spanish governments, 
upon all claims to lands within their respective districts, when the claim 
is made by any person or persons, or the legal representative of any 
person or persons, who were on the twentieth of December, one thousand 
eight hundred and three, inhabitants of Louisiana, and for a tract not 
exceeding the quantity of acres contained in a league square, and which 
does not include either a lead mine or salt spring, which decision of the 
commissioners when in favour of the claimant shall be final, against the 
United States, any act of Congress to the contrary notwithstanding." 
U. S., Statutes at Large, II, 441. 

94 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

last year, that Governor Lewis had assumed the whole 
management of the lead-mine-business. Your orders, if 
executed, would, eventually, and with very little excite- 
ment, have reinstated the government in its rights; but 
those orders as I have every reason to believe, have been 
entirely disregarded. The Governor did indeed, from time 
to time, speak of plans and systems of his own; but noth- 
ing, that I know of, was ever done. Even the tenants of 
government were left unsupported, and those very men, 
with whom I made contracts, afterwards approved by the 
President, have been driven from their leases by private 
adventurers and are now bankrupts. 

When I was instructed to lease the Mines, I conceived 
that it was a special Agency, which you had thought proper 
to vest in the Becorder's Office; and not an appendage of 
the Executive Power, which I exercised at that time by 
mere casualty: But his Excellency on his arrival thought 

Duty, of whatever kind, was never performed by me 
with reluctance; but the management of this particular 
Affair has occasioned me so much embarrassing contest, 
that it was surrendered with great cheerfulness to the 
man, who acted as if he had brought with him all the views 
of administration, in his Port Folio. I beg leave to remark 
that the public indignation which was once loudly mani- 
fested against the rapacious speculations of certain indi- 
viduals, begins to subside; and every succeeding day will 
render it more difficult to correct the mischief. 

Those People, far from remaining on the defensive (for 
indeed they suffer no molestation) have become the assail- 
ants, and men in whom the government reposes its confi- 
dence are marked out as their future victims. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 95 

If, however I should be honored with your further orders 
on these subjects, my best efforts shall be exerted, for their 
execution: and if protected from obtrusive interruptions 
will accomplish your wishes or assign you reasons why I 
have been unable to do so. 


Gentlemen Saturday Morning Sept. 30. 1809. 

I was not, yesterday morning prepared to deliver an 
opinion, on the maximum of quantity, if any, limited by 
the established usages and customs of the French & Span- 
ish G overnments. I am not yet ready. — I view this ques- 
tion as surpassing in its magnitude and consequences, any 
one which has yet been decided by us — And as new ideas 
have arisen in my mind, on this subject, as well spontan- 
eously, as on the suggestion of those with whom I have 
conversed, I feel myself impelled, however reluctantly, to 
ask further delay until monday morning. — I will then 
meet at as early an hour as you may think proper. 


S IR ^ St. Louis Oct 1. 1809. — 

I take the liberty of enclosing an Indian Trading Licence 
for Mr. Louis Coignard, 13 which you will oblige me by de- 
livering to him, on his executing and leaving with you the 
accompanying bond. 

is Louis Coignard was a native of Chatillon, France. He came to St. 
Louis during the Spanish regime. In 1796, after the visit of General 
Collot to St. Louis, he organized a "Sans Coulottes" society. In 1800 
he bought property in New Madrid and engaged in business there as a 

96 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

I must ask the favor of your giving date to the Licence, 
correspondent with the date of the bond, which latter may 
be sent to me by some private conveyance when convenient. 

Mr. Coignard wished that he might be permitted to trade 
at the Arkensas. Will you have the goodness to inform 
him that the Agent at that place is charged with the local 
affairs of that river, and that to him the application must 
be made. 

SlR ^ Octo. 1. 1809. — 

In obedience to the 2d Sec of the 'Act further providing 
for the government of the district of Louisiana' I have 
the honor to transmit for the information of the President, 
copies of all the legislative and executive acts, which have 
been deposited in my office for record and preservation 
from the 1st day of April till 30th day of September — 

Also a table of the territorial and district officers in com- 
mission at this time. 14 I beg leave to remark, that the 
General orders to the Militia, have not been filed in this 
office. Neither have I been desired by the Governor to 
procure the printing of them. 


Secretary's Office 
gm St. Louis Oct 4. 1809. 

Your letter of 23d of last mo. was delivered by Capt. 
Le Sieur. 15 It gives me much pleasure to observe the rapid 
progress which you make in the acquirement of the 

i* The list is missing. 

is Francois Le Sieur of Little Prairie. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 97 

English language. I read French with some facility, but 
have not yet familiarized its pronunciation and much habit 
will be necessary before I either write or speak it with 
correctness. — 

I do not know how it has happened that under the Amer- 
ican administration, your talents have not been heretofore 
employed in the public service. It is high time that they 
should be employed and I request your acceptance of the 
two offices of Judge of the Courts and Auditor of the Public 
Accounts — The latter of these offices has become vacant 
by the resignation of Mr. Amoureux. I enclose the Com- 

I have for some months past, heard much of the collisions 
between the District officers of N. Madrid. It is not proper 
that I should enter into these private disputes and I have 
consequently been silent with respect to them. It is hoped 
and expected that you will exert some activity & zeal in 
the discharge of your new duties & that you will endeavour 
to give facility to the operations of the Laws. Shall be 
glad to hear from you frequently. Apply, if you please at 
the Clerk's Office for a copy of the Laws. Mr. Hum- 
phreys 16 will supply you. 


By Frederick Bates, 
Secretary of the Territory of Louisiana and Exercising 

the Government thereof 
Whereas a general court martial held in the town of St. 
Louis, on the 9th day of June last, and of which Lieut. 
Colo. Auguste Chouteau was President, did, with laudable 
zeal for the promotion of the public service, impose certain 

ifl Joshua Humphreys. 

98 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

fines on the individuals herein after mentioned, for their 
not having obeyed the general order of the 10th day of 
April last, to wit, on Sergeant Wm. Long 17 to the amount 
of two months' pay; and on the following Privates to wit, 
Jos : Wells 2 Mos. pay ; Bart Honory one months pay, Jos 
Lardoise & Jno. Latresse 2 Mos. pay each, Benj Stedman 
2% Mos. pay, Benj Quick, three months pay, Saml. Rogers 
2 Mos. pay, Jas. Burnsides 2 Mos. pay, Jno. Sullins 2% 
Mos. pay, Jno. Nichols 2 Mos. pay, George Sesep V/o Mos. 
pay, Nathl. Warren, 3% Mos. pay, Jas. Baggs 3% Mos. 
pay, John Wilson four months' pay, George Simpson six 
months' pay, John Manly six mos. pay, Jno. Keller 2 Mos. 
pay, William Wells 3 Mos pay, Joseph Martineau six mos. 
pay, Stephen Malboeuf six mos. pay, Danl. Moore, four 
mos. pay. — 

Now therefore, be it known, that in consideration of the 
praiseworthy alacrity, with which the Militia of Louisiana, 
have, on all proper occasions, obeyed the calls of the con- 
stituted authorities of their country; and by virtue of the 
powers vested in the Governor by the 1st Section of the 'act 
further providing for the government of the district of 
Louisiana' I do hereby pardon the several offences for 
which the said fines were imposed, and require that all 
sheriffs govern themselves accordingly. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto affixed the 
seal of the territory. Given under my hand at Saint 
Seal Louis, the tenth day of October, one thousand, eight 
hundred and nine, and of the Independence of the 
United States of America, the thirty fourth. 

Frederick Bates 

17 William L. Long was a Revolutionary War veteran from Virginia. 
In 1804 he was interested in a grist mill at Carondelet. In 1812 he was 
an ensign in the St. Louis regiment. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 99 


glR St. Louis Oct. 20. 1809 

In our conversations this morning I charged you with 
having said, in the presence of certain gentlemen, that the 
motives of my misunderstandings with Governor Lewis, 
were, the hopes of acquiring the Executive Office on his 
removal; and not an honest difference in opinion, in the 
transaction of the territorial business — This, I think you 
denied — And indeed, if you have common sense or a very 
ordinary portion of consistency, you must deny it, since 
you have, on very many occasions, been quite as noisy on 
the imputed irregularities of the Governor, as any other 
person. — 

I have spoken with the gentlemen — and understand from 
them, that they may, possibly, have made some inferences 
from your remarks on these subjects and that they cannot 
recollect the precise words in which your ideas were con- 
veyed. Here, then, I drop this part of the subject. — But 
you still say, that I have been, and am the enemy of the 
Governor, — and that I would be very willing to fill that 
office myself. — I told you this morning that it was false — 
and I repeat that it is an impudent stupidity in you to per- 
sist in the assertion. How is it possible that you should 
know my wishes, except from my declarations or my con- 
duct? — And what declaration of mine, or what part of 
my conduct justifies you, in the repetition of falsehoods 
like these? 

In return, for the personal allusions with which you have 
honored me, I tender to you, my most hearty contempt. 

100 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Dear Sir, St - Louis 0ct 24 - 1809 

Your letter of the 22d was handed me this morning by 
Mr. Watson. In reply to your recommendation of Henry 
King esq for the Recorder's Office of N. Madrid in the 
event of Judge Amoureux' resignation, I can only say, that 
I have not yet heard of a vacancy ; but that your assurances 
of Mr. King's fitness shall not be forgotten, if I should 
hereafter have it in my power to serve him. 

In the discharge of those arduous duties which have 
lately devolved on the Secy ship, I can have no other object 
than the promotion of the Public good, and knowing your 
acquaintance with the Affairs of the lower districts, any 
intimations with which you may think proper to favor me 
will be very acceptable. 


SlR St. Louis Oct 24. 1809 

It is with unaffected diffidence that I take the liberty of 
addressing you on a subject, in which in all probability 
you feel but little interest. 

The term of Gov: Lewis' services, will expire I under- 
stand, in Feby or March next. He has been too unfortunate 

is John Scott was a Virginian. After graduating at Princeton he 
moved to Vincennes where he studied law. In 1805 he moved to Ste. 
Genevieve, being the first lawyer to settle there permanently. In 1807 
he was attorney-general of the territory. In 1817 he was elected delegate 
to congress from Missouri Territory, and later was the first representative 
in congress from the State of Missouri. His support of John Quincy 
Adams led to his retirement from political life in 1828. Scott County 
is named after him. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 101 

to expect a second nomination — such, at least is the pre- 
vailing opinion : whether well founded or not a very general 
solicitude is felt, that some worthy man of talent and expe- 
rience may be selected to succeed him in the Executive 

Judge Coburn has a growing reputation: His manners 
as you know, are plain, yet conciliatory, and no doubt 
sufficiently dignified; his discharge of public duty prompt 
intelligent and exempt from imputation. In a word, I 
believe he would, more nearly than any other man, unite 
the public suffrage. For myself, I have not concealed my 
ardent wishes that the Judge might be appointed our Gov- 
ernor. A popular address to the President might be very 
readily obtained; but such Papers have not of late been 
esteemed conclusive evidence of merit: Besides which all 
feeling minds are, in different degrees, affected by the un- 
happy situation of Governor Lewis, and would feel a pain- 
ful reluctance in contributing to his mortifications. The 
name of Judge Coburn will however be mentioned to the 
President by private friends of some influence and sanguine 
hopes are entertained of the success of their application. 

If you could feel yourself at liberty to lend us your aid 
in this affair you would add new confidence to these hopes, 
at the same time that you convince us of your willingness 
to promote the welfare of the People of Louisiana. You 
have indeed determined to gather your laurels in a sister 
territory; yet I cannot suppose that you have so soon for- 
gotten a people, who are proud to have ranked you among 
their fellow citizens. 

The weather has of late been so remarkably pleasant, 
that I hope, by this time, I may congratulate you on your 
entire recoverv. 

102 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


By Frederick Bates 

Secretary of the Territory of Louisiana and Exercising 
the Government thereof 

Whereas His Excellency Governor Lewis, did, by procla- 
mation, bearing date of the 22d day of June last, offer a 
reward of six hundred dollars, for the apprehension and 
delivery of Meranante and Mashkakaki two Indians of the 
Ioway Tribe, charged with the murder of Joseph Tebeau ; 19 
or half that sum for the apprehension and delivery of either 
of them : — And whereas, in addition to the supposed ille- 
gality of detaining those Fugitives, in the event of their 
commitment much doubt may be reasonably entertained 
with respect to the fund, on which this disbursement could 
be legally chargeable: 

Now, therefore, be it known, that after mature consid- 
eration of the Premises I have, and do hereby revoke the 
said Proclamation, so far as it may be considered as an 
assurance of reward for the apprehension of both or either 
of the said Indians. In testimony whereof I have here- 
unto affixed the seal of the territory of Louisiana. Given 
under my hand at Saint Louis the 30th day of October, 
1809 — and of the Independence of the United States of 
America the 34th. 

Frederick Bates 

is The name was variously spelled. It appears at Thebalt, Tebo, 
Tibbeau, Tebeau, Thiebeau. He was an old French trader who, for many- 
years, made his headquarters at Beloit, Wisconsin. Wisconsin Historical 
Collections, VI, 423, 424. The proper spelling was Thibault. See Kas- 
kaskia Church Register, II, 198, the original of which is owned by St. 
Louis University. The Missouri Historical Society has a copy. The 
murder was reported in the Missouri Gazette, August 2, 1808. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 103 

My Dear Friend Washington City October 31st 1809 

This moment the Secretary at War has mentioned to 
me his having by this days Mail received an account of 
the extraordinary death of Governor Lewis : for which no 
one here undertakes to account for — & certainly the short 
acquaintance 1 had with him at St. Louis in June last wholly 
precludes my having any reason to offer for his committing 
an act so very extraordinary & unexpected. 

It is already ask'd here who will become Gov. of the 
Territory: Some say one, others another — but those 
acquainted with the present Secry. of the Territory point 
him out as the most suitable and proper person: he cer- 
tainly possessing more local knowledge of that part of the 
Country than perhaps any other person who might be 
selected as possessing talents adequate thereto — on the 
other hand, there are those who assert that if offered he 
would not accept it — as it might be necessary he should 
in that case relinquish the place of Commissioner, Register 
&c &c however of this you will undoubtedly be best able 
to determine — 

Here we are all tranquil and have not any foreign News 
more than the Gazettes of the day will probably commu- 
nicate to you — though — should any thing occur, which 
may be either interesting or amusing to you it shall by the 
earliest opportunity be communicated by [me] . 


glR St. Louis Nov 2d. 1809 

Mr. Pope, the acting Governor of the territory of Illinois 
has complained to me that you have licensed persons to 

104 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

trade within his territory — and demanded that this prac- 
tice should be discontinued. It is a proceeding with which 
I have been totally unacquainted, and must confess myself 
altogether at a loss to conceive your object. 

The Orders of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for 
Louisiana can have no operation East of the Mississippi — 
And no Licences in Gov Lewis' name ought to have been 
issued at Prairie du Chien or for any other part of the 
Illinois. — It appears to me that you ought to correspond 
on these subjects with Mr. Pope. Gov Lewis is no more. 
He died in Tennessee about 20 days ago. 20 — 


SlR ^ St. Louis Nov 2d. 1809. 

I have been somewhat too sanguine in my expectation of 
the popular address which we spoke of — Not, that the 
People would be better satisfied with any other appoint- 
ment; but a reluctance of which I have not been able to 
discover the true cause, has heretofore thrown a damp on 
my exertions. Until the news of Gov Lewis' death, the 
fear of incurring his displeasure was the ostensible mo- 
tive — & now, the impropriety of dictating to the President 
will serve as a pretext for their backwardness. I did not 
myself sign the Peto. as I conceived that the wishes of 
the People & not the Secy's wishes should be expressed 
in it. 

I send you the copy of a letter which I wrote last week 
to Mr. Pope. He has not answered me — The communica- 

20 Governor Lewis met his death on October 11, 1809. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 105 

tion of which I spoke, has not yet been made to Govern- 
ment — It will go by next week's mail. If the proper efforts 
are made at the city I shall not dispair of your success. 


Gentlemen, St. Louis Nov 3. 1809. — 

The statement which you yesterday did me the favor to 
submit, in relation to your conduct among the Sacs, Foxes 
and others Indians of the Mississippi, has been read and 
reflected upon with all that candour and attention which 
it certainly merits. 

The charges 23 were indeed such as to create much preju- 
dice in the public mind, and some alarm for our defenceless 

2i Jacques Porlier was born in Montreal in 1765. In 1783 he made 
his first trip to Mackinac. In 1791 he went to Green Bay where he 
engaged as clerk with the fur trader Pierre Grignon, Sr. For a year 
Porlier worked at the Green Bay store and then was sent by Grignon to 
his trading post on the St. Croix. The following year he became an 
independent trader and spent many years on the upper Mississippi and 
its tributaries. In 1798 he formed a partnership with Noel Rocheblave. 
The firm was dissolved in 1810. Wisconsin Historical Collections, III, 
244-245; VII, 247; XVIII, 462. 

22 in 1783 Bleakley was storekeeper and clerk at Mackinac. For many 
years he was operating on the upper Mississippi, being engaged in trade 
as late as 1814. Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIX, 275-276, 323-324. 

23 in April, 1809, Nicholas Jarrot of Cahokia, who was on his way 
to Prairie du Chien, met Porlier and Bleakley, who had been trading 
among the Sacs. Jarrot reported that Porlier complained bitterly of 
conditions in the Indian trade, claiming that the Indians forced the 
traders to sell goods at the prices charged at the government factories, 
the result being a loss to the traders. Jarrot then visited Ed. Lagotrie, 
another trader, who confirmed Porlier's statement. Jarrot claimed that 
the traders informed him that the Indians had two plans to get rid of the 

106 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

frontier. It gives me pleasure to be convinced, that the 
prejudice was unmerited and the alarm without foundation. 

You were advised, Gentlemen, that, as the acting Gov- 
ernor of Louisiana, I had no power to institute an enquiry 
in this mode. An investigation at my office was known to 
be extra judicial : Yet the earnestness with which you have 
insisted, together with the trouble which you have given 
yourselves of a personal attendance at Saint Louis, deter- 
mined me to adopt that course, as the only one which the 
circumstances of the Affair, placed within our reach. — 
Your development of facts, has demonstrated the rectitude 
of your motives and conduct — and I am truly happy to 
find, that your characters, heretofore known for their indi- 
vidual worth, have, in no wise, deserved reproach or impu- 
tation, during the late transactions in the neighbourhood 
of Fort Madison. I believe that Garrison never was in 
danger. — 

The honorable frankness with which you avow your 
allegiance and political attachment to the Crown of Great 
Britain is the best guarantee of your decent submission to 
our laws, as long as you voluntarily live under their pro- 


Deab Sib, St - Louis Nov 4 - 1809 - 

I wrote you on the 2d & again address you at the pressing 
instances of Madame Boilvin. You will hear from other 
quarters of the melancholy circumstances of Gov Lewis's 

white men: one was to get into Fort Madison with knives and stab 
the soldiers; if that did not succeed, they would watch the men and 
kill them and their cattle. Missouri Gazette, June 23, 1809. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 107 

death. — You have lost a Friend. — There are many expec- 
tations of change in the Indian Department. — Heaven 
only can foresee the future. — Genl. Clark is in the City of 
Washington — I suppose you are now acting under his 

My dear Sir, I pray you to be extremely circumspect in 
every thing you do. Particularly grant no licences, enter 
into no arrangements in Illinois unless under the direc- 
tions of the Governor of that territory. You will count 
confidently on my friendship whenever it may be in my 
power to serve you. 


SlR St. Louis Nov 9. 1809. 

I had the honor to receive by yesterday's mail, your 
letter of the 31st ulto. and avail myself of the return Post 
to give you all the information which I possess, of the 
seizure of certain goods, on the St. Francis, the property 
as alledged of Mr. Thomas Jones. 24 

Gov Lewis issued his warrant for this seizure on the 
31st of March last, founded on the oath of James McFar- 
lane, ' That these goods were offered for sale to the Indians 
by Wm Webber & Jno. Connature, supposed Agents of 
Thos. Jones, without License'. 

I am advised by our Atty. General Mr Hempstead, that 
as process has been instituted for the condemnation of this 
merchandize, my interference would be irregular. 

The goods themselves, might, no doubt, be obtained, 
under Writ of Replevin, a process which will not affect 

24 Thomas Jones was an early American settler on the Meramec. 

108 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

the main enquiry, whether or not they were offered for 
sale in violation of the Law of intercourse. 

We had been lately told that this merchandize was not 
indeed the property of Mr. Jones; but that it had been 
fairly sold and transferred by him to those Indians in 
whose hands it was found. Had this really been the fact, 
the propriety of the seizure, would have been in my mind, 
much more questionable. 

This cause will probably be tried on the 4th Monday of 
this month in the district court of New Madrid. 


St. Louis Nov 9. 1809. 

You have heard no doubt, of the premature and tragical 
death of Gov : Lewis. Indeed I had no personal regard for 
him and a great deal of political contempt; Yet I cannot 
but lament, that after all his toils and dangers he should 
die in such a manner. 25 

At the first, in Washington he made to me so many 
friendly assurances, that I then imagined our mutual 
friendship would plant itself on rocky foundations. But 
a very short acquaintance with the man was sufficient to 
undeceive me. He had been spoiled by the elegant praises 
of Mitchell 26 & Barlow, 27 and over whelmed by so many 
flattering caresses of the high & mighty, that, like an over- 

25 For the circumstances connected with the death of Lewis, see 
Coues, History of the Expedition under the Command of Lewis and Clark, 
I, 43 et seq. See also the Missouri Gazette, November 2, 1809. 

26 Probably Samuel Latham Mitchill, one of the best known American 
scientists of the period. 

27 Probably a reference to Joel Barlow's Columoiad. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 109 

grown baby, he began to think that everybody about the 
House must regulate their conduct by his caprices. 

'De mortuis nil nisi bonum' 28 is a good old maxim; but 
my character has been assailed, as respects our late Gov- 
ernor, and I owe to those I love some little account of my- 

I never saw, after his arrival in this country, anything 
in his conduct towards me, but alienation and unmerited 
distrust. I had acquired and shall retain a good portion 
of the public confidence, and he had not generosity of soul 
to forgive me for it. I was scarcely myself conscious of 
my good fortune; for the still voice of approbation with 
which I was favored by the People, was, as yet drowned 
in the clamours of my enemies. As soon as I was seen in 
conflict with my associates in business, my friends came 
forward with a generous and unexpected support. — T bore 
in silence the supercilious air of the Governor for a long 
time ; until, last summer he took it into his head to disavow 
certain statements which I had made, by his order from 
the Secretary's Office. This was too much — I waited on 
him, — told him my wrongs — that I could not bear to be 
treated in such a manner — that he had given me the 
orders, & as truth is always eloquent, the Public would 
believe it on my assurances. He told me to take my own 
course — I shall, Sir, said I, and I shall come, in future 
to the Executive Office when I have business at it. 

Some time after this, there was a ball in St. Louis, I 
attended early, and was seated in conversation with some 
Gentlemen when the Governor entered. He drew his chair 
close to mine — There was a pause in the conversation — 
T availed myself of it — arose and walked to the opposite 

28 Of the dead nothing but good. 

110 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

side of the room. The dances were now commencing. — 
He also rose — evidently in passion, retired into an adjoin- 
ing room and sent a servant for General Clark, who refused 
to ask me out as he foresaw that a Battle must have been 
the consequence of our meeting. He complained to the 
general that I had treated him with contempt & insult in 
the Ball-Room and that he could not suffer it to pass. He 
knew my resolutions not to speak to him except on business 
and he ought not to have thrust himself in my way. The 
thing did pass nevertheless for some weeks when General 
Clark waited on me for the purpose of inducing me to make 
some advances. I replied to him 'NO, the Governor has 
told me to take my own course and I shall step a high and 
a proud Path. He has injured me, and he must undo that 
injury or I shall succeed in fixing the stigma where it 
ought to rest. You come' added I 'as my friend, but I 
cannot separate you from G ov Lewis — You have trodden 
the Tips & the Downs of life with him and it appears to me 
that these proposals are made solely for his convenience.' 
At last, I had business at the Executive Office — He 
pressed me to be seated and made very handsome explana- 
tions. I told him that they sounded well; but that I could 
not accept them unless with the approbation of my friend 
Wm. C. Carr — He, with some other Gentlemen were then 
called in, & this particular misunderstanding adjusted to 
the entire satisfaction of Carr and myself. 

Oh Lewis, how from my Love, I pity thee ! 

1 Those who stand high, have many winds to shake them 

And if they fall, they dash themselves to pieces' 

I should not speak of these things now, but for the pur- 
pose of explaining what followed. Gov. Lewis, on his way 

The Second Acting-Governorship. Ill 

to Washington became insane. On the arrival of this un- 
happy news and before we heard of his death, an Honbie. 
Gentleman of this place, a Colleague of mine at the Land- 
Board, commenced a regular and systematic traduction of 
my character — He asserted in several respectable com- 
panies that the mental derangement of the Governor ought 
not to be imputed to his political miscarriages ; but rather 
to the barbarous conduct of the Secretary. That Mr Bates 
had been determined to tear down Gov Lewis, at all events, 
with the hope of supplanting him in the Executive Office' 
with a great deal of scandal equally false and malicious. 
The persons who listened most attentively to these accusa- 
tions, happened to be my very intimate friends Judge 
Coburn and Doct Farrar. 

I deliberated with myself 24 hours in what manner I 
ought to proceed. Clement B. Penrose was worthy of my 
resentment, as being nearly connected with the ' illustrious 
House of Wilkinson' as well as on many other accounts. 
But he has a Wife and family. A defiance ought not then, 
if it could be avoided, to come from me. The second day 
after I had heard these slanders I met him in public, at 
the Board of Commissioners, after we had adjourned. I 
charged him with the falsehoods which he had propagated 
in concise and angry terms. He denied them and explained 
'I have said that you were the enemy of Gov Lewis and 
would willingly be the Governor yourself.' 'You have 
gone farther than this Sir' said I 'and I will prove it upon 
you. I will not submit to your malicious impertinence Mr. 
Penrose — I will chastise you for it — for two years past, 
you have been in the habit of gossiping your scandals with 
respect to me, and I pledge my word of Honor, that if you 
ever again bark at my heels, I ivill spurn you like a Puppy 

112 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

from my Path' These reproaches made no impression upon 
him — he was only apprehensive of another kind of attack. 
He had denied the charge and I thought him too worthless 
for further notice. I satisfied myself with obtaining from 
Judge Coburn a Certificate of what 1 had alledged and 
with sending Aid Major McNair with a letter to Mr. Pen- 
rose, expressive of my hearty and everlasting Contempt 
for him. His reply to the Major was, that he would have 
me indicted for an Assault. 

Eichard, this is a strange world, in which we live! I 
had thought that my habits were pacific; yet I have had 
acrimonious differences with almost every person with 
whom I have been associated in public business. I have 
called myself to a very rigid account on this head, and 
before God, I cannot acknowledge that I have been blamable 
in any one instance. My passions blind me I suppose. 

It is certain, nevertheless, that I float on a flowing tide 
of popular favor, without a diminution of credit that I 
know of at the City. 9/10ths of the People are ready to 
push me into the government, as much I presume, against 
the determinations of the President as contrary to my own 

The Recorder's Office united with the Secretaryship are 
better, safer, more permanent, more congenial with my 
habits, and offer me duties with the discharge of which I 
am intimately familiar. In the Government, I might have 
a three years' greatness and sink into oblivion. I could 
not hope to ' escape from the world 's great snare uncaught. ' 
My efforts are making for Judge Coburn; but my friends 
are not hearty in his support. I greatly fear that we shall 

I love you with unbounded confidence. Adieu. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 113 

Dear Sir Detroit, 9th November, 1809. 

The troubles of Louisiana Territory are somewhat 
analogous to those of Michigan. — Governor H and the 
J[udges, th]at is, Woodward & Griffin are at open War, 
and have become so violent against each other, as to mate- 
rially affect the prosperity of the Territory. — I am of 
opinion that the General Government will take notice of 
them ; and it is the General opinion that one side must fall, 
to give peace. — The cry is no longer the People vs. the 
Governor & Judges It is now the Heads of our Local Gov- 
ernment against each other. 

I am sorry to hear that your Governor Lewis is losing 
ground — I have always considered him as a worthy char- 
acter, but as you say " Great men are generally judged by 
the results of their measures," and not by their intentions. 

Mr. Hoffman requests me to tender to }^ou his best 
respects and to inform you that he is in anxious expectation 
of the Letter you promised him in the note which Mr. Chene 
delivered to him at Mackinac last summer. 


gm St. Louis Nov 10th 1809 

Assuredly, If I were in your situation, I should not rec- 
ommend Judge Coburn, and it is as certain that if I had 
been acquainted with the personal causes of alienation 
which subsisted between you I never should have made the 

114 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Dear Sir Saint Louis Nov 10. 1809. 

Your friend Scott and myself conversed lately, on the 
subject of Judge Shrader's intended resignation. You 
were mentioned as his successor. Such an event, I have no 
doubt, would be pleasing to the country. Would not your 
friends in Virginia, mention you to the President! Those 
men of respectability and influence with whom you have 
correspondence in Williamsburg and Richmond, would, I 
should think without hesitation, give the proper assur- 
ances of your qualifications. 

I take the liberty of writing to you, in this business, with 
the openness of friendly regard. Your establishment in 
our country would give me particular pleasure; and could 
I be instrumental in your advancement, my aid should be 
contributed with the utmost alacrity. 

But Sir, neither the President nor the Heads of Depart- 
ments expect information of this kind from me. The stand- 
ing of a territorial officer is generally precarious, and the 
scope of his influence, most commonly, I believe, limited 
to the sphere of his duties. 




Sm, St. Louis Nov 11. 1809 

Capt Harvey delivered your letter of the 12th ulto. since 
which I have scarcely had a moment to answer it. An 

29 William O. Allen was a Virginian by birth. He enlisted in the 
regular army in 1812 and became a captain of infantry. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 115 

unusual press of unpleasant business of various kinds, has, 
for the last three weeks, afforded me but little respite. 

The Letter opening the trade with the Indians, was writ- 
ten as you will observe by order of Governor Lewis — It 
was my private opinion that it should never have been shut 
and while I remain in the exercise of the government, the 
right of the citizen, which he derives from the Law of 
intercourse will not be suspended, unless in the event of 
war, actual or impending. — On the subject of Licences — 
John B. Treat Esq. has been authorized, by the late Secty 
of War to issue them — To prevent any disappointments 
which the absence of your brother might occasion, I enclose 
half a dozen blanks — With respect to the intrusions and 
depredations of the Cherokees, I think you ought to rep- 
resent them to the War-Department. I shall also take the 
liberty of transmitting an extract of your letter. — 

We cannot yet send you, your original Papers from the 
Recorder's Office. They are at this time before the com- 
missioners, and in the keeping of their clerk. My young 
friend Mr. Honey who now acts in that capacity on behalf 
of his Brother has not had leisure to prepare the copies. — 


Gentlemen, St - Louis Nov 16 « 1809 

On the eve of Mr. Harvey's intended departure he called 
on me and resigned the several offices which he lately held 
in your district. 

I send you blank commissions, and ask, that you will 
employ your best efforts in filling them worthily. On your 

116 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

success in this attempt will probably depend the existence 
of your Settlements as a Separate District™ 


Secretary's Office 
S IR ^ St. Louis Nov 16. 1809 

A question has lately arisen, which cannot be determined 
by the records of my Office, with respect to the District 
boundaries between Saint Louis and St. Genevieve. I am 
compelled to solicit information from you. 

On relieving my Predecessor Dr. Browne, no record of 
the Executive acts of your Excellency, during your gov- 
ernment of this country, was delivered to me. If the Sec- 
retary's Office of Indiana can supply any information as 
to the establishment of our Districts I take the liberty of 
requesting that you will have the goodness to cause it to 
be certified. Your attention to this request will confer on 
me a singular favor. 


glR St. Louis 29 Nov 1809 

I expect you, as Jailor of the District of St. Louis to 
furnish my office with information as to the subsistence 

30 The previous year Governor Lewis issued a proclamation dividing 
the District of New Madrid. All that portion lying between the 33d 
parallel and the Second Chickasaw Bluff, and running indefinitely west- 
ward, was made into the District of Arkansas. Houck, History of Mis- 
souri, II, 412. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. Ill 

of persons in your custody under prosecution of the United 
States. In an especial manner I require you to report the 
manner in which a Sac Indian, 31 in your custody, has been 
provided with Fuel, if any, and provisions, from his com- 
mitment till the present time. 

The manner in which you have thought proper to neglect 
my verbal request on the latter subject obliges me to inform 
you that I hope for an immediate compliance. 


grB St. Louis Nov 30. 1809. 

I have received your letter of this day — It is a strange 
one, and such as I do hope no person exercising the gov- 
ernment of this country will ever again receive from the 
Sheriff of the District of Saint Louis. 

You are ignorant i whether the Sac Indian has been fur- 
nished with 20 or 90 meals per month'! 

Sir, that Indian, altho' guilty and condemned by the 
Laws is not to perish with hunger. If you have not a 
[reliable] Deputy Gaoler on whose honesty and diligence 
[you are able to depend] either provide one or per[mit me 
to appoint one. I do] not like the expressions of your 

3i The Sac Indian referred to killed a white man at Portage des 
Sioux. He was tried on July 27, 1808, found guilty, and sentenced to be 
executed, but was reprieved by the governor to avoid the appearance of 
partiality to the two Iowas who were tried about the same time. In 
October, 1809, a deputation of Sac and Fox chiefs visited St. Louis, one 
of their purposes being to ascertain the fate of the prisoner who had been 
held in jail for many months. Quasquami, a Sac chief, delivered an 
empassioned speech before Governor Lewis and General Clark. Missouri 
Gazette, July 26; August 2, 1808; and October 4, 1809. 

118 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

letter. You are not to prescribe times for the adjustment 
of the public accounts. The application was mine, rather 
than Anderson's. — I do not choose to admit the certificates 
of Anderson as vouchers for his own accounts. The man 
is unknown to me. If his word is all sufficient, why not 
make it the basis of your certificate (since he is your Agent) 
rather than expect me to take it as a voucher for the pay- 
ment of the public money? 

I desire your attention to the 4th Section of an act of 
the 9th of November 1808 Page 342 of the territorial 
Laws. 32 Your duties are there ver^ clearly prescribed as 
to persons prosecuted criminally under the laws of the ter- 
ritory: And I expect your promise, unreservedly and in 
writing and divested too of all reasoning which does not 
belong to the subject, that you will, in future, conform your- 
self to the provisions of that section, in all cases of crim- 
inal prosecution under the United States' Statutes. 


St. Louis Deer. 3d 1809. — 

You have satisfied but one branch of my demand — For 
the future we have made an adequate provision — Your 
promise is deemed most amply sufficient: But as to the 
past you have obstinately, and as I think, somewhat rudely, 
refused to account. — I had determined that you should be 
indulged in this ; and were it reconcilable with my duty and 

32 Section 4 of the act of November 9, 1808, providing for compensa- 
tions to deputy-jailors may be found in Missouri Territorial Laws, I, 
224-225. Bates' reference is to the first edition of the laws. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 119 

with the regular transaction of the public business, I 
should have no objection to forget your late wanderings in 
expectation of an amendment: But certain intimations 
lately received, oblige me, to reiterate my original enquiry, 
made personally at your office, with no other alteration 
than a limitation of time How has the Sac Indian in your 
custody, been subsisted, from 4th Sept. till 30th Nov last? 

If you suspect that your Deputy Gaoler has been negli- 
gent in supplying him with provisions, why not say so? 
If he has been faithful in the discharge of those trusts 
which you and not the government have reposed in him, 
let the account be settled. I have a right to know the truth 
and I will know it — And am determined that no private 
quarrels between you and your deputy, shall deprive me 
of that information, which you ought, on the first applica- 
tion to have promptly given. 

Into whose custody was this criminal delivered on his 
condemnation? Sir, into Your's — and from You alone 
will I expect an account of him. 

There are other charges which you will be obliged to 
answer in their proper order. This is the subject, how- 
ever, on which I intend to establish my right of enquiring 
into your conduct. You appear, by no means satisfied that 
the Laws have established in my office, a censorship over 
your's. I shall proceed slowly and deliberately to convince 
you of this truth. One glaring neglect of duty has awak- 
ened accusations which might otherwise have slept. I had 
rocked the cradle of their repose. 

Your contempt of my authority shall not provoke me 
to do you an injustice. I shall take care to be well assured 
of facts before I act upon them. 

120 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Sib, St. Louis Dec 14. 1809 

When I last spoke with you on the subject of Mr. Con- 
nor's intended removal, you expressed a desire that some 
arrangement might be made, by which he might be enabled 
to close certain business already commenced. — It was my 
first impression that I could not be a party to such arrange- 
ments, — and nothing which has since occurred, has in any 
wise contributed to change tins opinion. — I write you this 
note in compliance with the promise which I made you. 


Secretary's Office 
St. Louis Dec 14. 1809. 


Desirous of availing the public of your services, I take 
the liberty to enclose you a commission as sheriff of the 
District of Saint Louis. 

Jeremiah Connor esq has been removed from this office — 
and as the duties are pressing and incessant, it is much 
to be wished that you should immediately commence them. 
The Laws have made it the duty of your Predecessor to 
deliver to you the Papers appertaining to the office. 


Saint Louis Dec 14. 1809. 


I received, this afternoon, your letter desiring a state- 
ment of the reasons or the facts, on which my late deter- 
minations with respect to your removal, were founded. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 121 

Without entering into a discussion of the principles on 
which you have thought proper to make the demand, I have 
no hesitation in giving you the statement. I promised you 
this, a few days ago, in the conversations which we had 
on these subjects; and the performance of this promise 
was only delayed, not forgotten. It was desirable that there 
should not be a vacancy, until a successor was provided. 

The reasons inducing the removal grow out of the fol- 
lowing facts 
1st Irregularity and remissness in discharge of the 

Sheriff's duties 
2nd A mode deemed oppressive and unknown to the Laws, 

in the collecting of taxes 
3d Repeated failures, for years past, to settle your ac- 
counts with the district 

4th The charge of Fees not provided for by Law. 

Entirely convinced of the truth of these facts, it is my 
unpleasant duty to inform you, that your commission as 
sheriff of the District of St. Louis, has been, this day, 
revoked. 33 

33 The following statement appeared in the Louisiana Gazette, Janu- 
ary 18, 1810: 

To the Public. 

I had indulged the hope that the uneasiness naturally occassioned 
by a removal from Office, would not in my case, be aggravated by a mis- 
representation of the causes assigned or conjectured, which produced it. 
A short excursion into the country have convinced me how fallacious 
my expectations have been. What these misrepresentations are, I deem 
it unnecessary at present to state, they have served, however to awaken 
a solicitude for my reputation, which I had trusted have remained un- 
assailed: and nothing but the imperious necessity which such a consid- 
eration imposes, would have induced me, thus to trespass on the public 

The anxiety naturally felt, and, I hope, correctly indulged, leads me 
to request a temporary suspension of the opinion of the Public, and of 

122 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Alexr. Mc Nair esq has been appointed your Successor. 
He will receive from you such Papers, keys of the Jail & 
other appurtenances of the Office as the Law requires to 
be delivered. 


g St. Louis Jany. 12th. 1810 

On the return of Major Chouteau from the Mandans it 
was his intention to have visited the City, in order to 
explain those parts of his conduct, which had not, as he 
feared, been sufficiently understood. I heard this deter- 
mination with the more regret, as I had always been of 
opinion that an honest and frank account, by letter, would 
dissipate all distrusts and be entirely satisfactory. I pre- 
vailed with him therefore, to suspend, for the present, all 
anxiety on a subject with respect to which I entertained no 
doubt, that his conduct would be ultimately approved. The 
truth was, that the business of the Indian Department 
could not be transacted without him and the occurrences of 
every day rendered it indispensable that his weight and 
authority should supply the absences of others. This was 
seen and felt by us both ; and altho ' I did not think myself 

my Friends, relative to my dismissal; and I feel a becoming confidence, 
that whatever impressions may have been made on the mind of the 
acting Executive, either from his own knowledge of my Conduct, or 
misrepresentations thereof by others, I shall be able when a proper 
opportunity offers, to present to them such testimonials as shall convince 
them, that no conduct of mine has been such as to incur the forfeiture 
of their esteem for me as a Man, or Confidence in me as an Officer 

Jeremiah Connor 
Late Sheriff, of the District of St. Louis. 
St. Louis, Jan. 18, 1810. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 123 

authorized, absolutely, to prohibit his departure, yet, he 
acquiesced with cheerfulness in the propriety of my sug- 

I have thought it advisable that the department generally, 
should be paid by Major Chouteau for the last quarter, 
and in the hope of your approbation have ventured to give 
an order to that effect. The Interpreters have been accus- 
tomed to this regularity and suffer much embarrassment 
from delay. These disbursements amount to the sum of 
$985. .44 cts the vouchers in support of which are believed 
to be correct and regular. The contingent part of this 
account was incurred with my previous approbation. 


St. Louis Jan: 20. 1810 


Major Christy has just delivered me your note of yes- 
terday. I owe you no explanations. It is a plain case. 
Your conduct 34 has extorted from me certain accusations, 
the truth of which is sustained by the most imposing facts. 
It is in vain that you unite yourself with other persons. I 
shall know how to separate you. The gentlemen of this 
town have an unquestionable and permit me to say an 
unquestioned right to entertain and to express their opin- 
ions of individual character: But you — You have com- 
mitted yourself. 

Men of worth and honor heard our conversation and 
will not fail to stamp this transaction with its true char- 

a* Hempstead signed a certificate of good conduct of Connor, the 
sheriff who was removed from office. This was the cause of Bates' anger. 

124 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


n St. Louis Jany 20. 18.10. 

Gentlemen j 

The conversation, a few evenings past, between Mr. 
Hempstead the Atty. General & myself in the office of 
Mr. Riddick was of too unpleasant a nature to have been 
altogether forgotten by you. 

An incident of this morning has rendered it very desir- 
able that I should obtain a written statement of the affair. 

You were the only gentlemen present; and surely there 
are none on whose accurate recollection, or on whose love 
of truth I would sooner repose myself than on yours'. 

I take the liberty then of requesting that you will have 
the goodness to state the subject of conversation, the man- 
ner and the circumstances, in such detail, as to exhibit to 
others a true account of the misunderstanding and to pre- 
vent facts from future misrepresentation. 
Note. This letter was answered by a circumstantial & sat- 
isfactory detail wch. I have filed. F. B. 


St. Louis Jany. 22d. 1810. — 

In discharge of the executive duties it will be incumbant 
upon me to inform the President of your having been coun- 
sel for this office, in the removal of the sheriff of the Dis- 
trict of Saint Louis ; and of your having afterwards signed 
a certificate of that officer's good conduct. 

35 This letter was marked "not sent." 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 125 

You are no longer Attorney General of the territory of 
Louisiana. Consider this as your dismission. 


St. Louis January 22d. 1810 

We have been long acquaintances, and altho ' nothing like 
friendship entered into our intercourse, I nevertheless feel 
some little desire to assist you in forming a just estimate 
of yourself. — Hempstead ! I charge you fling away ambi- 
tion. Forbear all hasty and blustering pretensions to the 
rank of a gentleman: The doors are closed upon you by 
memorable faux pas of former times : Be satisfied with 
that course which the Fates have marked out for you, and 
do not aspire beyond the reputation of instrumentality, 
and a pettifogging readiness in business, for which alone 
you are valued. Transfuse a little of that close arrange- 
ment for which you are so remarkable in ordinary busi- 
ness into your moral oeconomy, and regain by modesty 
and repentance the forfeited regards of the Public. — Do 
not mistake me ; — this is not intended, either as injury or 
insult. Your reputation languishes; and nothing but 
health-restoring medicines ought to be administered. Be 
honest — cease to be treacherous, and some hopes may 
be entertained of you. — If you are wise enough to receive 
this advice with the same candour in which it is given, you 
may possibly live to thank me for it. But if, on the con- 
trary your usual cunning should forsake you, and you 
should be stupid enough to take it as an affront, recollect 
that I am not to be answerable for the consequences. — 

126 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

well remembered ! Have you forgotten your unworthy sug- 
gestions about Judge Stuart? This enquiry is not for- 
eign, — it is closely connected with the subject of the 
present difference. — Hempstead ! retrace your wandering 
footsteps — You see that between ourselves I can substan- 
tiate everything against you. Do not impose upon me the 
unpleasant task of publishing you to the world. You know 
the perseverance of my temper and I am ready, however 
reluctantly, to give you new specimens. 

