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Team of Pekcherons.' 



'Counesy of "TLb Field. I 



FARMING FOR PROFIT 

LIVE STOCK 

AND 

DAIRY FARMING 

A NONTECHNICAL MANUAL FOR THE SUCCESSFUL BREED- 
ING, CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF FARM ANIMALS, THE 
DAIRY HERD, AND THE ESSENTIALS OF DAIRY PRODUCTION 



BY 



FRANK D. GARDNER 



* § 



PROFESSOR OF AGRONOMY, PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE 



ASSISTED BY 



W. H. TOMHAVE 

Professor of Animal Husbandry, Pennsylvania 
State College 

DR. H, S. GRINDLEY 

Professor of Animal Nutrition, University of Illinois 

SLEETER BULL 

Associate Professor of Animal Nutrition, University 

of Illinois 

E. H. HUGHES 

Assistant Professor in Animal Husbandry, College of 
Agriculture, University of Missouri 

W. A. COCHEL 

Professor of Animal Husbandry, Kansas Agricul- 
tural College 

JOHN M. EWARD 

Chief in Swine Production, Animal Husbandry Sec- 
tion, Iowa Experiment Station 



T. C. STONE 

Instructor in Animal Husbandry. Ohio State 
University 

M. C. KILPATRICK 

Instructor in Poultry Husbandry, Ohio State 
University 

F. S. PUTNEY 

Assistant Professor of Dairy Husbandry, Pennsyl- 
vania State College 

C. W. LARSON 

Professor of Dairy Husbandry, Pennsylvania State 

College 

GEORGE C. HUMPHREY 

Professor of Animal Husbandry, University of 

Wisconsin 

ERNEST L. ANTHONY 

Assistant Professor of Dairy Husbandry, Pennsyl- 
vania State College 



illustrated: 



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THE JOHN C. WINSTON COMPANY 

PHILADELPHIA CHICAGO 






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LUh ' ^' ' V.MLTURE DL' <K 

Copyright, 1918, by 
The John C. Winston Company 



Copyright, 1916, by 
L. T. Myers 



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PREFACE 



This book is written for amateur as well as professional livestock and 
dairy farmers. It makes a popular appeal to all men engaged in animal 
and dairy husbandry. 

Ages of farm experience have given us a vast store of practical knowl- 
edge on the raising of crops and animals. This knowledge is scattered 
through many volumes on different phases of the subject, in experiment 
station bulletins, agricultural journals and encyclopedias. The important 
facts on which the most successful livestock and dairy farming is based 
are here brought together in orderly and readable form. Not only are 
directions given for the management and care of farm animals but the 
business end of the problem is fully discussed, showing why some achieve 
success and why others fail. 

The subject-matter is arranged in several parts of a number of chapters 
each, and by referring to the Table of Contents any subject may be quickly 
found. Each department has been prepared by a specialist in the subject 
presented. The name of the author appears at the beginning of each 
chapter. Those unacknowledged have been prepared by myself. 

The illustrations have been secured from many sources. Due credit 
has been given these. 

Special acknowledgment is due the publishers of this volume and 
the other volumes in the series for its conception, and for many helpful 
suggestions in the presentation of the subject-matter. 

I wish also to especially acknowledge the valuable editorial assistance 
of my wife in the preparation of the manuscript. 

Frank D. Gardner 



415292 



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CONTENTS 



PART I. LIVESTOCK FARMING (ANIMAL HUSBANDRY) 

Chapter 1. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF KEEPING LIVE 

STOCK 15 

Value and importance of livestock. 

Advantages of Livestock. 

Animals furnish food, labor and clothing — Animals make use of land otherwise 
unproductive — Animals utilize crops that would be wholly or partly wasted — 
Animals transform coarse, bulky products into concentrated form — Animals 
return fertility to the soil — Livestock facilitate good crop rotations— Capital more 
fully used — Livestock call for higher skill — More land may be farmed with the 
same labor. 

Disadvantages of Livestock. 

Animals require larger capital — Capital of perishable nature — Products cannot 
be indefinitely held— Crop failures may cause loss on livestock. 

Chapter 2. BREEDING, CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF FARM ANIMALS. . 21 

Breeding pf Livestock. 

History of animal breeding — Lines of breeding — Selection of a breed — Pedigree — 
Gestation period. 

Care of Livestock. 

Preparation of feeds — Feeding condimental stock feeds — Care of the breeding 
herd— Care of work animals — Assist animals at time of riving birth to their young. 



Management of Livestock. 

Open sheds — Arrangement of labor — The kind of farm animals — Regularity in 
feeding and watermg — Observing individuals — Keep up records — Preparation 
and shipping livestock. 

Chapter 3. FEEDS AND FEEDING 30 

Introduction — Chemical composition of feechnMtuffs — Water — Mineral matter — 
Crude protein— Carbohydrates — The fats — Digestion of the nutrients — The 
nutritive ratio — The energy value of feeding-stuffs — Feeding-stuffs — Concen- 
trates — Roughages — The requirements of farm animals — The balanced ration — 
The Wolff-Lehmann standards — The Armsby standards — The Haecker standard 
for dairy cows. 

Chapters HORSES AND MULES 41 

Development of type — The light horse — Draft type — The mule — Market require- 
ments — The age of the horse — Horse feedings — Feeds for the horse — Grain — 
Roughages — Watering — The work horse — The foal — The orphan foal — The brood 
mare — The stallion. 

Standard Rations. 

Foals — Work horses — Brood mare — Grooming. 