[Note.] The foregoing was to have been sent with a state- 
ment of Messrs. Eiddick & Allen but suppressed in conse- 
quence of E. H's having recalled a saucy Letter wch. he 
wrote me in reply to mine of the 20th instant. 

F. Bates. 


giR St. Louis Jan 30: 1810. 

Mr Riddick has this moment delivered me yr. letter of 
yesterday. The circumstances to which there has been 
much painful reference, warranted the construction which 
I put upon your conduct, and, as I then believed, justified 
my resentments. I do now regret the whole affair. 

And since you state, that in signing the certificate you 
did not intend to certify any thing contrary to the conver- 
sation which you had with me previously to the removal 
of Mr. Connor, nor as censuring me for his removal, which 
you have always thought was proper, I think I ought to 
say that I never should have taken offence at that or any 
other act of your's, if known to have been unaccompanied 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 127 

by intention — I do freely declare that any asperity of 
expression made use of by me arose, solely, out of the cir- 


Frederick Bates 

Secretary of the Territory of Louisiana and Exercising 

the Government 

to all whom it may concern 

Whereas the Court of Quarter Sessions for the District 
of New Madrid, did, at July term last, impose on William 
Ordway two several fines, the One of $30 for selling spirit- 
ous liquors to Indians ; the other of $20 for trading with a 
slave in violation of the Laws 36 of this territory: And 
Whereas the said William Ordway, after the imposition 
of the said fines, departed this life, leaving a Wife and 
numerous family of infant, female children in indigent cir- 
cumstances. Now therefore, be it known that I do hereby 
pardon the offences for which the said fines were imposed 
& require that all sheriffs or other collecting officers take 
one notice hereof. In testimony whereof I have hereunto 
affixed the Seal of the Territory of Louisiana. Given under 
my hand at St. Louis the 15th day of February, in the year 
of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred & ten & of the 
Independence of the United States of America the thirty 

fourth< Frederick Bates. 

36 Trading with a slave, without the consent of the master, owner, 
or overseer of such slave, was prohibited by sections 11 and 18 of a law 
of October 1, 1804. Missouri Territorial Laws, I, 27-33. 

128 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 


-p, a New York March 8. 1810 

Dear Sir 

I had this pleasure some days ago at Washington, and 
should have repeated it during my short stay there but 
was so hurried, in leaving that place a few days sooner 
than I contemplated I defered it for more leisure. 

Every thing relative to our territory stood as when I 
last wrote you — the Government seemed to be determined 
to proceed in the appointments, at least slowly, if not judi- 
diciously, but from what I could learn I had great hopes 
of Coburn for Governor. As to the discontinuance of Judge 
Lucas I could scarcely form a conjecture (my wishes lead 
me to hope a great deal) and I had considerable encour- 
agement from a number of Senators that they would oppose 
him — but he having written to a number of his old acquain- 
tances I suspect they will have sufficient interest with the 
President to procure his nomination, and I fear to contest 
the confirmation. 

I made such interest with the Federalists as to secure 
their unanimous votes against him, and Mr Bayard 37 prom- 
ised to oppose his confirmation. 

Judge Griffin 38 being at York in Virginia, and knowing 
he wished to be transferred to Louisiana I wrote to him to 
come to Washington, which I presume he has done. Col. 
Meigs 39 was much in favor of him — and Bradford prom- 

37 James Asheton Bayard, United States senator from Delaware. He 
was one of the commissioners who signed the Treaty of Ghent. For 
his Papers, see American Historical Association, Annual Report, 1913, II. 

ss Cyrus Griffin, judge of the United States district court for Virginia 
from 1789 until his death on December 14, 1810. 

39 Probably Return J. Meigs, Jr., United States senator from Ohio. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 129 

ised Smith 40 he would try to bring about the transfer, and 
I should very much like to see it, for I think Griffin would 
suit us better than a stranger — I am sure he would please 
the people generally — 

Gen. Clark returned from Washington with the same 
situation he held when he came, and I believe there is no 
doubt of the government having been offered to him — I 
admire his prudence in refusing it very much. 

I believe I mentioned having seen Mr Gallatin at his 
own house, but had not any conversation with him of con- 
sequence — I met him a few evenings before I left Wash- 
ington at Mr Madison's where we had a little chat that 
was very pleasing to me, and I presume will not be ungrate- 
ful to you. Speaking of the Commissioners, generally, and 
particularly, he said little of Lucas — Penrose was a good 
man, but a very weak one — and as to you to use his own 
words "we had wished to make him Governor, but in the 
land business we have always considered him a kind of 
Umpire without whom we should not know how to pro- 
ceed — we might get as good a man but he is now so well 
acquainted with the business (and something about the 
confidence we have in him) we consider him as indispens- 

I mentioned to this gentleman and the Secretary of War 
your having allowed Bleakley &c to come on our side the 
Mississippi, and explained the thing — why you did it — 
thinking it best they should have correct information, and 
fearing it might be represented differently — they both 
seemed to understand it, and are alike your friends 

40 Probably John Smith, a congressman from Virginia. At that time 
there were three other Smiths in congress: Senator John Smith of Ohio, 
Senator John Smith of New York, and Senator Samuel Smith of Maryland. 

130 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

You will see from the papers that there appears to be 
no apprehension of war between us & England, and that 
our commerce is likely to resume its former liberty — 

Dear Sir • Detroit, 15th March, 1810. 

1 wrote you on the 9th November 1809 (a duplicate of 
the same is enclosed) since which I have not had the pleas- 
ure of any of your favors. 

You will perhaps be surprised to hear of the Death of 
George Hoffman, Esq.: he died on the 2nd instant after 
an illness of five days. The bottle I believe was the cause 
of his exit at such an early period of his life. From all 
accounts he drank very hard. After his death two wills 
appeared; one of which was executed in April 1809 and 
the other in February 1810. By the first he disinherits 
the child which his wife was then pregnant with; leaving 
her one third of his personal property, and the remainder 
together with his real estate he bequeaths to his family 
connections at Chillicothe. In his last will he does not even 
mention his wife nor child, but bequeaths the whole of his 
property real and personal to his parents. What could be 
the cause of such conduct is almost incomprehensible. I 
have read of children being disinherited for dishonesty, 
libertinism and disobedience to their parents, but a child 
yet in the mother's womb to be disinherited I have never 
heard of, and there is something in such an act horrid 
beyond expression. You can judge of the feelings of Mr. 
Audrain in this case. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 131 


Kaskaskia 23d March 1810 

Shall I beg the favor of you to deliver Mr Robert Mor- 
rison, who does me the honor to be the bearer hereof, a 
Copy, certified by you as Recorder, of the Claim and all 
the Papers laid in by the heirs of Renaut to lands in the 
District of Louisiana — These papers I have immediate 
need of, so that I hope you will forward them by Mr Mor- 
rison 42 — who will pay office fees — 


a St. Louis Mar 30. 1810 


I had the honor some time ago to receive your letter of 
the 9th Inst. The Commissions therein recommended will 
be handed you by Adjt. Genl Delaunay, except that of Pay 
Master : The 24th Sec of the Militia-Law 44 having provided 
the manner in which that Officer shall be nominated, I must 

4i John Rice Jones was a prominent lawyer of Kaskaskia. 

42 Robert Morrison was an extensive land claimant in Illinois. He 
was violently opposed to Harrison and was one of the leaders for the 
separation of Illinois from Indiana Territory. In 1810 he was clerk 
of the general court. 

43 Major of the 1st battalion of the Ste. Genevieve regiment. 

44 The 24th section of the militia law of July 6, 1807 was as follows : 
"A majority of the field officers of each regiment with the commandant, 
shall nominate fit persons within their bounds to the governor of the 
territory, the one as paymaster, the other as judge advocate of the regi- 
ment. And the governor shall, if he thinks the said persons, respectively 
qualified, appoint and commission them for these several duties. It shall 
be especially the duty of the judge advocate, to prosecute in behalf of 
the United States, and also perform such other services as are by this 
act prescribed." Missouri Territorial Laws, I, 157. 

132 The Life' and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

trouble you to mention the subject to Colo. Cook, 45 Mr. 
Mc Arthur 46 is no doubt, a very proper person ; but as the 
nomination is vested by law in the Field Officers, we ought 
not, for a little delay, for a slight neglect of theirs, to for- 
get their rights. In the commissions which I send you, I 
have left blanks for the No. of the company. Will you have 
the goodness to fill them up[?] 


Sir St. Louis April 1st. 1810 

I have the honor to transmit herewith copies of the 
Executive Acts for the last six months. During this 
period there has been no meeting of the Legislature. 

I have never been favored with any intimations of the 
manner in which these Reports should be made. Perhaps 
they are too much compressed ; and it is possible that they 
may be deemed defective in some other respects. Should 
they not meet the expectations of the President in their 
present form, my letter Book together with the Files of the 
Office will enable me to amplify them. 


Sie St. Louis April 1st. 1810 

I have the honor to enclose accounts of the contingent 
expences of the Secretary's office for ye. two years pre- 

45 Nathaniel Cook. 

46 Probably John McArthur, who, in 1812, became a lieutenant in the 
Ste. Genevieve regiment. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 133 

ceding the present day ; together with the receipts vouching 
the expenditure. The errors in former accounts are cor- 
rected in these & I hope no new ones committed. I beg 
permission to draw for the amount. 


giR St. Louis April 24. 1810 

I beg leave to introduce to your acquaintance Mr. More- 
head of the house of Messrs. Henry M. Shreves & Co. 47 — 
He is lately from Philadelphia, and has established himself 
as a resident merchant in our town. 

Mr. M. did me the favor to present Letters from General 
Neville of Pittsburgh in which he is mentioned by that 
Gentleman in the most handsome terms. His connections 
are very highly respectable. His Lady is the daughter of 
the late General Shreves, who bled in the revolutionary 
cause ; and I will venture to assure you that Mr. M. is him- 
self worthy of those attentions which I take the liberty of 
soliciting in his behalf. — He will probably have business 
at the Executive Office. — Should security be necessary in 
granting him a Licence for Indian Trade, I am willing, if 
accepted, to join him in the bond : Or if my non residence 
should be an objection, I will engage, as these Gentlemen 
are Strangers, whose business would suffer by delay, that 
satisfactory Security shall be supplied in one month. 

47 Henry M. Shreve and Company ran a general store in St. Louis. 

134 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


By Frederick Bates 

Secretary of the Territory of Louisiana and Exercising 
the Government thereof 

Whereas the extended limits of the township of Bon Homme 
in the district of [St.] Louis, render the distribution of 
justice inconvenient and burthensome to the Western Set- 
tlements of the said township: 

In remedy whereof and in discharge of those duties 
imposed on the Executive by the 'Act further providing 
for the government of the district of Louisiana' I do hereby 
declare that the Settlements of the present district of Bon 
Homme lying westward of a line to be drawn due south 
from the mouth of Tavern Creek on the Missouri to the 
Merimac shall, from and after the 15th day of the present 
month form a new township to be known and denominated 
the township of Labbadie. And those civil officers ap- 
pointed heretofore for the township of Bon Homme, 
and who reside within the limits, herein designated, of 
the new township of Labbadie, shall, from and after 
the said 15th day of the present month, be considered 
as Officers of the latter township. In testimony whereof 
I have hereunto affixed the Seal of the Territory of Louis- 
iana. Given under my hand at the town of St. Louis the 
fourth day of May in the year of our Lord, one thousand 
eight hundred & ten & of the Independence of the United 
States of America, the thirty fourth. 

(Seal) Frederick Bates 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 135 


g St. Louis May 8. 1810 

Thomas F. Riddick esq the Clerk of the Board, resigned 
his office on the 4th inst. compelled by the urgency of his 
private business in Virginia. His half brother Mr. Jno. W. 
Honey was on the same day, unanimously elected to supply 
his place. 

If Mr. Riddick should visit the City on his way to Nanse- 
mond he will be desirous of paying his respects to you & 
if your leisure permit will have the honor of handing you 
this. I beg permission to say that his representations with 
respect to the business in which he was lately employed, 
may be relied upon. By an unwearied and intelligent des- 
charge of his duties he acquired and preserved the entire 
confidence of every individual of the Board. 



St. Louis May 9. 1810 

As to domestic news, we are told that Benj. Howard 453 
of Kentucky, has been appointed Governor of Louisiana. 
Judge Lucas has been reappointed, contrary to the expec- 
tation of a host of enemies, 49 but very much to my satis- 
faction. I was at one time fearful that Government would 

48 In 1800 Howard was elected to the Kentucky legislature. In 1807 
he was elected a member of congress from Clay's district, a position which 
he resigned to become governor of Louisiana Territory. 

49 For attacks upon Judge Lucas, see the Missouri Gazette, October 
12, 1809; Louisiana Gazette, January 11 and March 8, 1810. 

136 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

listen to the clamours which had been so industriously 
raised and supported by ignorance and prejudice. Our 
old acquaintance Mr. Griswold 50 is certainly appointed a 
Judge of the Illinois territory. . . . 


glB St. Louis May 16. '10 

Yr letter of the 1st inst. was reed, yesterday. You mis- 
take my powers. I neither make sales nor give permis- 
sions to settle. The Settlement of Congress-Lands is, at 
this time, punished with much severity — There has been 
much forbearance in the execution of the Laws, but I should 
betray my trust and violate my duty by giving the least 
encouragement — Until an office is opened for the sale of 
Lands there are in Louisiana, no means by which they can 
be procured, except by purchase from individuals. 


Deak Sib, St - Louis Ma ^ 23 ' 181 ° 

I send the power of Attorney, so long expected, and so 
unnecessarily delayed since last year. — No news — Our 
Governor has not arrived — Under his administration I do 
greatly hope that party animosities of former times will 
be forever forgotten. — The People petitioned Congress 

so Illinois Territory was proclaimed April 28, 1809. Stanley Griswold 
soon replaced Obediah Jones as one of the three judges. Alvord, The 
Illinois Country, 1678-1818, p. 430. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 137 

last year for the 2d grade. 51 It has for the present been 
refused them, but in such terms of encouragement as will 
probably % induce them to renew the application at next 
Session. My private convictions are that it is inexpedient 
now, and for some years to come ; yet as our population is 
most aboundantly sufficient, and as I could have nothing 
but arguments drawn from an abstract reasoning to 
alledge, I have thought it most prudent not to partake in 
the discussion. 


St. Louis May 31. 1810 

Mr Galliher this moment presented your application for 
a district organization, the seat of justice for which to be 
at the Little Prairie — 52 

Considerations of various kinds induce me to believe 
that the establishment of such a district is at present inex- 
pedient. Yet, altho' I cannot feel myself at liberty to 
hazard an experiment, which would, in operation I am 
persuaded, disappoint the hopes of its advocates, I will, 
notwithstanding submit your Papers to the Governor, on 
his arrival, who will probably act on them uninfluenced by 
any opinions of mine. 

si The petition was presented to congress on January 6, 1810. Annals 
of Congress, 11 Cong., 1 and 2 Sess., 1809-1810, Pt. I, 1157, 1253. For the 
text of the petition, see Shoemaker, Missouri's Struggle for Statehood, 
27. A bill further to provide for the government of the Territory of 
Louisiana was presented by Rhea of Tennessee on January 6, 1810, but 
it died in committee. 

52 The trading post at Little Prairie was established in 1794. A 
settlement grew up about it and prospered until the earthquake of 1811. 

138 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Honored Sir New Madrid June 6th 1810 — 

Your kind reception of me when at St Louis makes me 
feel a Confidence in adressing you at this time. A wish 
to make myself useful to Government makes me desirous 
of having the appointment of an assistant to take the Cen- 
sus of The Inhabitants of this District; I hope that from 
the knowledge I have of the Country & Speaking both 
Languages I will be able to be Correct and expeditious. — 


Sm St. Louis June 13th 1810. 

I had the honor to receive by this week's mail your letter 
of the 5th ulto. and submitted it without loss of time to 
the commissioners. They have not instructed me to make 
to you, any assurances of their future diligence in the ad- 
justment of the Land-Claims. They know however that it 
would be my duty to reply to your letter by the first Post, 
and trusted, no doubt, that my knowledge of their industry 
heretofore, together with much general conversation which 
we had on the subject, would enable me to satisfy your 

The Commissioners, I am very sure, are truly sensible 
of the importance of a speedy and final adjustment of the 
claims. They regret indeed that the pressure, in Congress, 

53 Joseph Amoureux, a native of Boucheville, Canada, was a black- 
smith at Vincennes as early as 1769, and moved to New Madrid in 1793. 
The writer of the above letter was probably his son, an ensign in the 
Ste. Genevieve regiment during the War of 1812. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 139 

of other business, should have caused them to be neglected ; 
but at the same time are not conscious that that neglect 
has occasioned any relaxation on their part. I am entirely 
convinced that every effort will be made to transmit the 
report during next session. — The want of compensation 
has been embarrassing to the clerk of the Board, of whose 
resignation, some time since, I had the honor to advise you. 
The business, nevertheless has suffered no interruption on 
that account — as John W. Honey the half brother of Mr. 
Eiddick, and formed to business by his precepts and ex- 
ample has accepted the Office — the duties of which he 
discharges now as on a former occasion, to the entire sat- 
isfaction of the commissioners. — We were informed, indi- 
rectly, that the Bill reported for our compensation, pro- 
vided fees on the final disposal of every claim. May I be 
permitted to say, that such a mode would have been less 
acceptable to a majority of the Board than the entire 
silence of Congress with respect to us. 


Sir, St. Louis June 26. 1810. 

Your letter of the 6th was received, some short time 
ago — but as the instructions of the Secretary of State 
had not then come to hand, I resolved to wait their arrival, 
that I might answer you with the more certainty. — 

I have now reed those instructions, and have much pleas- 
ure in naming you as the Assistant to take the Census of 
the Inhabiants of New Madrid. 

In order that there may be an entire conformity in the 
returns from the several states and territories the Secre- 

140 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

tary of State has transmitted blank forms; but as the 
Packet must be of considerable bulk it has not yet come 
forward. As soon as it arrives I shall lose no time in 
sending you all the necessary informations. 

I enclose you the Oath which you will take as well as 
subscribe, and return to this office. 

The enumeration is expected positively to commence on 
the first Monday of August. . . . 

P. S. I send you herewith the three Acts passed at the 
last session on the subject of the census — Mr Gallatin 
has as yet given no orders on the subject of manufactures — 


gnt St. Louis June 26. 1810. 

Under the several Acts of Congress which you have 
probably seen, on the subject of the Census I have been 
instructed by the Secretary of State to appoint Assistants 
for the several civil divisions of the territory and to cause 
the enumeration to commence on the 1st day of August 

I take the liberty of enquiring whether it will be agree- 
able to you to act as Asst. Secretary in this business for 
the district of St. Genevieve? — 

I know that the emoluments are scarcely worth your 
acceptance ; but in the discharge of your duties of Sheriff 
it may perhaps be in your power to take the census with 
less additional trouble than others would experience. 

There are pressing applications for this appointment by 
persons in whom neither the Public nor myself have much 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 141 

confidence. — You will oblige me by writing as soon as 


St. Louis June 26. 1810. 

I had the honor to receive by yesterday's mail, your letter 
of 17 ulto. with its several accompaniments on the subject 
of the Census to wit 

1 copy of the Letter of Instructions 

1 do. of the Acts 

4 do. of the Oaths of Assistants 

2 copies of the Oaths of the Secretary 

1 do. of Returns of Assistants 

2 do. of do. of Secretary 

The next mail will probably bring a second Packet, con- 
taining the other Papers which you have mentioned. 


a St. Louis June 29. '10 


Since I had the pleasure of conversing with you I have 
reed, instructions from the Secy, of State on the subject 
of the Census. In these instructions I am directed to select 
as Assistants those persons who are presumed to be best 
acquainted with the several settlements within their respec- 
tive limits. 

This injunction induces me to ask the aid of the Sheriffs, 
unless in cases where special reasons decide the preference 

»* James Green came to Louisiana in the winter of 1797-1798. 

142 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

in favor of others. Besides, the necessity of this course 
appears to be dictated by the selection which the law makes 
of the Marshals in the States. I regret that these consid- 
erations should have prevented the arrangement of which 
we spoke. The views of Govt, are better accomplished by 
the appointment of an individual already in the discharge 
of ministerial duties. 

SlR St. Louis July 24. 1810 

I wrote you on the 26th ulto. accepting your offers of 
service as an Assistant for taking the Census . . . within 
the district of New Madrid. 

I send you the Papers as noted below from which you 
will gather all the instruction which can be necessary for 
an intelligent discharge of your duties. 

You will observe from the manner in which you are to 
be paid that service must precede compensation — Your 
Returns must be made to this Office by the first Monday 
in January next But counting as I think I reasonably may 
on your diligence I entertain the hope that it will be as 
convenient for you to transmit them in Deer, as Jany. Be 
pleased to acknowledge the receipt of this letter & its 


glR ^ St. Louis July 24. 1810 

I make so free as to appoint you an Assistant for taking 
the Census of the People of Hope Field, and of the settle- 
ments near the mouth of the river St. Francis. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 143 

You must not decline this Office; for I am solicitous to 
shew Government that I am aided in the discharge of my 
duties by men of worth and character. 

The accompanying Papers will give you every necessary 
information. Should it not be in your power to execute 
this trust, I shall be very thankful if you will procure 
some fit person whose fidelity may be depended upon. Let 
him take the Oaths and go on with the business without 
waiting for a regular appointment from me. 

You have given me so many friendly instances of your 
disposition to render me service that I take the farther 
liberty to enclose to your care a Packet for Danl. Mooney 
esq. Asst. within the settlements of the Arkensas. I know 
that you will be so friendly as to give it the most expe- 
ditious conveyance. The Returns are required to be made 
by the first Monday in January next. Yet I shall esteem 
it a favor if you will let me have them much earlier than 
that time. Oblige me by sending duplicates by different 
conveyances for fear of a miscarriage. 


Secretary's Office July 24 1810 

I appoint you Assistant for taking the Census of the 
People for the district of the Arkensas except those in 
the settlements of Hope Field, and at the mouth of the 
river St. Francis, which latter places have been allotted to 
Judge Fooy. This Office is not expected, as you will re- 
mark from the law, to be a profiitable one, yet it is one, 

144 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

which it appears to me no good Citizen will decline unless 
altogether incompatible with his other pursuits. 

I send you all the necessary information viz The Laws, 
the Circulars of the Secy, of State, — Assistants' oaths, a 
blank return as a model and which you can enlarge by 
sewing in additional sheets: Also two heads of Returns, 
which will be pasted on a quire, % quire or other proper 
quantity of Paper, ruling afterwards from the indications 
in the heading. Should sickness or other unavoidable acci- 
dent prevent your undertaking this business, I hope you 
will without farther reference to myself (as the distance 
will not permit it) cause the Oaths to be taken and the 
enumeration made by some other discreet person. — 

You will observe that your Returns are to be made to 
this office by the 1st Monday in January 1811 But in con- 
sideration of the delays and even frequent miscarriages 
between Arkensas and St. Louis, I must request that you 
will, with all possible diligence make the enumeration, and 
transmit duplicate returns by different conveyances as 
soon as circumstances will allow. 


St. Louis Julv 25. 1810 

I reed, your letter of the 3d inst. and was gratified by 
your acceptance of a troublesome and profitless office. I 
now send you 2 Circulars of Secy of State — The Census 
Laws — 2 Assistants Oaths — 1 blank Return as a model 
& 4 Schedules or heads of Returns. — 

Your Returns must be made to this office by the 1st Mon- 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 145 

day in January next. I should be much obliged if they 
could be made before that time. 


Secretary's Office 
Sir, St. Louis July 25th 1810. 

I had the pleasure to receive, in due time, your letter of 
the 26th ulto. and do hereby appoint you Secretary's As- 
sistant for taking Census of the People within the district 
of St. Charles. 

I should have written you sooner, but for the miscar- 
riage of certain dispatches from the Department of State. 
It has been necessary to cause the printing to be done 
here — and it has required time. 

I now transmit you 2 circulars of the Secretary of 
State — 2 copies of the Census laws, 2 Assistant's Oaths, 
2 blank Eeturns — and four heads of Eeturns — These 
latter, as you may have occasion for them, are to be pasted 
on a quire, or other proper quantity of Paper in the man- 
ner of the Model. The Paper, after being sewed , at the 
usual fold of the quire, will be ruled with very little trouble, 
from the indications in the heading. I am sorry that your 
lameness deprived me of the pleasure of seeing you. I am 
persuaded that the informations which these Papers con- 
tain are all which you will require on the subject. 

s^ James Callaway was a grandson of Daniel Boone. He eventually 
settled in what is now Howard County. In August, 1813, he served under 
Nathan Boone who conducted a reconnoitring expedition into Illinois. 
Early in 1814 he was in command of a party of rangers who were attacked 
by Indians near the confluence of the Prairie Forks of Loutre Creek. 
Callaway and four others were killed. The Callaway Papers belong to 
the Missouri Historical Society. 

.146 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Secretary's Office 
g IR ^ St. Louis July 25. 1910. 

I do hereby appoint you Secretary's Assistant for taking 
the Census of the People within the district of Cape Girar- 
deau. The accompanying Papers will give you every infor- 
mation which can be necessary in the discharge of your 
duties viz 2 copies of the Census Laws, 2 circulars of the 
Secy, of State, 2 Assistants Oaths, 1 blank Return as a 
model, and which if you please can be enlarged by sewing 
a number of sheets of Paper in the middle, at the usual 
fold & ruling them by the indications in the heading: also 
4 Schedules as heads of Returns, which may [be] pasted by 
yourself, on quires of Paper, in the same manner as I have 
done for you, in the model. 

I beg that you will read the Laws and the circular in- 
structions of the Secy, of State with much care. I count 
much on your attention and diligence in this business. Your 
returns must be made at this office by 1st Monday in Jan- 
uary next — and should be much pleased to have them 


Sm? St. Louis July 26. 1810. 

I take the liberty of enquiring whether it will be agree- 
able to you to act as Secretary's Assistant in taking the 

ss John Hays was commissioned by Governor Harrison as the first 
sheriff of the Cape Girardeau District. 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 147 

Census of the Dt. of Cape Girardeau? If inconvenient to 
yourself, you will greatly oblige me by naming some per- 
son in whom that trust may be reposed, and will be willing 
to accept it. As the arrangements must be immediately 
made, I beg that you will answer this letter without delay. 
In the event of your acceptance, the forms, and every nec- 
essary information will be transmitted to you. 


SlR St. Louis July 29. 1810. 

I think it my duty to inform you that Mr. Penrose is mis- 
taking the sphere of his usefulness & discharging the trust 
lately confided to him very contrary to, and much beyond 
my constructions of the Resolution of the Board. He is 
not only entering the whole business (as I am told) in the 
rough minutes; but also filling up the Registry with re- 
jected cases, and noting by anticipation, future confirma- 
tions, with a conjectural date too, on the margins of the 

This appears to me to be departure from his duty both 
wide & wanton; and it is probable that he will proceed in 
the same course tomorrow, unless he be told that no such 
power either has been or could have been committed to him. 


SlR St. Louis July 31. 1810 

In addition to the papers on the subject of the Census, 
the receipt of which I had the honor to acknowledge in a 

148 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

letter to you of the 26th ulto. I yesterday received a 2d 
packet, containing 7 Cops, of Instructions 7 Cops, of the 
Census Laws, 14 Copies of Assistants Oaths & 7 Cops, of 
Assistants Eeturns. 

I beg leave to observe that I had so many and just rea- 
sons to apprehend a miscarriage of this latter packet, that 
I caused the necessary printing to be done at this place. 
The receipt of the first packet was fortunate, as it enabled 
me to ascertain your views, and, in due time, to make the 
preliminary arrangements in conformity with them. Some 
days previously to the arrival of this second packet, the 
allotment had been all completed and every necessary paper 
transmitted to the several Assistants. Duplicates were 
sent to the distant settlements of the Arkensas, by private 
conveyance, lest the packets by mail should suffer delay 
or miscarriage. 

It is probable that the accounting Officers of the Treas- 
ury will admit this little charge of extra printing, in the 
contingent expenses of my Office. 


glR St. Louis Augt. 1. 1810 

I wrote you on the 24th July appointing you Secretary's 
Assistant for taking the Census of the People within the 
Settlements of Hope-Field, and of those near the mouth 
of St. Francis' Eiver. 

As this [is] a business on which government is anxious 
to be accurately informed I take the liberty of repeating, 
by private conveyance, my most earnest hope that you will 
not refuse me your assistance. Accompanying this, you 

The Second Acting-Governorship, 149 

will receive 2 circulars of the Secy, of State — The Census 
Laws — 2 Assistants Oaths, 1 Blank Return and 4 heads 
of Schedules. By Post, together with your own packet, 
you will receive one for Mr. Daniel Mooney Asst. for the 
settlements of the Arkensas. 

glR St. Louis Augt. 1st. 1810. 

Apprehending miscarriage, or at any rate, delay of my 
letter to you by Post, of 24th of last month, I avail myself 
of a private conveyance to inform you, that I have ap- 
pointed you Secy's Assistant for taking the Census of the 
People of the district of the Arkensas, except those at 
Hope Field and near the mouth of the St. Francis, which 
have been allotted to Judge Fooy. Enclosed herewith you 
will find the Census Laws, 2 Circulars of the Secy, of State, 
2 Assistants Oaths, 1 Blank Eeturn and 4 Schedules or 
heads of Eeturns. If, from any unforeseen, or unavoid- 
able circumstances, it should be out of your power to attend 
to this business, I beg that you will cause it to be done by 
some intelligent and discreet person, as the distance & 
difficulty of communication will not allow me time to make 
a second appointment. An Answer is requested containing 
a receipt for the papers. 


glR ^ St. Louis Augt. 2d. 1810 

I take the liberty to enclose you a Petition of Charles 
Relle and Baptise & Francis Piqueur. The application was 

150 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

improperly made to me, as the Kickapoos by whom the 
property is alledged to have been stolen, reside within 
your government. — 

I avail myself of this occasion to say that the Illinois 
Indians make frequent visits to this place under the pre- 
text of talk with the public Agents, and not unfrequently 
commit some violence or other, immediately before their 
departure. The appointment by yourself of an Agent resi- 
dent in this neighbourhood, would contribute very much 
to the suppression of these practices. Altho' the duty 
would be somewhat burthensome, I have no doubt, that 
Mr. Peter Chouteau would, at your request, very cheer- 
fully undertake it. 




g IR St. Louis 8 Aug '10. 

In addition to the Papers accompanying your appoint- 
ment as Secy's Assistant for taking the Census within the 

district of some time since transmitted, I now 

enclose duplicates of the Schedule, the instructions the 
Laws and the Oaths, lest the first should have miscarried. 
Be pleased to acknowledge the receipt of the whole with- 
out delay — 

a New Madbid 15th August 1810 — 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
official favors of the 26th of June and of the 24th of July 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 151 

last; the first naming me an assistant for taking the Cen- 
sus of the Inhabitants of this District, for which please to 
accept my sincere gratitude, the second inclosing the 
printed, Laws, Instructions etc. agreeable to the note 
thereto annexed — 

I have begun to take the Census on the day appointed 
by Law, and shall endeavour to conform myself in every 
Instance to yours and the other general directions: I 
shall particularly attend to your desire of having the re- 
turns made to you as soon as possible : for that purpose I 
shall take the opportunity of the good season to go to 
those scattered places, to which at rainy times the access 
is almost impracticable; so that I am in hopes that after 
having complied with all the requisites I will be able to send 
my returns in the course of November, by some good safe 
opportunity, unless you would think best to prevail on 
some gentleman of the bar, returning from the November 
Districts Courts, to take a particular charge of those re- 
turns, upon which I shall await your further Instruc- 
tions. — 

I send here inclosed the oath taken by me before a Judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas. 


Dear Sir, St - Louis Au £ 18 - 1810 

I owe you my best thanks, for your unexpected favor of 
25th ulto. Your informations were very acceptable. Of 
Gov : Howard, we had heard nothing which could be relied 
upon — And indeed apprehensions began to be entertained, 
that he would altogether decline the discharge of a trust, 
which in the opinions of all, had been so worthily reposed. 

152 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

I rather think there must be some misconception in the 
idea that Mr. Gallatin was authorized to pay the salaries 
of the commissioners &c. It is not possible that he would 
have withholden the money, except for the best of reasons. 

Your bad health gives much concern to your friends. 
Even your rivals in practice would regret the circumstance 
which should protract your stay in Kentucky. I sincerely 
hope that your confidence in the good effects of the medic- 
inal waters of your parent state may not be disappointed, 
and that with new recruits of health and alacrity, we may 
soon welcome your arrival among us. In society as in 
business, I am persuaded your absence occasions a void 
which would not be immediately [filled] by another. Of 
your family, you say nothing — I hope they enjoy health. — 

I can very readily enter into those feelings of pleasure 
and of surprize which you must have experienced on your 
return to Kentucky from the astonishing increase of wealth, 
population and manufactures. We shall, in our turn, I 
have no doubt, enjoy these blessings : and the overflowings 
of national prosperity elsewhere will find easy channels, 
and a capacious reservoir for their reception in Louisiana. 
From every internal symptom, as well as from every indi- 
cation from abroad, I am led to conclude that those of you 
who have made early purchases of lands will, at no very 
distant day, find your account in it. Taking up my opin- 
ions from those who are well informed on the subject, 1 
have no doubt that our soil is perfectly well suited to the 
growth of Hemp. 57 Our friend Eiddick has not arrived. 

57 Hemp was produced in Upper Louisiana by Laclede as early as 
1775. Two years later he was instructed by the Spanish authorities to 
encourage hemp and flax culture. Laclede advised that slaves be sent 
if the business were to develop. Galvez replied that the king had decided 

The Second Acting-Governorship. 153 

I am impatient to see him. In his absence and yours I have 
not a friend to whom I can unbosom myself in any delicate 
emergency. I did not take up your paper in the hands of 
Mr. Chouteau, for the reason that he settled my note with 
Mr. Philipson 58 who had money of mine some time pre- 
viously to the 1st of July and without my knowledge. It 
can still be done, if you desire it. 


SlE St. Louis Aug 22. 1810 

I received by last post, your letter of the 10th. Some 
general account of manufactures will be acceptable. The 
Secretary of the Treasury has not thought it worth while 
to extend the Law as respects them to this country, — 
And indeed, in the infancy of our Settlements we have very 
little to boast of on that score. The Proclamation of 20th 
April 1808, to which you allude is of no authority as re- 
spects boundaries. The Governor had no power extending 
to objects of that kind. Boundaries between the Whites 
and Indians must be established either by the general gov- 
ernment or by treaties — 

to make provision for supplying the needed labor. Houck, History of 
Missouri, I, 305. 

In the American period, as the settlements developed along the 
Missouri River, hemp became the great staple, and it was in the hemp 
country that slavery got its strongest hold. H. A. Trexler, Slavery in 
Missouri, 1804-1865, in Johns Hopkins University, Studies in Historical 
and Political Science, XXXII, No. 3, pp. 23-26. 

ss in 1808 Jacob Philipson came from Philadelphia and opened a store 
in St. Louis. His advertisement appeared in the Missouri Gazette, Decem- 
ber 14, 1808. 

154 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 



Dr. Sir, St - Louis Au S 22 - ' 10 

I very much approve your determination to visit Louis- 
iana rather than rely on the informations of others. With 
the best intentions I might mislead you into error: And 
indeed your enquiries of 26th June embrace so wide a field 
that I am very sure it would not be in my power, satis- 
factorily to answer them. A residence of three years in 
this country has impressed upon my mind the most lasting 
prepossessions in its favor and induced me to give it the 
preference to all other parts of the U States which I have 
visited. But my pursuits, it must be confessed have been 
of too special a nature to enable me to decide with respect 
to its agricultural advantages. For the present, I merely 
send you notes of my momentary recollections — Here- 
after, if you desire it, I will forward the results of my 
conversations with those, who are better informed than 
I can pretend to be — 

< Price of Slaves?' variously from $300 to $500 < Hirer 
$8. & $10 Per Mo. — ' Crop V Corn, Wheat, Oats and other 
small grains — Hemp at some future day will probably be 
the Staple. ' Price of the Crop?' — very fluctuating — con- 
sumed at home — and the demand depends on the number 
and ability to purchase, of the new comers. Emigration 
however numerous and constant, nothwithstanding the 
supposed insecurity in the land titles. — Corn has sold for 
25cts. — sometimes 75cts. per bushel — Whiskey 50cts. 
Peach Brandy lOOcts. Per Gal : Beef $3 Per Cwt. — Pork 
$3_Cwt. Bacon $4 to $8 Per Cwt. — 'Money V Silver 
and Kentuckv-Bank Bills. — a deficit of these as a medium 

The Second Acting-Governor ship. 155 

of exchange induces the practice of making contracts, for 
specific articles of that kind of property which has been 
found most negociable, such as Lead, Beaver, Peltry. 
'Land?' On this subject I will give you the opinions of 
Judge Lucas who has been a practical farmer for the last 
20 years. He says that 2d rate here, produces better than 
1st in Pennsylvania The soil is light, and attention rather 
than labour is necessary in cultivating it. There is no 
doubt a great diversity, from the rocky barrens to the 
unexhaustable low grounds of the Missouri & the Missis- 
sippi. The man of business can never be deceived in the 
titles, altho' the adjustment is not yet completed. ' Price 
of Lands?' You know the habits of a frontier People — 
They are fond of hunting and they are averse to Laws. 
As soon as the Settlements approach them they sell out — 
Sometimes good Plantations, with Vacant Cabbins, orch- 
ards &c. have been sold for 50cts. Per Acre — And if the 
Sheriff has the disposal of them, they bring much less. 
Lands of the very first rate are sold, by those who are not 
thus strongly induced to make sacrifices at $3 Per Acre. 
The Lands produce, of Corn 50 Bushels and of Wheat 30 
Bushels Per Acre. The soil is well suited to the growth 
of Tobo. tho' very little is cultivated. The quantity of 
its produce Per Acre, has never, that I know of, been 
fairly ascertained. ' Water?' Very excellent in its quality, 
but not very abundant. The river water is drunk in our 
village in preference to all others. Tho' in its natural 
state, it has a muddy, and almost an abhorrent aspect, yet 
after it has deposited its sediment in large Jars of 80 & 
100 Gals, it becomes pure as the clearest spring water. 
'Air?' Somewhat changeable — Sudden transitions from 
heat to cold, but extremes in neither — However, on this 

156 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

subject as well as with respect to ' Health!' and ' Prevailing 
diseases V I cannot adventure any thing very positively, 
until I talk with our philosophical People. I am satisfied 
however that we have more comparative Health here than 
you have in Virginia. ' Society? ' is as you might conjecture 
it to be, in a new country — somewhat promiscuous. — 
4 The business of a Lawyer?' Those, who have been qualified 
to succeed have succeeded. 

I shall be very glad to see you in St. Louis It is here 
only that you can form correct judgments on the Affairs of 
the country. — Lead $5 & $6 Per Cwt. . . . 
[P. S.] Since writing the above have been told that Negro 
men hire at the mines from $10 to $15. — 

The Administration of Governor Howard 


Dear Sir Saint Charles 23d Aug 1810 

When last I had the pleasure to see you I requested per- 
mission to hunt beaver in the Osage country the ensueing 
winter. You generously took upon you to mention the 
thing to Majr Choteau their agent. I am now fully equiped 
to make the tour & most earnestly entreat you to assist me 
to procure permission if it does not at this time belong 
to you officially. I hear that a Govr. has arrived. I am 
not satisfied whether it appertains to his office or not. The 
thing is of the utmost concern to me as my fortune good 
or bad depends upon it. Therefore your kind interference 
will oblige me in the Greatest posible point for which my 
feelings will always be greatful — favour me with an 
answer if you please — I have hard times. Men whom I 
have sweated by night and day to save from the devil have 
turned upon me & try to force me to cut my own throat 
for a few cents — poverty & troublesome Enemes at the 
same time are difficult things I can assure you. Adieu. 

i Heath and William Christy established the first salt works in 
Cooper County (1808). Heath was admitted to the bar at St. Charles 
in 1808 and in 1814 represented St. Charles County in the territorial 
assembly. In 1816 he was circuit attorney of Howard County, and in 
1820 represented Franklin County in the constitutional convention. 


160 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Dear Sir Detroit, 28 August 1810. 

I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letters of the 12th January, 9th & 23d May; the former 
advising of your having drawn on me in favor of the Hon : 
A. Chouteau for three hundred and eighty one dollars and 
seventy four cents, which has been duly honored ; the latter 
covering a Special Power of Attorney for conveying a 
certain donation lot; which has not yet been done, but, as 
all the Judges of the Territory are now present, I am in 
hopes of obtaining a Deed for the same in the course of a 
few days, when the business will be attended to. 

Very little news — Our Territory continues to be torn 
to pieces by party animosities, so much so, that the people 
are in a great measure determined on petitioning the Gen- 
eral Government to be attached to the State of Ohio. I 
have thought it prudent not to interfere. 

I have the pleasure to inform you that my Brother Sam- 
uel has been appointed Collector and Inspector for the Dis- 
trict of Michilimackinac : His commissions are dated 3rd 
May, which you will please recollect, was after the adjourn- 
ment of Congress, consequently, his appointment will have 
to be laid before the Senate, at their next meeting, for 
their approbation. Permit me my Dear Sir to solicit your 
interest with the members of that Honorable Body and the 
Treasury Department in his behalf. If you consider it 
agreeable so to do, it would be advisable that your letters 
on the subject should reach Washington City a few days 
before the next session of Congress. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 161 


q tt> Secretary's Office Oct 1. 1810. 


I have the honor to enclose herewith copies of the Exec- 
utive Proceedings in this territory during the half year, 
commencing 1st April and ending 30 September. The Leg- 
islature did not convene in this term. 


g IR ^ Oct 22d. 1810 

In execution of your Orders of this morning I have the 
honor to enclose the only papers in the files of this Office 
which appear to have a material relation to the fiscal con- 
cerns of the territory, they are, 1st The letter & statement 
of Geo Henderson late Treasurer of the district of Cape 
Girardeau of 26th of March 1809 

2dly The statements of Michael Amoureux late Auditor 
of the Public Accts. for the district of New Madrid 

3rdly The letter & statement of Joshua Humphreys clerk 
of the courts of the district of New Madrid dated 8 Sep 

4thly The Returns of the late commissioners of Rates 
& Levies of the divisions of their respective districts into 
townships with statements of the taxable inhabitants 

The provision in the 6th Sec of this Act establishing 
courts of justice and regulating judicial proceedings P. 88 
of the Laws, 2 has not, as far as relates to returns to be 
made to the Governor been very strictly observed. 

2 The reference is to an early edition of the Laws. The original act 
of July 3, 1807 is in Missouri Territorial Laws, I, 105-125. It was amended 
October 20, 1807 (ibid., I, 183-184), and again amended November 7, 1808 
(ibid., I, 223-224). 

162 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Treasury Department 
Sib, 5th Novemr 1810. 

The Surveyor General writes that Mr Bent 4 is required 
by the Commissioners to execute surveys at the distance of 
500 or 1000 Miles, which it is impossible for him to do with- 
out incurring considerable expence for travelling. 

If there is a number of Surveys to be executed in the 
same quarter, I should suppose that a deputy might be 
appointed for the purpose. 

But if there are insulated claims at that distance, and 
no danger of interference, might not the confirmation by 
the Commissioners be made without a previous survey, 
and in such manner as to direct the manner in which the 
Survey should be hereafter executed? 

That mode was very, perhaps indeed too generally 
adopted by the Commissioners in the Mississippi Terri- 

Upon the whole I have no doubt that the Commissioners 
will try to arrange that difficulty and have no disposition to 
require from the principle Surveyor services which, though 
within the letter of the Law, he cannot reasonably be 
expected to perform. The discretion in that respect is 
theirs, and I am sure that it will be properly exercised. 


Sm? St. Louis 9 Nov 1810 

I had the honor to receive by this week's mail, your 
letter of the 1st ulto. 

s Original in the Treasury Department, Mail, "N-O," 3466. 
* Silas Bent. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 163 

We have been diligent in the business of the census. On 
the appointment of the Assistants I entreated them to fur- 
nish their enumeration as such earlier than the prescribed 
periods, as a careful and regular discharge of their duties 
would permit. 

Returns have been already received from the districts 
of St. Charles & St. Genevieve and from part of the dis- 
trict of the Arkensas. As soon as all the returns shall 
have been made, but little time will be required to make 
the general statement. 

Sm St. Louis, Nov 14. 1810. 

It was stated to me this morning, that you had written 
a letter to Governor Howard containing some strictures 
on the removal of the late Sheriff of the district of St. 

I waited on the Governor to learn particulars: He de- 
clines as I had foreseen to say any thing on the subject. 
The correctness of his determinations in this respect can- 
not be doubted. You will therefore do me a favour, and 
probably the last I shall ever ask of you, by stating explic- 
itly whether or not these strictures were made, and if 
affirmatively what they substantially amounted to. I am 
not so unreasonable as to expect that you will enter into a 
laboured argumentation on the subject. I entreat facts 
and facts alone; for from these I am very desirous of 
drawing my own conclusions. 

s This letter was suppressed at the suggestion of Governor Howard. 
See Bates to Coburn, May 1, 1811. 

164 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

If you should be disposed to make the mental enquiry 
of yourself 'For what purpose can these informations be 
wanted?' Simply Sir, at my leisure moments to amuse 
myself with contrasts, to complete my collection of the 
epistolary writings of The Honorable Judge Coburn ! — 

Were you not in Kentucky, at the time of this transac- 
tion ! And could you have known the circumstances, except 
from the partial relations of interested People! "Why not 
let them tell their own story? How durst you decide on 
that evidence which you imagined the Governor was about 
to weigh! Why obtrude your advices on that excellent 
man, who, at the same time that he throws around you the 
veil of silence appears, from his profound neglect of the 
subject, to disregard, with the truly honorable feelings of 
a Gentleman, your malicious and intermeddling insinua- 
tions 1 

You have professed friendship for me too; and you do 
know Sir, that I had deserved something more at your 
hands, than empty professions! — 

It was the saying of a celebrated Roman of Antiquity, 
who even caused it to be inscribed on his tomb, that he 
had repaid, as well the injuries of enemies, as the good 
offices of friends with ample interest. There was a fero- 
cious justice in this but pardon me the liberty of saying, 
that I cannot fathom the morals of that man, who, like the 
Bear of the Satirist, embraces only to destroy. 


g IR) St. Louis Nov 28. 1810 

I cannot suffer the term of my Secretaryship to expire 
without expressing to you my grateful sense of the confi- 

The Administration of Governor Hotvard. 165 

deuce heretofore reposed. It has been my uniform en- 
deavour to prove myself not altogether unworthy of it. 
The exercise of the Executive Office which has twice, for 
long periods, devolved on me, presented duties, with which 
indeed I was not familiar, but from the discharge of which 
I did not shrink. — Errors, most probably have been com- 
mitted ; — yet I take the liberty to assure you that I am 
not sensible of them. 'Mens sibi conscia recti' 6 is my gen- 
eral defence, rather than a claim to indulgence: for I be- 
lieve myself prepared to submit the entire series of my 
conduct to the most rigid investigation. 

With respect to re appointment I have foreborne solici- 
tation, in the ordinary forms, determined to ask it only of 
you Your favorable opinion would be greatly flattering 
to me, at all times; but particularly gratifying under ex- 
isting circumstances. 


g m St. Louis 5th Deer. 1810 

I have to acknowledge my f orgetfulness heretofore of that 
part of your instructions of 2d April 1807 which relates 
to the monthly return of Patent Certificates. The Report 
in progressive numbers from 1 to 101 and up to the last 
of November is herewith transmitted For the time to come 
I hope to avoid your censure in this respect. 

When last I had the honor to address you in reply to 
your enquiries as to the probable progress of the adjust- 
ment of the Land-Claims, I entertained the belief that the 

6 The mind conscious of right. 

166 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 

Report might be made during the present Session of Con- 
gress. It is not now possible. 

The 'hatons nous lentement' so necessary in the dis- 
charge of complex and important business is a faculty 
which we never shall acquire. The Commissioners are in- 
cessantly disappointed in their own calculations, for the 
obvious reason that the order of business is forever chang- 
ing : They hazard statements which you have not required, 
and they decline to answer your direct enquiries, because 
the Recorder had been chosen as the medium of corre- 

I enclose a duplicate of mine of 13th June last Much 
remains to be done, and for causes which it would be pre- 
sumptions in me to assign, some degree of uncertainty will 
continue to exist, as to the time which will be necessary 
to complete it. 


Mr Charless; gT> Loms Dec ia lgm 

As I have observed that you sometimes fill your columns 
with scraps of Indian Eloquence, I make so free as to 
submit to your criticism, and for publication, if you think 
proper, a talk of the Big Soldier 8 delivered May 1807 in a 
council held with the Osages by Major Peter Chouteau. 

It may perhaps be said that there is nothing great or 
Chieftain like, in these persuasive supplications. Where 
the Indian character is known this will not be objected. At 

7 Editor of the Louisiana Gazette. 

s Big Soldier was known to the French as Grand Soldat and to the 
Indians as Peno-we-gouna. He was a Menominee chief. Wisconsin His- 
torical Collections, X, 110; XI, 278; XII, 193, 197, 198, 200, 277. The 
speech appeared in the Louisiana Gazette, December 12, 1810. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 167 

any rate, I do not know that he is less of a hero, on account 
of the extreme sensibility of his domestic attachments. If 
Priam without derogation could descend to humiliating 
entreaty, in order to obtain the dead body of his son, 9 it 
appears to me that the Osage may be excused when both 
his Hecuba and his Hector, from whom alone he expected 
his earthly consolations, were in the hands of his enemies. 
No embellishment of this speech has been attempted: 
On the contrary, many of its native beauties as I am told 
disappear under its foreign drapery — 


g IR Cape Girardeau 17th Deem. 1810 

I Received Your letter of the 8th August — enclosed in 
a Packet containing duplicates of the Schedule the Instruc- 
tions the laws and the Oaths all of which came safe to 
hand — I now send you by the bearer hereof Mr. Andrews 
a Schedule containing the number of Persons within the 
district of Cape Girardeau the division alotted to me, I 
have been particular in setting the Townships Separate 
and Giving the agregate number in each Township; I did 
not consider the Town of Cape Girardeau as forming any 
district or Civil division of the district, I have not there- 
fore Separated it from the Township of Cape Girardeau, 
nevertheless I have certified the agregate number residing 
within the Town at the end of the Schedule; I have also 
at the end of the Schedule made a return of the manufac- 

QHector, the eldest son of Priam and Hecuba, was slain by Achilles. 
Priam went in person to the Grecian camp to ransom the body. Achilles, 
moved by his entreaties, permitted a truce of twelve days for the funeral 
of Hector. 

168 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

tories, the articles, and the probable Value of the articles 
manufactured annually in my division in dollars & c as 
this chiefly consisted of Household manufactures I found 
it to be very troublesome — The dispersed Situation of the 
Inhabitants in my division and the Intervention of other 
business caused me to be longer in making my return than 
I at first expected, but Hope it will reach you in due time 
and the manner in which it is done will be to your Satis- 
faction — I wish to know if any application is necessary on 
my part to make for my fees; and, if any in what way I 
shall apply, also how much I may expect for my Services. 

g IR St. Louis Jany 10. 1811 

I have the honor to transmit, An Aggregate amount of 
each description of persons within the territory of Louis- 
iana in conformity with the laws and your instruc- 
tions. . . . 

I enclose a copy of their [the assistants'] approbation to 
Mr. Gallatin, to whom I suppose the application for a set- 
tlement of the accounts will be properly made. My oath 
of office accompanies the schedule. 


g IR St. Louis Jany. 10. 1811. 

Not having been honored with your instructions under 
the 2d. Sec of the Act ' further to alter and amend &c. no 
I did not make with the Assistants any arrangements on 

io The original act providing for the taking of the census was 
amended four times. An amendment of April 12, 1810 provided that the 




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1— ( 


rds, i 






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& forty 





■*•> TS 
















•ibed by me this 10th day of January, A. D. 1811 

Frederick Bates 

Secv. of Louisiana 














of the respective 



SB | 








DisiiiKTs am> Settlements 






















Dt of St. Charles 














do. St. Louis 














do. St. Genevieve 














f s 

do. Cape Girardeau 















do. Now Madrid 














Hope Field & St. Frances Settlemts 















Arkensas Settlements 




























THE number of persons within my division, consisting of the Territory of Louisiana, appears in a schedule hereto annexed, subscribed by me this 10th day of January, A. D. 1811 

Frederick Bates 

Secv. of Louisiana 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 169 

the subject of manufactures. Two of them, however, have 
volunteered statements wch. I make so free as to trans- 
mit. — I enclose also a copy of the return this day made 
to the Secretary of State of the population of the terri- 
tory, together with Mema. of the am'ts due to the several 
Assistants. The Judges concurred with me in opinion 
that the Assistants should be allowed the maximum com- 
pensation provided by the Law. A Copy of this approba- 
tion accompanies the Mema. 

Mess'rs McNair & Garner have had some additional 
trouble in collecting their informations as to manufactures. 
They know that they have no direct claims ; yet I have ex- 
pressed to them my hopes that some extra provision would 
be made. 

g IR St. Louis Jany 14 1811 

On the 10th I put into the office the Returns of the enu- 
meration of the People of Louisiana. But as very little 
reliance can be placed in the regularity of the mails at this 
season of the year I have the honor to transmit herewith, 
by private conveyance to Nashville, a duplicate of those 

enumeration should close within five months from the 1st Monday in 
August (U. S., Statutes at Large, II, 570). On May 1, 1810 the form of 
oath for marshals, secretaries and assistants was changed and provision 
was made for the gathering of information concerning manufactures 
(ibid., II, 605). On March 2, 1811 the time for the completion of returns 
to marshals and secretaries was extended to the 1st Monday of June, and 
of marshals and secretaries to the 1st Monday of July (ibid., II, 658.) On 
March 3, 1811 the secretary of the treasury was authorized to allow such 
compensation as he deemed adequate for those who collected information 
on manufactures, but the total sum was not to exceed $30,000 (ibid., 
II, 661). 

170 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Sir, Kaskaskia Jan'y 16th 1811 

I have for some years past been making remarks and 
taking notes of the most particular things relative to the 
upper Louisiana indavouring to Give a true Statement of 
that part which lieth proxemate to the Missouri river on 
both Sides from its mouth to Fort Osage with a Sceth [sic] 
of the Osages Customes manners and habits with a Short 
Vocabulary of their dielect: but my principle object is to 
remove Some Objections which Some persons have enter- 
tained with respect to the Salubrity of the Country and 
Give a correct account of what has presented it Self to my 
view both by land and water without Exaggeration and 
the Population of the Districts of St. Charles and St. Louis. 
I am under the necessity of Solisiting the favour of you to 
Give me the Censes of those Districts to inable me to show 
the Migration which has taken place in a few years. Your 
patronage in this will meet with the merit it deserv's from 
your friend and Humble Servant. . . . 
N. B. my work will appear in the Northern States as it 
is most wanted there. 


S IR ^ St. Louis March 12. 1811 

Altho' the papers have some time since, announced my 
reappointment to the See's office, I have yet no official ad- 

ii Thomas T. Crittenden was a brother of Senator J. J. Crittenden of 
Kentucky. He was appointed deputy attorney general in 1810 by Governor 
Howard. On October 1, 1811 he killed Dr. Walter Fenwick in a duel on 
Moreau's Island, below Ste. Genevieve. Henry Dodge acted as Fenwick's 
second, and John Scott served in similar capacity for Crittenden. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 171 

vices on the subject. It is therefore merely as an indi- 
vidual 12 anxious for the welfare of the country that I take 
the liberty to subjoin a copy of a letter which I have just 
received. Accept assurances of my respects. 

SlR St. Louis Mar 27. 1811 

Yr letter of the 19th Mar was deld. yestery. by your 
son. 13 I have not heard from the City, therefore cannot 
say any thing in an official way on the subject of lead mines 
in your neighbourhood. It has ever been a subject of 
regret and mortification to me that individuals should have 
been permitted, without the forms of law, or the semblance 
of justice to dispose of the public property, and to ap- 
propriate to themselves its emoluments. I did hope that 
long ere this a period would have been put to these usurpa- 

It is said, altho ' I have no certain information that Gov : 
Howard left Virga. for this place about 4th He would 
stay in Kentucky but a few days. 

Yr letter enclosing the address for the division of the 
district is received. You already know my opinions on 
that subject. 

12 The absence of Governor Howard and the fact that Bates did not 
receive his commission of reappointment as secretary, left the territory 
without a functioning executive for many weeks. Bates' commission 
arrived May 7, 1811, and for a short time he acted as governor. 

is Stephen Fuller Austin. 

172 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


S IR , St. Louis April 1. 1811 

I have this day taken the liberty to draw on you, in 
favor of Edward Hempstead or order, for the sum of sixty 
dollars, being the amt. of the contingent expenses of the 
board of Coins, for ascertaining & adjustg. the titles & 
els. to lands in this territory for the quartr. endg. 31 Mar 
last. I enclose the voucher. The board has been in most 
anxious expectation of advices. We have rumours of new 
arrangements ; but the irregularity or rather the total fail- 
ure of the Mail has prevented the receipt of any intelli- 
gence on wch. reliance could be placed. 


Treasury Department 

Gentlemen, A P ril 24th 181L 

I enclose for the use of your Board a copy of the Land 
Laws collected pursuant to the act of Congress of 27th 
April 1810 ; to which the Land Laws passed during the last 
Session of Congress have been added. Amongst these you 
will perceive one which provides for your compensation, 
and that of the Clerk and translator. So far as relates to 
the claims rejected it does not appear that the allowance 
made for these can be paid untill your report thereon shall 
have been received. But the allowance for claims con- 
firmed and on which you have issued certificates may be 

i* Original in the Treasury Department, Mail "N-O," 3470. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 173 

paid from time to time ; and each of the Commissioners as 
well as the Clerk, is authorized to draw on the Secretary 
of the Treasury for the amount respectively due on account 
of such confirmed claims. It will be necessary that the 
number of certificates for which the draft is made should 
be expressed on its face, that a transcript or abstract of 
the certificates designating the No., name of Grantee and 
number of acres respectively granted to each, should be 
previously or at the same time transmitted by the Clerk; 
and that the certificate of attendance as required by the 
act should accompany or precede the draft. 

glB St. Louis April 29. 1811 

When you were last in town we had much conversation 
on the subject of your misunderstandings with the Messrs. 
Perrys. I stated to you that Mr Perry, (meaning William, 
who had been in St. Louis a few days before) 'Had not 
obtained a Lease of a Lead Mine. That it was impossible 
he should have obtained one since his application was made 
after the expiration of my term of service and before I 
had official advices of its renewal. ' 

It is true that about twelve months ago, I did ver- 

is The Cannon Mines were in modern Union Township, in Washington 
County (American State Papers, Public Lands, III, 576). They were about 
ten miles from Mine a Burton. In a report of October 7, 1816 of Moses 
Austin to Return J. Meigs, commissioner of the general land office, Austin 
listed thirty-three mines in Washington County, the Cannon Mines being 
in the list (ibid., Ill, 609-613). In Schoolcraft's list of active mines in 
1819, forty-five mines were mentioned (Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, Scenes 
and Adventures in the Semi-Alpine Region of the Ozark Mountains of 
Missouri and Arkansas, 158-175). This is in striking contrast to condi- 
tions in 1811 when, according to Henry M. Brackenridge, there were only 
thirteen active mines (Views of Louisiana, 146-153). 

174 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

bally permit Mr. Saml. Perry to search for Lead Mineral 
on the Public Lands, assuring him that if he made a dis- 
covery he should be permitted to occupy fifty acres as the 
Tenant at Will of the Government. No writings were drawn. 
Had this circumstance however occurred to me at the mo- 
ment, I should have mentioned it to you. The transaction 
had escaped my memory. 

He now tells me that the discovery made under this 
verbal permission and assurance, is the spot for which 
your agents and himself are contending. 

We all know that it is not within my province to adjust 
individual differences, and I take the liberty of mentioning 
these things for the sole purpose of preventing the possi- 
bility of misapprehension. 


g IR St. Louis May 1st. 1811 

I wrote you a few lines last fall, and had besides some 
little conversation with Governor Howard on your sub- 
ject. His prudent intimations induced me to suppress that 
letter, and to await your semi annual visit to this country. 
In the meantime I have been sporting my railleries at your 

He whose public character and whose private life are 
exposed to exception, should not, if I might advise, make 
rash and blundering attacks on others. — 

Let me know, in a few words, the extent of what you 
have attempted against me in Louisiana, and Kentucky as 
well as in Washington. Of this I am most anxious to be 
informed, that my returns of courtesy may be, as nearly 
as possible adjusted to the provocations which I have re- 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 175 

Be brief, I pray you; for I tell you plainly that your 
eloquence has lost its persuasion. At any rate, I am no 
longer to be amused with the music of your periods, nor 
mislead by the emptiness of your rhetorical flourishes. 

S IR ^ St. Louis May 1. 1811 

I do not know in what way to write on a subject with 
respect to which so much has been already said and written. 
Your letter of 27th ulto. was deld. this morning. — I do, 
very heartily regret the party dissensions which exist at 
the mines — and if I had the power, I should certainly have 
the disposition to put them at rest forever, by shielding 
the public property under the safeguard of the laws : But 
really, after so much abortion and ineffectual interference 
on the part of the Public Agents heretofore, it does appear 
to me ridiculous for them to talk of giving regularity and 
system to matters so inextricably involved. 

I will never hereafter act in the business, but with de- 
cision, and as I hope, with effect. 

The com [mission! has not arrived — probably lost. 



OF LOUISIANA 16 „ , 1Q11 

May 1. 1811. 

I have not been enabled by government to adjust your 
accounts. The delay may have arisen from the general 
irregularity, and entire failure of some of our mails. 

is This notice appeared in the Louisiana Gazette, May 2, 1811. 

176 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 

The Report was made in January last, accompanied by 
a statement of the amount of your respective demands. 


SlR St. Louis May 2d. 1811 

A young man lately from Frankfort informs that you 
had arrived in Lexington. Altho' probably among the last 
to congratulate you, on your marriage with an amiable and 
accomplished woman, I beg you to believe that I offer the 
usual good wishes with the utmost sincerity of heart. 17 

Nothing has transpired during the winter of a very inter- 
esting nature, and if I have been less communicative than 
you had a right to expect, it may be ascribed to a dearth 
of materials. — 

It appears by the news papers that I have been re ap- 
pointed to the Secretaryship. This serves me as a proof, 
if not of your positive regards, at least, of a friendly neu- 
trality with respect to me — And for which I assure you, 
I am very grateful. The commission has not arrived, and 
is probably lost, as some of our mails have failed, totally. 
If not too troublesome, may I hope that you will write to 
the Secretary of State, who will no doubt, transmit a dupli- 

Some little inconvenience has arisen from the entire 
absence of Executive authority — chiefly as to the authen- 
tication of records, and certifying the official character of 

17 On March 14, 1811 Governor Howard married Miss Mary Thompson 
Mason, daughter of Stephen Thompson Mason, deceased. The Mason 
home, where the marriage ceremony was performed, was in Loudoun 
County, Virginia. Louisiana Gazette, March 21, 1811. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. Ill 

subordinate officers. The files being still in my hands, I 
have in very many instances given private certificates, 
which have answered every purpose, except where the 
parties were disposed to take legal exceptions. 

When equipments have been made for the Indian Coun- 
try, the trader has called at the Office, professed readiness 
to do whatever the law might require, obtained a writing 
in acknowledgment of this tender and thought himself at 
liberty to prosecute his voyage. The cool, deliberate and 
barbarous murder of Ezekiel Rogers by Moses Kinney 
some few weeks ago, in the township of Bon Homme, has 
excited the indignation of every humane bosom. 18 The 
son of Rogers with a copy of the Inquest, pursued the mur- 
derer to Paris in Kentucky, where he was committed to 
prison, as I hear, by Judge Bayley, and released in a man- 
ner which I cannot comprehend, by Judge Allen. 19 Gov- 
ernor Scott 20 is furnished by this day's mail with the evi- 
dence which was filed in the Clerk's office of the district, 

is "Died on the 24th ult in Bon Homme township Ezekiel Rodgers; 
in consequence of boiling water poured over him while asleep and after- 
wards much beat and bruised. The name of the villain who committed 
this foul deed we are informed is Moses Kenny, of Bourbon County, 
Kentucky. Justice is robbed of its victim. Kenny has fled." Louisiana 
Gazette, April 11, 1811. 

19 John Allen was born in James City County, Virginia, in 1749. He 
rose to the rank of major during the American Revolution. In 1781 he 
began to practice law. In 1786 he moved to Kentucky, locating in Fayette 
County. Two years later he settled at Paris in Bourbon County. He 
was appointed judge of the Paris District court and in 1802 was appointed 
judge of the Kentucky circuit court. Lewis Collins, History of Kentucky 
(revised ed.), II, 80-81. 

20 Charles Scott was born in Cumberland County, Virginia, in 1733. 
He served under Braddock as a non-commissioned officer and during the 
American Revolution became a brigadier-general. In 1785 he moved to 
Woodford County, Kentucky. He served under St. Clair in 1791 and 
under Wayne in 1794. He was governor of Kentucky, 1808-1812. Ibid., 
II, 706. 

178 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

under the expectation that he would cause him to be again 
arrested, and delivered over as required by an Act of 
Congress of 12th Feby. 1793, respecting Fugitives from 
Justice. Every man who has heard of the murderous trans- 
action is shocked at the bare possibility of the criminals 

Sir, St. Louis May 8. 1811 

Yr letter from Washington of 11 Jan did not arrive till 
last evening. The Commission also came to hand by the 
same Mail — And I am now sorry that I made the request 
for a duplicate. The trouble which you gave yourself to 
wait on the President with a view to my reappointment 
demands my warmest acknowledgments. You had given 
me no reason to count on your good word in the City — 
and I did not presume to ask such a favor. It shall be my 
study to justify your favorable opinion by the utmost cir- 
cumspection in my public conduct; at the same time that 
I feel a pleasing weight of personal gratitude of wch. I 
hope to give you some better proof than mere words. 

As the territorial Judges are now at St. Genevieve, I 
shall set out tomorrow for the purpose of taking the Oath. 

The People of the Mine townships have been pressing 
for a separate district. I have been of opinion that their 
request might be granted: But as it is a matter of ques- 
tionable expediency it appears to me that the Secretary 
ought not to hazard it, unless he get an intimation from the 
Governor to use his discretion. I would not designedly do 
any thing wch. might be displeasing to you — And as we 
are led by rumour to hope for your arrival very shortly 
it might be unnecessary to mention these things. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 179 

You intimated to me the propriety of ascertaining or 
creating anew the district limits between St Louis and St. 
Genevieve. This would have been done last fall if I had 
not imagined that you would prefer an ascertainment by 
reference to the Proclamation of Gov Harrison in the 
office of the Secretary of State at Washington. I took the 
liberty to write you to this effect last winter. 

The Law for the final adjustment of Land Claims 21 has 
given much dissatisfaction to the People at large. The 
commissioners & the officers of the board are equally dis- 
pleased: But their discontents are matters of very sub- 
ordinate consideration. The People had indulged the hope, 
perhaps an unreasonable one, that Congress would have 
enacted more enlarged principles of confirmation. The 
Compensation of the Clerk is indeed much less than he had 
expected. If there has been unnecessary delay it is to be 
imputed to us. It is somewhat severe to make the officers 
of the board share in the reproof. My Colleagues Messrs 
Lucas & Penrose have persuaded the Translator to resign 
that the business may progress no farther until Govern- 
ment make arrangements wch. may better please him. I 
cannot approve an intrigue of this kind. They give assur 
ances to the Translator that if this office again becomes 
profitable he shall be reinstated. 

With best wishes for your happiness I have the honor 
to be Your Excellency's obliged and obedt Servant. 

21 The act providing for the final adjustment of land claims in the 
territories of Orleans and Louisiana became effective on February 15, 
1811. It provided, among other things, that each of the commissioners 
and the clerk of each board should be paid fifty cents for each claim 
undecided on July 1, 1809 and on which a decision was made subsequent 
to that date. Five hundred dollars were to be paid to each commissioner 
and clerk upon completion of the reports. Translators were to be paid 

180 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


g IR St. Louis June 18. 1811 

I beg leave to state to yr Excy. that some time in last mo. 
the barn of Mr. Peter Chouteau in the neighbourhood of 
this town was burned by a party of Ottowa Indians, who, 
I am told reside within your territory. I have advised Mr 
Chouteau to procure written evidences of this burning and 
have chosen the men jointly with himself for the estima- 
tion of the amount of his loss. These Papers will be trans- 
mitted to you. 

I pray yr. Excy. to bestow as early an attention on the 
subject as your convenience & the circumstances will per- 
mit. . . . 


Barn $592. .90 

17 tons Hay 140. .00 

Total 732. .90 


SlB St. Louis June 20. 1811 

An accidental concurrence of circumstances has enabled 
me to gain possession, without the employment of force, 
of a Lead Mine, which promises to be abundantly richer 
than any yet discovered in Louisiana. Reuben brother of 

six hundred dollars a year until the report was completed, but were not 
to be paid for more than eighteen months. It provided for a land office 
for the Territory of Louisiana, and for a register and a receiver of public 
monies. U. S., Statutes at Large, II, 617-621. 

The Administration of Governor Howard, 181 

John Smith (T) in the summer of 1808, before his depar- 
ture for Mexico, located 1000 acres of the St. Vrain-Grant 
on these lands, presuming that they contained mineral but 
without having found the rich strata. Several hundred 
men are now employed, and Capt. Dodge tells me that one 
million of mineral has been already raised, altho' the dis- 
covery is so recent that furnaces for smelting have not 
yet been established. I lose no time, in transmitting a copy 
of the lease, that the pleasure of the President may be 
known with respect to it. The Eenaut-Agents are com- 
mencing suits to stay waste, and for the recovery of dam- 
ages against a great number of persons. From the best 
informations which I have been able to collect, this new 
discovery lies two miles at least beyond their limits: tho' 
I have heard a lawyer, probably retained by the Agents, 
assert the contrary. Of this, however I am very confident 
that unless something be done, there are individuals who 
will very soon possess and govern the most valuable parts 
of this country as Proprietary Lords. — 

Smith (T), Moorhead 22 & Riddick have become purchas- 
ers under an order of the General Court of a part of the 
mineral tract of the late Julien Dubuque. 23 Several of 

22 Fergus Moorhead was a St. Louis business man. He had a mer- 
cantile establishment, and for a time was in partnership with James 
Baird in the blacksmith business, and with Alexander McNair in the 
buying of cattle and hides. With Baird he opened and worked a coal 
mine in Illinois. In 1810 Moorhead, John Smith T, and Thomas F. 
Riddick purchased the holdings of Dubuque for about $3000. Moorhead 
was also interested in the mines of Prairie du Chien. See Louisiana 
Gazette, March 7, July 18, September 19, and October 19, 1811; Bradbury, 
Travels, in Early Western Travels, V, 252-253. 

23 Julien Dubuque was born at the village of St. Pierre les Brecquits, 
Quebec, on January 10, 1762. By 1785 he had a trading house near 
Prairie du Chien on the west side of the Mississippi River. From the 
Sacs and Poxes he learned of their lead mines. In 1788 he received a 

182 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

their boats have ascended the river with about 100 labourers 
for the purpose of extending the old establishment. Not- 
withstanding the extreme emptiness of these pretensions, 
originally, the affair appears to me, to be so circumstanced 
at this time, as to forbid the interference of the local author- 
ities. It is possible that there may be some collisions be- 
tween these People and the Fox and Sac Indians, who have 
already as I understand from General Clark, made com- 
plaints on the subject. I fear to take responsibilities which 
it might be difficult for me to answer : but I entreat you to 
believe that I am only anxious to know my duties that I 
may discharge them. Judge Lucas has asked for the 
original Papers for the purpose of moving for a revision 
of the proceedings. They are not in the office, they were 
delivered, by the Board, thro' their clerk, to the claimants 
at the time of the ascertainment. After the just censures 
which government has passed on that ascertainment, it 
appears to me that nothing farther is left for the commis- 
sioners to do with respect to it, 

I beg permission to say a few words as to the land- 
business. Your letter of 24th April accompanied by a vol- 
ume of laws &e. &c. has been received. I expected that 
the commissioners to whom it was addressed, would have 
made some acknowledgments. Resignation has been hinted 
at ; yet I rather think that that course is not seriously con- 
concession from the Indians to work the "Spanish Diggins" near modern 
Dubuque. In 1796 he obtained from Carondelet a grant in that region 
of a tract seven leagues along the river and extending three leagues back 
from the river. In 1808 he asked the United States to ratify the claim. 
The matter was not settled until 1853 when the United States supreme 
court decided against the claim. Dubuque died on March 24, 1810. At 
the time of his death he was heavily in debt to Mackinac and St. Louis 
traders. Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIX, 320; Annals of Iowa, 
3d Series, II, 329-336. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 183 

templated. The Translator has resigned long since, under 
the assurances, as he tells me, from Messrs Lucas & Pen- 
rose, that he shall be reelected, if his office again become 
profitable. I expressed my surprize at such an intrigue, 
the effect of which must be, if not altogether to suspend 
the business at any rate, to embarrass its progress and re- 
tard the final adjustment. — Since we lost the services of 
Mr Le Due we have been employed in the examination and 
signature of many hundred confirmations and grants which 
include Orders of survey. These Papers were made up 
by the Clerk, from time to time, but not signed by the 
board, as it was thought best to deliver them collectively 
to the Surveyor. I am not very thoroughly acquainted 
with the reasons which govern our present movements; 
but there appears to be an unexpressed determination to 
close the business as far as it has gone, that every thing 
may be left in intelligible order in the event of resignation. 
My Assistants in taking the Census have become im- 
portunate for a settlement. I suppose the delay is attrib- 
utable to myself — for Mr. Pope Secy, of Illinois informs 
me, that his accounts, transmitted in the form prescribed 
by you, have been paid. I was not so fortunate as to re- 
ceive your orders; but I took the liberty to forward an 
ascertainment of the several sums due, in January last, 
and make so free as to send a similar statement herewith. 


The undersigned Recorder of Land Titles for the terri- 
tory of Louisiana, does hereby lease to William Wilson 
Esquire a tract of United States' land containing the quan- 
tity of two hundred acres, 'In the neighbourhood of the 

184 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Gum Spring near the road leading from Mine A Burton 
to Herculaneum, so as to include a dry branch that makes 
into the waters of the Joachim about 10 or 12 miles from 
the Mine A Burton ' and on which tract there is a lead mine 
lately discovered by the said William Wilson — Under the 
expectation and with the express Proviso, that the said 
tract does not interfere with any private claims, depending 
before the board of Commissioners. — 

And the said William Wilson does on his part promise 
and engage that he will pay to the said Eecorder, or to the 
person deputed by him for that purpose, for the use of the 
United States, one tenth part of all the mineral raised on 
said tract, or the amount thereof in Lead at the option of 
the said Wilson. 

These covenants to continue for the term of twelve 
months, — It being understood, nevertheless, by the parties, 
that they are to be submitted to the President who has 
reserved to himself the power to modify or altogether to 
annul the same — In the mean time the said Wilson shall 
be maintained in possession, with the Proviso above 
stated. — 

Given under our hands and seals at St Louis the 30th 
day of June 1811. 

Frederick Bates — Seal — 
Wm. Wilson — Seal — 


SlR St. Louis July 17. 1811 

On the 20th ulto. I hazarded the communication of a fact, 
without intending to exhibit a charge, with respect to the 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 185 

intrigue which brought about the resignation of the Trans- 
lator. That Officer finding that the business was neither 
suspended, nor, in any great degree retarded by his absence 
lately assured me that it was always his intention to have 
accompanied the investigation thro' all its progress had 
it not been for those incidents which I have already had 
the honor to relate. 

Struck with the absurdity and the injustice of our decid- 
ing on claims, the evidences of which are frequently in a 
language which no one of the commissioners pretends to 
understand, I this day moved for the election of a Trans- 
lator — And named M. P. Le Due He has been chosen — 
Judge Lucas dissenting. — 

Trusting to present appearances, I should believe that 
the judicial part of our business would be finished in eight 
or ten weeks. 



glR St. Louis July 23d. 1811 

I never shall be able to satisfy a mind so wary, so cir- 
cumspect and so prudent as yours. All your letters have 
been received; but to answer them satisfactorily is a task 
beyond my leisure and above my capacity. Nothing short 
of a whole lifetime would suffice for the accumulation of 
such a vast fund of topographical, agricultural, mechanical 
and commercial knowledge as you appear to expect from 
me. You say that you must trust to the eyes of your 
friends. Mine are none of the best, I do assure you, and 
scarcely discharge their natural offices in the guidance of 
their owner. The offspring of necessity, the creature of 

186 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

circumstances, I have been so often thrown about the 
world, that a prudent regard to my own peace of mind has 
never failed, in a short time, to reconcile me to the place 
where my interests may have placed me. You are not in 
this situation. You are wealthy. You may choose your 
own residence. The whole world is before you. I with 
sweat and toil and drudgery have thought myself sufficiently 
fortunate in gaining a snug retreat in the most sequestered 
comer of it. I am partial to Louisiana, because I have 
determined to live and die here, and will not be such a 
fool as to quarrel with my destiny. But at the same time, 
if I had Lands and Slaves and Cattle and Money it is not 
altogether impossible, but that I might pitch my tents on 
other shores. — 

You might not like the land which 1 should 'price' for 
you — We have such variety — Hill & bottom Woods & 
Prairie — high near the town — cheap in the country — 
Suitable for hemp here, for Tobo. there, for small grains in 
another place — perhaps — or, at any rate, you might think 
so. — Mills might be established on this stream, the springs 
of water are delicious in another neighbourhood — but then 
it is uncertain whether the current of emigration will have 
that tendency — besides it is too far from the courts of 
justice — And, after all is said, perhaps that little 
neglected spot, where nobody thinks it worth while to build 
a cabbin, will hereafter get a name and become the flour- 
ishing market of the neighbouring country. 

Small considerations decide questions of vast moment 
sometimes, but, then, these must be motives of our own 
and not the whimsical cogitations of other People. It fol- 
lows very conclusively, from all this argumentation that 
you will have to choose a tract of land for yourself — but 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 187 

I would advise you, by all means, to bring your books along 
with you — They are not to be procured here — At least a 
man of letters cannot complete a library. All kinds of 
Household furniture & farming utensils may be left be- 
hind — And I suppose we have as good gardens and orch- 
ards as you have in Virga. Yet as garden seeds are light 
carriage, you had better bring them, for you may chance 
to have particular vegitables which are not found in this 
country — And particular fruit trees too, if the season of 
the year permit their transportation. 

Robt. Wash 24 esq is a young man of good promise — J 
read a part of your letter to him — He will probably write 


SlR St. Louis Aug 30. 1811 

I had the honor to address you by last weeks mail in 
reply to your letter of 14th March, which had just then 
come to hand — And in obedience to the orders which that 
letter contained, I enclosed you the original concurrence 
of the Judges as to the compensation of my Assistants 
in taking the Census. By this week's mail I have been 
honored with your letter of 31st ulto. repeating your com- 
mands of 14th March, and covering a duplicate of that 

2i Robert Wash was born in Louisa County, Virginia, in 1790. He 
graduated from William and Mary College in 1808. In Louisiana Terri- 
tory he rose rapidly, becoming attorney general, and during the War of 
1812 being attached to the staff of General Howard. In 1815 he was one 
of the backers of the Western Journal, and in 1818 represented St. Louis 
in the legislature of Missouri Territory. In 1824 he was appointed a 
judge of the supreme court of Missouri, a position which he resigned 
in 1837. 

188 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

letter together with other useless papers, with which I am 
sorry to have troubled you. Your circular Instructions of 
17th May 1810 never have been received. 

g IR St. Louis Sept 4. 1811. — 

I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 6th 
ulto. & to present it to Governor Howard with whom it re- 
mains. — The Lease to Henry Dodge, approved by the 
President, will certainly be productive, if I am permitted 
to make those arrangements for the regular receipt and 
disposal of the Lead, which the circumstances of the case 
appear to require I should have adventured this, without 
express sanction, if the Governor had not been of opinion 
that a previous intimation of the Presidents views might 
be necessary, or that it might be prudent to wait for it. 

If I should be so fortunate as to have the President's 
confidence in the affair, I pledge myself for the success 
with which it will be conducted : But whether the trust be 
confided to me or to another, I beg leave, with much defer- 
ence to express the opinion, that one undivided agency and 
responsibility will be greatly for the public interest. 

My letter of the 17th July informed you of the re elec- 
tion of a translator to the board of commissioners. The 
business, now, suffers no delay but that which is indis- 
pensable in bringing up the Eecords, neglected by my 
Predecessor, and in supplying, in some few instances, my 
own omissions. These neglects and these occasional omis- 
sions have been only discovered on a critical examination, 
when the claims were about to be finally disposed of. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 189 

Since the death of Mrs Lucas, Mr. Penrose and myself 
have been alone. Whenever we have been of a different 
opinion, the case has been postponed in hopes of the Judge's 
attendance before the final close. 

The Report will be very voluminous. The manner of 
transmitting it to the City has not yet been talked of. I 
am not even able to say, what time Mr. Riddick will re- 
quire to complete it He is himself in weak health and has 
already, as I believe, exhausted his funds in the employ- 
ment of Assistants. — 


SlRy St. Louis Oct 1. 1811 

I have the honor to enclose a report of the legislative 
& Executive Proceedings of the territory of Louisiana from 
1st day of October 1810 till 30th Sepr. 1811 

The half yearly report was not made on the 1st of April 
last, as the renewal of my Commission as Secy, of the ter- 
ritory had not then reached me. 

OCTOBER 1, 1810— SEPTEMBER 30, 1811 25 


Oct 5. Joseph Perkins 2d Lieut, of the St. Genevieve 
Troop of Cavalry vice Robert Terry resigned. — 

25 Original in Department of State, B. R. L., 3476. 

190 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

14th Elijah Collard Captain — Compy. 1st Battn. 3d Reg- 

James Lewis Lieut. Compy. 1st Battn. 3d Regiment 

Nov 5th Thomas T. Crittenden Attorney General of the 
territory vice Edward Hempstead resigned 

William Christy Register of Boatmen for the district 
of St. Louis 

9th Robert Simpson 26 a Justice of the Peace for the 
township of Upper Cuivre, district of St. Charles 

11th David Wade, 1 ' 7 a Justice of the Peace for the town- 
ship of Cape Girardeau, district of Cape Girardeau 

John Scott and Sylvestre Labbadie Aids de camp to 
the commander in chief, with the rank of Majors. 

16 William Clark Inspector General of the Militia 
Governor Howard left Louisiana. 

Deer 29. M. A. Rocque resigns as Justice of the Peace for 
the township of St. Chs., district of St. Chs. & apptd. 
for township & district of St. Louis. 


Jany. 5. Silas Bent, 28 Auditor of territorial accounts. — 

24 Thomas Oliver, a Justice of the Peace for the town- 
ship of St. Genevieve, district of St. Genevieve. 

2 6 Robert Simpson was from Redbanks, Kentucky. In 1794 he settled 
at Little Prairie. 

27 Wade was a carpenter and dealer in lumber. 

28 Silas Bent was born in Massachusetts in 1768. Twenty years later 
he moved to Ohio, and in 1806 came to St. Louis, having been appointed 
deputy-surveyor for the Territory of Louisiana. In 1807 he was appointed 
judge of the St. Louis court of common pleas and quarter sessions. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 191 

May 17 John W. Honey, Coroner of the district of St. 
Louis. — 

June 4. Benjamin Emmons, 29 Justice of the Peace for the 
township of lower Cuivre, district of St. Charles. 

Abiel Farrensworth, Justice of the Peace for the 
township of Dardenne, district of St. Charles. — 

June 28. Samuel Hammond, a Judge of the Courts of 
Common Pleas & Quarter Sessions for the District of 
St. Louis. — 

29 William 0. Allen Captain of 'The Infantry Blues' a 
volunteer Company, attached to the 1st Regiment 

Robert Wash 1st Lieut. Benja. Butterfield 2d Lieut. 
Hubert Guion Ensign of the Infantry Blues. 
Governor Howard returned 3d July. — 

July 6th John Brownson a Justice of the Peace township 
of Labbadie Dt. St. Louis. 

11 Stephen Callaway Lieut. 2d Corny. 1st Battn. 3d Regt 
Henry Steel Ensign do. do. do. 

Wm. Cragg 30 Capt 3 Compy. 1 Battn. 3 Regt. 
Rich. Loo Ensign do. do. do. 

Nathl. Simons 31 Captain 4th Corny. 1 Battn. 3 Regt. 
Roswell Dentry Lieut. & Jno. Ewing Ensign of Same 
Joshua Fisher 32 Ensign 2 Corny. 2d Battn. 3d Regt. 

29 Benjamin Emmons was from New York. He settled on Dardenne 
prairie, but subsequently moved to St. Charles where he ran a hotel. He 
was a member of the constitutional convention of 1820 and afterward 
served in both houses of the state legislature. 

so Probably William Craig, a Revolutionary War veteran from Vir- 

si Probably Nathaniel Simonds, an early settler on Cuivre River. 

32 Fisher settled on St. Cosme Creek in the Bois Brule bottom in 1799. 

192 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Chs. Saucier Lieut. 3 Corny. 2 Battn. 3d Regt. 
Francis Coursoll 33 Ensign do. do. do. 

23d. Henry Cassidy, 34 James Scull, Samuel Moseley 
Judges of the Courts of Common Pleas and Quarter 
Sessions for Dt. of Arkensas. 

Samuel Treat a Justice of the Jeace for townships 
of the Arkensas 

James Scull, Captain Corny, of the Arkensas-Bat- 

Curtis Willborn Coroner of the district of the 

24 Hail Talbert a Justice of the Peace for township of 
Femme Osage in the district of St. Charles 

26 James Brady Major Battn. 4th Regiment 

James Evans 35 & Henry Widner Captains in Same. 
Abraham Christ, Peter Statler, Edwd. Spear, Austin 

Young 36 Lieuts Same 

Jas. Ravencraft, 37 Wm. Duskins, Benja. Shell, and 

Anthony Club Ensigns in the several Comys. of Battn. 

4th Regt. 

July 26. Danl. Duskin Adjutant of the 4th Regiment 

33 Probably Francis Coursault who was killed in a fight with the 
Indians near Roy's Fort in 1814. 

34 In 1815 Cassidy represented Arkansas County in the territorial 

35 Evans represented Cape Girardeau in the constitutional conven- 
tion of 1820. 

36 Young settled on Byrd Creek in 1803. 

37 Ravenscraft represented Cape Girardeau County in the assembly 
in 1818. 

The Administration of Governor Howard, 193 

30th. Frederick Reineker, 38 Justice of the Peace for the 
township of New Madrid, in the district of New Mad- 
rid. — 

Eobert McCoy, 39 a Justice of the Peace for Same 

31 John Stanton a Justice of the Peace for the town- 
ship of Breton, district of St. Genevieve 
Walter Wilkinson a Justice for Same township 
Elias Austin Elliott 2d Lieut, in St. Genevieve Troop 
of Cavalry in the room of Joseph Perkins resigned 

Aug 9 Thomas D. L. Weeks a Justice of the Peace for 
the township of Cuivre, district of St. Charles. 

22 Alexr. McNair Captain, Bernd. G. Farrar 1st Lieut. 
James Baird 2d Lieut. Jos. McKnight Cornet, Francis 
V. Bouis Purser of the St. Louis Independent Troop 
of Cavalry. 

31 Danl. Colgan Senr. Justice of the Peace for township 
of St. Charles 

Sepr 2d Silas Bent, Louis LeBeaume, Augte Chouteau, 
Bernard Pratte Judges of the Courts of Com Pleas & 
Quarter Sessions District of St. Louis. 

4th Gabriel Long Ensign 3d Corny. 2d Battn. 1st Regt. 
Hiacinthe Dehetre Capt 4th do. 2d do. 1st do. 
J. M. Courtois Lieut 4 do. 2d do. 1st do. 
Joseph Aubuchon Ensign 4th do. 2d do. 1st do. 

38 Probably Frederick Reinecke, of the firm of Steinbeck and Reinecke, 
German traders. 

39 Captain Robert McCoy came from Vincennes to New Madrid in 
1787. He engaged in Indian trade. He served as a militia officer and 
commanded a Spanish galley on the Mississippi. In 1800 he was com- 
mandant in the Tywappity Bottom. 

194 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

9 Ebenezer R. Hawley a Justice of the Peace for the 
township of St. Ferdinand, district of St. Louis. 

11 Wm. Ewing Ensign 4th Corny. 1st Battn. 3d Regt. 

Jno. McCormick a Justice of the Peace for the town- 
ship of Belle Vue district of St. Genevieve. 