Chapter 5. BEEF CATTLE 52 

Sources of profit — Breeding pure-bred cattle — Producing stockers and feeders — 
Grazing cattle — Fattening cattle — Fitting show animals. 



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CHAPTER 1 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Keeping Livestock 

Without the aid of domestic animals as beasts of burden, man would 
have a sorry existence. The horse, ass and camel have been of great service 
in past ages in aiding man to conquer new regions, and by their aid he has 
been enabled to very materially increase his productive power. 

Animals have also been a great aid to man as a source of food and 
clothing. Those countries that depend upon animals and animal products 
the most are, as a rule, the most productive and highly civilized. In 
North America animal products, such as meat, milk, butter, cheese, lard, 
eggs, etc., constitute fully one-half of the value of the products of human 
consumption. 

A large part of the vegetation on the earth is unsuited for human 
consumption. Of this, such by-products as straw and stover are converted 
into milk, butter, cheese, meat and animal fats. It is estimated that 80 
per cent of the corn produced in the United States is consumed by livestock 
in the county where produced. This conversion of crude farm products 
adds greatly to the quality of man's diet. 

The essential characteristics of domesticated animals are: (1) their 
ability to convert food into energy and animal products for human use, 
(2) the readiness with which they become subject to the will of man, 
and (3) their prolificacy or ability to breed abundantly. 

Value and Importance of Livestock. — The United States and Canada 
with 28,000,000 horses, 63,000,000 cattle, 51,000,000 sheep and more than 
62,000,000 swine, is pre-eminently a livestock country. South America 
leads in the production of sheep with 115,000,000 and ranks third in cattle 
with 48,000,000. It falls to India to lead in cattle production, which, 
including the water buffalo, numbers 125,000,000 head. The United States, 
however, far outranks all other countries in its numbers of horses, mules 
and swine. It is second in production of cattle and sheep. 

During the past half century, the livestock in the United States has 
increased about three times in numbers and about six times in value. 
While numbers have not quite kept pace with increase in population, the 
value per capita has steadily increased. This increase in value has been 
due chiefly to two factors: (1) the improvement in livestock, and (2) the 
increased value per unit of weight of animals and animal products. In 
1850 the average fleece of a sheep weighed 2.4 pounds; in 1900 it had 
increased to 6.9 pounds. During the fifty years sheep nearly doubled in 
number, while the yield of wool increased five times. This increase was 
due chiefly to breeding rather than feeding. If statistics were available, 

15 



16 



• o • 

_ • 



• • 



„• • 



• -• 



.VSPP0ESSFUL FARMING 



• ' • 



we j¥pjiid^ob"tleffiifinii*tltat % -the increase per cow in milk, and particularly 
in butterfat; ^oulcf not be fess striking. 

Thirty-five years ago, the usual work-team in the corn belt consisted 
of two 1000-pound horses. Today, the prevailing team is three 1500-pound 
horses. This increase in the size of the team has been an important factor 
in increasing the man unit of production on the farm, and has undoubtedly 
been one of the factors instrumental in the increase in land values in that 
region. The following table gives the numbers, value per head and total 
value of the principal classes of livestock in the United States for 1880 and 
1915, as reported by the Bureau of Statistics of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture: 

Numbers and Value op Livestock on Farms in the United States 

in 1915 as Compared with 1880. 



fToaa r\f 


1880. 


1015. 


\jlnB9 O* 

Animals. 


Number. 


Value 
per Head. 


Farm Value. 


Number. 


Value 
per Head. 


Farm Value. 


Horses 

Mules 


11,202,000 
1,730,000 
12,027,000 
21,231;000 
40,766,000 
34,034,000 


$54.75 

61.26 

23.37 

16.10 

2.21 

4.28 


$613,297,000 
105,948,000 
279,889,000 
341,761,000 
90,231,000 
145,782,000 


21,195,000 
4,479,000 
21,262,000 
37,067,000 
49,956,000 
64,618,000 


$103.33 

112.36 

55.33 

33.38 

4.50 

9.87 


$2,190,102,000 
503,271,000 


Cows 


1,176,338,000 


Other cattle. . . . 
Sheep 


1,237,376,000 
224,687,000 


Swine 


637,479,000 






Total 


$1,576,908,000 


$5,969,253,000 















From the above table it will be noted that the total value of livestock 
in the United States increased from a little more than $1,500,000,000 in 
1880 to nearly $6,000,000,000 in 1915. During that period, horses and 
mules doubled in number and quadrupled in value. The increase in num- 
bers of cows and other cattle did not quite double, while the value per head 
of the former considerably more than doubled and the latter slightly more 
than doubled. The increase in numbers of sheep and swine was slightly 
less marked, but in both of these classes the value per head slightly more 
than doubled. 

ADVANTAGES OF LIVESTOCK 

Animals Furnish Food, Labor and Clothing. — Even when not profit- 
able to rear anmals for market, the cost of living on farms may be greatly 
reduced by the judicious production of livestock and livestock products 
for the home food supply. The difference between the purchase price of 
animals and animal products and the price which the producer receives has 
materially increased during recent years. The value of these products to 
the farmer for his own consumption is equal, whether bought or produced 
on the farm. Furthermore, animals and animal products may be produced 
on a small scale on most farms on what otherwise would be wasted. 



KEEPING LIVESTOCK 17 

The acres of land cultivated by each horse depends on the size of the 
horse, character of farming, the type of soil and the topography of the land. 
In England, two horses are generally required for 80 acres of light, sandy 
soil or 60 acres of heavy, clay soil. In the United States, there is about 
one horse or mule of working age to each 30 acres of improved land. For- 
merly, many oxen were kept for work, but these have been largely replaced 
by the horse and mule because of their more rapid movements and conse- 
quent greater efficiency. The draft of the ox is larger in proportion to his 
weight, but his slowness has caused his displacement with the increase in 
the value of human labor. 