David Curtis a Justice of the Peace for the township 
of New Madrid in the district of New Madrid 

Sepr 13 Wm. Neeley 40 Pay Master to the 4th Regiment 

Prospect K. Bobbins, a Justice of the Peace for the 
township of Dardenne, district of St. Charles. 

17 Timothy Kibby, a Judge of the Courts of Com Pleas 
& Quarter Sessions, for the district of St. Charles. 

David Delaunay, Inspector General of the Militia, in 
the room of William Clark, resigned. — 
James Beatty 41 Adjutant of the 3d Regiment 

19 Francis Saucier a Judge of the Courts of Com Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions for the district of St. Charles 

Samuel Griffith Captain 3d Corny. 2d Battn. 3d Regi- 

Governor Howard left Louisiana 19th Sepr. 1811. — 

Secretary's Office 

St. Louis Oct 1st 1811. — 
Frederick Bates 

40 Neeley represented Cape Girardeau in the territorial council in 1812. 
4i James Beatty of Kentucky made a settlement near the headwaters 
of the Femme Osage and Dardenne in 1800. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 195 





Territorial Officers 

Office of Atty. Genl. vacant 

Peter Didier, 43 Treasurer 

Silas Bent, Auditor 

Joseph V. Gamier, Clerk of the General Court 

District of St. Charles 

Timothy Kibby, Frans. Soucier, Robert Spencer, Benj. 

William Christy, Clerk of the Courts 

Mackay Wherry, Shf . 

Jas. Green, Coroner 

Township Justices of the Peace 

Portage des Sieux, Frs. Le Sieur, Eben. Ayres, Frs. Cour- 

solle 44 
St. Charles, Jas Morrison, Elisha Goodrich, Wm. Christy, 

Danl. Colgan, Sen. 
Dardenne, Wm. McConnell, Abiel Farrensworth, Pros. K. 


42 Original in the Department of State, B. R. L., 3476. 
*3 Pierre Didier was the first state treasurer of Missouri. 
44 Francois Coursault. 

196 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Femme Osage, Danl. Boone, Jno. B. Callaway, Benj. 
Cooper, 45 Hail Talbert 

Upper Cuivre, Jos. Little, Christ. Clerk, 40 Robt. Simpson, 
Tho. D. L. Weeks 

Lower Cuivre, Benj. Allen, Saml. S. Kennedy, Benj. Em- 

Henry Hight, Recorder, Judge of Probate & Noty. Public 
To Admr. Oaths of Office 

M. P. LeDuc, Mackay Wherry 
Timothy Kibby, Audr. P. Accts. 

Disteict of St. Louis 


Silas Bent, Augte. Chouteau, Bernd. Pratte, Louis Le 
Beaume, Samuel Hammond 

Thos. F. Riddick, Clerk of the Courts 

Alexr. McNair, Shf. 

Jno. W. Honey, Coroner 

Township Justices of the Peace 

St. Ferdinand, Jno. Allen, Geo. Fallis, Tho. Musick, Danl. 
Bissell, Richd. Chitwood, 47 Eben R. Hawley 

45 Cooper was a Revolutionary War veteran who served in the Vir- 
ginia-Illinois regiment. In 1808 he settled in the Boonslick Country but 
was forced to leave the Indian lands. He moved to Loutre Island, but 
eventually returned to the Boonslick Country, settling in Howard County. 
He was prominent in frontier fighting during the War of 1812. 

46 Christopher Clark. 

47 Richard Chittwood in 1797 settled on Maline Creek in the District 
of St. Louis. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 197 

Bon Homme, Bichd. Caulk, Jas. McKay, 48 Andw. Kinkead 49 
Labbadie, Kinkead Caldwell, Jas. Stephens, Jno. G. Heth, 50 

Geo. C. Sibley, Jas. H. Audrain, 51 Jno. Brownson 
Joachim, Benj. Johnston, Jeduthun Kendal, Jas. McCul- 

lock, Phil. McGuire, 52 Benj. Baker, Jas. Rankin 
St. Louis, Tho. F. Riddick, Peter Chouteau, M. P. Le Due, 

Jos. V. Gamier, Fergus Moorhead, M. A. Rocque 

Mary P. LeDuc, Recorder, Judge of Probate & Noty Public 

William Christy, Regr. of Boatmen 

To Admr. Oaths of Office 

Tho. F. Riddick, Richd. Caulk, Bernd. Pratte, K. Caldwell, 
Samuel Hammond, M. P. Le Due 

Silas Hunt, Audr. P. Accts 

District of St. Genevieve 

Nathl. Cook 

Thos. Oliver, Clerk of the Courts 

Henry Dodge, Shf. 

, Coroner 

48 James Mackay. 

49 Andrew Kincaid in 1800 settled near Creve Coeur Lake, 
so John G. Heath. 

si Audrain was a Kentuckian who came to St. Louis in 1809 where 
he opened a tavern. He became an extensive landowner in the neighbor- 
hood of Fort Osage. He was a member of the family after whom Audrain 
County is named. 

52 McGuire was a member of the second territorial assembly. 

198 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Township Justices of the Peace 

St. Genevieve, Thos. Oliver 

Cinq Honimes, Isidore Moore, Joseph Donnohue 

Belle Vue, Elisha Baker, Robt. M. Stephenson, Jos. Mc 

St. Michaels, John Callaway, William Dillon 53 
Big River, Jno. Andrews, Joseph Boring, John Baker 
Breton, Jas. Austin, Michl. Hart, Darius Shaw, Robt. T. 
Brown, Wm. Mathers, Jno. Stanton and Walter Wil- 

Thos. Oliver, Recorder, Judge of Probate & Noty. Public 
To Admr. Oaths of Office 

Otho Shrader, Thos. Oliver 

Joseph Pratte, 54 Audr. P. Accts 

District of Cape Girardeau 

Stephen Byrd 

Joseph McFerron, Clerk of the Courts 

Jno. Hays, Shf. 

Jas. Dougherty, Coroner 

Township Justices of the Peace 

Tywapity, Jno. Wellborn, Richard Mills, William Kelso 
Cape Girardeau, Enoch Evans, John Abernathie, David 

ss Dillon settled in the Murphy settlement on the St. Francis in 1799. 
54 Pratte was a large landholder who resided at Ste. Genevieve. He 
was interested in mining at Old Mine. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 199 

Byrd's, Wm. Matthews, John Davis, George Henderson 
German, Frederick Ballinger, Benj. Shell, Fred. Linsbaugh, 

St. Francis, Jacob Kelly 

Geo. Henderson, Eecorder, Judge of Probate & Noty. Pub- 

To Admr. Oaths of Office 

Joseph Mc Ferron 

Geo Henderson, Audr. P. Accts 

District of New Madrid 

Peter A. La Forge 

Joshua Humphreys, Clk. of the Courts 
Jos. Lewis, Shf. 
Robt. McKay, Coroner 

Township Justices of the Peace 

New Madrid, Tho. Evans, Jos. Lafernait, Fred Reineker, 
Robert McCoy, David Curtis 

Big Prairie, Stephen Ross 

Little Prairie, Geo Reeddell, Fr. Trenchard, 55 Will Con- 

Tywapity, Edwd. Matthews, Jr., Thos. Clarke 

Michl. Amoureux, Recorder, Judge of Probate & Noty. 

55 Frangois Trenchard settled on Lake Gayoso in the New Madrid 
District in 1802. 

200 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

To Admr. Oaths of Office 
Michl. Amoureux, Josa. Humphreys 
Peter A. La Forge, Audr. P. Accts. 


Henry Cassidy, James Scull, Saml. Moseley 
Patrick Cassidy, Clerk of the Courts 
Danl. Mooney, Shf. 
Curtis Willborn, Coroner 
This district not divided into Townships. 

Justices of the Peace 
Benjamin Fooy, Jno. McClain, Samuel Treat 
Pat. Cassidy, Eecorder & Judge Probate 
Andw. Fagot, Noty. Public 

To Admr. Oaths of Office 

John Burke Treat, Benjamin Fooy, Pat. Cassidy 

Joseph Stillwell, Audr. P. Accts. 

Note — tenure of office. District Judges, ' l during good be- 
havior for four years"; Clerk of the General Court, 
"During good behavior"; Notaries Public, "during 
good behavior for five years ' ' ; others during the pleas- 
ure of the Governor. 

Secretary's Office 

St. Louis Oct 1st 1811 
Frederick Bates 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 201 


OCTOBER 1, 1810 — SEPTEMBER 30, 18ir G 

Oct 14 Denis Julien with the Ioways & Sieux, for one 
year — Peter Chouteau Secy. 

26 Elisha Lewis, on waters of Mississippi, for one 
year — H. Austin Security 

Antoine Ceran, on the St. Francis for one year. 
Sam Solomon Security 


May 31 John Smith (T) & Co. on the Mississippi and 
its waters above the mouth of the Missouri, for 
one year, Wm. Christy, R. Easton Securities 

24 James Aird, above the mouth of Missouri, for 
one year 

July 2d Henry Delaurier, on Missouri & its waters, one 
year, P. Lee 57 Security 

15 Francis Deroin, on Missouri & its waters, one 
year, Aug Chouteau, [Security! 

Louis Boudoin, on Missouri & its waters, one 
year, Aug Chouteau, [Security] 

Brazeau & Buissonet, on Missouri & its waters, 
one year, Aug. Chouteau, [Security] 

Francis Deroin, on Missouri & its waters, one 
year, Aug Chouteau, [Security] 

se Original in the Department of State, B. R. L., 3474. 
57 Patrick Lee. 

202 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Joseph & Baptiste Lacroix, on Missouri & its 
waters, one year, Aug Chouteau, [Security] 

Polite Dejardin, on Missouri & its waters, one 
year, Aug Chouteau, [Security] 

Francis Rajotte & Co., on Missouri & its wa- 
ters, one year, Aug Chouteau, [Security] 

20th Charles Monburn, on Missouri & its waters, 
one year, Aug. Chouteau, [Security] 

23 Peter Godin on waters of White River 

Sylvanus Philips on waters of St. Francis 
Samuel Moseley on waters of Arkensas 
Germain Charbonneau on waters of White 

Aug 6 Alex. Papin, Frs. Robidoux & Jacques Le Jeu- 
nesse, on the Missouri & its branches for one year 
Aug. Chouteau Security 

8th Primeau & L'Etourneau, 58 on Missouri & wa- 
ters — Same Security 

13th William Rogers, on Missouri & waters — Same 

19 Nathl. Irish on St. Francis & its waters 2 
years, Edwd. Hempstead Secy. 

Sepr 4 George Hunt, at Lead Mines on the Missis- 
sippi — Clement B. Penrose Security — 

Sep 16 Jas. White & Wm. Preston trading under the 
name and firm of Jas. White & Co. by Geo. Wil- 

ss Probably Primo and Le Tourneau. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 203 

son their acting Agent, on the Mississippi and 
its waters, with the Sieux, Sacs & Foxes — for 
one year. 

17 Jno. B. Bouvet, 59 on waters of the Missouri — 
one year — Pat Lee Secy. 

18 Jas. Mc Farlane, on waters of Mississippi 
above the mouth of the river Missouri for one 
year Sam Solomon Security 

Secretary's Office 

St. Louis Oct 1st 1811 
Frederick Bates 



St. Louis Oct 17. 1811 

On the 20th of June I had the honor to write you that 
the Renaut- Agents had been making some attempts to stay 
waste within their imagined limits. Judge Shrader to 
whom the application for an Injunction was made, denied 
it, principally, as I understand, on account of their inability 
to shew boundaries. — 

Having failed in these suits they have commenced ac- 
tions of trespass for the recovery of damages against Wil- 
kinson and others who had possession of the grounds be- 
fore Henry Dodge the present tenant. These People have 
pleaded ' Justification under lease from John Smith (T)' 
and the court have ordered a survey (tho' the commis- 
si Jean Baptiste Bouvet. 

204 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

sioners had declined to do so) in order to ascertain the 
lines of Renaut. 

I question the regularity of these proceedings : or it may 
perhaps be a matter of subsequent consideration for the 
Judges, whether an individual claim yet unadjusted, and 
without established limits, can, by any process of a terri- 
torial court, be brought into conflict with claims thus prac- 
tically asserted by the Government. It would strike me 
that those who complain of trespass should come into court 
prepared to shew that they have suffered it. The ordinary 
course of justice, even in the present unsettled situation of 
real property, guards the possession without reference to 
the title, whereever that possession is warranted by the 
Acts of Congress: But where the right exists merely in 
the abstract, I cannot avoid viewing it as extraordinary, 
that a court of territorial jurisdiction, merely, should 
attempt the adjustment of what appears to be reserved 
to another tribunal. — 

The Rents due to Government amount already to a con- 
siderable sum, probably six or eight thousand dollars, and 
a strange contest appears to have arisen, whether the 
Agents of Renaut, John Smith (T) or the Government 
shall receive them! 

I have given to the Atty. General Mr Wash, every infor- 
mation on the subject, and desired his most diligent atten- 
tion to it. 

If Smith (T) in his haste to grasp these Eents should 
disclose evidences of his intrusion on the lands in question, 
or if these evidences should be obtained in any other man- 
ner, I have instructed the Atty. Genl. to institute the proper 
process against him without a moment's delay. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 205 


The undersigned Frederick Bates Kecorder of Land 
Titles for the territory of Louisiana, authorized to that 
elfeet by the President of the United States does hereby 
covenant with James Bryan™ & William Bates, 01 that, from 
and after the date hereof, for the term of twelve months, 
they shall be at liberty to occupy and work as Lead-Mine- 
Land, a tract, supposed property of the United States, to 
contain two hundred acres, situated, adjoining the Mineral 
Tract of Moses Austin at Mine A Breton in the district of 
St. Genevieve — It being expressly understood that the said 
tract shall be surveyed and marked as soon as possible, 
and in such a manner as not to interfere with any private 
claims depending before the board of Commissioners. 

And the said James Bryan & William Bates do hereby 
engage and promise that they will pay to the said Recorder 
or to the person deputed by him for that object, for the 
use of the United States one tenth part of all the Mineral 
raised on the said tract or the amount thereof in Lead at 
the option of the said Tenants 

These Covenants to be mutually binding on the contract- 
ing Parties, for the term of twelve months, as above men- 
tioned unless the President to whom they are to be sub- 
mitted shall disapprove of the same 

Given under our hands at St. Louis the 26th day of 
October, Eighteen hundred Eleven. 

Frederick Bates Seal 
James Bryan Seal 
William Bates Seal 

eo A son-in-law of Moses Austin. 

6i William Bates, a follower of Austin, in 1803 was living in Bellevue 

206 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Frederick Bates Recorder of Land Titles for the terri- 
tory of Louisiana and empowered by the President of the 
United States to make Leases of Lead Mines within the 
said territory does hereby stipulate that Peyton Johnson 
shall be permitted to survey and mark two hundred acres 
of United States' Land situated on the East side of big 
River, about % of a mile from said river; about four & a 
half miles above or to the right hand of the road leading 
from Mine A Breton to St. Genevieve and about one mile 
north of said Peyton Johnson's plantation, and that, as 
soon as he shall have executed a bond with good and suffi- 
cient security for the monthly payments of the rents herein 
after stipulated to be paid to the Government the said Pey- 
ton Johnson shall be at liberty to work the same as mineral 
Land, under the express Proviso that the lands so surveyed 
and marked shall not interfere with any claim or claims, 
depending before the board of Commissioners. 

And the said Peyton Johnson does hereby engage and 
promise that he will pay to the said Recorder or to the 
person deputed by him for that object, for the use of the 
United States, at the end of every month is required, one 
tenth part of all the mineral raised on the said tract, or the 
amount thereof in lead, at the option of the said Peyton 
Johnson. — 

These covenants to be mutually binding on the contract- 
ing parties, for the term of twelve months, from the date 
hereof, unless the President to whom they are to be sub- 
mitted shall disapprove of the same 

Given under our hands at St. Louis the 29th day of Oc- 
tober, Eighteen hundred and Eleven. — 
"Witness Frederick Bates Seal 

James Givens Peyton Johnson Seal 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 207 


Mr. Amable Partenay is hereby permitted to explore 
the mineral Lands of the United States within the district 
of St. Genevieve, and to make those diggings which may 
be necessary to ascertain the extent and richness of his 

It is understood, that if the undersigned retains the 
Agency in these matters, that Mr. Partenay shall have the 
first privilege of a Lease for the mines he may discover. 

Given under my hand at St. Louis, the Sixth day of No- 
vember, Eighteen hundred & Eleven 


g IR St. Louis December 15 1811 

One of the offices of Judge of the Territory of Louisiana 
having vacated in the course of last month, by the expira- 
tion of the Commission of Judge Coburn, a sense of duty 
as well as a regard to the particular circumstance which 
I am in, — induces me to inform you, that since near five 
years during which Mr Coburn has been one of the Judges 
of this territory he has never ceased to reside with his 
family in the state of Kintucky on the ohio above Lime- 
stone Town, that he never came in the Territory but twice 
a year to attend the two terms of the Superior Court, after 
which he immediately left the Territory, som time went 
away before the term was expired and if at any time he 
detained to attend the Legislature, it was during so short 

62 The original is in the Department of State, B. R. L., 3482. 

208 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

a time, that he never did stay in the Territory longer than 
one month at each term of the court, leaving at least ten 
month of absence every year, I further state that this year 
he has not even attended the court at may term — so that 
he has been since the Latter end of October 1810 until the 
commencement of October of this present year, without 
ever appearing in this territory. — ten or twelve courts of 
oyer and Terminer, for the trial of capital offenses have 
been holden in this Territory, during the time Mr Coburn 
was Judge, the Law requires that these Courts be presided 
by one of the Judges of the Superior Court, owing to his 
absence Mr Coburn never has attended any. — this has 
thrown upon the other two Judges of which I am one a 
greater proportion of Labour and responsibility than they 
ought to have born, beside these a variety of Business are 
to be done in vacation, of which Mr Coburn has likewise 
kept clear 

I never absented my self from the Territory these six 
years past of purpose to take a journey to the states in 
the course of a few months, Since the death of Judge Shra- 
der I find my self to be the sole Judge present — the pro- 
priety — that Judges and Legislators should be resident, 
is apparent enough independent of all the circumstances 
here related, a non resident Judge ressembles very much 
a sine cure officer; to my certain knowledge many old in- 
habitants of this territory have passed severe censures on 
the conduct of Judge Coburn I mean relatively to his non 
residence, they have exultingly remarked that republican 
officers are as little scrupulous as those of the former 
Spanish Government were, and that money is as eagerly 
sought after by the former without being more scrupulous 
than the Latter about the means of making it. — 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 209 


The undersigned Frederick Bates Recorder of Land 
Titles for the territory of Louisiana, and Special Agent of 
the President of the United States for the leasing of Lead 
mines, does hereby covenant with James Bryan that from 
the date hereof he, said Bryan shall be at liberty to occupy 
and work as Lead Mine Land a tract supposed property 
of the United States, to contain three hundred — acres, 
situated on the S. E. fork of the Plattin, between the Set- 
tlements of Plattin & Big River, six miles from the former 
and four from the latter ; it being expressly understood that 
the said tract shall be surveyed and marked as soon as cir- 
cumstances will permit, and in such manner as not to inter- 
fere with any private claims regularly entered with the 
Recorder. And the said James Bryan does hereby engage 
and promise that he will monthly if required pay to the 
said Frederick Bates Special Agent as aforesaid or to the 
person deputed by him for that object, for the use of the 
United States, one tenth part of all the mineral raised on 
the said tract, or the amount thereof in lead. 

These covenants to be mutually binding on the contract- 
ing parties for the term of twelve months — unless the 
President of the United States to whom they are to be 
submitted shall disapprove the same. 

Given under our hands at St. Louis the 15th day of De- 
cember, One thousand, eight hundred, eleven 

Frederick Bates Seal 
James Bryan Seal 

210 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


g m St. Louis 22nd Deem. 1811. 

Wrong and injustice commenced on your part towards 
me with our acquaintance and you have persevered and 
still continue to persevere in you practices of oppression 
and injustice — I now call on you Sir for the injurys done 
me — from your standing I expect you will give me that 
prompt satisfaction justly my due on equal and fair 
terms — My friend the bearer will arrange on my part 
what ever may be necessary and by him I expect your 


g m St. Louis Deer. 22d. 1811 

Your note of this morning, delivered me by Doer Farrar 
has given me much surprize: 

You charge me with wrong, injustice and oppression 
from the commencement of our acquaintance. It is due to 
truth and frankness to declare to you that I am totally 
unconscious of these things. Perhaps, if your charges had 
been special they might have been more susceptible of ex- 
planation. As they at present stand I am at a loss to con- 
jecture to what particularly they allude. 

22d 63 

A fair copy of the foregoing was presented to Doctor F. 
at my quarters at 2 oclock — He took an hour's time to 
consider of it — returned & declined to receive it — It was 

63 Bates attached this note to the copy of the above letter which he 
kept in his files. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 211 

then agreed that he would call again at 8 oclock — this 
delay was not at my instance; but it was understood that 
I would consult a friend or friends in the mean time with 
respect to the regularity of the Doctor's farther expecta- 
tions. — He called between 8 & 9 — The same answer was 
presented to him — which he declined to receive — and 
promised specification tomorrow morning at 8 or 9 
oclock. — 

SlR 24th Deer. 1811. 

In recurring to your conduct towards me I pass over 
the manner in which you removed me from the offices of 
judge of the Courts and that of Lt. Colo, of Militia in the 
District of St. Genevieve without the priviledge of an en- 
quiry into my conduct — The brief authority with which 
you were at that time cloathed in the absence of a Governor 
and the arbitrary manner in which you exercised it carried 
conviction to every honest and independent mind that you 
were actuated by principles & practices which you would 
deem unjust and oppressive if practiced towards you — 
Of course you did not do by others as you would others 
should do by you — 

That Monitor which the supreme being has placed in the 
breast of every man warns you of these injurys — You 
had the power tho not the right to exercise it in that man- 
ner — It was an official exercise of power which did not 
effect my property and in this respect I shall be satisfied 
with the public investigation and opinion. — 

But Sir When the public agent attempts to shield him- 
self under the cloak of his official character to do an indi- 
vidual personal wrong — to deprive him of his property — 

212 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

such agent in his individual capacity ought & must be held 
responsible for his acts and behaviour — This is a prin- 
ciple maintained by the great Charter of our Natural 
Eights — The right of personal protection of (reputation, 
liberty) and property, is dictated by God to man even 
should it be at the hazzard of life itself — I state that you 
have wronged me in leasing my property at Mine Renault 
to a Messers Hart & Mathers known bankrupts from whom 
I can never recover a cent for the damages sustained there- 
by altho you have since acknowledged my title to be good, 
that the late Governor Lewis had intefered with your prov- 
ince as agent and that you would never lease an other tract ! 

You have wronged me in leasing the mine Shipboleth 
when from being recorder of land titles and exificior one 
of the Land Commissioners you must have known (as you 
did from personal information) that I claimed the tract 
and that my title papers were of record in your office in due 
time — It being provided by the 10th Section of the Act of 
Congress passed the 3d March 1811 that till after the de- 
cision of Congress thereon no tract shall be offered for sale 
the claim to which has been in due time and according to 
law presented to the recorder of land titles in the District 
of Louisiana and filed in his office for the purpose of being 
Investigated by the Commissioners, appointed for ascer- 
taining the rights of persons claiming lands in the Terri- 
tory of Louisiana — Can it be supposed that you have been 
authorised to lease such lands? — 

You have injured me by a wanton pretence of power you 
never possessed by actually leasing my property to 
Messers. Dodge 64 Wilson and Craighead, 65 tho to evade cen- 

e* Henry Dodge. 

es Alexander Craighead. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 213 

sure you have artfully inserted this clause in the lease Pro- 
vided the same does not interfere with any private claim 
now depending before the board of Commissioners — You 
have declared to one of them that in case I should persist 
in maintaining my claim you would order out a sufficient 
military force to drive me from my possession whereby 
you have prevented my receipt of a bout ten thousand dol- 
lars justly my due by contract from the lessees 

If you dare to meet these accusations you dare to meet 
me and extend to me that honourable satisfaction which 
you might ask from another and which is due from one 
gentleman to another. 

My friend Doer. Farrar will arrange the manner time 
and place If you shrink from this test your gilt is con- 
fessed and you dare to commit acts of injustice and op- 
pression which you have not the manhood to support and 

[Note by Bates] reed. Satury. eveng. after Sunset the 
28th Inst. — 



St. Louis December 24th 1811. 

I informed you last evening that I would call on you this 
morning at 8 o'clock, but being called on to visit Hercu- 
laneum renders it impossible Soon after my return I shall 
present to you Colo. Smiths communication. Delay on my 
part not intended. 

214 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 

gju St. Louis Deer. 30. 1811 

The only reply which I permit myself to make to your 
very extraordinary note of the 24th delivered by Doctor 
Farrar on the evening of the 28th is, that I owe to gov- 
ernment alone, an account of my official conduct. — 


Commissioner's Room, 
[St. Louis], January 20. 1812 

I Thomas F. Riddick Clerk of the Board of Commis- 
sions for ascertaining and adjusting the titles and claims 
to land in the territory of Louisiana do certify that on 
examination of the minutes of the board it appears that 
Frederick Bates Commissioner was present at the deci- 
sion of three thousand Claims subsequent to the 1st of 
July 1809 and that all the claims have been disposed of 
by the board, either granted, confirmed, ascertained or 


Dear Sir ^ y * Mason. January 23d 1812. 

Some time past I received your favor informing me 
of the friendly interest you took in the application I 
made to the Genl. Government, for a renewal of my 

ee Original in Department of State, B. R. L., 3485. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 215 

I shall always retain a grateful recollection, for this 
evidence of your friendly regard, and shall never cease 
to esteem, both the late and present Executive, not only 
for their political virtues, but the marks of confidence 
I have received from them — Devoted as I hope I am 
to the principles by which they have been governed, in 
the course of the administration of ten years past; my 
devotion is certainly not admonished by the acts of kind- 
ness which I have received. 

I discover in your Letter, that you had supposed, I 
wished some assurances of appointment, previous to the 
express nomination by the President. Believe me ; it 
never was my intention to produce such an impression 
on your mind, as such a wish on my part would have 
been improper and indelicate; I make this apology to you, 
in order, to satisfy you, that however desirous I might 
be for an appointment I would never adopt any improper 

We are all anxiety to learn the result of the delibera- 
tions of Congress. You know that Kentuckians cannot 
remain lukewarm spectators of the interesting scenes now 
before the American people. As far as I can judge of 
the Western temper, it is for the most early and 
decisive measures, against G. Britain especially. We are 
inclined to think, that we shall never enjoy political hap- 
iness, while the British retain either their possessions 
in Canada or possess their present influence over our 
commerce. Some struggle must ensue, when we attempt 
to emancipate ourselves, from the shackle, under which 
we have too long labored. Perhaps that struggle may 
as well commence at this period as at any other; we 
have just causes of resistance, we certainly have borne 

216 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

the injuries we have received, with more than Christian 
forbearance; altho we have been patient under aggres- 
sions, we may cease to preserve the dignified character 
which our Government has justly merited, by a submis- 
sion too much protracted. 

It is perhaps time, that we should again recur to the 
principles of our revolution, that we should be brought 
closer to our own Government, and that those of our 
Citizens who may have wandered from the flock, should 
be brought back to the fold, and that we should distinctly 
separate wolves from the sheep. 

We want a rallying period, a moment in which the true 
American principles shall be again brought to the test. 
The body politic is not unlike the body natural; it occa- 
sionally requires some degree of depletion, to throw off 
the humors accumulated either by intemperance, or any 
temperament improperly acquired. Excuse my politic 

gm St. Louis Jany. 27. 1812 

I have the honor to inform that the Report is at length 
completed and entrusted, for conveyance, to the care of 
Mr Penrose. It will probably reach the City about the 
1st of March next. 67 

Until the present month no Patent Certificates have 
issued since the Return which I had the honor to make 
to you on the 5th day of Dec. 1810: — Because, during 
the investigation it was very inconvenient to proceed 

67 The report of the commissioners is in American State Papers, 
Public Lands, II, 388-603. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 217 

regularly with that work. It will now be in my power 
to take it up with a less divided attention. 

With grateful recollections of the confidences hereto- 
fore reposed, I make so free as to offer myself for the 
Office of Register created during the last Session. I 
have continued to hope for you favorable opinions and 
in this affair have no other reliance. 

Mr. Riddick will be very desirous of making his respects 
to you personally. Should you wish farther informations 
as to the business in which he was lately employed I am 
persuaded that he may be relied upon. 


SlR St. Louis Feby 23. 1812 

The friendly dispositions wch. you have had the good- 
ness on various occasions to express towards me will 
perhaps justify the liberty wch. I am about to take. For 
some years past I have holden the offices of Secy, of the 
terry & Recorder of Land Titles always imagining that 
when the Sales of Lands actually commenced the several 
duties of these employments would be found incompat- 
ible — A Law of the last Session provides for the 
Appointment of a Register! and altho' it is not very 
probable, owing to the circumstances of the country, that 
this Officer will be very soon appointed, I have some time 
since become an Applicant. In the event of the Presi- 
dent's determination to disunite these Offices — and if I 
should be indulged in a selection, I should prefer the 
Office of Register. It is a subject however on which I 
scarcely know how to address myself to the Administra- 

218 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

tion, and should be greatly obliged by your making such 
a communication as, in your opinion will best promote 
these views. 


gm St. Louis Feby 27. 1812 

I have this day taken the liberty to draw on you in 
favor of my mother Caroline M. Bates for the sum of 
five hundred dollars, being the ' further allowance' due 
me as one of the commissioners for ascertaining & adjust- 
ing the rights of persons claiming lands in the territory 
of Louisiana as provided by an Act of Congress of 3d 
March 1811. 

The Report was confided, for conveyance, to Mr 
Penrose early in the present month & has probably by 
this time been presented to you. I enclose a certificate 
that all the claims have been disposed of. I hope that this 
Dft will be deemed regular as my mother is much in 
want of money & could not very well, answer the conse- 
quences of a Protest. 


Sm St. Louis Feby. 28. 1812 

I have this day taken the liberty to draw on you in 
favor of Mc Knight & Brady 68 for the sum of Fifteen 
hundred dollars for my services as a commissioner for 
ascertaining and adjusting the Titles & Claims to lands 

ss in 1809 John McKnight and Thomas Brady came from Pittsburgh 
and opened a store in St. Louis. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 219 

in the territory of Louisiana, in the decision of three 

thousand Claims as expressed in the face of the draft 
& vouched bv the enclosed Certificate. 


glR St. Louis March 8. 1812 

The very high respects which I entertain as well by 
sentiment as habitually from my youth occasion me to 
intrude perhaps too frequently. I now entreat only one 
moment of your time. The friends of Alexander Mc Nair 
will probably mention him for military advancement in 
some of the new raised corps — a Regiment or a Bat- 
talion at the least. Do not mistake me. I am not pre- 
suming to recommend him either for the one or the other. 
He relies on abler Advocates. All I wish to say is, that 
I have known him for the last five years, and am not 
acquainted with a man more truly respectable. He was 
formerly in the regular army when very young and 
resigned his commission for civil pursuits in which he 
has acquired character as well as property. His military 
propensities perhaps predominate tho' he is at the same 
time conversant with civil business. This variety of fit- 
ness designated him at once as a Judge of the district 
court of St. Charles & Aid de camp to the Comr. in chief 
of the territory. He is at this time Sheriff of the district 
of St. Louis. 

Major Mc Nair is a native of Pennsylvania, and sin- 
cerely attached, I have every reason to believe, to the 
republican institutions of our common country. He is 
indeed my personal friend; but in a general estimation 

220 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

of his character, I believe myself altogether free from 
any irregular biass arising from individual preposession. 
Hearing that his name would appear on the list of 
candidates I could not forbear adventuring this testi- 
mony of his merits. 



St. Louis March 12th. 1812 

I have perhaps heard from Canada since you did. 
There is great preparation for war in that quarter, and 
I have no doubt that our government will give them time 
to complete their defences — for the stouter the resistance, 
the greater the honor of the conquest. But I am not in 
the secret & perhaps the great work is now going on, for 
we have all heard that it was the deep laid scheme of 
some of our wise men, that Canada should conquer itself 
in our behalf. . . . 

gni St. Louis March 12. 1812 

I had the honor to receive ten days ago your letter 
of the 27th Deer, and by last week's mail the printed 
Census of the Inhabitants of the United States and of 
their territories. 

It has been gratifying to review these papers in their 
complete and final form, and I offer you my best thanks 
for that courtesy which has given me the opportunity 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 221 

of doing so. They shall be preserved on the files of the 
Office as you require. 

The Laws of the United States with which I was for- 
merly supplied, were delivered to Governor Howard, on 
his arrival. In places less remote the want of these 
volumes would be less sensibly felt. If convenient to you, 
I should feel it as a singular favor, that you would order 
a set to be sent to me. 


S IR , St. Louis March 30. 1812 

I beg permission to say that on a review of the Patent 
Certificates heretofore issued it occurred to me that I 
might possibly have fallen into errors. To correct these 
if they exist, the more easily, and to guard against their 
future occurrance I have thought that some little delay 
could operate no substantial injury to any person. In 
the mean time, some of those already issued would be 
presented to you. — From your silence I should gather 
your approbation, and a direct communication would 
probably convey to me your censures. 

If the Board was mistaken in giving Certificates other 
than under the 4th Sec of the act of 3d Mar 1807 I have 
followed their footsteps into the same mistakes in five 
instances only to wit in P. Certs. No. 11. 81. 90. 91. 92. 

Sir, St. Louis Ap 1. 1812 

In obedience to that provision of the organic law of 
this territory which requires the Secretary to make half 

222 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

yearly Reports, I have the honor to enclose a list of civil 
Appointments, — a list of appointments in the militia, — 
a list of licences granted for Indian Trade and a table of 
the civil Officers in commission. 69 


g IR St. Louis April 25. 1812 

It was not until the first of the present month that I 
had the honor to receive your letter of 26th October last. 

John Smith (T) still attempts to carry his bold and 
extraordinary projects by menace and intimidation. He 
has established himself by the side of H Dodge on the 
Shibboleth-Mines 70 and at this moment maintains a joint 
possession with the tenants. It is not within my pro- 
vince to account for his continuance there. A deposition 
of the fact has been submitted to the Governor, a copy 
of which I enclose. 

During the last week I have had much conversation 
with Messrs Dodge & Wilson 71 (the latter of whom 
together with Alexr. Craighead has joined in the cov- 
enants) as to their maintenance in possession and as to 
the payments of rents. On the latter subject there will 
be neither unnecessary delay nor difficulty of any kind, 
that I apprehend. But as I had not been honored with 
your orders as to the disposal of the lead or money, and 

69 The lists were not attached. 

70 The Shibboleth Mine was on Mineral Fork of Grand River about 
ten miles from Mine a, Burton. Schoolcraft, Scenes and Adventures in the 
Semi-Alpine Region of the Ozark Mountains of Missouri and Arkansas, 
168-175; American State Papers, Public Lands, III, 609-613. 

7i Nicholas Wilson was one of the representatives from Washington 
County in the second general assembly of Missouri Territory. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 223 

as either the one or the other would be equally safe in 
their hands as in mine, I have consented, at their instance 
that the payments shall be made in June next. 

In the mean time the suit which Smith (T) has insti- 
tuted against them for trespass on the premises (Date [?] 
100,000 dols) will probably have been decided. I am sum- 
moned to attend the trial of this cause, at St. Genevieve, 
next month, with the papers appertaining to the lease, as 
well as with the records and papers in relation to the 
St. Vrain Claim: 

I do not think that he will be hardy enough to alledge 
the want of power to make this lease (tho' Governor 
Howard has entertained some doubts on the subject, aris- 
ing from a vagueness of expression in the law) for, from 
such a plea, tho' sustainable, he could derive no advan- 
tage, as his recovery of damages must depend, not on 
the irregular holding of the United States' tenants, but 
on his own actual previous possession under the laws. 
This cannot be shown. — 

I have also had the honor to receive your letter of 
the 25th of March, remarking the defectiveness of several 
Patent Certificates. If this faultiness arise from any 
negligence of mine, I regret it extremely. At any rate, 
I shall, in future issue none except the Survey contain the 
clearest designations. — 


glR St. Louis April 25. 1812 

David Massey of Goochland has been about 12 Mos. in 
this country in search of business — for the last eight 
months he has been employed in the Clerk's office of St. 

224 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 

Louis district, and under my very frequent observation. 
It is impossible to conceive a young man more undeviat- 
ingiy correct in his conduct or more irreproachable and 
blameless in his manners & deportment. 

He has been seized with a military mania and burns 
to signalize himself in defence of his country. I make so 
free as to enclose a letter with respect to him which I 
lately received from Colo. Danl. Bissell. 

If he is so fortunate as to obtain your patronage, I am 
sure that a commission will be transmitted, & I know his 
generous nature so well as to assure you, that your 
friendly interposition would be held in the most grateful 

Sm St. Louis May 30. 1812 

I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 18th 
of last month, — and am much relieved by the detailed 
manner in which you have had the goodness to communi- 
cate your views as to the Land-Claims of this territory. 
Every intimation which has reference to my Office shall 
be most diligently attended to. 

I have but lately returned from St Genevieve where I 
was summoned as a witness duces tecum 72 with the 
Records etca. in the suit, Smith (T) vs Dodge & others. 
The cause was not tried, owing to the Plaintiffs unreadi- 
ness. Whenever it does come on, I have no fear as to the 
result. Smith (T) has lately circulated Stories of my 
having made compromises with the tenants, as to receipt 

72 A writ commanding a person to appear in court bringing certain 
designated documents or things. 

The Administration of Governor Hoivard. 225 

of Lead, prejudicial to the interests of the government. 
I beg you Sir, to be assured that I have made no com- 
promises and surely I had as little inclination as authority 
to make any arrangements lessening rents already suf- 
ficiently moderate. 


Whereas James F. Hull esquire, authorized to that effect 

by me, did, On the seventh day of March last, for and 

in consideration of the sum of Nine hundred dollars paid 

to him for my use by Frederick Bates, sell and deliver 

over to the said Bates three negro slaves to wit, Sam, a 

fellow, Polly a wench and their infant child Juno — Now, 

know all men by these presents that I do ratify and 

confirm the said sale and delivery, binding myself, my 

Heirs, Executors and administrators to warrant and 

defend the title to the said slaves against all legal claims 

whatsoever. — 

Given under my hand and seal at the town of St. Louis 

the Sixth day of June, one thousand, eight hundred and 


~ !-,-,-, v -i S Hammond (Seal) 

Sealed and delivered 

in presence of 

A Mc Nair Territory of Louisiana 

District & Township of St. Louis 

Before me the undersigned one of the Justices of the 
peace in & for the Township of St. Louis aforesaid Per- 
sonally came and appeared Alexander Mc Nair, Esqre. 
who being duly sworn says that he was present when 
Samuel Hammond signed & sealed the within Instrument 

226 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

of Writing and that he the said deponent at the request of 
said Samuel Hammond did subscribe his name as Witness 

to the same. A , T XT . 

A Mc Nan- 
Sworn to & Subscribed before me a 
Justice of the peace in & for the 
Township aforesaid. Given under 
my hand this 26th day of June A. D. 

151 " M. P. Leduc J. P 

Recorded this 26th day of June A D 1812, Book C. 

Page 612. 

M. P. Leduc (Seal) 

an^ t 1Q10 Recorder 

26th June 1812 

S. Hammond to F. Bates — Deed $1-00 
Paid $1.00 to the Recorder 4 Aug. '12. 


SlR St. Louis June 20. 1812 

I have the honor to enclose for the information of the 
President a lease in renewal of that made last year to 
Messrs. Henry Dodge, Alexr. Craighead & Nicholas 

They now tell me that they expect to make the pay- 
ments from the smeltings of their ashes which are esti- 
mated to be amply sufficient for that object. They think 
they have claims to indulgence and delay arising from 
the vexations of law suits and the continued intrusions 
to which they have been subject : But profess a readiness 
whenever the demand be insisted on, to deliver the lead. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 227 


Travellers Rest, [Kentucky], 9th July 1812. 
Dr Sir. 

The last accounts that reached us of your situation as 
related to our red brethren were by no means pleasing. 
I hope however you are not all scalped yet. I should be 
sorry to hear of your deaths — 

Nothing is talked of here but John Pope 73 He has 
become a famous man in this land of political (in) toler- 
ance. By the papers you will have learnt of his unfor- 
tunate fate at almost every town in Kentucky, perhaps 
before you get this — He was burnt in effigy at Limestone 
Washington, Mountsterling, Paris, Winchester, Lexington, 
Nicholasville 74 &c &c throughout the state as far as I have 
yet heard, as fast as the mail went, that brought the 
news of War — 

At Lexington they refined on their punishments. On 
Saturday, being the Jubilee of our independence, He was 
only hung & burnt. But some remarks having been made 
as was understood, about its having been done in the 
night, another effigy was made early on Monday morning 
in a grave yard, which being suspended from a gallows, 
with a purse grasped in his only hand, labelled in large 
letters, British gold; he was on this situation marched 
out of the burying ground & drum'd up and down town 
to the air of the rogues March on muffled drums. Not 
contented with this they then took him to the whipping 
post, had him whiped by two men with waggon whips, 

73 John Pope, United States senator from Kentucky, was violently- 
opposed to the War of 1812. This caused his defeat when he stood for 

74 Towns in Kentucky. 

228 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

shot him, and burnt him again. So that he was, at first 
hung burnt & buried, then raised from the dead drumed 
through town, whiped, shot hung, burnt & buried again — 

This you will say is surely madness But sir such is 
the unspeakable horror in which his memory is held here, 
this proceedings was to be repeated next Monday, being 
court day. His friends are forced to see & hear this 
thing without a murmur: for believe me it is almost as 
much as a mans life & property are worth to open his 
mouth in opposition to their proceedings, — For only say- 
ing it was ungenerous to treat a man so, the person was 
instantly knocked down & forced to creep off — 

I rejoiced to learn his sister Mrs. Trotter was then at 
Louisville, — Such spectacles would surely have harrowed 
up her very soul. She doats on her brother. . . . 



My Mother, St - Louis Jm > 19 * 1812 

I recollect, when I was very young you advised your 
children never to have a Slave, because, for the most part 
nothing but discipline could make them profitable. I have 
been induced to purchase — and have been so fortunate as 
to get a family which will not I hope, ever require harsh 
treatment. My lands are some miles from town & of 
course very little under my own superintendance & yet 
these blacks, without an overseer, are raising a most 
promising crop. I do not believe that if I were to devote 
myself to plantation business it would be more to my 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 229 

permanent advantage than any thing else I could pursue. 
The grounds are unconceivably fertile, both hill & bot- 
tom — the latter never overflows — And the Market is 
high for every thing which can be cultivated. 

The rumour of Indian mischief is much more terrible 
abroad than at home. We have had a good deal of killing 
on the frontier. But the country is not in general danger. 
My employments confine me to the town & I shall gather 
neither Scars nor Laurels. . . . 


Dr Sir St. Louis July 31. 1812 

Your letter on the 9th was received by last evening's 
mail. No, thank God! we are not yet scalped, and indeed 
it is only the extreme frontier which appears to be in 
any danger. Our villages are as safe as Lexington. Our 
'red Brethren' must nevertheless get some paternal 
admonishings, before they learn to deport themselves like 
members of a decent family. It does appear to me that 
we carry this patriarchal notion rather too far. These 
wretches with whom we so familiarly claim brotherhood 
take no pride in the alliance. Divested of what few 
virtues they might have possessed as Savages without 
having acquired anything except the frauds and the 
hypocrisy of civilization, it is very fond in us to imagine 
that they will be governed restrained and impelled by 
motives similar to those which influence ourselves. 
Austere and haughty justice will alone answer. This 

230 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

harsh discipline suits slaves — and it suits Indians. I 
can fall down & worship the philanthropy of Mr Jeffer- 
son — And I can read the Republic of Plato too with 
very great delight; but I believe that the one as little as 
the other will be found compatible with the maxims and 
usages of the world at this day. 

It must be, that you Kentuckians have been bitten by 
the Mad Dogs of War. If the Devil himself had fallen 
into your hands, you could not have devised for him 
severer punishments. If the Effigy be treated with this 
execration what, in Heaven's name will be your conduct 
to the illustrious Senator himself when he returns among 
you? But I suppose that this is all directed, in an 
abstract way, against the political man, and that Mr P 75 
himself, after his resignation will be subject to no ill 
usage. I will believe that the purse of gold was thrown 
in, with his other punishments, gratuitously; for he can 
scarcely, I should hope, be suspected of any thing worse 
than a too obstinate adherence to his own opinions. 