With the introduction of cotton and silk, the value of animal products 
as sources of clothing decreased relatively. The value of leather, wool and 



UraLiziNQ Woodland jor Pasture. 1 

hair is very large, however, and plays an important part in the clothing 
of the human race. 

Animals Make Use of Land Otherwise Unproductive. — According to 
the last census, only about one-half of the farm area in the United States 
was improved land, and only about two-thirds of the improved land was in 
farm crops, including meadows. The other one-third, together with 
considerable of tbe unimproved portion, is utilized as pasture for animals. 
On most farms there are areas more or less extensive which may be steep, 
stony, partly wooded, undrained or otherwise unprofitable for cultivated 
crops, that may be utilized for grazing purposes. 

Animals Utilize Crops that would be Wholly or Parity Wasted. — The 
straw of the cereals, the stover of corn, have little value on most farms 
except as ro ughage and bedding for livestock. Low grades of hay, d am aged 

> Courtesy of E. K. Hibshmanu, Pennsylvania State CoUafB. 



18 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

by rains or delay in harvesting, often are unsalable, but may be utilized 
for feed for stock. In the same way corn and small grains are sometimes 
damaged by exposure to the weather or early frosts, and may have con- 
siderable feeding value, but no value on the market. 

Animals Transform Coarse, Bulky Products into Concentrated Form. — 
Animals convert coarse, bulky, raw materials into a more concentrated 
and valuable finished product, and one that may be marketed with less 
cost and to much better advantage. It requires about 10 pounds of dry 
matter to produce 1 pound of beef or 30 pounds of dry matter to produce 
1 pound of butter. The farmer in transfo rmin g such coarse products to 
a more refined one not only reaps the profit in the process of manufacture, 
but the pound of butter may be sent to a market a thousand miles away, 
when the material from which it was made could not be profitably sent to 
a market ten miles distant. One cent a pound for transporting butter 



would be but a amall percentage of its value, but one cent a pound for 
transporting hay would be prohibitive. 

Animals Return Fertility to the Soil. — In the manufacture of these 
finer products on the farm, animals leave much of the fertilizing material 
to be returned to the soil. The manure of farm animals is unquestionably 
the most valuable bi-productof American farms. In considering livestock 
farming from this standpoint, it is only necessary to determine whether 
it has been successful in maintaining soil fertility. A study of the crop- 
producing capacity of the soil in different regions shows conclusively 
that crop yields are largest where large numbers of livestock are main- 
tained. 

Livestock Facilitate Good Crop Rotations. — A good crop rotation 
should include inter-tilled crops, small grains and grasses and clovers. 

t. Prnil, Minn. From "Field Management and Crop 



KEEPING. LIVESTOCK 19 

Livestock make possible the production and profitable utilization of grasses 
and clovers. When these are fed to livestock and the manure is returned 
to the land, the fertility of the soil is increased. Goodsods, plenty of manure 
and animals to utilize by-products extend the range of crops that may be 
grown on the farm and thus provide for better crop rotations. 

Capital More Fully Used. — The wheat farmer in the Northwest is 
very busy from spring until fall, but is generally idle from September to 
March. When livestock is kept, labor of men and teams is more fully 
employed and equipment more fully utilized. 

Livestock Call for Higher Skill. — Animal husbandry, including keep- 
ing of dairy cattle, poultry, etc., may be made to require higher skill than 
ordinary extensive production of crops. It calls for the same requirements 
so far as the care of the soil and the production of crops are concerned, and 
there is added to this the skill of the breeder and the feeder. The products 
of skilled workmen command a higher price than do those of the unskilled 
workmen. In this country those communities that have given most atten- 
tion to livestock are in general the most prosperous. There are, of course, 
some exceptions to this. 

More Land may be Farmed with the Same Labor. — This is true 
only in the extensive grazing of livestock, as exemplified in the ranches of 
the West, notably in the breeding and rearing of cattle and sheep. When 
these are brought to the farm of the feeder, they really reverse the process 
and call for increased labor and skill on the unit of area. 

DISADVANTAGES OF LIVESTOCK 

Animals Require Larger Capital — This is especially true when kept 
in connection with the production of hay and grain. On a 160-acre farm 
40 head of cattle worth $1500, 40 sheep worth $300 and 20 hogs worth 
$300 may be kept, and the farm made to raise all the necessary food for 
them. This would increase the capital of the farm by $2100. It would 
also call for additional capital in buildings, and this would all be an increase 
over what would be required if the same land were used only for cash crops. 
On a farm that supplies all the feed for livestock, $10 per acre invested in 
livestock may be considered as moderate. If only the coarse feed is grown 
it may carry stock to the value of $25 to $30 per acre. This is exemplified 
in many dairy farms close to market, and sometimes on farms where stock 
are fattened for market. 

Capital of Perishable Nature. — Animal diseases, such as tuberculosis 
or foot and mouth disease in cattle, cholera in hogs, and internal parasites 
in sheep, may quickly wipe out the animals on any particular farm. This 
entails a loss not only of the product for a single year, but also of all the 
capital that may have been invested in feeds and labor to bring the stock 
to that stage of maturity at which it was destroyed by disease. 

Formerly, it was not uncommon in the corn belt to find farmers keep- 
ing 100 or more head of hogs in a single herd, but it is now deemed best to 



20 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



keep them in herds of small units, not more than 20 or 30, as protection 
against cholera. More recently, of course, methods of control have been 
developed, which, if properly administered, hold the disease in check. 

Products Cannot be Indefinitely Held. — The holding of livestock for 
a considerable time after reaching the proper stage of fattening for the 
market entails considerable loss. It may sometimes result in actual 
decrease in quality with little or no increase in weight, and a loss of both 
food and labor for maintenance. In this respect livestock for meat is 
sharply contrasted with wheat and some other cereals that may be held 
almost indefinitely with very little deterioration. It is true that the 
development of better markets, systems of cold storage and methods of 
preserving meat have lessened somewhat this difficulty. 

Crop Failures may Cause Loss on Livestock. — A low production for 
the staple crops used largely for livestock food results in a marked advance 
in price. This frequently causes a loss to the farmer on his livestock. 
This is especially true in case of swine that depend so largely on concen- 
trates for their production. A decrease of one-quarter in the yield of a 
staple crop for the whole country often causes an increase in price so marked 
that if the whole crop were sold it would bring more than a normal crop 
or an extra large one. Since, however, so large a percentage of the crop 
is fed, this does not mean much to the farmer unless there is a correspond- 
ing increase in price of meat animals. A number of instances may be 
cited whan a marked advance in price of corn without a corresponding 
advance in hogs has induced farmers to sell their hogs before fully 
ready for market, thus causing the hog market to decline in the face of 
advancing prices on corn. This condition once under way will often con- 
tinue for a full year before normal prices again prevail. 

The advantages and disadvantages of keeping livestock have been 
presented without prejudice, and it must be apparent that the advantages 
seem to outweigh the disadvantages, especially from the standpoint of 
permanent systems of agriculture. It is, of course, recognized that with 
increasing population there should be a tendency for people to depend 
more and more upon the direct products of the soil in the form of cereals, 
vegetables and fruits rather than to depend so largely upon animal prod- 
ucts; and doubtless the increase in land values and high prices of animal 
products will gradually tend in this direction. 



CHAPTER 2 

Breeding, Care and Management of Farm Animals 

By W. H. Tomhave 
Professor of Animal Husbandry, The Pennsylvania State College 

BREEDING OF LIVESTOCK 

History of Animal Breeding. — The first systematic work in animal 
breeding was done among the Arabians. This is indicated by the character 
of the Arabian horses that were developed during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. Following the Arabians, the French did the next con- 
structive breeding of animals, which was at that time encouraged by the 
French Government in the developing of their breeds of horses. The most 
important animal breeding from the point of view of the American farmer 
of today was done by the people of the British Isles during the last half of 
the eighteenth century, and throughout the entire nineteenth century. 
Robert Bakewell is known as the foremost early breeder of livestock, 
having begun his work about 1764 and continued it until the time of his 
death. He was followed by noted men such as Collings Brothers, Booth 
and Bates, all of whom were early breeders of Shorthorn cattle. Amos 
Cruickshank was probably the most noted breeder of recent years, and was 
recognized as the peer among the Shorthorn breeders of Scotland during 
the nineteenth century. Great interest was then shown in developing 
the various classes of livestock and this has resulted in giving us our present 
breeds of pure-bred livestock. 

The foundation work in animal breeding in America was done largely 
during the last half of the nineteenth century. The foundation animals 
used by most of the noted breeders were imported into the United States 
and Canada from Europe. Large importations of well-bred animals were 
made into the United States from 1880 up to 1900. Since that time only 
limited importations have been made into this country, as most of the 
noted animals in America at the present time are the product of American 
breeders. While a great deal of work has been done in both Europe and 
America, less than two per cent of all the farm animals in the United States 
and Canada at the present time are of pure breeding. This seems to indi- 
cate that there is a fertile field for livestock breeding for the American 
farmer. 

Lines of Breeding. — There are three distinct lines of breeding that can 
be followed by the American farmer. These may be enumerated as 
follows : breeding of pure-breds, grading and cross-breeding. The breeding 

21 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



of pure-bred animals is by far the most important system of breeding, and 
the one that should be followed to a greater extent by farmers in the United 
States and Canada. The greatest improvement can be made in a herd 
of livestock by this system of breeding. The use of both pure-bred sire 
and dam enables the fanner to follow a more rigid system of selection and 
cull out undesirable individuals, which is not always possible in grading 
and cross-breeding. There is one weakness, however, that every breeder 
of pure-bred animals is apt to encounter, and that is a certain degree of 

hesitation about elim- 
inating an animal 
from his herd that 
may be pure-bred and 
yet not up to the 
standard which he 
has set for building 
up his herd. 

Grading is an- 
other means of mak- 
ing a marked improve- 
ment on the average 
farm herd. By grad- 
ing is meant the mat- 
ing of a common or 
relatively inferior 
animal with one that 
' is more highly im- 
proved, usually a pure- 
bred. This pure-bred 
may be either the sire 
or dam, but it is usually the sire, as the sire can be used upon a number 
of females in the herd and thus exercise greater influence in making the 
improvement. If the pure-bred dam and a grade sire are used, very 
little improvement is made; besides, such improvement is restricted to 
one mating. If a pure-bred sire is used for five generations, it will mean 
that at the end of that time the herd is practically pure-bred, but can 
never be registered. Rigid selection and the use of a pure-bred sire 
should always be continued. 