There is no calculating on the movements of the Mis- 
souri Folks, when once they get into safe harbour at 
Travellers' Rest'. There's yourself for one — and there's 
our very good friend Mr Riddick for another. I don't 
wonder at it at all — for I dream myself night & day 
about Kentucky or any other place rather than this hope- 
ful village of ours. The place to be sure is good enough 
in itself but it wants peopling. — 

McNair is on duty with the Cavalry on the frontiers, 
near Fort Mason. 76 I gave him your order expecting that 
he would indorse the amount of my note on the execution 

75 Senator John Pope. 

76 port Mason was on the Mississippi River near modern Hannibal. 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 231 

agt. Ramsay. 77 The whole affair is yet open. I do greatly 
fear that the Major does not make close arrangements. 
I was ready, as I told you I should be — and am. 

The crops of your tenant near town are very good, 
as indeed are the crops of the country generally. My 
blacks at Bon Homme have done wonders. We shall have 
a vast abundance for those new Settlers who will prob- 
ably come among us in the fall. 

The People are looking forward with eager expectation 
to the time (I suppose you know that the 2d grade Act 78 
has passed) when the deep and spacious foundations of 
Liberty and Law are to be laid by themselves. You will 
come to the country to study the new code. You must 
necessarily — for the machine will acquire such an in- 
creased impetus from the mania of reform which possesses 
the People that you will never comprehend its movements 
unless on the spot. Who do you think are Candidates for 
the delegation to Congress under the new Regime! Why, 
I'll tell you. There's Hempstead 79 the 'Heir presumptive' 
Gratiot, 80 the indefatigable — Easton 81 the * * * (I 
want epithets) and Provonchere 82 the forlorn hope. 

77 Thomas Ramsay was a 1st lieutenant in the regular army at the 
outbreak of the War of 1812. He was raised to the rank of captain on 
November 30, 1812. He was killed in a duel with Captain Wylie Martin 
near St. Louis on August 6, 1818. 

78 The Territory of Louisiana was changed to the Territory of Mis- 
souri on June 4, 1812. By this act the legislative power was vested in a 
bicameral "general assembly" composed of a legislative council of nine 
appointed for five years by the President, and a house of representatives 
elected for two years by the people of the territory. U. S., Statutes at 
Large, II, 743-747. 

79 Edward Hempstead. 
so Charles Gratiot. 

si Rufus Easton. 

82 Pierre Provonchere. 

232 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Mr Riddicks friends are speaking of him — and I enter- 
tain a very great confidence, that if he were on the ground 
& would take some trouble in the affair, he might be 

I am happy to hear of the health of Mrs Carr & your 
little son. Please make my respects to the Ladies. Miss 
Eliza thinks nothing of breaking her word. I understood 
that she intended to have visited this country long ago. 
But I suppose she is frightened by Indians, Earthquakes 
& Epidemics like all the rest of the world. I do mightily 
fear that Missouri will be nothing but a place of exile for 
Robbers & Outlaws in a few years. 


g IR St. Louis August 14. 1812 

I enclose you a news Paper in which you will find a 
notice to British Subjects, requiring them to report them- 
selves, families, pursuits &c. &c. with two acts of Congress 
respecting alien enemies, subjoined. 

I have taken the liberty to name you to receive on my 
behalf, the Reports of British Subjects, who may reside 
within your district. — 

If you should chance to have private information of 
any who neglect to report themselves, I must request that 
you will yourself report them to me, adding any facts 
which may come to your knowledge as to their deportment 
and conduct. You will please transmit the original 
Reports weekly by mail, retaining exact copies thereof. 
Should you decline the discharge of this trust, you will 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 233 

have the goodness to signify it by first conveyance that 
another may be appointed. 


Reorganization of the Militia, under an Act of the Con- 
gress of the United States providing for the Government 
of the Territory of Missouri approved June 4. 1812 — 


David Musick Lt colo. comdt. Tho F. Riddick Major of 
1st Battalion Richard Chitwood Major of 2d Battn. 
Jeduthun Kendal [1] Maj. 3d Bat Peter Chouteau Maj. 
4 Bat 


1st William Smith Capt 2d Gregoire Sarpy Capt 
Hubert Guy on Lt Joseph Bouju Lt 

Paul L Chouteau Ensign 


3d Louis Coutoix Capt 4th Zaphaniah Sappington 

Louis Coutoix Lt Capt 

Francis Roi Ensign Thomas Sappington Lt 

William L. Long 



1st James Musick Capt 2d Hyacinthe Dehetre 

Levi Lanzey Lt Capt 

John Mc Donald Ensign J. M. Courtoix Lt 

Joseph Aubuchon 


234 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

3d Jonathan Wiseman 4th John E. Allen Capt 

Capt Joseph Lard Lt 

John Kinkead Lt William Mc Downs 

Gabriel Long Ensign Ensign 


1st James McCullock Capt 2d Abner Vansant Capt 
Jacob Collins Lt. David Briant Lt. 

John Horigne Ensign Benja. Johnston Ensign 

3d Thomas Williams Capt 
William Ink Lt 



1st Benja. Hatherley 2d Stephen Lanham Capt 
Capt. John S. Farrar Lt. 

Samuel Cantley Lt. John Sappington 

Lewis Hall Ensign Ensign 

3d Auguste P. Chouteau 





Nathl. Cook Lt. colo comdt — John Donohue Major of 1st 
Martin Ruggles Maj 2d Battn. 


1st Thomas Oliver Capt 2d John B. Bossieur Capt 

John Mc Arthur Lt James Eigdon Lt 

Joseph Hertick, Ensign Joseph Amoureux 


The Administration of Governor Howard. 235 

3d Richd. Moore Capt 4th Francis R. Cissell Capt 
Thomas Riney Lt Mark Brooks Lt 

Thomas Patterson Samuel Me Call Ensign 



1st Joseph Garrett Capt 2d Andrew Miller Capt 

John Sinclair Lt Lt 

Benja. La Chance Ensign 


3d Henry Poston Capt 4th Thomas Sloan Capt 

Robert Andrews Lt Lt 

Joseph Winds Ensign Ensign 

5th William Holmes Capt 
Laken Walker Lt 
Isaac Murphy Ensign 


Joseph Hertick Pay Master 


Danl. M. Boone Lt colo. comdt. Peter Journey Maj 1st 
& Jas. Morrison Maj 2d Battn. 


1st John Mc Connell Capt 2d Isaac Vanbibber Capt 
Peter Teague Lt Anthony Head Lt 
Ensign William Cassio Ensign 

236 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

3d Samuel Gibson Capt 4th Nathl. Simonds Capt 

Isaac Hostetter Lt Roswell Dusky Lt 

Samuel Lewis Ensign Wm. Ewing Ensign 

5th Elijah Collard Capt 
James Lewis Lt 
Jacob Groshong Ensign 


1st William Hart Capt 2d Robert Spencer Capt 

Stephen Hempstead Lt John Fetteau Lt 

Osborn Knott Ensign Joshua Fisher Ensign 

3d Samuel Griffith Capt 
Charles Soucier Lt 
Ebenezer Ayres Ensign 


Henry Hight Judge Advocate 

James Beatty Adjutant 

Stephen Hempstead Quarter Master 


Stephen Byrd Lt colo comdt — Geo F Bollinger Maj 1st 
James Brady Major 2d Battalion 


1st Joseph Young Capt 2d George C. Miller Capt 

Austin Young Lt Henry Bollinger 

Joseph Looney Ensign (Son Dan) Lt 

Daniel Krytz Ensign 

3d Henry Widner Capt 4th David Whetstone Capt 
Abraham Krytz Lt John Bollinger Lt 
Ensign Frederick Eeap Ensign 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 237 


1st Abraham Krytz Capt 2d Jesse JefTry Capt 
Jacob Shepherd Lt Jacob Friend Lt 

Elijah Dougherty John Friend Ensign 


3d James Ravenscraft 

Medad Randall Lt 
Elijah Randall Ensign 


John E Hartt It colo comdt. Step. Ross Maj 1st Jos 
Hunter Maj 2d Frs. Vaugine Maj 3d Battn. 


1st Elisha Winsor Capt 2d Edwd. Matthews Capt 

Thos. Winsor Lt Joseph Smith Lt 

Joseph Shields Ensign James Lucas Ensign 

3d Samuel Cooper Capt 4th Benja. Myers Capt 

Robert Boyd Lt John Walker Lt 

Alexr. La Forge Ensign Joseph Westbrook 



1st Daniel Mooney Capt 2d James Scull Capt 

Harrold Stillwell Lt Peter Lefevre Lt 

Tenace Racine Ensign Charles Bougy Ensign 

3d Blassingham H McFarlane Capt 
John Lemmon Lt 
William Doyle Ensign 

238 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Eichd. H. Waters Judge Advocate John Walker Adju- 


1st Hendy Dodge Capt Jno Scott 1st Lt E A Elliott 
2d Lt Jas C Young Cornet Wm James Purser 

2d Alexr Mc Nair Capt Josha. H. Buckhart 1st Lt. 
Hiram Cordell 2d Lt Alexr Lucas Cornet A. E. 
Rheill Purser 

3d Jas Callaway Capt P. K. Bobbins 1st Lt Josha 
Dodson 2d Lt Jno. B. Stone Cornet Jona. Riggs 


1st Jas. Rankin Capt John Geiger Lt Joseph Andrews 
Ensign Joseph Hanks, Purser 

2d Wm .H. Ashley Capt Strother Covington Lt William 
Harrison Ensign 

3d Morris Young Capt Thomas Wyley Lt James 
Patterson Ensign Robt Mc Williams Purser 

4th Jno Hughes Capt William Strother Lt Thos Reid 
Ensign Timothy Phelps Purser 

5th Andrew Ramsey jr Capt Jas Morrison Lt William 
Ramsey Ensign Peter Craig Purser 

6th Samuel Phillips Capt Philip Ross Lt Robert Trotter 

The Administration of Governor Howard. 239 

7th Joseph Conway Capt Richard Caulk Lt Thomas 
Caulk Ensign 


1st Joseph Millard Capt Stephen Martin Lt Anthony 
Bridger Ensign 


Robert Lucas Capt John Mc Knight 1st Lt Joseph 
Henderson 2d Lt 

Secretary's Office St Louis April 1st 1813 
Frederick Bates Secy 
of Missouri tery 

Note — Alex. Mc Nair has been appointed Adj. Genl. & 
Inspector Genl. of the Militia — with the rank of colonel. 

F. Bates Secy 


To his Excellency Benjamin Howard Governor in & over 
the Territory of Missouri; Father we a part of the 
Cherekees tribe of Indians; have settled on the White 
River a water of the Mississippi by we presume, the 
consent of the Government of the United States, where 
we are indeavouring to cultivate the soil for our support 
& wish to live unintirrupted by the malicious white 
people; but the revurse; there are a few bad men com- 
bined together for the purpose of stealing our horses; & 
do steal them; to wit; Nicholas Trammel 83 Mote Askins 

83 This may have been Colonel Trammel who later had a farm on 
the Chariton road six miles from Franklin. 

240 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

John Wells Joseph Carnes Robert Armstrong. Barnet 
Peter Tileo Thorns James John D. Chisholm Demis 
Chisholm Ignatious Chisholm Jessey Isaacks; John 
Williams Robert Trimble William Trimble; William 
Smith John Lafferty Senr. & Ace Musick, 84 [blank] 
Pain & Joseph Pain ; all of which are on publick lands ; we 
pray that they may be removed from amongst ns; if it 
be consistent with Government; some of which characters 
have solicited ns to join them in killing robing & burning 
the Houses of the honest & industrious part of the white 
inhabitance neare to us; which we wish to live peaceable 
with; to wit, Nicholas Trammel & Mote Askins; we have 
lost b}^ those characters Twenty Horses in course of 
Twelve months & if some measures are not taken we shall 
in a short time be left destitut of property; & thereby 
prevented from persueing our Farms; & we no no way 
whereby we are to be redressed unless by; or through 
our father the governor of the white people; wherefore 
we pray your excellency may take such measures to 
remedy; & redress those evils as in your wisdom may 
seem meet to you ; & as in duty bound will ever pray, &c 

Soanetar X Zoateltar X 

Ayaokisby X Clutakenner X 

Quaoloqui X Hanelar X 

Bare foott X Kewarsulusky X 

Oakshellaner X Aremokelar X 

s* Asa Musick was living in the Bon Homme settlement in 1797. 

The Administration of Governor Hoivard. 241 
James Kolson X 

Chikilly X Chief 


Thomas X Graves 



Wolollenny X Doublehead 


Warhails X 

James X Duvall 

John X Campbell 


John X Hill 



Zoalakqua X 

Aarchy X his mark 

Thomas his mark X 

Corn Tassel X 

Teleskeske X 
Toallemar X 
Bare Skin X 

George Duvall X 
Aitennoly X 
Gitup X 
Samuel X 
Cotten X 
Cokokattsky X 
Choahar X 

April 27th 1813 

Bates' Last Acting-Governorship 



Issued to a Detachment of Militia Called into Service 
by the Executive of the Missouri Territory, Stationed 
at Portage des Sioux in the District of St. Charles 
from the 6th to 30th of april, 1813, under the command 
of Major James Morrison, under the Contract of 
William Morrison. 1 

DatCS 8 1% 8 11 IS Remarks 

Z Z Z Z tf 

6 to 28 1 154 Issued to Captain Con- 

way 2 and his Subal- 
tern officers 

" " " 2 22 45 990 Issued to Capt. Con- 

way's Company 

11 "29 3 18 32 586 Issued to Capt. David 

Musicks 3 Company 

i William Morrison, the Kaskaskia merchant, land speculator, and 
fur trader. Before Pike's journey into the Southwest Morrison made an 
unsuccessful effort to open trade with Santa Fe. See Gregg, Commerce 
of the Prairies, in Early Western Travels, XIX, 174. 

2 Joseph Conway served in the Indian wars during the American 

3 David Musick participated in the Sink Hole fight on March 24, 
1815. He commanded at Fort Cap au Gris on the Mississippi River a 
little below Fort Mason early in 1815. 


246 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

" " " 4 133 Issued to Capt Musick 

and his Subaltern of- 

13 "16 5 20 l SSU ed to Capt. Ran- 

kin 4 & his Subaltern 

" " " 6 4 20 80 Issued to Capt. Ran- 

kins Compy 

14 "28 7 81 Issued to Capt Spen- 

ser 5 and his Subal- 
tern officers 

Issued to Capt Spen- 
sers Compy 

Issued to Capt James 
Musicks 6 Compy 

Issued to Capt J Mu- 
sick & his Subalterns 

15 "30 11 186 Issued to Major 

Dodge 7 and Capt 
Scott 8 & their Subal- 
tern officers 

" " " 12 16 38 608 Issued to Capt. Scotts 


* James Rankin was appointed captain of the mounted riflemen in 

5 Robert Spencer was appointed captain in the St. Charles County 
regiment in 1812. 

« James Musick was a captain in the St. Louis County regiment. 

f In 1814 Henry Dodge was appointed brigadier-general of militia. 

s John Scott was a lieutenant in Dodge's company in 1812. 

it a a 

8 15 

52 780 

14" 28 

9 15 

24 360 




Bates' Last Acting-Governorship. 247 

20 13 — — — 599 Issued to Capt Spen- 

sers Company 
Working at the Bat- 
tery in April 

17" 28 





Issued to Capt. Vanbib- 
ers 9 Compy 

20" 29 





Issued to one man of 
Capt D M u s i c k s 

20" 30 





Issued to Capt. Ash- 
leys 10 Compy 

tt << n 



Issued to Capt Ashley 
& his Subaltern offi- 


21 "30 18 10 1 10 Issued to one man of 

Capt Scotts Compy 

" " " 19 10 1 10 " Issued to one man of 

Capt Ashleys Compy 

22" 30 20 8 39 312 Issued to Capt Lucas 11 


" " " 21 93 Issued to Capt Lucas & 

his Subaltern officers 

19" 29 22 10 1 10 Issued to one of Capt 

Conways Compy 

9 Isaac Van Bibber was a captain in the St. Charles regiment. 
io William H. Ashley, afterward famous in the fur trade, 
ii Charles Lucas was appointed a captain of artillery in 1814. 

248 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

7" 29 23 22 34 748 Issued to the St. Louis 

Troop of Cavalry 

28 "29 24 2 9 18 Issued to two men of 

the St. Louis Troop 
of Cavly 

15 " 29 25 120 Issued to the officers of 

the St. Louis Troop 
of Cavly 

a a a 

26 469 Issued to men of Capt 

J Musicks C o m p y 
working at the Bat- 
tery for April 

5959 1068 

I do Certify I have carefully examined the above Abstract 
with the original returns now in my possession and find 
it to be a true and correct Statement of Issues made to 
the Troops Stationed at Portage Des Sioux from the 
6th to the 30 of April 1813 amounting to five thousand 
nine hundred and fifty nine Complete rations and ten 
hundred and sixty eight Gills of extra Whiskey 

Signed Triplicates 

5959 five thousand nine hundred & fifty nine 

Frederick Bates Secy, of Missouri 

Actg as Governor 

Bates 7 Last Acting-Governor ship. 249 


SlR St. Louis May 4th 1813 

In order that we may have it in our power to repair 
the boat as expeditiously as possible, you are desired to 
continue those exertions, so promptly commenced, for the 
preservation of whatever may belong to her. — Colo. 
McNair will be at the Portage in a few days, when arrange- 
ments to meet the new aspect of things will be made. — 
In the mean time should your old encampment become un- 
tenable, you will assume a position on the main land, in the 
neighbourhood of the village. 


Williams Williams 13 having made a discovery of a Salt 
Petre Cave on the land of the U. States on the head waters 
of Saline Creek in the County of St. Genevieve — He is 
hereby permitted to work the same for the term of twelve 
months from this date — Provided the same be not claimed 
by any private person or persons — in which case this Per- 
mission to be null & void - — 

And the said William Williams does hereby engage to 
pay to the Recorder of Land Titles, quarterly, for the use 
of the Government, one tenth part of the Salte Petre which 

12 Lucas was then in command of the St. Louis volunteer artillery 
company stationed on an island near Portage des Sioux. 

is William Williams was one of the first members of the Methodist 
Church at McKendree, Cape Girardeau County. 

250 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

he shall make or cause to be made at the said cave. — Wit- 
ness our hands at St Louis 12 May 1913 

William Williams Frederick Bates 

Recorder of Titles 



« 25 £ 

H!*fc fc Sec OH 

1813 *<=>£ 3 ^o ^ 2 
^ fe 5 fa fen oC 
Dates °. °. | © °. « S E Remarks 

ltol8 1 18 22 396 Issued to Capt Calla- 

way s 14 Company 

" " " 2 170 i SSU ed to Capt Calla- 

way and his Subal- 
tern officers 

2 " 21 3 19 59 1128 Issued to Capt Smiths 15 


1* James Callaway, a grandson of Daniel Boone, was killed in a 
skirmish with the Indians in 1814. 

15 William Smith was a captain in the St. Louis regiment in 1812. 
Robert A. Smith held a similar place in 1814. 

an a 

Bates' Last Acting-Governorship. 251 

4 98 Issued to Capt Smith 

and his Subaltern of- 

21 5 21 40 840 Issued to Capt Lucas 


" 6 125 Issued to Capt Lucas & 

his Subaltern officers 

" 7 66 Issued to men of Capt 

Lucas Compy work- 
ing at the Battery 

2757 66 

I do Certify that I have carefully examined the above 
Abstract with the original returns now in my possession 
and find it to be a true and correct Statement of Issues 
made to the Troops Stationed at Camp Cuivre from the 1st 
to the 21st of May 1813 amounting to two thousand seven 
hundred and fifty seven Complete rations and Sixty Six 
rations of Extra Whiskey 

Signed Triplicates 

Frederick Bates, Secy, of Missouri Tery, 

Actg. as Governor 

252 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


issued to a detachment of militia called into service by 
the executive of the missouri territory, stationed at 
camp near cuivre 16 in the district of st. charles under the 
command of major henry dodge, from the 1st to the 
[22nd] of may, 1813, and under the contract of william 










o w 
£ 2 






Q 6 


6 « 







1st to 22 





Issued to Capt Scotts 
Company of mounted 
rifle men 

" " " 2 328 

18 3 18 36 648 

Issued to Major Dodge 
Capt. Scott and their 
Subaltern officers 

Issued to Capt Ashleys 

1 15 15 Issued to men of Capt 

Ashleys Company 

22 5 409 

a q 1 20 20 Issued to men of Capt 

Scotts Company 


is The Cuivre River empties into the Mississippi about thirty miles 
north of the mouth of the Missouri. 

Bates' Last Acting-Governorship. 


I do Certify that I have carefully examined the above 
Abstract with the original returns now in my possession 
and find it to be a true and correct Statement of Issues 
made to the Troops Stationed at Camp Cuivre from the 
1st to the 22nd of May 1813 amounting to one thousand 
nine hundred and thirty five Complete rations & four 
hundred & nine gills of Whiskey 

Signed triplicates 
Frederick Bates Secy, of Missouri 
Actg. as Governor 

























Two hundred lb Pork — 
two hundred ninety 
six lb flour — Eleven 
hundred twenty one 
lb. Beef — two hun- 
dred seventy lb salt — 
three Gals, whiskey 

I certify that I have examined the above abstract with 
the original returns now in my possession and find it to be 
a Correct Statement of Issues made to the Indian Depart- 

ment Signed Triplicates 

Frederick Bates, Secy of 
Missouri Tery., exercg. the 

254 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


By Frederick Bates, Secretary of the Territory of 
Missouri, and Exercising the Government. 

Whereas the President of the United States has been 
pleased to commission James Flaugherty, Benjamin 
Emmons, Augustus Chouteau sen, Samuel Hammond, John 
Scott (of St Genevieve) James Maxwell, William Neely, 
George Cavener and Joseph Hunter, Members of the Leg- 
islative council of this territory: I do therefore, as 
enjoined by the 8th Sec of the Act providing for the gov- 
ernment of the territory of Missouri, appoint the first 
Monday in July next for the meeting of the General 
Assembly, and require that the several branches of that 
Assembly, convene at the town of St. Louis, on that day. — 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto affixed the terri- 
torial Seal 

Given under my hand at St. Louis the third day 
of June in the year of our Lord one thousand, 
— Seal — eight hundred and thirteen, and of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States the thirty sev- 

Frederick Bates 


By Frederick Bates, Secretary of the Territory of 
Missouri, and Exercising the Government. 

Whereas, since the election of David Musick as a mem- 
ber of the House of Representatives for the county of St 
Louis, in the General Assembly of this territory the said 

Bates' Last Acting-Gore Dior ship. 255 

David Musick has entered the military service of the 
United States, thereby, in the opinion of the Executive, 
vacating his seat in the House of Representatives: I do 
therefore require the Sheriff of the county of St Louis to 
cause an election to be holden at the Court House on the 
first day of July next, at which time and place there will 
be chosen by the People one Representative to supply the 
vacancy aforesaid: One of the Judges of the Court of 
Common Pleas and Quarter Sessions for the county will 
sit as Judge of the qualification of voters — and the elec- 
tion will continue open from nine O'clock in the morning 
till sunset. — 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto affixed the terri- 
torial Seal 

Given under my hand at St Louis, the eleventh 
day of June, in the year of our Lord, one thou- 
— Seal — sand eight hundred and thirteen, and of the 
Independence of the United States the thirty 

Frederick Bates 

The Bates Papers 

JULY, 1813— DECEMBER, 1820 


July, 1813— December, 1820 


By William Clark, Governor of the Territory of Missouri, 
and Commander-in-Chief of the Militia thereof. 

Whereas I have been informed by the House of Repre- 
sentatives that the seat of David Musick late a member of 
that House from the county of St Louis, has become vacant, 
by resignation: I do therefore require the Sheriff of the 
county of St Louis to cause an election to be holden at the 
Court House, on thursday next the twenty second instant, 
at which time and place there will be chosen by the People, 
one Representative to supply the vacancy aforesaid. One 
of the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas and Quarter 
Sessions for the county will sit as Judge of the qualifica- 
tions of voters — and the election will continue open from 
nine o'clock in the morning till sunset. The Sheriff will 
make to me, Returns of the election, in the manner and 
form heretofore established — In testimony whereof I 
have caused the seal of the territory to be hereunto 
affixed. — 

Given under my hand at St Louis, the sixteenth 

day of July, in the year of our Lord one thou- 

— Seal — sand eight hundred and thirteen, and of the 

Independence of the United States the thirty 

eighth. — 
« , „ William Clark 

By the Governor 

Frederick Bates 

Secy, of the Terry. 


260 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Banks of the Missouri 
My very good friends, Vancluse August 4th 1813 

After every diligence which a man can bestow on his 
own affairs, ten to one but some little matters will at last 
slip through his fingers. Every day's experience teaches 
us this — Yet is the world full of generous hearted crea- 
tures, who are ever ready to trample down half your wheat 
fields in search of a cockle, while their own, good souls, are 
overrun by cuckold-Burrs. — Such is the charitable dis- 
interestedness of mankind. It has seldom therefore, been 
my practice to ask your attention to any concerns of mine — 
Not but that on many occasions, I should have been very 
glad of your help ; but I was never so unconscionable as to 
expect you to pull my oars, when your own boats were 
drifting down the current. — However, I have now an affair 
in hand, in which we are all equally interested, — for which 
reason I ask your attention to it with the greater bold- 
ness. — And because I love brevity, and that I need not 
keep you one unnecessary moment in suspence, I will tell 
you all at once that it is neither more nor less than certain 
complaints which I have to exhibit against a servant of 
yours. — 

Every body knows what prejudices are so justly enter- 
tained against tale bearers, — and I certainly should not 
attempt to make mischief between Master and Man, except 
for good and sufficient cause : But the saucy impertinence 

i This allegory was directed against Edward Hempstead who was try- 
ing to bring about the removal of Bates from the office of recorder. 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 261 

of that Youngster who does your city-business, obliges me 
to tell you, after years of forbearance, that he is a lying 
varlet and a sneaking Rascal. — I grant you, that he has 
a good deal of pettyf ogging instrumentality about him, and 
might have done very well, if you had confined him to 
those subordinate drudgeries in which he was once so 
profitably employed: But you must needs send him to 
toivn — and entrust him with messages to decent People, 
before he had learned to ape with any tolerable success the 
exterior deportment of a creditable breeding. You will 
perhaps be astonished to hear that those little comical parts 
of his character which recommend him so forcibly to your 
esteem, will stand a fair chance of being considered in 
town as blemishes. Virgil has a line on this subject — but 
as you don't read Virgil I'll not, just now, trouble you 
with it. Yet this I will say, that I have known a man clapt 
and applauded in one company, who has afterwards been 
hissed and kicked out of another, which happened to judge 
of merit by a different standard. 

It may occur to you, on a first view, that it is your affair 
and not mine — and that I am endeavouring to come in 
for a share of those praises which I bestow so abundantly 
on those noble minded People who busy themselves in the 
affairs of others to the neglect and ruin of their own — 
Bear with me for a moment and I will convince you that 
I too have a Stake in the Hedge. You know that I am or 
rather that I formerly was, Steward, for a wealthy old 
Gentleman who leads for the most part a town life, and 
with whom your understrapper was sent to negociate about 
country matters. His flocks and herds graze the same pas- 
tures with yours, and for aught I can see to the contrary 
there is a perfect identity- of interest between yon. It 

262 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

would seem that his worship sees the thing in the same 
light for he has often told me, that if, at any time, I should 
discover Wolf-Trails in the neighbourhood I must immedi- 
ately leave my own work, tho' it should be in harvest-time 
or hay making, to raise the Hue & Cry and put the settle- 
ment on its guard. Last winter, you all very well recollect, 
we discovered a great many of these Trails. — They came, 
for the most part from the north, and in that direction 
there was a brushy wood extending to your very pastures 
which facilitated their entrance and escape. — Now, my 
good friends you perfectly well know what a humane, phil- 
anthropical old Gentleman his worship is — and you may 
have heard that for some years past he has taken an abun- 
dance of pains to domesticate those wild animals which he 
found in the neighbourhood of his Estates — and that he 
had actually succeeded so far as to put Bells on two gangs 
of them whose Eanges were to the westward of his fields 
and yours — Now, when these gaunt, howling Devils came 
from the north, I thought I could not do better, tho' I had 
not instructions from his worship as to the business; but 
seeing that ' All our Dogs had clapt their tails between their 
legs and cryed', for in fact a Dog is not equal to a Wolf, 
I thought, I say that it might be a good arrangement to 
assign to these Wolves with Bells of domestication about 
their necks 'A position on our northern borders', quite in 
advance of his worship's Estate and yours, by which an 
impenetrable Rampart would have been established against 
the irruptions of the famished hordes of the north. — 

I had thought at first of employing the obvious means of 
Pit-Falls and Steel-Traps, but on reflection I foresaw very 
clearly that our own dogs would be the principal victims. — 

Your metaphysical People may talk what they please 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 2' 3 

about their committees of vigilance, their military cordons, 
their walls of Antoninus or even of the famous Chinese 
Wall, the two latter of which were specially provided in 
former times to keep out the wild animals — I say that 
foolish People may prate of these things for passtime, but 
that my notion of vigilance is to set a Wolf to watch a 
Wolf & that no barrier will ever give such perfect and abso- 
lute security as a Cordon of Pet Wolves. 

It is pleasant to hear Brutus lamenting that he can 
devise no means to exorcise that mischievous Spirit of 
Ambition which haunts night and day, the bosom of Caesar, 
short of the spilling of Caesar's blood — and so it is with 
all kinds of Beasts of prey — If indeed we could, by a set 
Speech, and a little cajolery, possess ourselves, in a tran- 
quil way, of those lacerating implements with which they 
tear the fleeces, and sometimes the throats of our flocks, 
it might be very well, we might turn them to grass — it 
would only be a change of diet — and all difficulties would 
be accomplished, or as the Lawyers say, Surcease, between 
us. — 'But alas ! they must bleed for it.' — 

But before this hopeful project of mine had been actually 
put into execution, the Head Steward of his worship came 
upon the ground and accomplished the object which I had 
so much at heart, by Other Means less offensive to those 
benevolent dispositions which have been so strikingly man- 
ifested in every act of his Worship's life. Or rather he 
did not accomplish it; but as he sent back the Pet Wolves 
bustled about, considerably, and talked of accomplishing it, 
every liberal minded man was as grateful to him, you know, 
as if he had done the whole business. — And having per- 
formed this notable piece of service, the Head Steward left 
me again in the management of the Estate. 

264 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Now, my good friends, your understrapper ignorant and 
awkward as he may be, did perfectly well know of these 
acts and doings of the Head Steward. — And some time 
thereafter, when I was again in the transaction of his wor- 
ships business in these parts, the aforesaid understrapper 
addressed to me a letter (for he knows that I dislike the 
company and conversation of Pettyfoggers) he did address 
to me a letter in which he gives me pretty fairly to under- 
stand that he had taken that position near his Worship, 
which the Devil, in the shape of a toad assumed some years 
ago, at the ear of a celebrated personage, who shall now be 
nameless, as I do not wish to revive old Scandals : — That 
in a tete a tete with his worship he had learned what were 
his future plans for clearing the woods of those beasts of 
prey by which they were infested — for, his worship, it 
seems, had at length become sensible that all further 
attempts to evangelize them must be a hopeless business. 
I was not indeed, very well satisfied with the dirty channel 
through which this information had been derived; but as 
I should lose half a day at least, by waiting on his worship 
in town — and as his worship has always been to me an 
open, generous and confiding patron, whose work I have 
done as much thro' love as duty, I lost not a moment in 
obeying the orders thus circuitously communicated. 

Very Well ! — And now for your understrapper. — He 
goes again to town on your business, handsomely compen- 
sated therefor, but generously determined to do mine for 
nothing at all, except for the pleasure of doing it. He tells 
his worship that I had not only changed the Ranges of the 
Pet Wolves but that I had also introduced them into the 
settlements, — formed an alliance offensive and defensive 
with them, and pretty broadly insinuates that I had become 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 265 

absolutely and in fact a Wolf myself with nothing of the 
Sheep remaining but the fleece of a Bell-Wether (which I 
had killed at the head of one of the marauding parties), 
thrown loosely over my shoulders. — What a lying stupid 
booby it is. He represents to his worship besides that the 
entire settlement is in a dreadful state of alarm on account 
of this unnatural transformation and alliance and wishes 
mightily to be informed whether his worship has sanctioned 
a procedure so fraught with mischief and brutality — Well 
knowing as I said before that the Eanges of the Pet Wolves 
had not been changed, and that nothing like an alliance was 
ever contemplated with them. 

This my good friends is all that I had to say to you at 
present. Truth has obliged me to speak some harsh things 
of your understrappers. Justice and candour equally com- 
pel me to disclose to you whatever I may know to his 
advantage. There is one incident of that kind, which as it 
stands very prominently, I will content myself with relat- 
ing it as a Representative for the whole. Some years ago 
he had grievously, and somewhat treacherously too, in- 
jured a person with whom he was then (but never since) 
on terms somewhat intimate, he challenged that person to 
the great trial, by Battle because he had the imprudence 
to tell him in the presence of a few friends that he was a 
Sneaking Rascal. Which was indeed the fact But now 
comes that magnanimity which must crown him with unfad- 
ing Laurels. Having thrown the gauntlet he began to re- 
flect what might be the inconvenient, not to say dangerous 
consequences of such a procedure — And recollecting too 
that all the modern wrongs had modern remedies provided 
for them & that this old mode of decision was exploded 
from the Statute book, he heroically determined, humbly 

266 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

to ask leave to enter a non prosequi — And indeed the re- 
quest was made with so much tearful entreaty, that it could 
not, with humanity, be denied him. And this I am always 
ready to acknowledge in his praise, that few men, 'in the 
torrent, tempest and as I may say whirlwind of their pas- 
sions ' can in a moment like your understrapper, on the 
first suggestion of his prudence or his fears "acquire and 
beget a temperance which may give them smoothness." — 
But altho ' this incident redounds to his credit, as a private, 
unknown and indeed insignificant individual, yet I must 
think that it ought to be set down among his disqualifica- 
tions as a public man. And I leave it to your consciences 
or rather to your prudence as honest, thrifty and pains- 
taking People whether a fellow so often degraded and dis- 
graced by slaps in the face and other humiliations has not 
become unworthy of your protection and countenance. — 


Deae Sie MmES 27th Au ^ ust 1813 

A mulatto man who calls himself Tom Waters formerly 
of Detroit says you were acquainted with him there and 
know he was free — He has been sold by Doctr. Wilkinson 2 
in this country and is now held as a slave — from what 
information I have gotten on the subject I have very little 
doubt of his fredom — If you know any thing about him 
will you be so good as to inform me by the return of the 
boy by whom this note will be handed. 

Accept dear Sir the assurances of my high respect & 

2 Probably W. N. Wilkinson. 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 267 


o St Louis October 1st 1813 


I have the honor to transmit a packet containing the 
Legislative and Executive proceedings of the government 
of this territory, during the last six months — to wit — 

Copies of the Acts of the General Assembly, 
Copies of the Governor's Proclamations, 3 
Minutes of the Governor's appointments to office, 
Minutes of Licences to trade with Indians. 4 

Also, a Table of the civil officers in commission on 30th 


By the Governor op the Territory of Missouri 

April 1 — September 30, 1813. 

Ap 3d Joshua Burckhartt 1st Lt. of a company 

Hiram Cordell 2d Lt [ of cavalry in 

Alexr. Lucas Cornet f the county of 

A. E. Rheile Purser St Louis 

William Christy Quarter Master of 1st Regiment 

Joseph Conway Capt 

Richard Caulk Lt 

Thomas Caulk Ensign 

of a compy. of 
mounted Rifle- 
men — cty St 

s For the proclamations, see Bates' proclamation of June 3, and that 
of July 16, 1813. 

4 The list of licenses is missing. 


The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

9th. Martin Buggies Major of 2d Battn. of 2d Regt 
Joseph Hertick Pay Master of 2d Regiment 

John Mc Arthur Lt 

Joseph Hertick Ensign 

John Bossieur Capt 

James Rigdon Lt. 

.Joseph Amoureux Ensign 

1st corny. 1st 
Bat. 2d Regt. 

2d corny. 1st 
Bat 2d Regt. 

13 Joseph Yardley Ensign 1st corny. 1st Bat 3d Regt 
Robert Gray Ensign 3d corny. 1st Bat 3d Regt. 

24 Jacob Pettit 
Jesse Blackwell 


of a corny, of 
mounted Rifle- 
men cty of St 

April 29 Charles Lucas Capt of the St Louis corny, of Voir. 

30 Paul L. Chouteau Lt 2d corny. 1st Bat 1st Regt. 
Frederick Geizer Ensign 2d corny. 1st Bat 1st 

May 14 Joshua H. Burckhartt 
Hiram Cordell 
Absalom Link 

24 Burwell J. Thompsom 
James F. Mutry 
E. D. Devillemont 

Thomas McLaughlin 
Zachary Goforth 

William Harrison 
Stephen Austin 










| of the St 
Louis corny of 

6th corny. 2d 
Bat 2d Regt 

4th corny. 2d 
J Bat 2d Regt. 

] 2d corny. 2d 
Bat 2d Regt, 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 


30 Paul L. Chouteau Captain 2d corny. 1st Bat 1st 

June 19 Henry Battu Ensign 2d corny. 1st Bat 1st Regt. 

of a corny, in 

the settlement 

> of Sans Des- 


Francis Coursolle 
Joseph Bivarq 
Louis Dehetre 


of a corny, in 
1. 2d Battn 4th 

July 22 George Jameson Capt 

Charles Logan Lt 

William Ingram Ensign 

Aug. 21 Henry Battu 3d Lt of 2d corny. 1st Battn of 1st 

of a corny, of 

Capt mounted In- 

Lt L fan try on a 

Ensign service of 60 


of a corny, of 

1st Lt mounted In- 

2d Lt V f antry on a 

Ensign service of 60 

j days 

13 Hardy Ware Ensign of 3d corny. 3d Battn 1st 


Sept 2d Martin Ruggles 
Phil Mc Guire 
James Mc Cullock 

3 Thomas Williams 
Robert Wash 
George Henderson 

Manuel Lisa 
Barw. Berthold 
Francis Guyol 

of a voir. 
corny Infantry 
1st Battn of 
1 st Regt — 

Secretary's Office Oct 1. 1813 
Frederick Bates 




270 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Mr. Partenay has this day reported to me [Bates] a 
discovery between Mine A Breton & the Old Mines — and 
is considered as having the first right to the lease, when 
I am empowered to support the covenants which I might 
make with him — St Louis Oct 1st 1813 


Commissioner's Office 
giR St Louis Nov 9. 1813 

On the application of Charles Payton & Henry Burning 
I have appointed the 15th day of December next, to receive 
farther testimony in the claim of the Legal Representatives 
of Joseph Doublewye 6 for 800 Arpens of Land, on the wa- 
ters of the St Francis, in the county of Cape Girardeau at 
which time you can attend, if you think proper. 

gm St Louis Nov 12th 1813 

I have no sort of right to trouble you so frequently as I 
have lately done. I feel the indecorum and yet have not 
been able to resist the impulse. I entreat your liberal con- 
structions of these liberties, and ask your attention for a 
few moments to a subject which occasions me much anx- 
iety. — Since my coming to this country in the year 1807 

s The father-in-law of William H. Ashley. 

« Joseph Doublewye dit Deblois, an Indian trader. The name was 
also spelled De Blois. He was an early resident of Ste. Genevieve. 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 271 

as a Commissioner of Land Claims, I have suffered all 
those attacks, open and concealed which might be counted 
on among a set of fraudulent and rapacious speculators. — 
These I have for the most part disregarded, — not deeming 
it proper to descend to low minded altercation. — Every 
species of machination has been attempted. If a man of 
more than ordinary consequence presented himself I have 
been obliged to treat him in another manner. When a 
challenge has been offered (by Colo. Jno Smith) I have 
applied for advice to an officer of rank, in the line of the 
army, with whose concurrence, I have informed my antag- 
onist, that I was accountable only to the government for 
a discharge of my public duties. 

Despairing after a long course of abortive experiment 
of accomplishing their purposes by private slanders, or 
open intimidations, they have at last adopted that which 
(if there be any cause of complaint) I conceive to be the 
correct course, an application to Mr Tiffin, 7 or perhaps to 
the President himself — But they do not intend that I shall 
know the grounds of the accusation nor the names of the 
witnesses brought forward to support it. They will pre- 
sent to Mr Tiffin some monstrous exaggeration & probably 
expect that the Delegates assurances will be deemed suffi- 
cient evidence of its truth. I gather however from the 
anticipated triumph of the Party and the vindictive gar- 
rulity of Judge Bent 8 in particular that the charges have 
been sworn to and transmitted by Mr Hempstead, of whom 
I gave you some account, in an allegorical way, in August 
last, — Mr B is himself no speculator — but he is the crea- 

7 Edward Tiffin was the first governor of Ohio. In 1812 President 
Madison appointed him commissioner of the general land office, 
s Silas Bent. 

272 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

ture of Hempstead — & affects to have reed injuries from 
me in order to mask the under part which he is acting with 
the appearance of independence. But I am speaking of 
others when I should be def endg myself — As I said before 
I am unacquainted with the accusation. 

I know of but one charge that can be brought against 
me with any colour of truth. — It is this — That the Papers 
of the Eecorders Office have not always dur[in]g a press 
of business been kept in that exact order which ought cer- 
tainly to be preserved in the files of a public office — But 
there are reasons for this — the necessity of frequent ref- 
erence to originals, in the investigation of titles — the in- 
cessant application of claimants themselves — And above 
all the tiresome & impudent enquiries of one class of spec- 
ulators who have no regular concern with the business. It 
has been very falsely said, but whether or not it makes a 
part of the accusation, I am altogether ignorant, that I 
threatened a Land Claimant, — telling him 'I will remem- 
ber you Sir, for this' These Pismires will sting you to 
death. Mr Pleasant, I am incapable of such conduct — If 
I had descended so low, I should never have the confidence 
to meet the eye of a man of honour or to address myself 
to you I have no recollection of the circumstance to which 
it can possibly allude Errors I may have committed, but 
deliberate injustice never. I do not ask you however to 
vouch for me but I do entreat, that you will procure me a 
hearing — some little investigation, before I suffer the 
final censures of the Government. Mr. Tiffin is a just man 
& I ask nothing but justice. . . . 

[P. S.] I have lived long enough to be but little surprized 
at whatever may happen but The conduct of this man is 
unaccountable — I have known him in this country for the 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 273 

last six years — He appeared correct & prudent — He was 
poor & I thought him honest Being in the exercise of the 
govt. I bestowed on him several offices of honor & of 
profit — I never injured him and yet all on a sudden he 
bursts forth my inveterate enemy 

Sometimes too, merely for the purpose of creating 
anxiety & trouble a Cl[aiman]t will demand a Paper which 
he well knows is not in the office but in his own possession. 
It was the very frequent practice of my Predecessor to 
redeliver Papers after having recorded them. — I have 
also done it, but the parties are informed that if they are 
not forth coming at the time of the decision the claim may 
be declared abandoned. Originals are sometimes necessary 
for the detection of frauds. 


Sir St. Louis Feby 26. 1814 

Mr Scott has delivered me your letter of the 24th with its 
accompaniments. As I am not invested with the powers 
necessary for your maintenance in possession it has been 
impossible for me to make the lease which you ask. — 
Together with Mr Scott, I waited on Governor Clark for 
the purpose of being informed of the cooperations which 
I might count on from the Executive Department, when 
we were told by the Governor that he should not, under 
present arrangements, interfere in the affair. I certainly 
consider you as having the first privilege; but unless the 
President give power to his Agents to perform their cove- 
nants, I shall be careful of bringing upon myself those 
humiliations which I formerlv suffered. 