By cross-breeding is meant the mating of two pure-bred animals of 
different breeds. Nothing is to be gained by such method of breeding, as 
it destroys the pure lines that may have been established and also has a 
tendency to cause a greater variation. Cross-breeding is sometimes 
profitably carried on in producing market animals, but it should never be 
carried beyond the first generation. Cross-bred animals should never be 



1 Courtesy of Dept. of Animtl Husbandly, Pennsylvania State Colleg 



BREEDING FARM ANIMALS 23 

retained as breeders in the herd, as this has a tendency to cause sterility 
in the breeding animals, besides retarding progress in building up the herd. 
Selection of a Breed. — The selection of the breed of animals must be 
determined by the farmer or livestock grower, as there is no such thing as 
the "best breed." All breeds of livestock have been developed for a 
definite purpose and among all breeds are found desirable and undesirable 
individuals. In deciding upon a breed, the farmer should secure all data 
available about the breeds in which he is interested and adopt the one that 



Pdbe-bhed Shobthobn Bull. 1 

will best suit his conditions. It is highly important that he select good 
individuals of the breed adopted and that he continue with that breed 
indefinitely. To change breeds at the end of one or two years is not con- 
ducive to improvement, and means a loss of time. It is important to select 
representative animals that possess pronounced characteristics of the breed, 
and if possible to secure animals with a known ancestry. In the selecting 
of a brood sow as an illustration, such sow should come from a prolific 

i Courtesy oi V. 8. Dept. of Agriculture. 



24 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

strain. The same thing is true in the selection of a herd boar or any other 
animal that is to be used for breeding. It is a wise precaution to visit the 
herd from which the animals are to be selected, in order to study the prepo- 
tency of the sire that is at its head. It is also very important to avoid the 
introduction of barrenness or sterility in the herd. The sires selected should 
be strong, vigorous and in thrifty condition. Since the sire will be used on 
a number of animals, it is important that he be given the greatest considera- 
tion, both as to individuality and pedigree. 

Pedigree. — The mere fact that an animal is pure-bred and has a 
pedigree is not an indication of its being a desirable animal. The pedi- 
gree is not a guaranty of excellence in the animal. There are many poor 
pure-bred individuals as well as desirable individuals. A combination 
of good individuality, together with a pedigree tracing back to known 
ancestry, will usually result in the securing of desirable animals. 

Gestation Period. — The farmer or livestock breeder must keep a 
record of the breeding dates of his animals. This should be done so that 
he may know at what time they are to produce their young. The gesta- 
tion period varies with the various classes of animals. For cows, it is 
about 9 months, or approximately 280 days; for mares, 11 months, or 
approximately 340 days; for ewes, 5 months, or about 150 days; for sows, 
4 months, or about 112 days. The gestation period for all animals as 
stated is only approximate, and has been known to vary a number of 
days from this period. It is well, however, to watch the animals closely 
at the end of the number of days given for each class of livestock. 

CARE OF LIVESTOCK 

The breeding, feeding and management of livestock must be combined 
for the greatest success. Each class of livestock must be given special 
care and attention, and a system worked out to meet the needs of the 
farm. The feeding of the young animals, for instance, should not begin 
at the time of birth, as is so often the case, but should be properly carried 
on during the gestation period. The young life begins at the time of breed- 
ing and for the greatest development must be properly nourished throughout 
the gestation period. A well-bred animal does not guarantee the pro- 
duction of a desirable individual unless the animal is properly fed, so that 
the growing foetus may be properly nourished. Young growing animals 
must have an abundance of food that is rich in protein and mineral matter 
for the development of muscle and bone rather than fattening material. 
This, combined with proper exercise and plenty of fresh air and sunlight, 
will result in a properly developed individual. 

Preparation of Feeds — In feeding livestock, it is necessary to econo- 
mize on the use of grains; yet at the same time, it is not a wise plan to carry 
this economy to an extreme. The method of preparing the feed for stock 
will vary with the different classes of livestock and the different kinds of 
feeds used. Cooking feed for hogs was at one time considered a desirable 



BREEDING FARM ANIMALS 25 

practice, but hog-feeding experiments conducted in Canada and the 
United States for the purpose of comparing the merits of cooked and 
uncooked grain all show an actual loss from cooking. There was a saving 
of labor and larger gains for uncooked feed. 

The grinding of grain for farm animals will depend upon the kind and 
price of grain and the animals to which it is to be fed. Small grains, such 
as wheat, barley and rye, should always be crushed or ground before they 
are fed. The kernels of these grains are hard and some of it, if fed whole, 
will pass through the system of an animal without being masticated or 
digested. There is a saving of about six per cent in feeding value of corn 
when fed ground or cracked instead of whole. Generally speaking, when 
corn is worth more than 75 cents per bushel, it will pay to grind it or have 
it cracked for all classes of farm animals, except when fed to cattle where 
hogs follow in the feed lot. 

Feeding Condimental Stock Feeds. — The feeding of proprietary stock 
foods or condition powders should be avoided. These preparations usually 
cost from ten to thirty cents per pound and contain nothing that cannot 
be secured by using standard feeds. They are usually made up of ground 
screenings, weed seeds, bark of trees, a little oil meal, and such materials 
as charcoal, copperas, epsom salts, etc. The feeding of such "foods" will 
do more harm than good. When animals are out of condition, the addition 
of a little oil meal to the regular feed will usually give fully as good results. 
Salt, usually found in these preparations, should always be supplied to 
farm animals in liberal amounts. 

Care of the Breeding Herd. — The breeding herd must be properly 
cared for if the best results are to be secured. It is not necessary to keep 
the animals fat, but they should be kept in a thrifty condition, so that they 
can supply the nutrients necessary to properly develop their young during 
the gestation period. Breeding animals should have exercise, plenty of 
nutritious feed and good water. They should be fed largely on farm- 
grown feeds where the right kind can be produced cheaply. 