274 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Belle Vue March 5th 1814 

Sir, The scarcity of Salt, together with the difficulty of 
obtaining it, in this part of the community has induced a 
Number of the Inhabitants of Belle Vue, to make a trial 
for Salt water in this Township, there being several exten- 
sive licks, which furnish ground to think there may be a 
body of Salt water in the Earth, Wherefore a number 
of Shares has been subscribed, A committee appointed to 
make choice of a place or places to dig at An agent to 
superintend the digging A well, or wells, who commenced 
some time past, at two different places and there is a prob- 
ability of geting Salt water at one of the places, which is 
thought to be on public land, and Whereas I have been 
informed that there are some designing men who are only 
waiting for the discovery to be made — when they intend 
to obtain a lease and drive off the Company who have been 
at the trouble and expence to make the discovery if we 
should be so fortunate as to obtain Salt water, It is the 
desire and expectation of the share holders to have the 
priviledge of renting from the United States, and carrying 
on the business themselves I have therefore troubled you 
with the above Sketch and trust and hope you will not 
grant any lease to any one, should there be application 
made but to the Company or their Agent, — ... 
P. S. The Name of the lick where there is the greatest 
probability for Salt Water is Chicago — 

9 Probably William O. Stevenson of Bellevue Valley near Potosi. He 
acted as agent for the company. 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec., 1820. 275 


~ St. Louis June 12th 1814. — 


Soon after the receipt of your letter of 5th April, 1 went 
to Ste. Genevieve and submitted, personally to the exam- 
ination of Mr Scott 10 all the Papers which have relation to 
the leases of Dodge, 11 Wilson 12 & Craighead. 1 " — As the 
superior court was then m session, Mr Scott had not leisure 
to consider the case. I left in his hands whatever might 
be necessary for the forming of an opinion, which he has 
this morning sent me in writing — a copy of which I have 
the honor to enclose. — I beg leave to remark that I sub- 
mitted no such points [as] the District Atty has quoted in 
his opinion — I wrote nothing & spoke sparingly & in gen- 
eral terms, folding down & shewing him that part of your 
letter which immediately concerned the business — The 
question of the Presidents right had slept since the silence 
of the Govt, on suggestions of that sort made some years 
ago by the late Gov Howard. The Dist. Atty. has copied 
fr[om] the books principles of Genl Law, — These I sup- 
pose are indisputable — but whether or not they apply to 
the case in hand might perhaps make another question. — 

I have conversed with Genl. Dodge, one of the Partners 
as to an amicable adjustment — Nothing is yet conclusively 
done — he wishes first to see Mr Wilson, who has just 
arrived from Tennessee. 

I advertised the Shibboleth Mines as you directed. — 
A Partenay alone gave in proposals, a copy of which I 

io John Scott. 
ii Henry Dodge. 

12 Probably Nicholas Wilson. 

13 Alexander Craighead. 

276 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

enclose. Notwithstanding the liberality of his offer, I could 
not make the contract as Jno. Smith (T) is in possession 
and determined I understand to retain it until Govt, adopt 
more compulsory process than has yet been employed — 
In Nov 1812 under alleged right derived from the act of 
13 June preceding he made an Entry of 1000 arps. (under 
the St Vrain concession) to include the lands then actually 
in possession of the U States tenants Indeed the most of 
the U. S. mines in the late county of Ste. Genevieve are in 
the same situation. Colo. Smith availing himself of the 
lenity and forbearance of the President has seldom failed, 
on the discovery of Lead, to make an immediate location, 
and to assume the rights of a legitimate proprietor. This 
has been long known to the Govt. I enclose a Schedule of 
his claims of this description of which he has been acquir- 
ing the possn. fr time to time since the year 1807. 

Mc Kee's Branch 250 

New Diggings 1000 

Mine A Robina 300 

On the Branch above Renaut Mine 300 

Doggett's Mines 300 

On Branch of Mine Fork 200 

Mc Kee's Discovery 200 

Mill Seat on branch of Big River 50 

Mine A Liberty 359 52/100 

Mine Shibboleth 1300 

Belle Fontaine 1200 

Bon Femme Salt Spring (St. Charles).... 64 St Chs. 
A Salt Spring between Bon Femme & 

Salt Cr 64 St Chs. 

Grand Monitur Salt Spring. 64 St Chs. 

Le Moine Salt Springs 70 St Chs. 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 277 

A Salt Spring above Sugar Loaf 25 New 

1st Lead Mine on the waters of White 

Eiver 36 New 

2d Lead Mine on waters of White River.... 64 New 


Grand Lead Mines of White River 54 New 

Mines, supposed of the precious metals.— 13% 

Entered 30 Nov 1812 under Act of 13 June precedg. 
Whatever may be the abstract validity of the St Vrain 
concession it seems strange to me that Colo Smith should 
have right to locate before its allowance by the Govt. The 
District Atty. seems to be of the opinion, however, that a 
possession & entry of claim however tortuous and penal 
secures him from molestation until the final decision. This 
reasoning if admitted to be correct would overthrow every 
idea wch. I had before entertained on the subject. — The 
Law does not presume that any entries will be made of 
claims which do not fall within the general scope of con- 
firmation or of Grant. — Besides by the act of 3d March 
1807 the abstract ' right, title, or claim' to Lands in Orleans 
or Louisiana is not to be affected by those summary & 
efficient means which the President is empowered to make 
use of, for the removal & punishment of Intruders. From 
which I clearly infer that he may incur the penalties, pecu- 
niary & corporeal provided by act of 26 Mar 1804 for the 
punishmt. for his illegal & forcible intrusion even during 
the [duration] of his abstract pretentions. . . . 14 

i* Three lines of the manuscript are illegible. 

278 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

In fact I imagined that such directed and recorded 
acknowledgments on the part of the Intruder was the best 
evidence for his conviction, if you should think proper to 
order a prosecution under the act of the 3d March 1807. — 


j. o Mine a Burton Septb 28th 1814 

I hasten to inform you of a most wanton and cruel out- 
rage committed on my person yesterday while at Silvers 's 
Mine. — Conformable to the Lease obtained from Govern- 
ment I went on, the 21st Inst, to take possession in the 
name of the U. S. of Silvers 's Mines, as one of the Mines 
included in said Lease. I put up a Notice of which the 
enclosed is a copy which as soon as put up, was tore down 
by Jno. Scott, who insisted that I should shew my authority, 
before he would allow that I should put up any Notices 
there ; — he made use of the most abusive Language at the 
same time, as well to Government as myself, but offered 
no violence, owing no doubt to the precaution I had taken 
of having two persons with me. — 

Yesterday however, while I was by myself, peaceably 
riding through said Mines, in quest of a chain-carrier as 
I had began surveying, I was surrounded by Jno Scott 
and others, forcibly dragged off my horse, knocked down 
with a stick or club, and beat in a most shocking manner 
with clubs & sticks — John Scott who was the ringleader 
observing "that was the way he would give possession." 

I sincerely hope Government will show some energy on 
this occasion and make an example of all those that were 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 279 

engaged in the wanton abuse, while I was acting under the 
orders of Government. — Now is the Time or never, if 
Government will not act with rigour now, they may as well 
abandon the idea of laying claim to any Lead Mines in this 
country, when the first ruffian can dispute the same with 
them with impunity, and would maltreat their officers, if 
they were sent against him. — 

They continue (Scott & Swon) 15 to receive all the Min- 
eral that is raised at Silvers 's Mines and always will, un- 
less forcibly put out of possession. — 

I should have commenced a suit for assault & battery 
against Scott &c. but find that it is useless, there being no 
Jail in this county, consequently they would refuse giving 
Bail. — 

I have taken possession of all the other Mines. — Colo. 
Jno. Perry pretends to claim Shous's Mines by virtue of a 
concession tho' he has not shewn me his concession 

Will you please inform me, whether you have stipulated 
any Time with Mr. Perry, in which he was to finish smelt- 
ing what he has on hand at Shous's Mine! Also with 
Messrs. Brown & Henry, and what length of Time you have 
accorded them? I wish to know, that I may regulate myself 


Missouri Territory 

Ap. 5 Louis Lebeaume, a Judge of the Court of Com 
Pleas for Washington Cty 
Robert A. Smith Capt of 1st Corny, of 1st Battn of 
1st Regiment 

i6 Probably William Swan who in 1804 was a settler at New Madrid. 


The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 

15 George Wilson Surveyor for the County of St 
Joseph Story Surveyor for the County of New 

22d. Robert Spencer Major of 2d Battn. of 3d Regi- 

Wright Daniel a Judge of the Court of Com 
Pleas for Arkensas 

Henry Battu Lieutenant 2d Corny. 1st Battn of 
1st Regt. 

27. Jacob Pettitt Capt 

Jno. Perry Lieut. 

Stephen F. Austin Ensign 

Jesse Blackwell Capt 

Anthy Wilkinson Lt 

Benja. Horine Ensign 

Robert T. Brown Capt 

James H. Moutry Lt 

Drury Gooche Ensign 

Joshua Morrison Capt 

Zachariah Goforth Lt 

Thomas McLaughlin Ensign 

Timothy Phelps Capt 

Wm. Read Lt 

James Gray Ensign 

Job Westover Capt 

John Baker Lt 

Joseph Wood Ensign 

1st Corny. 1st 
Bat 6th Regt. 

2d Corny. 1st 
Bat 6th Regt. 

3d Corny. 1st 
Bat 6 Regt. 

1st Corny 2d 
Bat 6th Regt. 

2d Corny. 2d 
^Bat 6th Regt. 

Id Corny. 2d 
> Battn. 6th 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 281 

Ap. 29. Archd. Huddleston Lt 3d Corny. 2d Bat 2d Regt. 
William Mc Farland Adjutant of 2d Regiment 
Same a Justice of the Peace for township of St 
Michael in the county of Ste Genevieve 

June 1st Wm. Stevenson a Judge of the Court of Com 
Pleas for Washington Cty 
Bartholomew Cousin Surveyor of the county of 
Cape Girardeau 

23d Joseph Brazeau a Licence to trade with the Teton 
& Yankton Sieux at Cedar Island on the Mis- 
souri for one year 

Patrick Cassidy Clerk of the Court of Com Pleas 
of Arkensas county 

Lemuel Currin Coroner for the county of 

Saml. Miller, Zach Philips Andw. Fagot, James 

Currin Fred Notrebee Jno. Carnehan, Jno. 

Billingsley Jno Mc Illmurray Isaac Cates, 

Saml. Cates Justices of the Peace within 

Arkensas county 

Wm. Russell a Justice of the Peace for 
sett[lemen]t. on Current River New Madrid 

Jno Maupin Capt — Joshua Brock Lt 2 Co. 4th 
Bat 1st Regt. 

Daniel Mooney Major 1st Battn. of 7th Regt. 

Alexr. Kendrick 


1st Corny. 1st 

Wm. Glass Sen 


► Battn. 7th 

Wm. Dunn 



June 23 James Scull 


2d Corny. 1st 

Peter Lef evre 


.Battn. of 7th 

Charles Bougy 



282 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Saml. Moseley Capt, Lemuel Currin Lt 3d Corny. 
1st Bat 7th Eegt. 

Blassingham H. Mc Farland Major 2d Battn. of 
7th Eegt. 

Edwd. Hogan Capt "i 1st Corny. 2d 

Jno Payatte Lt LB a tt. 7 th 

Joseph Duchassin Ensign Regt. 

James C. Newell Capt "] 

Benja. Murphy Lieut. L ' _ 

fBatt 7th Regt. 

George Rankin Ensign 

Wm. Berney Capt 

Isaac Cates Lieut. 

Saml. Gates Ensign 

3d Corny. 2d 
Batt 7th Regt. 

27 Prospect R. Robbins Surveyor for County of St 

30 Peter Mc Comack a Justice of the Peace for the 
township of Platen in County of Ste. Genevieve 

July 7. Louis Bijou & Chs. Sanguenette jr a License to 
trade with the Aricaras & Sieux Indians, on the 
Missouri for one year. 
Louis Letourneau a Licence to trade with the 
Poncas Indians on the Missouri, for one Year. 

July 20. Charles Gratiot a Justice of the Peace for town- 
ship of St. Louis Cty of St Louis 

23d Daniel M. Boone Lt Colo. Comdt. of the 3d Regi- 

26 George Tompkins Ensign 2d Corny. 1st Bat 1st 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 


28 Jno. W. Thompson Adjutant of the 1st Regiment 

Aug. 3. Jno. W. Thompson Capt "] of St Louis 

Alexr. Lucas 1st Lieut LTroop of 

Absalom Link 2d Lieut Cavalry 


Jno Miller Capt of 3d Corny. 2d Bat 1st Regt. 
Alexr Papin & Co. Licence to trade S. W. of the 
Missouri & on Platte for one year 

5 Jno Hawkins Surveyor for the County of Wash- 

13. Benja. Cooper Major 3d Batt of 3d Regt. 

1st Corny. 3d 
Batt 3d Regt. 

2d Corny. 3d 
Bat, 3d Regt. 

3d Corny. 3d 
Batt 3d Regt. 

15 Wm. C. Carr 3d Lt of 4th Corny, of 2d Bat of 
1st Regt. 
Edw. Hempstead Capt of a Corny, of Militia. — 

Wm. McMahen 


Sarshell Cooper 


Benja Cooper jr 


James Alexander 


Jno Morrow 


Amos Barnes 


Wm. Head 


David Mc Quitty 


Jno. Berry 



William Clark Gov. & commr. in ch. — Henry Dodge Briga- 
dier General Alexander Mc Nair Adjutant Genl. & 

284 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


Lt colo. comdt. — Tho F. Riddick Major of 1st. Richd. 

Chitwood Major of the 2d. — Jeduthun Kendall 
Major of the 3d. & Peter Chouteau Major of 4th 


1st Robert A Smith Capt — Hubert Guyon Lt — Frederick 
Geizer Ensign 

2 Paul L. Chouteau Capt — Henry Battu Lt — George 
Tompkins Ensign 

3d Louis Courtoix Capt — Louis Courtoix jr Lt — 
Francis Roi Ensign 

4 Zeph Sappington Capt — Thos. Sappington Lt — 
William L. Long Ensign 


1st James Musick Capt — Elisha Patterson Lt — Green 
Baxter Ensign 

2d Hyacinth Dehetre Capt — J. M. Courtoix Lt — Joseph 
Aubuchon Ensign 

3d John Miller Capt — John Kinkead Lt — Gabriel Long 

4 John E. Allen Capt — Joseph Lard Lt — Wm. 
McDowns Ensign 


1st James McCullock Capt — Jacob Collins Lt — John 

Horine Ensign 
2d Abner Vansant Capt — David Brook Lt — Benja. 

Johnston Ensign 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec., 1820, 285 

3d Thos. Williams Capt — William Ink Lt — Hardy 
Ware Ensign 


1st Benja. Hatherley Capt — Saml. Cantley Lt — Lewis 
Hall Ensign 

2d John Maupin Capt — Joshua Brock Lt — Jno. 
Sappington Ensign 

3d Augte Chouteau Capt — 

Regimental Staff — John Washington Thompson Adjutant 


Nathl Cook Lt colo comdt. Jno. Donohue Major of 1st 
Jno. Callaway Major of 2d Battalion 


1st Thomas Oliver Captain — Jno. McArthur Lt Jo? 
Hertick Ensign 

2d Jno Bossieur Capt — James Rigdon Lt — Jos 
Amoureux Ensign 

3d Eichd Moore Capt — Tho Riney Lt — Tho Patterson 

4 Frs. B. Cessell Capt — Mark Brooks Lt — Saml 
McCall Ensign 


1st William Dillon Capt — William Sims Lt — Benja. 
La Chance Ensign 

2d Andw. Miller Capt — Isaac Murphy Lt — John 
Burnham Ensign 

286 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

3d Henry Poston Capt — Archd. Huddleston Lt — 
Alexr. Craighead Ensign 

Regimental Staff — Joseph Hertick Pay Master — Wm 
McFarland Adjutant 


Daniel M. Boone Lt colo. comdt. — Peter Journey Major 
of the 1st Robert Spencer Major of the 2d and 
Benja. Cooper Major of the 3d Battalion — 


1st John Mc Connell Capt Peter Teague Lt — Joseph 
Yardley Ensign 

2 Isaac Vanbibber Capt Anthony Head Lt — William 
Cassio Ensign 

3d Saml Gibson Capt Isaac Hostetter Lt Robert Gray 

4th Nathl Simonds Capt Roswell Dusky Lt — Wm 
Ewing Ensign 

5 Elisha Collard Capt James Lewis Lt — Jacob 
Groshong Ensign 


1st William Hartt Capt Osborn Knott Lt Ralph 
Flaugherty Ensign 

2d Henry Hight Capt Sylvestre Pattie Lt Charles 
Dennis Ensign 

3d Saml. Griffith Capt Charles Soucier Lt — Eben 
Ayres Ensign 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820, 287 


1 Sarchel Cooper Capt Wm. Mc Mahan Lt — Benja 
Cooper Jr Ensign 

2d Jas Alexander Capt Jno. Morrow Lt — Amos 
Barnes Ensign 

3d William Head Capt David Mc Quitty Lt — John 
Berry Ensign 

Prs. Coursolle Capt Jos Eivard Lt Louis Dehetre 
Ensign of a corny, at Sans Dessein — 

Regimental Staff — Henry Hight Judge Advocate — Jas. 
Beatty Adjt. Stephen Hempstead Q Master. — 


Stephen Byrd Lt colo. comdt. Geo F Bollinger Major of 
1st James Brady Major of 2d Battn 


1st Abrm. Byrd — Capt — Austin Young Lieut. Andrew 
Byrne Ensign 

2d Geo C Miller Capt — H. Bollinger son of D[an] Lt — 
Daniel Krytz Ensign 

3d Wm. Johnson Capt — John Baker Lt. — Thos. Izner 

4th Adam Ground Capt — Adam Shell Lt — John Ground 


1st Abm. Dougherty Capt — Jacob Shepherd Lt — Elijah 
Dougherty Ensign 

288 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

2d Jesse JefTry Capt — Jacob Fryend Lt — John Fryend 


3d James Ravenscraf t Capt — Medad Randall Lt — 
Elijah Randall Ensign 

4 Geo Jameson Capt — Charles Logan Lt — Wm. 
Ingram Ensign 

Regimental Staff Samuel Dunn Pay Master — Erasmus 
Ellis Surgeon 


Jno. E. Hartt — Lt colo. comdt. Stephen Ross Major of 
1st & Jos Hunter Major 2d Battalion 


Elisha Winsor Capt — Thos. Winsor Lt — Joseph Shields 

Edwd Matthews Capt — Jos Smith Lt — James Lucas 

Saml Cooper Capt — Robert Boyd Lt — Alexr La Forge 

Benja Myers Capt — Jno Walker Lt — Joseph Westbrook 

Edwd Tanner Capt — Andw. Robertson Lt — Danl. 
Stringer Ensign 

Jno Hines — Capt — Alexr Willard Lt — Jacob Gibson 

Regimental Staff Richd H. Waters Judge Advocate 
Jno Walker Adjutant 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 289 


Wm H. Ashley Lt colo comdt. Andrew Henry Major of 
the 1st Martin Ruggles Major of 2d Battalion 


1st Jacob Pettitt Captain — William James Lieut. 
Stephen F. Austin Ensign 

2d Jesse Blackwell Capt Anthony Wilkinson Lieut. 
Benja. Home Ensign 

3d Robert F. Brown Capt James H. Moutree Lieut. 
Drury Gooche Ensign 


1st Joshua Morrison Capt Zach Goforth Lt Thomas Mc- 
Laughlin Ensign 

2d Timothy Phelps Capt William Reed Lt James Gray 

3d Job Westover Capt John Baker Lieut Joseph Wood 


Anthony Haden Lieut, colo. comdt. — Danl. Mooney Major 
of 1st Major of 2d Battalion 


1st Alexr. Kendrick — Capt William Glassen Lieut. Wil- 
liam Dunn Ensign 

2d James Scull — Capt Peter Lef evre Lieut. Charles 
Bougy Ensign 

3d Samuel Moseley — Capt Lemuel Currin Lieut 


290 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 


1st Edward Hogan Capt John Payatte Lieut. Joseph 
Duchassin Ensign 

2d Jno. C. Newell Capt Benja. Murphy Lieut. Geo 
Eankin Ensign 

3d William Berney Capt Isaac Cates Lieut. Saml. 
Gates Ensign 


Capt — Jno. Scott 1st Lt — E. A. Elliott 2d Lt 

Jas C. Young Cornet Wm. James Purser 

Capt 1st Lt — Joshua Dodson 2d 

Lt Jno B Stone Cornet Jona. Riggs Purser 

John W. Thompson Captain — Alexander Lucas 1st Lieut. 
Absalom Link 2d Lieut. 


James Rankin Capt Jno Geiger Lieut. Joseph Andrews 
Ensign Joseph Hanks Purser 

Morris Young Capt Thomas Wyley Lieut. James Pat- 
terson Ensign Tho McWilliams Purser 

John Hughes Capt William Strother Lt Thos Reed 
Ensign Timy. Phelps Purser 

Samuel Philips Captain Philip Ross Lieutenant Robert 
Trotter Ensign 


Joseph Conway Captain — Richard Caulk Lieutenant 
Thomas Caulk Ensign 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 291 

Joseph Millard Captain — Stephen Martin Lieutenant 
Anthony Bridger Ensign 

Manuel Lisa Captain — Barthelemy Berthold Lieutenant 
Francis Guyol Ensign 


Charles Lucas — Captain — John McKnight 1st Lieut. 
Joseph Henderson 2d Lieut. 

Secretary's Office St Louis Oct 1st 1814 

Frederick Bates 


Whereas I have been informed by the House of Rep- 
resentatives the county of St Louis, has become vacant 
by the death of the [incumbent] 

I do therefore require you to cause Election to be 
[held] at which time there will be chosen by the People, 
in the [County of St. Louis, a representative] 

In testy whereof I have caused the seal &c. [to be at- 

Given under my hand 8th Deer 1814 — 


Dec. 10. 1814. 
Yr letter of 16th Nov was reed this morng. — It gives 
me much pleasure on several accts. — I had some anxiety 

!«Rufus Easton came to St. Louis with Governor Harrison in 1804. 
He became a judge under the act creating the Territory of Louisiana, but 
was not reappointed in 1806. He was the first postmaster of St. Louis 
and for a time acted as United States attorney. In 1814 he was elected 
delegate to congress from Missouri Territory. 

292 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

as [to] the construction Mr Pleasants might put on the 
frequency of my application to him, on behalf of my friends 
as well as on my own acct. There is perhaps not another 
man for whom I feel such deeply rooted respects. — And 
if I had no other incitement to an honorable conduct, than 
the hopes of his good opinion, it would be an all sufficient 
inducement. — 

Those interested in Lands have been constantly desirous 
of knowing my opinion as to the interpretation of the first 
section of the act of 12th of April last. — As the business 
of my office cannot, in the very nature of things, (& by 
order of Govt too) progress faster than the surveys, I 
have maintained a cautious silence. — Several questions 
were lately put to me with more than usual earnestness 
on these subjects, when I was obliged to say to them that 
if the law was obscure they ought to apply to you for a 
declaratory act. — 

The death of Seth Emmons 17 left a vacancy in the House 
of Representatives to supply which Mr Lucas & Dr Farrar 
are the Candidates. The canvass will be very warm — the 
event doubtful. — If Lucas succeeds, he will probably try 
titles with greater politicians than the Dr. at the next 
Genl Elections, — and it cannot be doubted that I wish him 
success very heartily. — Wm. C Carr is surely the most 
impudent man alive. He pretends to think hardly of me 
for purchasing the lot on the hill and is persecuting LeDuc 
with the most poisoned animosity. How he has become 
Compromised] in this affair is altogether unconceivable — 
At the time he accepted the conveyance from Clamorgan, 
he well knew as I can from his Bro in law, that this very 

17 Seth Emmons represented St. Louis in the first territorial council 
of Missouri. 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec., 1820. 293 

Clamorgan had long before conveyed the lot in question 
to the late Secy. Browne. When I purchased of the Rep- 
resentatives of Browne I was totally ignorant of the fraud- 
ulent attempt to deprive them of their property by the 2 
deed to Carr. Had I known of them I might with perfect 
propriety have made the purchase ; yet it is very likely that 
I should not have done so, as it is always best to avoid 
contest with low minded People. — It is said that Mr Carr 
will make a misrepresentation of this business in order to 
prevent my reappointment to the Secretaryship, — This I 
take to be mere bluster to impress our village People with 
the notion that he really thinks himself injured — Yet the 
thing has been told in sober seriousness by one of his 
friends to one of mine — Altho' it is always desirable to 
meet our enemies in sunshine or at least in day light, I 
will not like Ajax in Sir Wm. Draper 18 insist upon the 
thing as a Sine qua non, provided I am permitted to meet 
their accusations. — And this I am very certain you will 
enable me to do. 


St. Louis Deer. 18. 1814 

Mr Jno Perry is hereby permitted to explore the United 
States' untenanted Lands within the County of Washing- 
ton for the purpose of discovering Lead Mines. Should 
he make the discovery he is at liberty to ascertain their 
extent & richness by such operations as are usual & neces- 
sary for those objects — And as soon as may be convenient 

is Draper is remembered mainly because of his controversy with 

294 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

thereafter transmit an acct. of his proceedings to this office 
that he may obtain a Lease for the same 

Frederick Bates, Recr L Titles 

& Agent for Lead Mines — 


St. Louis April 1st 1815. 

Whatever may be the hardships which you suffer from 
interruption in your possession of the mines, I cannot 
answer your letter of the 14th March, until you comply 
with the condition on which the President is willing to 
approve the Leases. — I wrote you expressly in January 
last that the approbation was conditional — My words are 
these 'The President has indeed approved the Lease on 
condition the payment of the rents be secured in a satis- 
factory manner/ And now you say you are willing to do 
so when I require it. — Sir, I did require it in my letter 
of 24th Jany. and do again require it. — 

The responsibilities which I owe to the commissioner 
of the General Land Office oblige me to be thus explicit. 


St. Louis April 24th 1815. 

James Gray, 19 Jno. Stoddard and Joseph Wheat, having 
as they alledge discovered a Lead Mine on the Lands of 
the United States, on the waters of Big River about eight 

is In 1800 he was living near the mouth of the Meramec. In 1814 
he was an ensign in the Washington County regiment. 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 295 

miles from mine Shibboleth & 20 from Herculaneum adjoin- 
ing the claim of Jno. Thurman are hereby permitted to 
ascertain the richness and probable extent of said mine, 
by the usual operations — if the said discovery be really 
on the lands of the United States — 

On the following conditions to wit — That said persons 
shall keep and render to this Office a just and true acct. of 
the mineral raised or to be raised — & pay therefor the 
usual rents to the government — 

That they shall report the result of their search, to this 
Office within one month — at which time a lease will be 
given in the usual manner, on said persons giving satis- 
factory security — Provided others have not better claims. 

If the permission be not renewed the said James Gray 
for himself & Partners promises & obliges himself to deliver 
the Premises to the Eecorder of Land Titles if so required 
to do, after the expiration of one month. — 

Frederick Bates 
Witness present. — Recorder L. Titles 

Edw. Bates James Gray 


St. Louis Deer. 18th. 1815 
My Dear Brother 

From the excellent weather we have had you will arrive 
at Washington sooner than was at first expected. Yet I 
should not write to you so soon if I had not been particu- 
larly requested to do so by Mr Connor and several 

20 Edward Bates was a seventh son. He served six months in the 
War of 1812. At the age of twenty he came to St. Louis. He studied 
in the law office of Rufus Easton and was admitted to the bar in 1816. 
He was soon made district attorney. He rose rapidly in his profession and 

296 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

others — You heard before your departure that Judge 
Lucas and Colo. Chouteau intended to offer a square of 
ground for the erection of the public buildings of the 
County and that the lot they had pitched upon lies on the 
hill near the Court house, a situation which they contend 
is the most eligible about the town — Mr. Connor has deter- 
mined with the warm concurrence of all the large land 
holders at the upper end of the town, to offer a large lot 
at the south east corner of his tract, and as all of them 
are much interested, they seem to think if you have any 
particular wishes on the subject that the making known 
of your opinion and views might have some influence on 
the commissioners appointed to manage the business on 
the part of the County; the bill for the appointment of 
commissioners was to pass its third reading today — I 
think there will be large offers made at both ends of the 
Town, and perhaps subscriptions opened — I told the gen- 
tlemen who conversed with me on the subject that I did 
not think you would take any part in the affair, but as they 
were very solicitous I agreed to inform you of the above 

The Legislature is very busily employed in altering and 
abolishing former provisions, and in passing supplemental 
bills but they create very little, and in fact their character 
for prudence and wisdom is not at all advanced in my esti- 
mation. They are again making great changes in the 
judiciary system — and have introduced ' an occupying 
claimant Law' with the same villainous features as its Ken- 
tucky model 

But this letter was not intended as a letter of news, it 
is written merely on the above request. 

became a national figure. His highest honor was a position in the Lin- 
coln cabinet. 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 297 


a Saint Louis 14th January 1816. 

The Chairman of the Land Committee has required proof 
that the Settlers (i e the early settlers) at Boonslick 22 did 
actually settle by permission of the then Executive Magis- 
trate of this Territory. They have frequently stated to me, 
and I find they state it also in their petition to Con- 
gress that you then exercised the Government It is im- 
practicable to send to those people and procure any thing 
on the subject, in time to forward it to Washington before 
Congress will adjourn. 

Therefore if it really be fact as stated in said petition 
will you satisfy the committee in that behalf? — Perhaps 
it also known to you that those people have suffered very 
much by the late war maintained their ground & servered 
as malitia enrolled in actual service &c. — The Gov-s form- 
ing them into Batalions & companies & their having been 
a second time received into the Jurisdiction of the Terri- 
tory. Any friendly aid rendered will doubtless be grate- 
fully acknowledged by those people. . . . 

NB We do not want W Clark our Governor any longer — 
I have no doubt this would be freely subscribed by nine 
tenths of the Territory — also Govn & Superintendent — 
two men. 

si Bates was then in Washington, D. C. 

22 In 1807 Nathan and Daniel M. Boone, sons of Daniel Boone, with 
three others manufactured salt in central Missouri, which region hence- 
forth was known as the Boonslick Country. The region was beset by 
Indians in the War of 1812. The settlers defended themselves by build- 
ing blockhouses and by forming volunteer companies. 

298 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 




Washn. March 17. 1816.— 
The first section provides for the confirmation of incom- 
plete Grants of the French and Spanish Governments — 
The Acts of Congress (See Land Laws p. 305 Sec 1. p. 
316 Sec 4) appear to be founded on strict principles of 
Law — that is of position right on the part of the claimants 
and of obligation on that of the government. — It was nec- 
essary for a confirmation that the claimant should have in- 
habited and cultivated the land of which he had been put 
into the possession under the concession, order or war- 
rant. This was required by the Spanish usages to which 
our Law of 3d March 1807 (4 Sec) refers. — The claimants 
had good titles — And the Government in issuing the Pat- 
ents only gave evidence of those titles. — But these prin- 
ciples were considerably relaxed, or rather they were alto- 
gether done away by the Act of 12 of April 1814. This Act 
demands nothing of the party — it only inquires whether 
or not the warrant or order of survey had been executed 
at the time of the actual change of the flag — that is when 
"Wilkinson & Claiborne at N. Orleans & Maj Stoddard at 
St Louis took possession of the country. However gratui- 
tous this liberality of Congress might have been, Justice 
does now seem to require a farther provision that its opera- 
tion may equally reach all the legitimate objects of it. No 
provision has yet been made, such as the first section of 
this bill provides for the holders of unexecuted warrants. 
The sovereign sanctions of the country had been given in 

23 This was prepared by Bates for James Clark of the congressional 
committee on the public lands. 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec., 1820. 299 

their favour, and nothing but a ministerial act of a sub- 
ordinate Spanish officer remained to be done — Nothing- 
was wanted but the process verbal of survey — Let that 
process verbal be dispensed with — And let our surveyors 
do that which the Spanish surveyor had not time to per- 
form — And which at last, is merely an official routine 
consequent on the incohation [inchoation] of the claim. 
This provision with the limitation which the 1st Sec of the 
Act establishes will make the liberality of the American 
Government consistent. — 

The second section of the bill provides for the grant, 
under Settlement Eight Provisions [of] such lands as had 
been improved or cultivated on or before the 10th Mar 
1804 [It] does not occur to me why this date should not 
have been rather 20 Augt. 1804 as by the existing Laws, 
cultivation at that time has been made the basis of grant 
(See Act of June 13. 1812). The former Laws (See Land 
Laws P. 305 Sec 2. P. 311 Sec 1 P. 315 Sec 2 — Sec 3 of 
Act of June 13. 1812 — Sec 4 of Act of 3 March 1813 — Sec 
2d. of Act of 12 April 1814) required that these acts of 
ownership should have been performed both prior to and 
on certain given days to wit, in first instance, 20th Dec. 
1803, time of the transfer at Orleans & in the second in- 
stance, 10 March 1804 time of the transfer at St Louis. 
It is proposed by this section of the bill to dispense with 
the continuation of the improvement & require only that 
it should have been either on or prior to those days respec- 
tively assumed for the state of Louisiana & ter of Missouri 
and to extend the donation in all cases to the quantity of 
640 acres or a mile square. As to the first object of this 
section I would only remark that this class of claimants 
is principally composed of persons whose settlements were 

300 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

broken up by the incursions of the Indians and by other 
casualties incident to a frontier no part of which was 
deemed to be secure until the transfer to the U States. As 
to the second object of the section, I believe it to be true 
that the comparatively inconsiderable number of persons 
who claimed less than 640 acres [were] themselves com- 
pelled by the then existing arrangements. They would 
have claimed more, had they not thought themselves bound 
to proportion their quantity to the number of their fam- 
ilies. It was not then the voluntary act of the claimant but 
the principles of our own Laws as they were understood 
by the Treasury department. Mr Gallatin on the opinion 
of Mr Breckenridge the Atty. General instructed the com- 
missioners to graduate these claims as to quantity accord- 
ing to the ratio established by the Spanish Usages. This 
was understood, at the time in Upper Louisiana and for 
the most part disregarded by the People who thought it a 
harsh construction of the Law. Some few however entered 
according to this ratio believing that no more would ulti- 
mately be granted — And those conscientious people are 
perhaps at this day as much entitled to the full quantity 
as those who will receive it under the 4th Sec of the act 
of 3d March 1813 

The third section provides for opening the office as well 
for original notice as for the introduction of evidence. It 
would seem that opportunities for entering claims had been 
already afforded (See Land Laws P. 306 Sec. 4. — P. 312 
Sec 3 — P. 317 Sec 5. — Sec 7 of Act of 13 June 1812) 
Yet I know the fact to be that there are yet some few claims 
not entered, owing in some cases to the ignorance of the 
holders. — Neither speaking, writing nor understanding 
our language, they have not known the forms of business — 
and not unfrequently have been ignorant of the necessity 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec., 1820. 301 

for entry created by our Laws. A liberal justice to an 
acquired province would, I think, dictate the arrangements 
made by this section — And I am sure expediency would 
imperiously demand them — for altho ' barred by the Laws 
they would not fail at some future period to load your 
tables with Petitions for individual relief — 

Thus much ad to the entry of notices — But as to the 
introduction of testimony, the necessity of such a pro- 
vision is, it seems to me enforced by every consideration 
of justice and of right. The 3d Sec of the act of 13 June 
1812 extended the time of cultivating the donation claims 
till 20 Augt. 1804 with the supposition, no doubt, that 
whereever the fact existed, the proofs of that fact was 
now the record. In some few cases however, it is other- 
wise — for in recording the testimony previously to that 
time, nothing of a more recent [date] than the time then 
limited, was, in the ordinary course of business, entered 
on the minutes. If it sometimes appear on the record, it 
was at the earnest instance of the claimant or his agent. 
The first Section of the act of 3d March 1813 will be found 
not to permit the introduction of testimony to meet the 
extension provided for by the act of June 1812 And I 
trust it is sufficiently obvious that claimants in that situa- 
tion should be permitted to prove themselves entitled to 
those benefits which it was the intention of that act to 
confer. — 


o Washington City April 9. 1816. 

I have heard with much regret that in the late consoli- 
dation of the army, you lost that station which in the 

24 John A. Shaw was a Pennsylvania!!. He entered the United States 

302 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

opinion of your friends you had filled with so much pro- 
priety and usefulness. 

In the reduction of great establishments the occurrence 
of hardships of this kind is unavoidable. — Time may cor- 
rect the caprices of fortune — Do not despair — Accident — 
a change of scene — some new modification, will, I greatly 
hope, from time to time, restore to the service of their 
country those meritorious men who contributed so largely 
to the successful termination of the late war. — I have been 
solicited by persons who do not know the absolute obscur- 
ity in which I live, to assist in your restoration. I have 
nothing to offer you but my good wishes. We have known 
each other for years in the western country — and the 
undeviating rectitude of your conduct, as far as I was ac- 
quainted with it, or could presume to judge of it, was 
acknowledged by all — 

It will give me great pleasure to hear of your future 


[Washington], Nov 10. 1816 

With permission I will recapitulate the contracts with 

On the 15th Sept 1814 the Agent by order of the Presi- 
dent thro' the comr. of Land Dept. leased to Amable Par- 
Army as an ensign in the 1st infantry in 1809. He became a second 
lieutenant in 1812 and a first lieutenant in 1814. He received an honor- 
able discharge on June 15, 1815, but was reinstated on May 17, 1816, 
serving henceforth in the light artillery. 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dee., 1820. 303 

tenay the following Lead Mines in the county of Wash- 

Mine A Straddle 300 acres 

Mine A Burton 200 acres 

*Mine A Bourassar 800 acres* 18241 

Shous's Mine 200 acres 

*Little Diggings 200 acres 40910 

*Martins Mines 200 acres 529592 

Sievers Mines 800 acres 


As it was expected that he would not gain the possession 
in less than 5 days — this Contract was made to extend to 
20 Sepr. 1815 — On the 30th day of that month he settled 
his accts with the Agents for all the mineral reed up to 
that day — to wit for 588,743 pounds reed, from the Mines 
marked with asterisks which at $4 per thousand amounts 
to — $2354. .97 cts. — The Covenants were renewed after 
this payment, for the then follg 12 mos. at 350 cts. per 
thousand previously to the expiration of which term to wit- 
on the 24 Sepr. 1816 — A Partenay settled with the Agent 
for 463,477 pds. of Mineral which at 350 cts amts to $1622 — 
Overpd. 3 Ds. carrd to his Cr. The Lease has been again 
renewed subject to pleasure of the President [subject to] 25 
the same rents & to include a late Discovery called Macons 
Diggings — In this last contract James Scott 26 is a joint 
contractor with Partenay — 

From this recapitulation it appears, (and I declare upon 
honor that I believe the statement to be just & true) that 
I have received at difft times from Partenay the sum of 

25 The original manuscript is here illegible. 

26 James Scott was living at Mine a Burton in 1802. 

304 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

$3979. .97 cts. — and no more — The monies may not have 
be [en] actually paid at the times stated — Sometimes on 
settlement. I have been satisfied with good assurances on 
an early future day — 

The revenues from these mines are indeed inconsider- 
able. Sir, it is not my fault — I have made no unworthy 
compromises — No misapplications of the public money. 
When the Government think proper to take possession of 
what is rightfully their own, the Revenues will necessarily 
be very considerable. — At present your Agent is de- 
famed — And your tenant but the treatment which he 
has received has been of a character too shameful to be 
here repeated — it was communicated at the time. — - 

[Bates' note of explanation]. This statement I gave in to 
the actg. officers of the Treasury when I was in Washing- 
ton — They owed me money on a general settlement — for 
services & compensations in other capacities — not ex- 
pence s of Agency. — 


St. Louis February 1st. 1817. — 
Gentlemen, j 

There is one article of your covenants with which you 
have not yet complied — to wit the rendering of quarterly 
Accounts — I ask that this may be attended to without 
delay — And I moreover require that the first quarters 
payment of rents be also made — In Mr Scott's punctu- 
ality I have every reliance — but Mr Partenay ought to 
have recollected that he yet owes an Acct. of the unfinished 
business of his former Lease, as well as a few hundred 
Dollars, which I have advanced for him to the Govern- 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec, 1820. 305 

ment. — I am in very great want of Money. — If I do not 
hear from you within a reasonable time, I must take meas- 
ures to avoid those censures which I might expect to receive 
from those by whom I am employed. . . . 
[P. S] The President has not yet explicitly approved — 
And if he discovers this want of punctuality, the probability 
is that he will disapprove. — 


Office of the Recorder of Land Titles 

St. Louis April 29. 1817. 

Major Langham, 27 is permitted to explore and ascertain 
the extent and richness of a supposed Lead Mine, of which 
he is alledged to have been the first discoverer, if (and is 
believed) situated on the public Lands of the United 
States. — Sections 19. 20. 17. 18 — or parts thereof — 
Township 41 N. of Base Line — Range one E of 5. P. 
Meridian — On both sides of Meramec. For some time 
past this office, tho ' its powers in that respect have not been 
revoked, has made no Leases of Lead Mines — If this 
should be found to be an object worth attention, I will en- 
deavour to procure for Major Langham as favorable an 
arrangement as the circumstances of the case may war- 
rant. — In the meantime this is intended to secure him 
from intrusion and to exempt him from any penalty to 
which he might be liable under the Laws of U. S. without 
Licence from the President. 

Frederick Bates 

27 Probably Angus Lewis Langham, who was one of the promoters of 
a town called Osage at the mouth of the Petite Osage. It proved to be 
an ephemeral enterprise. 

306 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 


McCreary's, 75 miles from 
My De. Brother, Kaskaskia, Aug:18. 1818. 

We left Shawanee Town on the day before yesterday, 28 
mother and sister are in pretty good spirits & tolerable 
health — Notwithstanding the extreme badness of the 
roads — which I believe is always the case here after hard 
rains. They came down by water — I brought the horses 
across, and altho' the voyage was disagreeable yet upon 
the whole there was no great matter to complain of — We 
had no accident on the whole trip till we left the Ohio, since 
when we have broken 3 swingletrees but our knives soon 
got a substitute 

I am fearful our carriage horses will fag as we find little 
or nothing to feed them with but green corn stalks & all — 
We shall come on slowly, 20 or 25 miles a day & shall prob- 
ably keep the Kaska : road altho ' the longest, being told it 
is better for carriage, and affords better accommodations. 
I long to be at home & you may be sure I shall be at St 
Louis as soon as my horses will bring me. From Shawanee, 
I have taken Ben, 29 {yr. Blacksmith) as our driver — he 
is not experienced but is very careful & does well — The 
boat left Shawanee the same day we did — James goes 
round with the negroes & is accompanied by a Mr. Brown 
who, I believe will be much assistance to him — I write this 

28 in July, 1817 Edward Bates went to Virginia to dispose of the 
Belmont estate. He remained there for about a year. In July, 1818 he 
started for St. Louis with his mother and a sister. His brother James 
followed with the slaves. Edward Bates to Frederick Bates, September 
1, September 29, and October 13, 1817, July 19 and August 18, 1818, Bates 

29 One of the slaves. 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec., 1820. 307 

Just to let you know when to look for us — as to our affairs 
you will have to wait till we meet. . . . 

P. S. This is Wednesday but I am not sure whether the 
18th 19th or 20th of the month — . . . 

Boucoup Aug: 21st ,18 — (Friday) — We shall probably 
be at St : Louis some time on monday next — High waters 
have retarded us a little — The flies are very bad but our 
horses stand it wonderfully — A gentleman going directly 
to St. Louis (who will out travel us) has been good enough 
to promise a conveyance for this — 


Know all men by these presents that I Samuel Sydnor 
of the county of St Louis in the territory of Missouri, for 

and in consideration of the sum of four hundred 

dollars to him in hand paid by Frederick Bates and also for 
and in consideration of the friendship which has subsisted 
your earliest infancy between Nancy Bates the wife of said 
Frederick, and the said Samuel, he the said Samuel B 
Sydnor has bargained, sold and delivered — and by these 
presents does bargain, sell and deliver to the said Fred- 
erick Bates for the sole use and benefit of the said Nancy 
his wife a negro Girl named Lucy about six years old, to be 
held in trust for the said Nancy Bates her heirs, or the 
assigns of herself and husband forever. 

And the said Samuel B. Sydnor does covenant with the 
said Frederick Bates, as Trustee as aforesaid that the title 
to the said Lucy is unincumbered, and that he will warrant 
and defend the title to the said Slave against all claims 
whatsoever. — Given under my hand in the county of St 
Louis the second day of March, 1820. — 

Samuel B Sydnor (Seal) 

308 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

■pi ^ « St. Louis September 14th 1820. 

Since I saw you in town I have had an attack of the 
fever and ague, of which however I have recovered — that 
together with the indisposition of my brother Isaac has 
prevented my coming out to see you as I proposed. 

As the meeting of the Legislature is at hand, you will 
excuse me for again introducing the subject I spoke to you 
on. I am informed by McNair & others from the upper 
country that it is the wish of many of the members from 
that quarter you should run for the Senate, and the same 
wish I have heard frequently expressed by very respect- 
able gentlemen of this place. Col. Cook is a candidate & 
wil beat Benton. 

As to yourself I do believe there is no difficulty if you 
can give your own consent to be run. 


Know all men by these presents that I Samuel B. Sydnor 
for and in consideration of the sum of four hundred dollars 
to me in hand paid by Frederick Bates, have bargained 
sold and delivered and by these presents do bargain sell 
and deliver to the said Frederick Bates, a Negro Woman 
Slave, named Sylvia, in full and absolute property of said 
Bates his Heirs and assigns 

30 Joshua Barton, a brother of Senator David Barton, was associated 
with Edward Bates in the practice of law. He was secretary of state for 
Missouri in 1821, but resigned to become United States attorney for Mis- 
souri. He was killed in a duel with Rector on June 30, 1823. 

The Bates Papers, July, 1813 — Dec., 1820. 309 

And the said Samuel B. Sydnor does hereby covenant 
with the said Frederick Bates, that the title to the said 
Slave Sylvia is unencumbered, and that the said Slave is 
sound in her health and bodily constitution — all which 
he will warrant and defend. Given under my hand in the 
county of St Louis in the State of Missouri, this Fifth day 
of December one thousand eight hundred and twenty 

Witness Samuel B Sydnor 

John Ward 

The Later Years 



Dr. Brother, St - Louis Ma y 15 « 1823 - 

Mr Leduc being* about to visit you in a few days, I take 
the occasion to write you, lest circumstances should frus- 
trate my intention of calling upon you the last of this week 
or first of next. The pressure of business in the Supreme 
Court, at St Charles lately, and now here, and my daily 
hope of seeing you in town, have prevented me from making 
you acquainted with a matter which it much concerns me 
you should know. I am to be married 1 on the last thursday 
in this month (a fortnight from today), and hope you & 
my good sister will grace the occasion with your presence. 
It is not the intention to make any disrjlay on the occasion, 
but as the family connexion is pretty large, and I have 
invited several of my personal friends, of course there will 
be a considerable crowd. You will not only gratify me 
but comply with the wishes of the family by attending. 
It is likely you will see me before you receive this, yet I 
have thought it best to write for fear of accidents. 

I have also desired Mr Leduc to hand you a letter en- 
closed to me by Wm Russell 2 which I suppose relates to 
the delivery of certain patent certificates for surveys in 
Arkansas, and correction of the list of confirmed claims 
in that Country, which he says is defective, in as much as 
he alleges that some 10 or 15 confirmed claims in which he 

i Edward Bates married Miss Julia D. Coalter. 

2 William Russell filed three hundred and nine claims, but only 
twenty-three of these were confirmed. 


314 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

is interested now are omitted on the list. He has written 
to me to attend to this business, & I have promised to apply 
to you for that purpose 

He urges me to apply for all the Arkansas certs, in which 
he was agent (with a few exceptions). But it was impos- 
sible for me to ascertain his agency without a laborious 
search, and your assistance, which I could not ask you to 
give; the matter is at present deferred. . . . 

You can cross the Missouri at Lewis' ferry — the worst 
of the road is on this side, and the distance not more than 
12 or 14 miles. 


Know all men by these presents that I Benjamin L. Todd 
of the county of Pike county in the state of Missouri, 
for and in consideration of the sum of six hundred and 
fifty dollars to me in hand paid by Frederick Bates of 
the county of St Louis in the state aforesaid, hath bar- 
gained sold and delivered and by these presents do 
bargain sell and deliver to said Frederick Bates One 
negro woman slave named Winney with her three female 
children Hannahrette, Mary and Harriott — to have and 
to hold the said four slaves to him the said Frederick 
Bates his Heirs and Assigns forever — And I the said 
Benja L. Todd do covenant with said Frederick Bates 
that I have had until this transfer a full, free and unen- 
cumbered property in said Slaves and that I will defend 
the title against all claims or pretensions to said 
Frederick Bates his Heirs Assigns. Given under my hand 
this Second day of March AD 1824. 
Witness Benjamin L. Todd (SS) 

Chas[?] Kinkead 

The Later Years. 315 


My Dr. Brother, St - Louis 30 June 1824 

As Mr Moore is just taking his departure for yr. house, 

I take the opportunity to drop you a line. We were 
much surprised to learn that you had declined taking the 
tour of the State, which it was thought you had deter- 
mined upon. The policy of inactivity I think is very 
questionable ; but of this, doubtless you are the best judge. 
We have been expecting you in town daily — Some seem 
anxious to see you on political grounds merely — some 
on business in relation to yr. office, and I for various 

I believe it is since you were last in town that I have 
received the appointment of District Attorney. The 
ordinary duties of that Station are more immediately 
within my line than yours, but the recent passage of the 
land law (allowing claimants to commence actions in the 
District Court) will throw upon me a mass of business, 
the correct management of which will require a knowl- 
edge of facts and principles with which you are far better 
acquainted, than any other man in the State. The trans- 
action of this business I think, will be worth to me several 
thousand dollars, and being of a public nature, calculated 
to attract the attention of the public & the Government, 
I feel particularly anxious to be enabled to do the business 
in such a manner as may be creditable both to myself and 
those whom I represent. With these views, I beg you to 
direct your attention somewhat to that subject; for, in 
truth, the hope of acquitting myself handsomely in this 
thing, is bottomed very much upon the expectation of 
obtaining information and instruction from you. Per- 

316 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

haps, after you have seen the act, I may go so far as to 
request a written statement of yr. views on the subject 
with a reference to the various laws and regulations with 
which I know you to be entirely familiar. I have had a 
very slight view of the act, and believe that it does not 
contain any enlargement of the principles on which con- 
firmations can be founded, but merely provides for doing 
now in court, what might have been formerly done before 
the commisrs. or the recorder. 

I hope to see you soon on this & other subjects, in 
which yr. society may be useful as well as pleasant to me. 

My family is in perfect health except that my wife is 
very subject to severe head ache which she has at this 
moment, but wch. seldom lasts long. I am too busy in 
court affairs to indulge at present in any political specu- 
lations. Present my best respects to Mrs. B. & kiss the 
light infantry for me. . . . 
[P.S.] Thanks for the catsup. 


General Land Office 
giR Washington, D. C, Aug. 21, 1824 

I have the pleasure of acknowledging the receipt of your 
letter of the 24 Ulto. with a list of the claims confirmed by 
the Board of Commissioners. 

I would call your attention to the undermentioned cases 
in which the tracts relinquished to the U. S. under the 
Act of 17 Feby 1815 do not agree with the confirmations, 
and will thank you to give such explanations as the several 
cases may require — Viz 

The Later Years. 



No. Ill in favor of Benjn Fooy under 

John Hogan 

" 139 " " " Isaac Fooy 

" 140 " " " Elizabeth Jones 

" 237 " " " Caty Gallowhorn 

a 477 tt a a Edwd Proctor 

tt 5^4 a tt n Augustine Gonzales 

" 515 " " " Jno F. Almendros 




Con firmed 
as being in 
the County 
of A r k a n- 

Con firmed 
as being in 
the County 
of Cape 

164 " " " John Brooks 
224 " " " Charles Lucas 
232 " il " Jas Brady under 


John Tucker 

Stephen Quimby 

William Hacker 

Stepn Byrd under 
J. Bowden 

Jacob Millikin 

E Hogan under 

John Wellborn 

Abm Bird Senr. 

Robt Lane 

Charles Hogan 

104 and 105 issued to John B. Chartier on his hav- 
ing surrendered two lots in the Village of 
Little Prairie — No lots in that Village ap- 
pear to have been Confirmed to him. 

113 in favor of Conrad Wheat Junr for 640 acres 
but the only Confirmation in his favor is for 
450 arpens. 

318 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Location Certife No. 342 issued in the name of Jacob 
Sevego but the confirmation is to Jacob 

No. 371 in favor of James Noiris for 
300 arpens — the only tract that ap- 
pears to have been Confirmed to him 
Contains 351 arpens and is stated to be 
in Cape Girardeau County 
No. 388 issued in favor of Louis Baby 
for 250 arpens, when but 200 arpens 
appear to have been Confirmed to him. 


My Dr. Brother, St Louis Aug : 24. 1824. 

I am much concerned to hear of the sickness of yrself 
& family, particularly at a time when we were in daily 
expectation of seeing you in our City, & congratulating 
you on your easy & honorable election. Many of the 
good folks desire me to salute you Excellent. . . . 

It is amusing to observe what strange stories can be 
devised, & what wonderful contrivances invented by the 
descending, to break their fall. Genl: A. & his most 
ardent supporters will have it that you have not been 
so easily elected over him, by the spontaneous wishes of 
the people, nor on your own solid popularity; but for 
sooth, that I, even I, E. B. the great! did wickedly & 
maliciously write & compose divers wise, artful & cunning 
epistles and did most secretly & with great diligence & 
labor scatter & disperse them throughout the land, 
whereby the hearts of the people were suddenly turned 
& corrupted — the mighty laid low, and the humble 
exalted, yea to the pinacle of power. "Big man me!" 

The Later Years. 319 

If my letters could put the Gen: down (& by the bye I 
wrote none) he must be weaker than any of us supposed. 

What I wrote you the other day about Gamble, 3 was 
far from being dictated by any wish to obtrude upon your 
rights or duties — I merely meant to say that I think him 
fit for the office, and under present circumstances, I know 
the office to be particularly well fitted for him. He moved 
from Franklin here in hopes of, at once getting a good 
practice, this has not yet been realized, and being con- 
scious of superior talents to several who stand, as yet, 
above him at our bar, I think he is somewhat depressed. 
He was & deserved to be at the head of the bar in the 
upper Country, where his chief acquaintance is. 

-pv o Washington 6th February 1825 

I have received yours of 7 ult concerning Col. Reeves, 
and shall be happy in an opportunity of aiding him in the 
attainment of his object, should an occasion occur. With- 
out alluding to this application of Reeves, I regret to 
find such a number of applications for office from Mis- 
souri. You would be surprised to see some of my letters 
upon that subject from men who spell and write as badly 
as the Osage Agent. 

s Bates appointed Hamilton Rowan Gamble secretary of state. He 
had a long and honorable legal and public career. In 1846 he was a 
member of the legislature. In 1851 he was elected judge of the supreme 
court by an overwhelming majority, in spite of the fact that he ran on the 
whig ticket in a democratic state. In 1861 he was provisional governor 
of Missouri. 

4 United States senator from Missouri. 

320 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 

We have had some able discussion upon the bill to 
suppress piracy. Mr Tazewell 5 has done due honor to 
Virginia for chasing him to the Senate. After striking 
out such parts of the bill as proposed clandestine war 
upon Spain, the bill has been ordered to a 3d reading. 
From the threat of the silly King of Spain, to revoke 
the cession of Florida if we do not retract our acknow- 
ledgement of the Mexican and South American Inde- 
pendence, and from the collisions likely to arise with 
respect to the host of pirates who have sprung out of 
the revolutions of those countries, a war with Spain seems 
probable at no distant day. 

Mr Clay, you see, has determined to support Mr Adams 
for the Presidency. 

I think he is perfectly right in so doing — tho' it is 
rather leaving some of his over zealous friends in Mis- 
souri, in the lurch; but that is probably their fault and 
not his. If Gen. Jackson's indiscreet friends here are to 
be taken as specimens of his Court & favorites, during 
his reign, may that reign never commence. 

I send you a no. of Niles 6 containing much matter, 
which I pray you to take as part and parcel of this letter. 


Executive Office St. Charles Feb 8th. 1825 

A paper was reed, at this office, some time ago (handed 
perhaps by Mr. Smith) recommending Jabez Warner as 

s Littleton Waller Tazewell, United States senator from Virginia, 

e Niles' Register. 

"' Members of the general assembly from Jefferson County. 

The Later Years. 321 

Judge of Probate for the county of Jefferson. — I cannot 
consent to this course. — If the General Assembly had 
thought proper to have made that Office elective by the 
People, they had full power and would certainly have 
done so. — But then they would, at the same time have 
prescribed an observance of all the usual forms. — The 
People would have had due notice — there would have 
been managers, to see among other things that no unquali- 
fied persons were admitted to the Polls, — and Clerks to 
take down the names of the voters — And in all respects 
there would have been an open competition. The public 
sentiment when fully and fairly expressed will always be 
binding on me on subjects of expediency — but a hasty 
and ex parte exhibition of names will not always influence 
my public conduct, especially in cases where I am enjoined 
by the laws to exercise my own best judgments and dis- 

As the matter now stands the nomination is with the 
Governor, and the responsibility is his. — I assume that 
responsibility — The People of Jefferson, I know very 
well, can have no deliberate wish to take upon themselves 
the powers confided by law to the Executive — And it is 
to be supposed if they made such an attempt, that at least, 
all persons not qualified to vote on other occasions would 
be excluded from a participation in a procedure so unpre- 
cedented. I do myself believe that Mr. Warner is very 
well qualified for the office — but that he better deserves 
it than any other Citizen of Jefferson is not pretended — 

I wish there to be no misunderstanding. — When I con- 
sulted you it was for information — and with a wish too, 
to consult, as far as possible, your inclinations — After 
your disagreement in opinion, and after the withdrawal of 

322 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

the names which you had respectively offered me (Messrs. 
Lewis & Hammond) I think it right to follow the dictates 
of own understanding, and nominate to the Senate an 
individual whom neither of you have either recommended 
or supported, — and one too, who shall not seem to be 
imposed upon me by Petitions very hastily gotten up. 

Deae Si ^ St Louis Febry. 14th, 1825 

I now receive your letter of the 9th instant on the 
subject of the Patent Certificates; Mr. Hunt, as I wrote 
to you will wait till you come to Town to have an under- 
standing with you about them: but should he use legal 
means to get them, how can it be resisted — he neverthe- 
less would have to enter into bond with sufficient security 
for the redelivery or fees dues thereon. — but this cannot 
be his views, for he said that he is of opinion that those 
P.O. ought not to have been prepared, that is I believe 
null and void — I will not in the mean time lose sight of 
our interest. 

Please, accept my most sincere thanks for the trouble 
you have taken, in my nomination of Judge of Probate 
I heard enough here of the intrigues which were practised 
to procure it to another. 

Dear Sir St Louis April 3d. 1825. 

Having understood that Mr Reeves our lieutenant Gov- 
ernor was one of the Commissioners appointed by 

The Later Years. 323 

Government to locate a road from this State to new 
mexico I take the liberty to request of you the favor of 
writing to him in behalf of my nephew Bene Paul 8 as a 
proper person to be employed by the Commissioners as 
principal surveyor in that Expedition you being 
acquainted with him & his talents as an Engineer being 
now so well established I think it unnecessary to say 
any more to you on the subject I must however observe 
that his knowledge of the Spanish language may become 
very useful to the party in Getting into the Spanish 

Please to accept My best wishes for your welfare. 


During the session of the legislature I informed the two 
Houses of the intention of General Lafayette to visit 
this state in the month of April or May, that they might 
if they thought proper cause him to be received as the 
Guest of the nation. — They made no order, they gave to 
me no instructions. — My judgment entirely coincides with 
theirs — They as well as myself, entertain for the Genl. 
the most perfect respect — but surely he has had already 
sufficient evidences of that cordiality & good will which 
a free and enlightened People are always disposed to 
show to their friends — and of that homage too, which 
ought to be rendered to the illustrious assertor of the 
equal rights of Mankind. — His devotions at the holy 
sepulchre of Washington — his visits to our renowned 

s A St. Louis merchant. 

9 Lafayette visited St. Louis April 29, 1825. 

324 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

fix President — his transits thro' our Atlantic cities — 
his laborious attendance in the halls of our national Legis- 
lature, with sundry et ceteras might one would think be 
sufficient to exhaust the patience of the Genl. — Spare 
him I pray you — the subject is sufficiently understood & 
sufficiently cited — There is no personal sacrifice we would 
not make on this occasion — but enough of pageantry — 
something is due to principle — and I am afraid that 
amidst this ostentation and waste, the wounds of our 
revolution, etc., which yet survive, many of them in pov- 
erty or but lately relieved might cause those Veterans 
to make comparisons very little to the credit of the nation. 
As an individual it would be altogether immaterial 
whether I kissed the hem of his garment or not — As the 
Governor of the State I shall not wait on him since the 
Genl. Assembly has not thought proper to give the first 
impulse. It has however been suggested that he may 
personally take it into his head to search me up, either 
at St Chs or on the hills of Bon Homme. He would find 
me at neither place, — for I have long since promised 
my family to visit some friends about that time. 

The End. 


Abbott, James, I, 11, 173, 300; II, 

Abbott, Samuel, II, 19, 160. 
Abernathy (Abernathie), John, I, 

326; II, 198. 
Able, Ezekiel, II, 270. 
Adams, John Quincy, II, 320. 
Adjutant General, I, 115. 
Agriculture, I, 112-113, 240-241; II, 

47, 154-155. 
Aird, James, I, 176-177, 190, 203; II, 

38, 201. 
Alary, Baptiste, II, 32. 
Alexander, James, II, 283, 287. 
Allen, Benjamin, I, 332; II, 25, 196. 
Allen, John E., I, 323; II, 177, 196, 

234, 284. 
Allen, William O., II, 114, 191. 
Almendros, John F., II, 317. 
American Mines, I, 117. 
Amoureux, Joseph N., I, 333; II, 

26, 138, 139-140, 142, 150-151, 234, 

268, 285. 
Amoureux, Michael, I, 153-154, 321, 

326, 330; II, 77, 161, 199, 200. 

Andreville, Andre, II, 26. 
Andrews, John, I, 149, 325, 328; II, 

Andrews, Joseph, II, 238, 290. 
Andrews, Robert, II, 235. 
Anthony, Christopher, Jr., I, 129. 
Aricaras, I, 168, 220, 237; II, 282. 
Arkansas Factory, II, 35. 
Arkansas Post, II, 7. 
Arkansaw District, I, 151, 152-153, 

209; II, 7-11, 12-13, 15-16, 24, 55- 

60, 115-116. 

Armistead, George, II, 8, 24, 30, 44- 

45, 46, 58. 
Armstrong, Abraham, I, 328. 

Armstrong, Ebenezer, I, 149, 321. 
Armstrong, Robert, II, 240. 
Arnold, Benedict, I, 5. 
Ashley, William Henry, I, 37-38, 

141; II, 238, 247, 252, 270, 289. 
Ashley's Cave, I, 141; II, 91. 
Askins, Mote, II, 239, 240. 
Aubuchon, Joseph, II, 193, 284. 
Audrain, James H., II, 197. 
Audrain, Peter, I, 11. 
Austin, H., II, 201. 
Austin, James, I, 187, 286, 288, 289, 

290, 291, 293, 320, 325; II, 198. 
Austin, Moses, I, 20, 111, 112, 117, 

186-187, 194, 273, 281, 317-319; II, 

39, 77-79, 175. 
Austin's road, I, 273, 281. 
Austin, Stephen Fuller, II, 268, 280, 

Ayres, Ebenezer, I, 327; II, 195, 

236, 286. 

Baby, Louis, II, 318. 
Backus, Elijah, I, 164-165, 176. 
Baggs, James, II, 98. 
Baird, James, I, 193; II, 193. 
Baker, Benjamin, I, 331; II, 197. 
Baker, Elisha, I, 149, 325; II, 198. 
Baker, John, II, 198, 280 287, 289. 
Baker, Joseph, II, 27. 
Ballinger, Frederick, II, 199. 
Balls, I, 242; II, 109-110. 
Bank of Detroit, I, 15-16. 
Barada, Antonio, I, 204. 
Barger, Peter, I, 203. 
Baribault, Francois, I, 204. 
Barnes, Amos, II, 283, 287. 
Barton, David, I, 36; II, 308, 319- 


326 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Barton, Joshua, I, 36; II, 308. 

Bates, Anna (Nancy), I, 3. 

Bates, Caroline M., II, 218, 228-229; 

Bates, Charles Fleming, I, 3. 

Bates, Edward, birth, I, 3; moves 
to Missouri Territory, I, 34; II, 
306-307; appointed district attor- 
ney, II, 315; associated with 
Joshua Barton, I, 36; concerning 
public affairs in 1815, II, 295-296; 
marriage, II, 313; concerning the 
election of Frederick Bates, II, 
318-319; career, I, 35. 

Bates, Emily Caroline, I, 37. 

Bates, Fleming, I, 3, 54. 

Bates, Frederick. Early Life: an- 
cestry and family, I, 3-5; birth, I, 
3, 6; education, I, 6; deputy-clerk 
of Goochland County court, I, 6; 
postmaster at Goochland Court 
House, I, 6; in quartermaster's 
department of the Army of the 
Northwest, I, 6-7. Detroit Period: 
I, 6-18, 41-81; journey to Detroit, 
I, 6-7, 43-45; merchant, I, 7-8; 
political views, I, 8-9, 50, 52-53, 
62; testimonials, I, 53, 55; dep- 
uty-postmaster at Detroit, I, 8; 
receiver of public monies, I, 9, 59- 
61, 62-63; seeks secretaryship of 
Michigan Territory, I, 9, 57; ap- 
pointed judge of Michigan Terri- 
tory, I, 9, 63, 67; land commission- 
er of Michigan Territory, I, 9-11; 
land allotment at Detroit, I, 16; 
life at Detroit, I, 16-17, 46-48; 
charges to grand juries, I, 73-83; 
report of land board, I, 18. First 
Acting-Governorship of Territory 
of Louisiana: I, 18, 26-30, 89- 
304; appointed secretary of Ter- 
ritory of Louisiana, I, 18; ap- 
pointed recorder of land titles, I, 
18, 91; arrival in St. Louis, I, 
26; Indian policy, I, 27-28, 104- 
107, 166-170, 183-184, 228-230, 
249-250; defense policy, I, 27, 183- 
184, 222-223; revokes commissions 
of John Smith T, I, 109-110; 
dealing with factions, I, 27, 115- 
117; revision of territorial code, 
I, 28; appointments, I, 28; policy 
as land commissioner, I, 27, 29- 

30; II, 20-22; work of the board, 
II, 42-44, 70-73; journey to Ar- 
kansas, I, 29; II, 7-11, 19-20; 
activities as recorder, II, 22; 
views on Spanish land law, II, 
47-54; policy regarding lead min- 
ing, I, 117-118; view of the terri- 
tory, I, 135-138; difficulties with 
Judge Griffin, I, 174-175; salary, 
I, 218. The Lewis Regime: I, 
307-346; II, 1-80; disagreements 
with Lewis, I, 30-31; II, 64, 68-69, 
99, 108-111; enemies, II, 78-79. 
Second Acting-Governorship: I, 
31; II, 81-156; Indian policy, I, 
31-32; II, 85-87; views regarding 
mineral land leases, II, 94-95; 
pardoning of soldiers, II, 97-98; 
suggests Coburn for the governor- 
ship, II, 100-101; suggested for 
the governorship, II, 103; refusal 
to be candidate, II, 112; contro- 
versy with Penrose, II, 111-112; 
removal of Connor, II, 116-122; 
controversy with Hempstead, II, 
123-127; exercise of the pardon- 
ing power, II, 127; Gallatin's 
opinion of Bates, II, 129; census 
of 1810, I, 32; II, 138, 139-151, 
153, 162-163, 167-169, 175-176. The 
Howard Regime: II, 157-241; 
controversy with Coburn, II, 163- 
164, 174-175; request for reap- 
pointment, II, 164-165; failure to 
receive commission, II, 171, 175- 
176; policy as secretary without 
a commission, II, 176-177; reap- 
pointment, II, 178; third acting- 
governorship, II, 178-188; fourth 
acting-governorship, II, 203-217; 
difficulties with John Smith T, 
I, 31; II, 210-214; desire of office 
of register, II, 217-218; views on 
Indian policy, II, 229-230. Fifth 
Acting-Governorship: II, 242-255; 
provisioning of troops in War of 
1812, II, 245-248, 249-253. The 
Clark Regime: II, 257-309; con- 
troversy with Hempstead, II, 
260-266; difficulties of an admin- 
istrator, II, 270-273; opposition 
to reappointment, II, 293; notes 
on land bill for Louisiana and 
Missouri Territory, II, 298-301; 
visit to Washington, 1815-1816, I, 



33-34; investigation of losses by 
Indian depredations in the War 
of 1812, I, 33-34; report on claims, 
1816, I, 34; record as recorder of 
land titles, I, 34; joined by his 
mother, Edward, and a sister, II, 
306-307. The Later Years, 1820- 
1825: II, 311-324; urged to be- 
come candidate for the United 
States senatorship, I, 36; II, 308; 
purchase of slaves, II, 307, 308- 
309, 314; investments, II, 36; 
marriage, I, 36; Thornhill, I, 37; 
family, I, 37; campaign for the 
governorship of Missouri, I, 37- 
38; II, 315, 318; governor, I, 38- 
39; II, 320-324; on appointments, 
II, 321; veto of measure to pre- 
vent dueling, I, 38; attitude con- 
cerning Lafayette's visit to St. 
Louis, I, 38-39; II, 323-324; death, 

I, 39; Edward Bates' estimate of 
him, I, 39-40. See also. Board of 
land commissioners, and John 
Smith T. 

Bates, Frederick, Jr., I, 37. 
Bates, James Woodson, I, 3. 
Bates, John I., I, 3. 
Bates, Lucia Lee, I, p. VII, pp. 36, 

Bates, Lucius Lee, I, 37. 
Bates, Margaret Maria, I, 3. 
Bates, Nancy Opie Ball, I, 36-37. 
Bates, Richard, I, 3, 315, 316, 317, 

Bates, Sarah, I, 3. 
Bates, Susannah, I, 3, 5, 83. 
Bates, Tarleton, I, 3, 5, 50, 51. 
Bates, Thomas Fleming, I, 3-5. 
Bates, William, II, 205. 
Bates, Woodville, I, 37. 
Battu, Henry, II, 269, 280, 284. 
Baxter, Green, II, 284. 
Bayard, James Asheton, II, 128. 
Beatty, James, II, 194, 236, 287. 
Beatty (Beaty), Joseph, I, 331, 332; 

II, 25. 

Beauvais, St. Geminin (St. James), 

I, 145, 324; II, 38. 
Beckett, William R., I, 289-290. 

Belford, Francis, II, 33. 

Bellefontaine, I, 162-163, 169, 229, 

Bellefontaine Factory, I, 219-220, 
224-225, 337. 

Bellefontaine races, II, 14. 

Bellevue, I, 111. 

Benoist, Frangois Marie, I, 324. 

Bent, Silas, I, 321, 323; II, 162, 190 ; 
193, 195, 196, 271. 

Benton, Thomas Hart, II, 308. 

Berger, Peter, II, 33. 

Berney, William, II, 282, 290. 

Berry, John, II, 283, 287. 

Berthold, Barthelemy, II, 269, 291, 

Bibb, Richard G., I, 195, 329. 

Big Soldier, II, 166-167. 

Bijou, Louis, II, 282. 

Billingsley, John, II, 281. 

Bird, Absalom, II, 317. 

Bissell, Daniel, I, 164, 169, 196, 266 

Bissonett, Charles, II, 32. 

Bivarq, Joseph, II, 269. 

Black Hawk War, I, 118. 

Blackwell, Jesse, II, 268, 280, 289 

Blair, Robert, I, 329. 

Bleakley, John, II, 105, 129. 

Blondeau, Maurice, II, 86. 

Board of land commissioners, Louis 
iana Territory, I, 29-30, 93-97, 99 
127, 134-135, 137, 158-161, 165 
166, 220-221, 252-253, 282-283, 298 
301; II, 7-13, 19-22, 42-44, 47-54 
70-73, 77-79, 92-93, 129, 135-136 
138-139, 147, 152, 162, 165-166, 172 
173, 179, 184-185, 188-189, 214, 216 
217, 218-219, 221, 224, 316-318. 

Boatmen, I, 241. 

Bocher, David, II, 27. 

Boilvin, Nicholas, I, 167-168, 169 
171-172, 179, 182, 199, 222, 226 
247, 334-335; II, 40, 103-104, 106 

Bois, Antoine B., I, 334. 

Boisbriant, Sieur de, I, 276. 

Bollinger, Frederick, I, 326. 

Bollinger, George F., II, 236, 287. 

328 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates, 

Bollinger, Henry, II, 236, 287. 
Bollinger, John, II, 236. 
Bon Femme salt spring, II, 276, 
Bon Homme, I, 112, 240; II, 134. 
Boone, Daniel, I, 327; II, 196. 
Boone, Daniel M., II, 235, 282, 286. 
Boonslick, II, 297. 
Boring, Joseph, II, 198. 

Bossieur, John B. Le Brun, I, 323; 

II, 234, 268, 285. 
Botts, Benjamin, I, 130. 
Boudoin, Louis, II, 201. 

Bougy, Charles, II, 27, 237, 281, 

Bougy (Bogy), Joseph, I, 193. 

Bouis, Frangois V., II, 28, 80, 193. 

Bouis, Pascal Vincent, II, 6, 80. 

Bouju, Joseph, II, 233. 

Boundary dispute with Spain, I, 92. 

Bouthillier, Francois, II, 17. 

Bouvet, Jean Baptiste, II, 203. 

Bowden, J., II, 317. 

Boyd, Robert, II, 237, 288. 

Bradley, S. R., II, 37. 

Brady, James, II, 192, 236, 287, 317. 

Brady, Thomas, II, 218. 

Brazeau, Joseph, II, 201, 281. 

Brent, Robert, II, 83. 

Brewer, Joseph, I, 292. 

Briant, David, II, 234. 

Bridger, Anthony, II, 239, 291. 

British attitude toward the United 
States, I, 163, 201, 209, 255, 263; 
II, 220. 

British emissaries among the In- 
dians, I, 163. 

British fur traders, see Canadian 
fur traders. 

British subjects, reports on, II, 232- 

Brock, Joshua, II, 281, 285. 

Brook, David, II, 284. 

Brooks, Mark, II, 235, 285, 317. 

Brown, James, II, 26. 

Brown, Robert F., II, 198, 280, 289. 

Browne, Joseph, I, 18, 25, 26, 27, 
98, 100, 102, 117-118, 127, 135, 
146, 270-272, 274, 285-286, 287-297, 
318-319; II, 116, 279, 293. 

Browne, Robert S., I, 293. 

Brownson, John, II, 191, 197. 

Bryan, James, II, 205, 209. 

Buckhart, Joshua H., see Burck- 

Buissonet, II, 201. 

Burckhardtt (Buckhart, Burck- 
hartt), Joshua H., II, 238, 267, 

Burnham, John, II, 285. 

Burning, Henry, II, 270. 

Burnsides, James, II, 98. 

Burr Conspiracy, I, 18, 25-26, 87, 
115-116, 122, 129-130, 318. 

Burton, Francis, I, 117. 

Byrd, Abraham, I, 207; II, 287. 

Byrd, Amos, I, 145, 185, 207, 324. 

Byrd, John, I, 156, 325. 

Byrd, Stephen, I, 329; II, 29, 198, 
236, 287, 317. 

Byrd's settlement, I, 185, 207, 326. 

Byrne, Andrew, II, 287. 

Cadron, Etienne, II, 32. 
Caillot, Baptiste, II, 27. 
Caldwell, Kincaid (Kinkead), I, 324. 
Callaway, James, I, 331, 332; II, 25, 

145, 238, 250. 
Callaway, John I, 325; II, 196, 198, 

Callaway, Stephen, II, 191. 
Camp Cuivre, II, 251, 253. 
Campbell, John, I, 167, 270, 298; 

II, 17, 19, 37-38. 
Canadian fur traders, I, 105, 122- 

123, 133-134, 172, 190, 219, 222, 

226, 231-232, 297-298, 299; II, 16- 

19, 37-38, 105-106. 
Cannon Mines, II, 173. 
Cantley, Samuel, II, 234, 285. 
Cape Girardeau, I, 184. 
Cape Girardeau District, I, 20. 
Capeheart, John, I, 252. 
Cardinal, Jean Marie, II, 32. 



Carnehan, John, II, 281. 
Carries, Joseph, II, 240. 
Carr, William C, I, 126, 128, 210, 

278, 280; II, 110, 151-152, 227- 

228, 229-231, 283, 292-293. 
Carrico, Vincent, I, 323. 
Carter, James, I, 51. 
Casa Calvo, I, 120. 
Cassidy, Henry, II, 192, 200. 
Cassidy, Patrick, II, 200, 281. 
Cassio, William, II, 235, 286. 
Cates, Isaac, II, 281, 282, 290. 
Cates, Samuel, II, 281. 
Catholicism, I, 244. 
Caulk, Richard, I, 324, 330; II, 196, 

239, 267, 290. 
Caulk, Thomas Ward, I, 333; II, 

26, 239, 267, 290. 
Cavener, George, II, 254. 
Census of 1810, I, 32; II, 138, 139- 

149, 150-151, 153, 162-163, 167-169; 

175-176, 183, 187, 201, 220-221. 
Ceran, Antoine, II, 201. 
Cessell, F. B., II, 285. 
Charbonneau, Germain, II, 202. 
Charless, Joseph, I, 309. 
Charpentier, I, 322. 
Chartier, John B., II, 317. 
Chatelereau, Louis, II, 32. 
Cheetham (Cheatham), Edward, I, 
• 270, 271, 285-286, 287-288, 288-297. 
Cherokees, II, 57, 58, 115, 239-241. 
Chesapeake-Leopard affair, I, 170- 

Chippewas, I, 72-73, 163. 
Chisholm, Denis, II, 240. 
Chisholm, Ignatius, II, 240. 
Chisholm, John D., II, 240. 
Chitwood (Chittwood), Richard, II, 

196, 233, 284. 

Chouteau, Auguste, I, 102, 174, 193, 
200, 323; II, 31, 160, 193, 196, 201, 
202, 234, 254, 285, 296. 

Chouteau, Auguste, Jr., I, 157-158, 

Chouteau, Paul L., II, 233, 268, 269, 

Chouteau, Pierre, I, 105, 114-] 15, 
122, 169, 179, 188, 199, 247, 324; 
II, 45, 59, 89-90, 120-123, 150, 153, 
159, 180, 197, 201, 233, 284, 322- 

Chouteau, Pierre, Jr., I, 203; II, 27, 

Christ, Abraham, II, 192. 

Christy, William, I, 100, 252, 335; 
II, 14, 159, 190, 195, 197, 201, 252, 

Cissell, Francis R., II, 235. 
Clamorgan, Jacques, I, 202; II, 292- 

Clark, Christopher, I, 327; II, 196. 
Clark, Frances, I, 237. 
Clark, John G., II, 13. 
Clark (Clarke), Thomas, I, 332; II, 
29, 199. 

Clark, William, I, 27, 33, 109, 114- 
115, 118, 122, 199, 201, 207, 222, 
235, 251, 337; II, 6, 24, 36, 84, 87, 
107, 110, 129, 190, 259, 283, 297. 

Clay, Henry, II, 320. 

Clemens, Christian, I, 17. 

Clemson, Eli B., I, 309, 330; II, 14, 

Clermont (Clermore, Claremont), 
II, 45-46. 

Climate, I, 245. 

Clopton, John, I, 48-49, 50. 

Club, Anthony, II, 192. 

Coal mines, II, 92. 

Coburn, John, I, 25, 31, 147-148, 220- 
221; II, 65-66, 101, 104-105, 111, 
113, 128, 163-164, 207-208, 214-216. 

Coignard, Louis, I, 334; II, 31, 95- 

Colgan, Daniel, II, 193, 195. 
Collard, Elijah, II, 190, 236. 
Collard, Elisha, II, 286. 
Collins, Jacob, II, 234, 284. 
Collins, John, I, 268. 
Comanches, I, 120, 125. 
Comegys, J. G., I, 206, 316. See 

also Falconer and Comegys. 

Commissioners of rates and levies, 
I, 156. 

330 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Common fields, I, 243. 

Comstock, Thomas, I, 329, 331. 

Connatoo, II, 56. 

Connor, Jeremiah, II, 116-122. 

Connoway, Will, II, 199. 

Conway, Joseph, II, 239, 245, 247, 

267, 290. 
Cook, Nathaniel, I. 187, 219, 325; 

II, 132, 197, 234, 285, 308. 

Coons, John, I, 331. 
Cooper, Benjamin, II, 196, 283, 286. 
Cooper, Benjamin, Jr., II, 283, 287. 
Cooper, Samuel, II, 237, 288. 
Cooper, Sarshell (Sarchel), II, 283, 

Cordell, Hiram, II, 238, 267, 268. 
Cottle, J., II, 26. 
Cottle, Warren, I, 327. 
Couch, Daniel, I, 129. 

Coursault (Coursolle), Francois 

(Francis), II, 192, 195, 269, 287. 
Courtois, J. M., II, 193, 233, 284. 
Courtoix, Louis, II, 233, 284. 
Courtoix, Louis, Jr., II, 284. 
Cousin, Bartholomew, II, 281. 
Covington, Strother, II, 238. 
Cragg, William, II, 191. 
Craig, Peter, II, 238. 
Craighead, Alexander, II, 222, 224, 

226, 266, 275, 286. 
Crawford, R., II, 19. 
Crime, II, 24. 
Crittenden, J. J., I, 271. 
Crittenden, Thomas T., I, 271; II, 

170, 190. 
Crooks, Ramsay, I, 202; II, 16-17, 

31, 33. 
Currin, James, II, 28. 
Currin, Lemuel, II, 281, 282, 289. 
Curtis, David, II, 194, 199. 

Dancing, I, 242; II, 109-110. 
Daniel, Wright, II, 280. 
David, John, II, 199. 
Davis, John, I, 326. 
Dayon, Joseph, II, 32. 

De Blois (Doublewye), Joseph, II, 

Decelle, Peter, II, 32. 

Dehetre, Hyacinthe (Hiacinthe), II, 
193, 233, 284. 

Dehetre, Louis, II, 269. 
Dejardin, Polite, II, 202. 
Delassus, Charles Dehault, I, 19; 
II, 51. 

Delaunay (De Launay), David, I, 
115, 156, 167, 188, 189, 233, 266, 
330; II, 194. 

Delaurier, Henry, II, 201. 
Delaware Indians, I, 105; II, 91. 
Dennis, Charles, II, 286. 
Dentry, Roswell, II, 191. 
Derchette, I, 204. 

Deroin (Derouin), Francis, I, 202; 
II, 201. 

Deroulier, Henry, II, 31. 
Derwate, Baptiste, II, 32. 
Deselle, Joseph, I, 117. 
Des Moines River settlements, I, 
172, 222. 

Des Moines River trading house, 

I, 226. 
Detroit, conflagration of June 11, 

1805; I, 8, 12-13; plan of, I, 13; 

fortifications, I, 15, 87-88, 173-174; 

land allotment, I, 16; customs of 

French inhabitants, I, 47-48. 

Devillemont, E. D., II, 268. 
Dickson, Robert, I, 28, 231-233, 307- 

308, 334; II, 18-19. 
Didier, Peter, II, 195. 
Dillon, William, II, 198, 285. 
Dion, Joseph, I, 204. 
Dodemead, John, I, 65. 
Dodge, Henry, I, 26, 322; II, 141, 

144-145, 150, 188, 197, 203, 222, 

224-225, 226, 238, 246, 252, 275, 

Dodson, Joshua, II, 238, 290. 
Doggett, Jacob, I, 252. 
Doggett's Mine, I, 252; II, 276. 
Donaldson, James Lowry, I, 29, 99- 

100, 127, 159; II, 10. 



Donnohue (Donohue), John, II, 331, 

234, 285. 
Donnohue, Joseph, II, 198. 
Dorion (Dorrion), Charles, I, 250, 

334; II, 31. 
Dorion, Pierre, I, 248. 
Dorsey (Dorsay), Samuel, I, 177, 

Doublewye, Joseph, see De Blois. 
Dougherty, Abraham, II, 287. 
Dougherty, Elijah, II, 237, 287. 
Dougherty, James, II, 198. 
Dougherty, John, II, 27. 
Doyle, William, II, 237. 
Drouillard, George, I, 268. 
Drucis, Francois, I, 202. 

Dubuque, Julien, I, 203; II, 85, 181- 


Dubuque mines, I, 117. 
Duchassin, Joseph, II, 282, 290. 
Duchemin, Frangois, I, 193. 
Dueling, I, 5, 38, 139; II, 210-214. 
Dunham, Josiah, I, 176, 247. 
Dunn, Samuel, II, 288. 
Dunn, William, II, 281, 289. 

Duque, Pierre, Sieur de Boisbriant, 
I, 276. 

Duquette, Francois, I, 327. 
Duskin, Daniel, II, 192. 
Duskins, William, II, 192. 
Dusky, Roswell, II, 236, 286. 

Early, Peter, I, 137. 

Easton, Rufus, I, 25, 26; II, 201, 

231, 291-293. 
Edwards, Ninian, II, 74. 
Election of 1808, I, 342. 
Elliott, Aaron, I, 128. 
Elliott, Charles, I, 323. 
Elliott, Elias Austin, II, 193, 238, 

Elliott, Henry, I, 213-215. 
Ellis, Erasmus, II, 288. 
Embargo Act, II, 37, 41, 42. 
Embroise, Francis, II, 32. 
Emigration, I, 238. 

Emmons, Benjamin, II, 191, 196, 

Emmons, Seth, II, 292. 

Ernest, Matthew, I, 7-8. 

Erskine, David Montague, I, 105. 

Esperanza, I, 160. 

Evans, Enoch, I, 321, 326; II, 198. 

Evans, James, II, 192. 

Evans, Thomas, I, 332; II, 199. 

Ewing, William, I, 103, 104, 236, 

237, 248; II, 194, 236, 286. 
Extradition, II, 74, 76. 

Fagot, Andrew, II, 8, 13, 28, 30, 
200, 281. 

Falconer and Comegys, I, 206, 218, 
236, 251, 317. 

Falconer, F., I, 206. 

Fallis, George, I, 118, 323; II, 196. 

Faris (Farris), James, I, 333; II, 

Farrar, Bernard G., I, 322; II, 65, 

193, 210-214, 292. 
Farrar, John S., II, 234. 
Farrensworth, Abiel, II, 191, 195. 
Fenwick, Walter, I, 270-271, 303. 
Ferries, I, 273. 
Fetteau, John, II, 236. 
Fietto, Jacques, II, 27. 
Fire Prairie, II, 36. 
Fisher, Joshua, II, 191, 236. 
Fitzhugh, Dennis, I, 237. 
Flaugherty, James, I, 323; II, 254. 
Flaugherty, Ralph, II, 286. 
Fletcher, Richard, II, 136. 
Florida cession, II, 320. 
Fooy, Benjamin, II, 30, 59, 142-143, 

148-149, 200, 317. 
Fooy, Isaac, II, 317. 
Forsyth, Robert, II, 5. 
Forsyth, Thomas, I, 144, 147; [I, 5. 
Fort Cap au Gris, II, 245. 
Fort Carondelet, I, 106. 
Fort Clark, see Fort Osage. 
Fort Madison (Arkansas), II, 7, 8, 


332 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Fort Madison (Iowa), I, 229; II, 
75, 83, 91, 106. 

Fort Mason, II, 230, 245. 

Fort Massac, I, 266. 

Fort Osage, II, 35-36. 

Fort Pickering, II, 13. 

Fox Indians, I, 118, 163, 191, 203, 
228-229, 247, 249, 283-284, 308; II, 
105, 107, 203. See also Sacs. 

Frazier, Robert, I, 114, 116, 309- 

Free negroes, II, 266. 

French inhabitants, I, 133, 200, 239, 

Friend (Fryend), Jacob, II, 237, 

Friend (Fryend), John, II, 237, 

Frontier defense, I, 183, 191, 255- 
257, 264, 266, 300; II, 65-66, 75, 
230, 245-253. 

Fugitives from justice, II, 74, 177- 

Fur trade, I, 32, 104-105, 106, 122- 
123, 133-134, 140-141, 172, 202- 
206, 219-220, 221-223, 226. 229- 
230, 231-232, 234, 241, 247, 248, 257, 
267, 297-298, 299, 304, 307, 315, 
320, 333-334, 344; II, 8, 16-19, 31- 
33, 35-36, 37-38, 47, 51-58, 79, 86- 
89, 95-96, 103-104, 105-108, 115, 159, 
177, 201-203, 222, 270, 281, 282, 

Gaines, William, I, 324. 
Gallatin, Albert, II, 172-173, 224. 
Gallowhorn, Caty, II, 317. 
Gamble, Hamilton Howard, II, 319. 
Gansevoort, John, I, 65. 
Garner, William, II, 146, 150, 153, 

167, 169. 
Gamier, Joseph V., II, 195, 197. 
Garrett, Joseph, II, 235. 
Gass, Patrick, I, 310. 
Gates, Samuel, II, 282, 290. 
Geiger, John, II, 238, 290. 
Geizer, Frederick, II, 268, 284. 
Gentle, John, I, 173. 
Gerlerno, II, 32. 