Care of Work Animals. — The term work animals applies usually to 
horses and mules. These animals are the principal beasts of burden in the 
United States and Canada. The best results can be secured only through 
proper feeding and care. Work horses and mules should receive the largest 
portion of grain ration during the morning and noon meals, and be allowed 
the bulk of their roughage at the evening meal. The reason for this is 
that the horse and mule do not possess large stomachs, and thus cannot 
carry a large amount of bulky feed without seriously interfering with their 
ability to work. The amount of grain and roughage to supply depends 
upon the work that is being done. For a horse doing heavy work, about 
134 to 13^ pounds of grain to 100 pounds liveweight daily should be allowed, 
and approximately the same amount of roughage. This amount should 
be reduced to about one-half the regular allowance when the horses stand 
idle over Sunday or any other day. Over 90 per cent of all cases of azoturia 



26 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

in horses taking place on Monday morning result directly from carelessness 
in over-feeding. Work horses should not be watered when overheated, 
but a horse accustomed to drinking water from which the chill has been 
removed will usually suffer no injury if allowed to rest a short time before 
watering. The usual and common practice is to allow the horse all the 
water he cares to drink before feeding in preference to heavy watering 
after feeding. 

Assist Animals at Time of Giving Birth to Their Young. — There is 
probably no time when breeding animals require assistance and watching 
as much as at the time of giving birth to their young. It is well to watch 
the animals at this time and provide them with comfortable quarters and 
the proper feed. It is a good practice to allow only a limited ration at 
this time. The system will be in a much better condition to give birth to 
the young than where full allowance of feed is supplied. If the animal 
has difficulty in giving birth to its young, assistance should be given, which 
in case of horses and cattle, can best be secured by calling in a competent 
veterinarian. 

MANAGEMENT OF LIVESTOCK 

The management of livestock increases in importance with the rise 
in the value of livestock and the increase in the cost of feeds, labor and, 
building materials. The three most important factors to be kept in mind 
in the economical production of livestock is to keep down the cost of shelter, 
labor and feed. The buildings or housing facilities for all classes of farm 
animals should be adequate, yet not expensive. If they can be made con- 
venient and comfortable, that is all that is necessary. Too many farmers 
insist on making their buildings too warm. This is seen in many cases 
where large basement barns are built that become extremely hot during 
the winter. Such barns favor the development of livestock diseases, rather 
than keeping the animals in a healthy condition. Farm animals will 
thrive much better and be healthier if they are put in open sheds that offer 
protection from cold winds, rain and sleet. This is especially true in case 
of cattle and sheep. Hogs and horses can also be kept in open sheds the 
same as cattle and sheep if they are given plenty of bedding and are kept 
dry. The sleeping quarters for all farm animals should be kept well bedded. 

Open Sheds. — A number of experiments have been conducted to com- 
pare open sheds and warm barns for cattle and sheep. In nearly every 
case it has been found that beef cattle fed in open sheds made greater daily 
gains, consumed less feed per pound of gain, and were in healthier and 
thriftier condition than those kept in warm barns. The housing of cattle 
and sheep in open sheds is a saving to the farmer, as it does not require as 
much capital to construct a shed as it does to construct the usual expensive 
barn. It is'also a saving of labor, as the cattle are not tied like they are 
in the barn. Open sheds should be built to face the south so the interior 
will not be exposed to the severe north winds. They should be built high 
enough so that the manure can be taken out by driving into the shed with 



BREEDING FARM ANIMALS 27 

the wagon or manure spreader. Peed carriers should also be provided in 
order to save carrying a large amount of feed. 

Arrangement of Labor. — The amount of labor necessary to care for 
the livestock should be reduced to a minimum. This can be done by 
arranging convenient quarters in which to feed the livestock. The farmer's 
and livestock producer's business should be so arranged that the bulk of 
the labor connected with the livestock comes during the winter. If this 
is done it means that the labor employed upon the farm can be distributed 
more equally throughout the entire year. It can be used to work the fields 
during the summer and care for the livestock during the winter. Very- 



Shelter of this character is less expensive than warm barns, and wherever the climate is 
not too severe steers make better gains for feed consumed than when sheltered 
in warm bams. 

little labor is required during the summer if plenty of pasture of the proper 
kind is provided. Such distribution of labor also makes it possible to secure 
more competent help than where it can be employed only during a portion 
of the year. 

The Kind of Farm Animals. — The class of farm animals to keep will 
depend entirely upon the location and equipment of the farm. On farms 
where a large amount of pasture and rough feed is produced, beef cattle 
and sheep are best adapted. This is also true of farms where there is no 

1 Coui-Ksy of Dspt. of Animal Husbandry. Pennsylvania State College. 



28 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

adequate means of transportation. With good transportation facilities or 
near cities where there is a good demand for dairy products, dairying may 
be advisable. In many sections of the United States and Canada where 
cream only is sold from the dairy, hogs make an admirable addition to the 
dairy. Hogs, on the other hand, are well adapted to most all types of 
farming, and provide a source of quick returns from the feeds fed. The 
number of farm animals to keep upon a farm depends entirely upon the 
size of the farm and the feeds that can be grown. It is a good practice to 
produce as much as possible of the feeds necessary to maintain or fatten 
the livestock produced on the farm. This does not mean that feeds should 
nojb be purchased. The purchase of nitrogenous supplements to feeds 
grown on the farm is not as universally practiced as it should be. 

Regularity in Feeding and Watering. — The best results from farm 
animals cannot be secured unless the feeding and watering is done with 
system and regularity. Plenty of clean water should always be supplied. 
The more water consumed by an animal, the more of the feeds supplied 
will it consume, thus producing heavier gains or larger amounts of milk. 
The cost of the feeds supplied is a factor of importance. The cost of the 
feed bill should be kept as low as possible. This can be done only by the 
use of farm-grown feeds. In many cases a large amount of roughage or 
grain is grown that does not have a ready sale, possibly on account of being 
slightly damaged by weathering or improper curing. Such feeds can best 
be used upon the farm. Not only does it provide a desirable place to dis- 
pose of them, but the fertility which would be lost if the feeds are sold from 
the farm is thus saved. Such practice makes the land more fertile and 
more productive than where such crops as hay, stover and corn are sold 
from the farm. 

Observing Individuals. — Every owner of livestock should study the 
individuals in the herd and see that they are in good condition of health. 
It frequently happens that animals are not doing well, and upon investi- 
gation it is found to be due to internal or external parasites. Usually an 
unthrifty animal is infested with internal parasites, which, if noticed in 
the early stages, can often be destroyed. External parasites, such as lice, 
are a source of annoyance and should be destroyed. In the case of sheep, 
it is an excellent practice to dip all of the flock in a coal-tar dip at least 
once a year. This is usually done following shearing in the spring. It is 
also well to provide new pasture for young lambs at weaning time, as at 
that time they are more subject to stomach worms than at any other time. 
This is due to the fact that they become more easily the prey of worms on 
account of the change from nursing the dam to depending entirely upon 
food supplied for their maintenance. Hogs should frequently be sprayed 
or dipped with a coal-tar dip so as to destroy lice that are often found on 
their bodies. Hogs are also often unthrifty as the result of stomach worms. 

Keep up Records. — It is highly desirable for a farmer or livestock 
breeder who is breeding pure-bred animals to keep his records up to date. 



BREEDING FARM ANIMALS 29 

It frequently happens that desirable pure-bred animals are grown on the 
farm, but their registration is not completed. Such practice is well enough 
where only market animals are being produced. There may come a time, 
however, when the breeder will desire to sell animals as breeders. Buyers 
of pure-bred cattle require the registration to be complete in order that 
they may sell any offspring produced from such animals for breeding pur- 
poses. Registration involves only a small amount of time and expense, 
but is a practice that is well worth while. 

Preparation and Shipping of Livestock. — All livestock, whether 
breeding animals or market animals, should be in the very best of con- 
dition when shipped. If pure-bred stock is shipped by express, it should 
be properly crated. If shipped by freight, it should be properly tied 
and bedded. If the animals arrive in good condition, the purchaser will 
gain a good impression of them upon first inspection. If they arrive in 
poor condition due to careless preparation, the buyer as a rule will not be 
satisfied and probably will not make another purchase. In selling pure- 
bred livestock by mail, it is always a wise plan not to praise too highly 
the animals that are offered for sale. It is much better to have the pur- 
chaser find the animals that are shipped him better than he expected. 
Such practice usually makes more sales and is a good means of advertising. 
If a customer is not satisfied with the animals shipped, the breeder should 
always make it a point to satisfy his customer either by refunding the 
purchase price and the expense of shipping or by shipping another animal. 

Cattle, hogs or sheep when shipped to market should be started in as 
near normal condition as possible. Some farmers salt heavily before ship- 
ping in order to get the proper "fill" on the market. Cattle salted just 
before they are shipped will arrive on the market in poor condition. They 
will be feverish, will drink very little water, will not eat much hay and will 
also be apt to scour. Cattle in such a condition usually sell at a discount. 
The car in which the livestock is to be loaded should be well bedded and 
in the case of cattle, the racks should be filled with hay so they can eat 
while en route. Always ship the livestock so as to reach the market early 
in the week, as there is usually more active buying at that time than later 
in the week. 

REFERENCES 



a 



Manual of Farm Animals." Harper. 
"Types and Breeds of Farm Animals." Plumb. 
"Beginnings in Animal Husbandry." Plumb. 
"Productive Feeding of Farm Animals." Woll. 
"Animal Breeding." Shaw. 

"Feeding and Management of Farm Animals." Shaw. 
Farmers Bulletin 350, U. S. Department of Agriculture. "Dehorning of Cattle." 



3d 



CHAPTER 3 

FEEDS AND FEEDING 

By Dr. H. S. Grindley and Sleetbr Bull 
Professor and Associate of Animal Nutrition, University of Illinois 

Introduction. — A knowledge of the scientific principles of stock 
feeding is important to the stockman. This knowledge is not absolutely 
essential, as many have achieved success in feeding as a result of years of 
experience. However, "experience is a dear teacher" and if one combines 
a study of the scientific principles of feeding with the experience gained in 
the barn and feed lot, he will learn the art of successful feeding more quickly, 
more thoroughly and with less expense than if he depends upon experience 
as his only teacher. 

Chemical Composition of Feeding-stuffs. — All feeding-stuffs are 
composed of a great number of different compounds which are grouped 
into five classes, viz., water, mineral matter, crude protein, carbohydrates 
and fats. These classes of compounds are usually spoken of as " nutrients," 
because they are used for the nutrition of the animal. 

Water is found in large amounts in such feeds as green pasture, silage, 
beets and milk, while such feeds as hay, bran, corn, middlings, etc., contain 
from 10 to 20 per cent water. A knowledge of the water content of feeds 
is important for two reasons: (1) feeds high in water content are lower in 
feeding value, pound for pound, than feeds low in water; (2) feeds contain- 
ing more than 18 or 20 per cent water usually ferment and spoil when 
stored in bulk. 