German settlers, I, 326. 

German-Swiss settlers, I, 326. 

Geronard, Madame, I, 234. 

Gibson, Jacob, II, 288. 

Gibson, Samuel, II, 236, 286. 

Gibson, William, I, 331. 

Glass, William, II, 281. 

Glassen, William, II, 289. 

Gobey, Joseph, II, 33. 

Godin, Peter, II, 202. 

Goforth, Zachary (Zachariah), II, 

268, 280, 289. 
Gonzales, Augustine, II, 317. 
Gooche, Drury, II, 280, 289. 
Goodrich, Elijah, I, 331. 
Goodrich, Elisha, II, 28, 195. 
Gouniville (Goniville, Gouveville), 

Baptiste, I, 204; II, 33. 
Graham, John, II, 214. 
Grand juries, Michigan Territory, 

I, 73-83. 

Grand Lead Mines, II, 277. 

Grand Monitur salt spring, II, 276. 

Grapes, I, 245. 

Gratiot, Charles, I, 100, 159, 323; 

II, 231, 282. 
Gravelines, Joseph, I, 168. 
Gravier, Joseph, I, 333. 

Gray, James, II, 280, 289, 294-295. 

Gray, Robert, II, 268, 286. 

Green, James, I, 321; II, 141-142, 

Green, Robert, I, 156, 185, 325. 
Grenier, Louis, II, 38. 
Greza, Baptiste, II, 33. 
Greza, Joseph, II, 33. 
Griffin, Cyrus, II, 128. 
Griffin, John, I, 88, 142, 172, 174- 

175, 192-193, 221; II, 37, 113. 
Griffith, Samuel, II, 236, 286. 
Grignon, Pierre, II, 105. 
Griswold, Stanley, I, 11, 173; II, 

Groshong, Jacob, II, 236, 286. 
Ground, Adam, II, 287. 
Ground, John, II, 287. 
Guyol, Francis, II, 269, 291. 



Guyon (Guion), Hubert, II, 191, 

Hacker, William, II, 317. 
Hall, Lewis, II, 234, 285. 
Hamilton, George A., I, 325. 
Hammond, Samuel, I, 22, 26; II, 

191, 196, 197, 254. 
Hammond, Samuel, Jr., I, 183, 194, 

231, 313, 331. 
Hanks, Joseph, 1, 290; II, 238, 290. 
Hanks, Porter, I, 65. 
Harbison, George C, I, 140. 
Hard Heart, I, 84. 
Harrison, William, II, 238, 268. 
Harrison, William Henry, I, 21, 22, 

162, 199. 
Harry, Jacob, I, 265. 
Hart (Hartt), John E., I, 258, 263, 

331, 332, 333; II, 25, 28, 237, 288. 
Hart, Michael, I, 261, 274, 2S4-286, 

287-297, 317, 318, 325; II, 198. 
Hart (Hartt), William, II, 236, 286. 
Harvey, John, I, 270, 281, 320. 
Hatherley, Benjamin, II, 234, 285. 
Hawkins, John, I, 190, 253-255, 329; 

II, 283. 
Hawley, Ebenezer R., II, 194, 196. 
Hay, George, I, 130. 
Hay den (Haden), Anthony, I, 184, 

208, 328; II, 289. 
Hays, Christopher, I, 156, 18b, 325. 
Hays, John, I, 207; II, 146-147, 198. 
Head, Anthony, II, 235, 286. 
Head, William, II, 283, 287. 
Heath (Heth), John G., II, 29, 159, 

197, 297. 
Hemp, II, 152-153, 154. 
Hempstead, Edward, I, 26, 163-164, 

235, 322; II, 26, 123-127, 202, 231, 

260-266, 271-272, 283. 
Hempstead, Stephen, II, 236, 287. 
Henderson, George, I, 185, 323; II, 

161, 199, 239, 269, 291. 
Henry, Andrew, I, 141, 270, 284, 303, 

323; II, 279, 289. 
Herculaneum, I, 281-282; II, 53. 

Hertick, Joseph, II, 234, 235, 268, 

285, 286. 
Hight, Henry, I, 323, 328; II, 196, 

236, 286, 287. 

Hines, John, II, 288. 
Hinkston, William, I, 293. 
Hoffman, George, I, 9, 10-11, 68, 176, 

297-298; II, 16-19, 23, 36-38, 39-42, 

67, 130. 
Hogan, Charles, II, 317. 
Hogan, Edward (Edmund), I, 325; 

II, 282, 290, 317. 

Hogan, John, II, 317. 
Holmes, William, II, 235. 

Honey, John W., II, 30, 44, 54-60, 

92, 135, 191, 196. 
Honory, Bart., II, 98. 
Hopefield, Arkansas, I, 160; II, 7, 9. 
Horine, Benjamin, II, 280. 
Horine (Horigne), John, II, 234, 


Horn, Edward, I, 285. 
Horn, Richard, I, 285-286, 289-290. 
Home, Benjamin, II, 289. 
Hostetter, Isaac, II, 236, 286. 
House, James, I, 224; II, 63-64. 

Howard, Benjamin, appointed gov- 
ernor of Territory of Louisiana, 
I, 31; II, 135; sketch, II, 135; 
non-arrival of, II, 136, 151, 171, 
176; marriage, II, 176; leaves 
Territory of Louisiana Novem- 
ber 16, 1810, II, 190; return, II, 
191; leaves the Territory Sep- 
tember 19, 1811, II, 194; resump- 
tion of duties, II, 217; Cherokee 
address to, II, 239-241. 

Huddleston, Archibald, II, 281, 286. 

Hughes, John, II, 238, 290. 

Hull, Abraham Fuller, I, 142. 

Hull, Ann Binney, I, 17. 

Hull, James F., II, 225. 

Hull, William, I, 11, 15, 142, 144, 

173, 299, 301-302; II, 113. 
Humphreys, Joshua, I, 234, 258, 262, 

264, 312, 322, 326, 328, 330; II, 

161, 199, 200. 
Hunt, George, II, 202. 

334 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Hunt, Seth, I, 22, 171, 271, 275, 

276-278, 280-281, 284, 292, 293-297, 

Hunt, Silas, II, 197. 
Hunt, Thomas, I, 162, 178, 223-224, 

226; II, 14-15. 
Hunt, Wilson P., I, 178; II, 128-130. 
Hunter, Joseph, I, 257-258, 263, 330; 

II, 237, 254, 288. 
Huntington, Samuel, I, 11. 

Indiana Territory, II, 53. 

Indian conferences, I, 249. 

Indian Department, I, 114-115, 235- 
236, 251. See also William Clark. 

Indian depredations, I, 166-168, 169, 
171-172, 178-179, 188, 190-191, 199- 
200, 209-210, 223-224, 255-256, 283- 
284, 300, 308, 316-317, 320, 344; II, 
65, 75, 102, 105-106, 115, 149, 150, 
180, 229. 

Indian land titles, I, 150-151. 

Indian speech, II, 166-167. 

Indians, I, 15, 72-73, 103-107, 118, 
119, 120, 121-122, 123-124, 125, 126, 
134, 140-141, 162-164, 168-169, 179, 
190-191, 198-199, 202-204, 205-206, 
207, 221-223, 226, 228-230, 232, 234, 
247, 249, 283-284, 307, 316-317, 333- 
335, 338; II, 16, 31-33, 44-47, 55- 
60, 84-86, 89-90, 91. 115, 116-119, 
120-122, 166-167, 180, 201-203, 239- 
241, 281, 282. 

Ingram, William, II, 269, 288. 

Ink, William, II, 234, 285. 

Insolvent debtors, I, 227, 269. 

Iowas, I, 84-85, 118, 163, 203, 207, 
232, 334; II, 31, 102, 201. 

Irish, Nathaniel, II, 202. 

Isaacs, Jesse, II, 240. 

Izner, Thomas, II, 287. 

Jackson, Andrew, II, 320. 

Jacobs, Jacob, II, 26. 

Jacobs, Joseph, I, 333. 

James, Thomas, II, 240. 

James, William, I, 145, 321; II, 238, 

Jameson, George, II, 269, 288. 

Janis, Antoine, I, 327. 
Jarrot, Nicholas, II, 105. 
Jay's Treaty, II, 38. 
Jeamdt, Baptiste, II, 32. 
Jeffrey, Jesse, II, 237, 288. 
Johnson, Benjamin, I, 324. 
Johnson, Peyton, II, 206. 
Johnson, William, II, 287. 
Johnston, Benjamin, II, 197, 234, 

Jones, Elizabeth, II, 317. 
Jones, John Rice, II, 131. 
Jones, Michael, I, 164-165, 276. 
Jones, Thomas, II, 107, 108. 
Jouett, Charles, I, 65-67. 
Journey, Peter, II, 235, 286. 
Julien, Denis, I, 203; II, 201. 

Kansas tribe, I, 121, 202, 203. 

Kaskaskia, II, 68. 

Kaskaskia land office, I, 164-165; 

II, 53. 
Kaskaskias, I, 163. 
Keller, John, II, 98. 
Kelly, Jacob, I, 199, 326. 
Kelso, William, II, 198. 
Kendall (Kendal), Jeduthun (Je- 

duthan), I, 324, 329; II, 197, 233, 

Kendrick, Alexander, II, 281, 2S9. 
Kennedy, Samuel S., II, 196. 
Kibby, Timothy, I, 200, 314, 323; II, 

194, 195, 196. 
Kickapoos, I, 118, 163; II, 149-150. 
Kincaid (Kincade), Andrew, II, 29, 

King, Henry, II, 100. 
Kinkead, John, II, 234, 284. 
Kinney, Moses, II, 177. 
Kiowas, I, 120. 
Knott, Osborn, II, 236, 286. 
Krytz, Abraham, II, 236, 237. 
Krytz, Daniel, II, 236, 287. 

Labadie (Labbadie), Sylvestre, II, 

27, 190. 
Labadie, Sylvestre, Jr., II, 27. 



Labeaume (La Beaume, Lebeaume), 
Louis, I, 323; II, 193, 196, 279. 

La Chance, Benjamin, II, 235, 285. 

Lacroix, Baptiste, II, 202. 

Lacroix, Joseph, II, 202. 

Lafayette, Marquis de, I, 38-39; II, 

Lafernait (Laferney), Joseph, I, 
332; II, 29, 199. 

Lafferty, John, II, 240. 

Lafond, Joseph, I, 203. 

La Forge, Alexander, II, 237, 288. 

La Forge, Pierre Antoine, I, 22; 
II, 33-34, 96-97, 199, 200. 

La Franchaise, Antoine, II, 32. 

Lagotrie, Ed., II, 105. 

La Jeunesse, Jacques, I, 202. 

Land bill for Louisiana and Mis- 
souri Territory, II, 298-301. 

Land commissioners, see Board of 

land commissioners. 
Land values, II, 155, 186. 
Land warrants of Lewis and Clark 

followers, I, 267-268. 

Lane, Robert, II, 317. 
Langham, Angus Lewis, II, 305. 
Langlois, Raphael, I, 204. 
Lanham, Stephen, II, 234. 
Lanzey, Levi, II, 233. 
Lard, Joseph, II, 234, 284. 
Lardoise, Joseph, II, 98. 
Latresse, John, II, 98. 

Laurain (Laurens), Jean Baptiste, 

Lawyers, I, 247. 

Lead mining, I, 111-112, 117-118, 
135, 136-138, 181, 196-198, 211- 
215, 216-218, 234-235, 238, 244, 
251-252, 253-255, 261, 265, 270- 
272, 274-275, 276-278, 280-281, 284- 
285, 287-297, 303-304, 309, 311, 318- 
319; II, 22, 39, 94, 171, 173-174, 
180-184, 188, 203-207, 209-214, 222- 
223, 224-225, 226, 270, 273, 275- 
279, 293-295, 302-305. 

Le Beau, Baptiste, II, 32. 

Le Beaume, see La Beaume. 

Lebeech, I, 204. 

Le Blanc, Duplesse, I, 203. 

Le Blanc, Joseph, II, 33. 

Le Blanc, Louis, II, 33. 

Le Court, Baptiste, II, 33. 

Le Due, Mary Philip, I, 322, 324, 
329; II, 8, 13, 26, 183, 184-185, 
196, 197, 292, 322. 

Lee, Patrick, II, 201, 203. 

Lee, William, I, 51. 

Lefevre, Pierre (Peter), II, 27, 237, 
281, 289. 

Legal tender, I, 312. 

Le Jeunesse, Jacques, II, 202. 

Lemmon, John, II, 237. 

Le Moine salt spring, II, 276. 

Le Sieur, Francois, I, 327; II, 96, 

Letourneau, Louis, II, 202, 282. 

Lewis and Clark Expedition, I, 220, 
268, 309-310. 

Lewis, Elisha, II, 201. 

Lewis' ferry, II, 314. 

Lewis, James, II, 190, 236, 286. 

Lewis, Joseph, I, 332; II, 29, 199. 

Lewis, Meriwether, present at trans- 
fer of Upper Louisiana, I, 19; 
appointed governor of Louisiana 
Territory, I, 18; mentioned, I, 
195, 228, 235, 247, 265, 298, 300, 
304; governorship, I, 31, 305-346; 
II, 3-80; arrival, I, 307, 308; visit 
to Belief ontaine, I, 314; pressure 
of office seekers, I, 315; procla- 
mation of April 20, 1808, I, 337- 
340; proclamation creating Dis- 
trict of Arkansas, II, 15-16; opin- 
ion of Robert Dickson, II, 18; 
takes over control of lead mining 
matters, II, 22, 94; appointments, 
II, 25-31; suspends trade with 
Osages, II, 35-36; misunderstand- 
ings with Bates, I, 30; II, 64, 
68-69; measures of defense, II, 
75; unpopularity, II, 75; Indian 
policy, I, 32; II, 87-89; retire- 
ment from the governorship, II, 
68; 100-101; death, I, 30; II, 86, 
103, 104, 106-107, 108; Bates' esti- 
mate of, II, 108-112. 

Lewis, Reuben, I, 304, 316. 

Lewis, Samuel, II, 236. 

336 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Liberty Mine, II, 276. 

Lindenwood College, I, 222. 

Link, Absalom, II, 268, 283, 290. 

Linsbaugh, Fred, II, 199. 

Lisa, Manuel, I, 106, 202, 269, 291. 

Little, Joseph, II, 196. 

Little Diggings, II, 303. 

Little Prairie, II, 137. 

Logan, Charles, II, 269, 288. 

Long, Gabriel, II, 193, 234, 284. 

Long, William L., II, 98, 233, 284. 

Loo, Richard, II, 191. 

Looney, Joseph, II, 236. 

Lorimier, Louis, I, 189, 200-201, 

Louisiana, delivery of to the United 
States, I, 19. 

Louisiana, District of, I, 21-22. 

Louisiana, State of, land bill for, 
II, 298-301. 

Louisiana Territory, creation of, I, 
23, 99; extent, I, 23; government, 
I, 23-24, 119; factions in, I, 24-26, 
99, 101, 108, 115-117, 127, 143, 
145, 146, 186-187, 194-195, 270-272, 
303, 315-316, 318-319; 175; militia, 
I, 27, 109, 138-139, 157-158, 195, 
266; II, 25-28; seal, I, 150; courts, 
I, 155-157; economic and social 
conditions, I, 111-114, 237-246, 266- 
268; II, 154-156; defense meas- 
ures, I, 206, 209-210, 255-257; II, 
75; officials, I, 320-333; II, 28- 
31, 189-203; census of 1810, II, 
138, 139-149, 150-151, 153, 162-163, 
167, 169, 175-176; desire for sec- 
ond grade of territorial govern- 
ment, I, 301; II, 136-137. See also 
Frederick Bates, Meriwether 
Lewis, Benjamin Howard. 

Lourey, John, I, 127. 

Lucas, Alexander, II, 238, 267, 283. 

Lucas, Charles, II, 247, 249, 251, 
268, 291, 292, 296, 317. 

Lucas, James, II, 237, 288. 

Lucas, John B. C, I, 25, 26, 29, 97, 
99-100, 127, 147, 159, 282; II, 20- 
21, 49, 52, 70, 72, 78, 128, 129, 
135-136, 147, 179, 182, 189, 207- 
208. See also Board of Land com- 

Lucas, Robert, II, 239. 
Lucero Expedition, I, 120. 
Lyon, James, I, 49. 

McArthur, John, II, 132, 234, 268, 

McCall, Samuel, II, 235, 285. 
McClain, John, II, 200. 
McCelland (McClellan), Robert, I, 

202, 203; II, 17, 31, 33. 
McComack, Peter, II, 282. 
McConnell, John, II, 26, 235, 286. 
McConnell, William, I, 327; II, 195. 
McCormick, John, II, 194. 
McCormick, Joseph, II, 198. 
McCoy, Robert, II, 29, 193, 199. 
McCullock (McCulloch), Jamos, II, 

197, 234, 269, 284, 330. 
McDonald, John, II, 233. 
McDougall, George, I, 147. 
McDowns, William, II, 234, 284. 
McFarland (McFarlane), Blassing- 

ham (Blessingham) H., II, 237, 

McFarland (McFarlane, McFarlin, 

McFarling), James, II, 44-45, 55- 

60, 107, 203. 
McFarland, William, II, 281, 286. 
McFerron, Joseph, I, 139, 331; II, 

198, 199. 

McGuire, Philip, II, 197, 269. 
Mclllmurray, John, II, 281. 
McKay, Robert, I, 332. 
McKean, Thomas, I, 50. 
McKee, Andrew, I, 201. 
McKee's Discovery, I, 252; II, 276. 
McKinney, John, I, 307, 308. 
McKnight, John (Jos), II, 193, 218, 

239, 291. 
McLanahan, Josiah, I, 255, 337. 
McLaughlin, Thomas, II, 268, 280, 

McMahan (McMahon), William, II, 

283, 287. 
McNair, Alexander, I, 213-215, 268, 

324, 329, 333; II, 26, 112, 120, 122, 

169, 193, 196, 219-220, 230, 238, 

239, 249, 250, 283, 308. 



McQuitty, David, II, 283, 287. 

MacRae, Alexander, I, 130. 

McWilliams, Robert, II, 238. 

McWilliams, Thomas, II, 290. 

Mackay, James, I, 324, 330; II, 196. 

Mackay, Robert, II, 199. 

Mackinac, see Michillimackinac. 

Mackinac Company, II, 17. 

Mackinac Factory, II, 37. 

Madison, James, I, 342; II, 45. 

Malboeuf, Stephen, II, 98. 

Mandan escort, II, 89, 122-123. 

Mandans, I, 220, 250; II, 89, 122- 

Manly, John, II, 98. 

Manufactures, II, 153. 

Marais des Liards, I, 334. 

Marie, Joseph, I, 303. 

Markets, I, 113. 

Marshall, John, I, 48-49, 50. 

Martin, Luther, I, 130. 

Martin, Stephen, II, 239, 291. 

Martineau, Joseph, II, 98. 

Martin's Mine, II, 303. 

Massey, David, II, 223-224. 

Mathers, William, I, 261, 270, 274- 
275, 280, 284-286, 287-297, 317-319; 
II, 60-62, 198, 199. 

Mathews, William, I, 326. 

Mathurin, John B., I, 333. 

Matthews, Edward, II, 237, 288. 

Matthews (Matthers), Edward, Jr., 
I, 327; II, 199. 

Maupin, John, II, 26, 281, 285. 

Maxwell, James, II, 254. 

Mechan, John Alexander, Jr., II, 27. 

Meigs, Return J., I, 22, 298. 

Meigs, Return J., Jr., II, 128. 

Melgares Expedition, I, 120, 125, 

Merry, Anthony, I, 105. 

Meyneaud, Jean Baptiste Francois, 
I, 275, 277. 

Michie, John, II, 154-156, 185-187. 

Michigan Territory, creation of, I, 
9; officers, I, 11-12; judicial or- 
ganization, I, 14, 73-83; operation 

of Indiana statutes in, I, 84-86; 
settlement of land claims in, I, 
65, 69-73; political dissensions, I, 
142, 172-173, 221, 300, 301-302; II, 
64-65, 113, 160. 

Michillimackinac, I, 226, 232; II, 
37, 42, 160. 

Michillimackinac Company, I, 38. 

Michillimackinac Factory, I, 221. 

Michillimackinac Revenue District, 

I, 221. 

"Military School," I, 148-149. 

Militia, I, 92-93, 115, 138-139, 141, 
157-158, 163-164, 187-188, 189, 191, 
195, 199-200, 210, 233, 236, 256- 
257; II, 25-28, 39, 75, 97-98, 131 
132, 189-194, 245-248, 249-253, 279- 

Militia laws, I, 92, 115. 

Millard, Joseph, II, 239, 291. 

Miller, Andrew, I, 196-197, 198, 216; 

II, 235, 285. 

Miller, George C, II, 236, 287. 

Miller, John, II, 283, 284. 

Miller, Samuel, II, 281. 

Miller, William, I, 6. 

Millikin, Jacob, II, 317. 

Mills, Richard, II, 198. 

Mine a Bourassar, II, 303. 

Mine a Burton (Breton), I, 111, 
112, 117, 194, 231, 261; II, 38-39, 
303. See also Moses Austin. 

Mine a Gerbore, I, 117. 

Mine a Joe, I, 117. 

Mine a la Motte, I, 117. 

Mine a la Plate, I, 117. 

Mine a Larry, I, 117. 

Mine a Maneto, I, 117. 

Mine a Renault, I, 117, 261, 271, 
275, 276-277, 284-285, 287-297, 303- 
304; II, 180-183, 203-204. 

Mine Arnault, I, 234-235. 

Mine a Robina, I, 117, 293; II, 276. 

Mine a Straddle, II, 303. 

Missouri, migration to, I, 35; par- 
ties in, I, 35; gubernatorial cam- 
paign of 1824, II, 315, 318. 

Missouri Fur Company, I, 304; II, 

338 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Missouri River expedition, I, 224. 

Missouris, II, 32. 

Missouri Territory, creation of, I, 

33, 301; government, I, 33-34; II, 

254, 296; militia, II, 233-239, 267- 

269, 279-291, 297; officials, JI, 

279-283; defense in War of 1812, 

II, 245-248, 249-253; land bill for, 

II, 298-301. 
Mitchell, Joseph, I, 333. 
Monburn, Charles, II, 202. 
Money, II, 154. 
Monroe, James, I, 332. 
Montardy, Pedro (Peter), I, 203; II, 

Mooney, Daniel, II, 27, 59, 60, 143- 

144, 149, 200, 237, 281, 289. 
Moore, Daniel, II, 98. 
Moore, Isidore, I, 325; II, 198. 
Moore, Richard, II, 235, 285. 
Moorhead, Fergus, II, 181-182, 197. 
Morales' regulations, II, 48. 
Morin, Joseph, II, 14. 
Morleau, Gab., II, 32. 
Morrison, James, I, 203, 327, 333; 

II, 195, 235, 238, 245. 
Morrison, Jesse, I, 203, 333. 
Morrison, Joshua, II, 280, 289. 
Morrison, Robert, II, 131. 
Morrison, William, II, 245, 250, 252, 

Morrow, John, II, 283, 287. 
Moseley, Samuel, II, 192, 200, 202, 

281, 289. 
Moutree, James H., II, 289. 
Murphey's Settlement, I, 252. 
Murphy, Benjamin, II, 282, 290. 
Murphy, Isaac, II, 235, 285. 
Murphy, William, I, 320. 
Musick, Abram (Abraham), II, 63. 
Musick, Asa, II, 240. 
Musick, David, II, 233, 245, 247, 

254-255, 259. 
Musick, James, II, 233, 246, 248, 

Musick, Thomas, II, 196. 
Musick, Uri, II, 26. 

Mutry, James F., II, 268. 
Myers, Benjamin, II, 237, 288. 

Neeley (Neely), William, II, 194. 
New Madrid District, I, 20; II, 15- 

Newcomer, Christopher, I, 288-289. 
New Diggings, I, 252, 265; II, 276. 
Newell, James C, II, 282. 
Newell, John C, II, 290. 
Nichols, John, II, 98. 
Noiris, James, II, 318. 
Non-Intercourse Act, II, 41. 
North West Company, I, 226. See 

also Canadian traders. 
Northwestern posts, II, 38. See also 

Canadian traders. 
Notrebee, Fred, II, 281. 

O'Bannon, William, I, 103, 104, 163, 

167, 169; II, 42. 
Ogle, William, I, 139. 
Ohio, I, 209. 
Old Mines, I, 117. 
Olive, Jean Baptiste, I, 332; II, 29. 
Oliver, Thomas, I, 160, 189, 321, 328, 

329; II, 190, 197, 198, 234, 285. 
Omahas, I, 121, 202, 203, 283-284. 
Ordway, William, II, 127. 
O'Reilly, Alexander, I, 107. 
Orphans' courts, I, 258. 
Osage (town), II, 305. 
Osages, I, 106, 118, 119, 123-124, 179, 

188, 198-199, 203, 316-317, 320, 334, 

344-345; II, 35-36, 44-47, 58, 89- 

90, 159, 167. 
Ottawas, I, 72-73; II, 180. 
Oto (Otto), I, 121, 125, 202, 203, 283- 

284, 333; II, 31, 32. 
Ouachita, II, 13. 

Padoes, I, 125. 

Padoucahs, I, 125. 

Pain, Joseph, II, 240. 

Pani-Mahas, I, 202. 

Papin, Alexander, II, 202, 283. 

Papin, Antoine, I, 202. 



Papin, Joseph M., I, 102-103. 

Pardons, I, 152. 

Parsons, Agnes, I, 3. 

Parsons, Joseph A., I, 290-291. 

Partenay (Partenais), Amable, II, 

38, 207, 270, 273, 275, 278-279, 294, 

Patterson, Elisha, II, 284. 
Patterson, James, II, 238, 290. 
Patterson, Thomas, II, 235, 285. 
Pattie, Sylvestre, II, 286. 
Paul, Rene, II, 323. 
Pawnees, I, 120, 121, 125, 202, 230- 

231; II, 31, 32. 
Payatte, John, II, 282, 290. 
Payton, Charles, II, 270. 
Peau Blanche, I, 334. 
Pennyman (Penneman), Joshua, I, 

160, 189, 321, 325. 
Penrose, Clement Biddle, I, 29, 97, 

99, 159, 282; II, 21, 49, 52, 71-72, 

99, 111, 129, 147, 179, 189, 202, 

216, 218. See also Board of land 

Peorias, I, 163. 
Perkins, Joseph, I, 211-213, 329; 

II, 189. 
Perry, John, I, 273, 278-279, 297, 

329; II, 34-35, 279, 280, 293-294. 
Perry, John, Jr., II, 38. 
Perry, Samuel, I, 217, 270, 285-286, 

288-297; II, 38, 174. 
Pettitt (Pettit), Jacob, II, 268, 280, 

Phelps, Timothy, II, 238, 280, 289, 

Philips (Phillips), Samuel, II, 238, 

Philips, Sylvanus, II, 202. 
Philips, Zach., II, 281. 
Philipson, Jacob, II, 153. 
Pike Expedition, I, 120, 121-122, 125, 

126, 134, 232. 
Piqueur, Baptiste, II, 149-150. 
Piqueur (Piqueure), Francis, II, 32, 

Piqueur, Joseph, II, 32. 
Piracy, I, 257; II, 320. 
Placie, Jean Baptiste, I, 193. 

Plante, Peter, II, 33. 

Pleasants, James, I, 51; II, 291-292. 

Poncas, II, 282. 

Pope, John, II, 227-228, 230. 

Pope, Nathaniel, II, 26, 76, 100, 113. 

Population, I, 245; II, 168, table. 

Porlier, Jacques, II, 105. 

Portage des Sioux, I, 249; II, 245, 

Poston, Henry, II, 235, 286. 
Pottawotomi, I, 72-73, 124, 163. 
Prairie du Chien, I, 176, 222 226* 

II, 18. 
Pratte, Bernard, I, 200, 323 329 

331; II, 75, 193, 196, 197. 
Pratte, Joseph, II, 198. 
Presbyterian Church, I, 325, 327. 
Preston, William, II, 202. 
Price, Rysdon (Risden) H., I, 330- 

II, 28. 
Prices, I, 138, 346; II, 154-156. 
Priesthood, I, 244. 
Primo, Paul, I, 203. 

Primo (Primeau), Pierre, I, 203; II 

Probate court, I, 259-260, 269. 

Proclamations, I, 109, 130-132, 152- 

153, 179-180, 337-340; II, 15-16, 97- 

98, 102, 134, 254, 255, 259. 
Proctor, Edward, II, 317. 
Proulz, Bazil, I, 334. 
Provonchere, Antoine Nicholas 

Pierre, I, 100, 321; II, 231. 
Provonchere, Madame, I, 100, 116. 
Pryor, Nathaniel, I, 220, 230, 237 

248; II, 63, 64. 
Purser, William, II, 290. 

Quasquami (Qusquami), I, 334; II, 

Quesnel, Amable, II, 32. 
Quesnel, Joseph, II, 32. 
Quesnel, Peter, II, 33. 
Quick, Benjamin, II, 98. 
Quimby, Stephen, II, 317. 

Races, II, 14. 

Racine, Tenace, II, 27, 237. 

340 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Ragotte (Rajotte), Frangois, I, 202; 

II, 32, 202. 
Ramsay, Thomas, II, 231. 
Ramsay (Ramsey), William, I, 308; 

II, 238. 
Ramsey, Andrew, II, 238. 
Randall, Elijah, II, 237, 288. 
Randall, Medad, II, 237, 288. 
Randolph, Edmund, I, 130. 
Rankin, George, II, 282, 290. 
Rankin, James, I, 329, 331; II, 197, 

238, 246, 290. 
Ravenscraft, James, II, 192, 237, 

Rawls, Amos, I, 333; II, 26. 
Reap, Frederick, II, 236. 
Rector, William, I, 298. 
Reddell (Ruddell), George, II, 199. 
Reed, Jacob, I, 253-255. 
Reed (Reid), Thomas, II, 238, 290. 
Reed (Read), William, I, 227, 330; 

II, 280, 289. 
Refeld, Charles, II, 30, 59. 
Reid, James, II, 19. 
Reineke (Reineker), Frederick, II, 

193, 199. 
Relle, Charles, II, 149-150. 
Renard, Joseph, I, 202. 
Renault, Philippe Frangois, I, 276- 

Revolutionary War veterans, I, 114, 

Rhea's resolution, I, 267, 295-296. 
Rheile (Rheill), A. E., II, 238, 267. 
Richardson, James, I, 115-116, 117, 

320; II, 26. 
Riddick, Thomas Fiveash, I, 158, 

217, 268, 282-283, 298, 322, 324, 

328; II, 5-6, 22, 53-54, 79, 92, 135, 

189, 196, 197, 214, 217, 231, 233, 

Rigdon, James, II, 234, 268, 285. 
Riggs, Jonathan, II, 238, 290. 
Riney, Thomas, II, 235, 285. 
Rivard (Rivar), Joseph, II, 33, 287. 
Robbins, Prospect K., II, 194, 195, 

238, 282. 
Robertson, Andrew, II, 288. 

Robidoux, Frangois, II, 31, 202. 
Robidoux, Joseph, I, 202. 
Robinson, David, II, 170. 
Robison, William, II, 14. 
Roche, Manuel Andre, II, 29. 
Rocheblave, Noel, II, 105. 
Rocque, M. A., II, 190, 197. 
Rogers, Ezekiel, II, 177. 
Rogers, Lewis, I, 105, 106. 
Rogers, Samuel, II, 98. 
Rogers, William, II, 202. 
Roi, Francis, II, 233, 284. 
Romin, Christy, I, 296-297. 
Ross, James, I, 50. 
Ross, Philip, II, 238, 290. 

Ross, Stephen, I, 326, 333; II, 25, 

199, 237, 288. 
Roy, Antoine, I, 203. 

Ruddell (Ruddle), George, I, S27; 
II, 29, 137. 

Ruggles, Martin, II, 234, 268, 269, 

Russell, William, I, 329; II, 281, 


Sacs, I, 103, 104, 118, 162, 169, 179, 
190-191, 203, 228-229, 230, 247, 249, 
283-284, 308, 310-311, 334, 335; II, 
86, 105, 116-119, 120-122, 203. See 
also Fox Indians. 

St. Charles, I, 112, 240, 245. 

St. Charles District, I, 20, 238. 

Ste. Genevieve District, I, 20, 238, 
320; II, 116. 

Ste. Genevieve, I, 144, 245, 281-282. 

St. Joseph, I, 202. 

St. Louis, I, 20, 239, 245; II, 296. 

St. Louis District, I, 20, 238; II, 

St. Phillips, I, 276. 

St. Vrain, Jacques Ceran Marcelin 
DeHault DeLassus, I, 251. 

St. Vrain's grant, I, 251-252, 285, 
303-304; II, 181-183, 223, 276-277. 

Salines, I, 238, 245. 
Saltpetre production, I, 141, 245 ; II, 
60-62, 91, 249-250. 



Salt works, II, 159, 274, 276. 

San Fernando de Florrissant, I, 

Sanguinet (Sanguenette), Charles, 

Jr., I, 202; II, 282. 
Santa Fe road, II, 322-323. 
Sappington, John, II, 234, 285. 
Sappington, Thomas, II, 233, 284. 
Sappington, Zepheniah (Zapha- 

niah), II, 26, 233, 284. 
Sarpy, Gregoire, II, 233. 
Saucier (Soucier), Charles, II, 192, 

236, 286. 
Saucier (Soucier), Francois, I, 323; 

II, 194, 195. 
Saucier (Soucier), Nathaniel, II, 

Schrader (Shrader), Otho, I, ]18- 

119, 189, 198, 220, 322, 32S; II, 

Scott, Andrew, I, 332; II, 28. 
Scott, Charles, II, 177. 
Scott, James, II, 304-305. 
Scott, John, II, 100, 190, 238, 246, 

247, 252, 254, 278-279, 290. 
Scott, Thomas Baytop, I, 22, 184. 
Scott, Thomas C, I, 149, 178, 184, 

186, 210, 320, 321, 328, 331. 
Scott, William McDowell, I, 298- 

Scull, James, II, 192, 200, 237, 281. 
Scull, William, II, 289. 
Seals, I, 150, 162, 171. 
Serego, Jacob, II, 318. 
Sesep, George, II, 98. 
Shahaka, I, 250; II, 89. 
Shannon, George, I, 248. 
Shaw, Darius, I, 149; II, 198. 
Shaw, John A., II, 301, 302. 
Shawanees, I, 105, 166-168; II, 91. 
Shell, Adam, II, 287. 
Shell, Benjamin, I, 326; II, 192, 199. 
Shepherd, Jacob, II, 237, 287. 
Shibboleth Mine, II, 222, 275-276. 
Shields, Joseph, II, 237, 288. 
Shous's Mine, II, 279, 303. 
Sibley, George Champlain, I, 222, 

224-225, 272, 337; II, 31, 36, 197. 

Sibley, John, I, 222. 
Sibley, Solomon, II, 37. 
Siever's Mine, II, 303. 
Silvers' Mine, II, 278-279. 
Simonds (Simon), Nathaniel, II, 

191, 236, 286. 
Simpson, George, II, 98. 
Simpson, Robert, II, 190, 196. 
Sims, William, II, 285. 
Sinclair, John, II, 235. 
Sioux, I, 118, 163, 203, 232, 248, 283- 

284, 334; II, 31, 32, 201, 203, 281, 

Slavery, II, 127, 156, 225, 228-229, 
231, 266, 307, 308-309, 314. 

Sloan, Thomas, II, 235. 

Small, John, I, 149, 171. 

Smith, Benjamin, II, 195. 

Smith, Chauncey, II, 320-322. 

Smith, David, I, 286-288. 

Smith, Franklin J., I, 333; II, 26. 

Smith, John, II, 129. 

Smith T, John, I, 26, 27, 31, 98, 109- 
110, 116, 137, 145-146, 186, 194, 
251-252, 270-272, 274, 280-281, 284- 

285, 287-288, 289-297, 303-304, 315, 
318-319, 320; II, 173, 180-183, 201, 
203-204, 210-214, 222-223, 224-225, 
271, 276, 277. 

Smith, Joseph, II, 237, 288. 
Smith, Reuben, II, 181-183. 
Smith, Robert A., II, 279, 284. 
Smith, Thomas, I, 327. 
Smith, William, II, 233, 240, 250- 

Solomon, Samuel, I, 330; II, 201, 

Soulard, Antoine, I, 115. 
Spain, boundary dispute with. I, 92, 

119-120; regime in Louisiana, I, 

107; Spanish inhabitants in 

Louisiana, I, 241; trade, I, 231; 

land law, II, 10, 48, 93; danger 

of war with, II, 320. 

Spear, Edward, II, 192. 

Spencer, Robert, I, 328; II, 195, 

236, 246, 280, 286. 
Stanton, John, II, 193, 198. 
Stark, Horatio, II, 83, 91. 

342 The Life and Papers of Frederick Bates. 

Statler, Peter, II, 192. 

Stedman, Benjamin, II, 98. 

Steel, Henry, II, 191. 

Steele, John, I, 188. 

Stephens, James, II, 197. 

Stephenson, Robert M., II, 198. 

Stevenson, William 0., II, 274, 281. 

Steward, John, I, 331. 

Stillwell, Harrold (Harold), II, 27, 

30, 59, 60, 237. 
Stillwell, Joseph, II, 9, 12, 30, 200. 
Stoddard, Amos, I, 19. 
Stone, John B., II, 238, 290, 294- 

Story, Joseph, II, 280. 
Stringer, Daniel, II, 288. 
Strother, William, II, 238, 290. 
Stuart, Alexander, II, 67-68. 
Stuart, J., I, 149. 
Sullins, John, II, 98. 
Sullivan, William, I, 322, 330. 
Swan (Swon), William, II, 279. 
Sydnor, Samuel B., II, 307, 308-309. 

Talbert, Hail, II, 192, 196. 
Tanner, Edward, II, 288. 
Tazewell, Littleton Walter, II, 320. 
Teague (Teaque), Pierre (Peter), 

II, 26, 235, 286. 
Territory of Orleans, II, 80. 
Terry, Robert, II, 189. 
Thibault (Tabeau, Tebo, Tibbeau, 

Tebeau, Thebalt), Joseph, I, 202, 

203; II, 84, 102. 
Thompson, Burwell J., II, 268. 
Thompson, David, I, 45. 
Thompson, John Washington, II, 

283, 285, 290, 291. 
Thurman, John, II, 295. 
Tiffin, Edward, II, 271. 
Tileo, Peter, II, 240. 
Tillier, Rudolph, I, 219, 224-225, 230, 

247, 272. 
Todd, Benjamin L., II, 314. 
Tompkins, George, II, 282, 284. 
Trammel, Nicholas, II, 239, 240. 

Treat, John Burke, I, 344-345; II, 
30, 35-36, 45, 58, 103, 114-115, 200. 

Treat, Samuel, II, 114-115, 192, 200. 

Trenchard, Francis, II, 199. 

Trimble, Robert, II, 240. 

Trimble, William, II, 240. 

Trotter, James, I, 333; II, 26. 

Trotter, Robert, I, 333; II, 26, 238, 

Tucker, John, II, 317. 

Tucker, Joseph, I, 329. 

Tywappity Bottom, I, 151. 

Upper Louisiana, I, 19, 20-21. 
Ursins, Marc Antoine de la Loere 
des, 1, 276. 

Valle, Jean Baptiste, I, 203; II, 32. 
Valle, Joachim, I, 204; II, 32. 
Vallett, B., I, 204. 
Valois, Frangois, II, 27. 
Van Bibber, Isaac, II, 235, 247, 286. 
Vannorsdale, Simon, II, 74, 76. 
Vansant, Abner, II, 234, 284. 
Vaughan, Thomas, I, 285-286, 287. 
Vaugine, Francis, II, 27, 30, 59, 60, 

Vaugine, Stephen, II, 28. 
Vial, Pedro, II, 32. 
Vial Expedition, I, 120. 
Virginia, I, 48-49, 52. 
Volunteer companies, I, 13'M33, 

148-149, 187, 189, 256-257, 264, 314. 
Voorhis, John, II, 28. 

Wade, David, II, 190, 198. 

Wages, II, 156. 

Walker, John II, 237, 238, 288. 

Walker, Laken, II, 235. 

Wallis, Perly, II, 13, 23-24, 45-47. 

Walton, Thomas H., I, 5. 

War of 1812, rumors of war, II, 60; 
reports on British subjects with- 
in the United States, II, 232-233; 
militia appointments, II, 233-239, 
279-291; provisioning of troops, 
II, 245-248; frontier defense, II, 
249-253; suffering of Boonslick set- 
tlers, II, 297. 



Ward, John, I, 330. 

Ware, Hardy, II, 269, 285. 

Warner, Jabez, II, 320. 

Warren, Nathaniel, II, 98. 

Wash, Robert, II, 187, 191, 204, 269. 

Waters, Richard H., II, 238, 288. 

Waters, Richard Jones, I, 177, 208- 

209, 326, 328. 
Waters, Thomas Willoughby, I, 262, 

264, 266. 
Watson, Robert Gowie, I, 234. 
Webber, William, II, 107. 
Weber, John H., II, 278. 
Weeds, Jonathan, I, 327. 
Weeks, Thomas D. L., II, 193, 196. 
Wellborn (Willborn), Curtis, II, 

192, 200. 
Wellborn, John, I, 325; II, 198, 317. 
Wells, John, II, 240. 
Wells, Joseph, II, 98. 
Wells, William, II, 98. 
Wescott, Robert, I, 218-219. 
Westbrook, Joseph, II, 237, 288. 
West Indian commerce, II, 42. 
Westover, Job, II, 280, 289. 
Wharton, Spencer Montague, II, 

Wheat, Conrad, II, 317. 
Wheat, Joseph, II, 294-295. 
Wherry, Mackay, I, 328, 331, 332; 

II, 25, 83, 92, 195, 196. 
Whetstone, David, II, 236. 
White, James, II, 202. 
White Hairs, I, 179. 
Whitehouse, Joseph, I, 268. 
Whittlesey, Joseph, I, 149, 321. 
Wickham, John, I, 130. 
Wideman, Francois, I, 273. 
Widner, Henry, II, 192, 236. 
Wilcum (Wilkham), Robert, I, 286, 

Wilkinson, Anthony, II, 280, 289. 
Wilkinson, Benjamin, II, 28. 

Wilkinson. James, I, 25, 98, 99. 122, 

125, 127, 129-130, 146, 298, 303. 
Wilkinson, Walter, II, 198. 
Wilkinson, W. N., II, 266. 
Willard, Alexander, I, 310-311; II, 

Williams, John, I, 173; II, 240. 
Williams, Thomas, II, 234, 269, 285. 
Williams, William, II, 249-250. 
Wilson, Andrew, I, 258. 
Wilson, George, II, 202-203, 258, 262, 

Wilson, John, II, 98. 
Wilson, Nicholas, II, 222, 224, 226, 

Wilson, William, II, 183-184. 
Winds, Joseph, II, 235. 
Winnebago, I, 163. 
Winsor, Christopher, I, 177. 
Winsor, Elisha, I, 326; II, 237, 288. 
Winsor, Thomas, II, 237, 288. 
Winter, Gabriel, II, 9, 10. 
Winter, William, II, 9, 10. 
Wirt, William, I, 129. 
Wiseman, Jonathan, II, 234. 
Wood, Joseph, II, 280, 289. 
Woodson, Caroline Matilda, I, 3. 
Woodson, Charles, I, 3. 
Woodson, Obadiah, I, 262, 264, 326, 

Woodson, Samuel, II, 320-322. 
Woodward, Augustus Brevoort, I, 

11-12, 13, 15-16, 88, 142, 146, 172- 

173, 175, 299, 301-302; II, 113. 
Worrell, Stephen, I, 19. 
Wyandots, I, 72-73. 
Wyley, Thomas, II, 238, 290. 

Yardley, Joseph, II, 268, 286. 
Young, Austin, II, 192, 236, 287. 
Young, James C, II, 238, 290. 
Young, Joseph, II, 236. 
Young, Morris, II, 238, 290. 


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