Mineral Matter, or ash as it is sometimes called, is that part of the 
feed which remains as ash when the feed is burned. In the animal body, 
mineral matter is used principally for the repair and growth of bone. It 
is also used in the growth and repair of the muscles and vital organs. It 
is found in the blood and other body fluids. A certain amount of it is 
absolutely essential to proper growth and development, or even for life 
itself. 

Most of the roughages, especially the legumes, as clover, alfalfa and 
soy beans, are quite high in mineral matter. Also such feeds as tankage, 
middlings, cottonseed meal, linseed meal and bran are high in mineral 
matter. The cereal grains, especially corn, are low in mineral matter. 
Consequently, in feeding horses, cattle and sheep, little account need be 
taken of the mineral matter of the ration, except to provide salt, as these 
animals are nearly always given feeding-stuffs, some of which are high in 
mineral matter. However, in case of hogs, the ration may be deficient in 

30 



FEEDS AND FEEDING 31 

mineral matter, especially if considerable com is used in the ration. The 
hogs should have access to a mineral mixture consisting of charcoal, air- 
slaked lime, salt, wood-ashes and rock phosphate or " floats." 

Crude Protein includes all the compounds of the feed which contain 
the element nitrogen. Familiar forms of protein are egg albumen (the white 
of the egg) and casein (the curd of milk). Protein is found in all living 
matter and is absolutely essential to life. It is found in every plant cell, 
but in larger amounts in the seeds. It also occurs in every animal cell and 
makes up a large part of the solid matter of the blood, muscles and organs 
of the body. Thus the crude protein of the ration is absolutely essential 
to the animal for the repair and growth of the muscles, bones, organs, etc. 
It is also essential for a pregnant animal for the formation of the foetus 
and, later, for milk production. If there is any surplus of protein in the 
ration above the requirements of the animal for the purposes just mentioned, 
the surplus may be used to produce energy or to liberate heat. If there is 
still a surplus, it may be used for the production of body fat. However, 
protein is not an economical source of energy or body fat, as it usually 
is the most expensive nutrient and the one which it is most often necessary 
to buy. Hence, no more protein should be fed than needed by the animal 
for repair, growth and milk production. Tankage, cottonseed meal, 
Unseed meal, gluten feed, distillers' grains, brewers' grains, bran, middlings 
and soy beans are high in protein. The legume hays are also relatively 
high in protein. Corn, timothy hay, the straws, fodder, stover and silage 
are low in crude protein. 

Carbohydrates are the chief constituents of all plants. However, 
they are not found to any large extent in animals. Familiar forms of the 
carbohydrates are starch, sugar and vegetable fiber, such as hemp, paper 
and cotton. As the carbohydrates contain such a variety of compounds 
which differ considerably in nutritive value, they are often divided into two 
sub-classes: "nitrogen-free extract" and "crude fiber." 

Nitrogen-free extract includes those carbohydrates which are high in 
feeding value, as starch and sugar. In the animal body these substances 
are used as a source of energy to do work or for heat to keep the body warm. 
If there is any surplus, it may be used for the production of energy and the 
formation of body fat. As carbohydrates are considerably cheaper than 
protein, it is more economical to use them for these purposes than to use 
protein. Feeds high in nitrogen-free extract are corn, wheat, barley, rye, 
rice and oats. The flour by-products, the oil meals, the straws and hays 
contain medium amounts: while the pastures, silage and packing house 
by-products are low. 

Crude fiber includes the tough, woody, fibrous portion of the plant. 
Owing to the fact that it is not very digestible, the nutritive value of crude 
fiber is less than that of the other nutrients. In the animal the digested 
crude fiber is used as a source of energy and as a source of body fat. Feeds 
high in crude fiber are the hays, straws, fodders, stovers and roughages in 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



general. The cereal grains, the oil meals and most mill feeds are low in 
crude fiber. 

The Fats, sometimes called "ether extract," include all the fats and 
oils found in the feed. Practically all plants contain some fats, although 
usually in only small amounts. In animals, fats occur much more abun- 
dantly, occurring in nearly every organ and tissue. Fat animals often 
contain 40 or 50 per cent of fat. The fat of the ration is used in the animal 
as a source of energy and as a source of body fat. It is about two and one- 
quarter times as valuable as protein and carbohydrates for these purposes. 
Tankage and the oil meals contain the largest amounts of fat of the ordinary 
feeding-stuffs. 



The DiGESTivm Tract of a Cow. 1 

Digestion of the Nutrients. — Before the nutrients can be of any use 
to the animal they must be digested and taken up by the blood. Digestion 
is the process of separating the useful constituents of the feed from those 
that are useless, and changing the useful constituents to such form that 
they may be taken up by the blood. These processes take place in the 
mouth, stomach and intestines. Inasmuch as only the digestible nutrients 
of a feed are of value to an animal, the amount of digestible components 
of the feed are of special interest to the stockman. Table I shows the per- 
centages of the digestible nutrients in the ordinary feeding-stuffs. (See 
Part IV.) 

The Nutritive Ratio. — Proteins are used primarily for growth and 
repair, while carbohydrates and fats are used for energy and fat production. 
The nutritive ratio expresses the value of a feed or ration as a flesh pro- 

i CuurMiiy of torn State College . 



FEEDS AND FEEDING 33 

ducer or as an energy and fat producer, i. e., it is the ratio of digestible 
crude protein to digestible carbohydrates and fat in the feed or ration. 
Inasmuch as fat is two and one-quarter times as valuable as carbohydrates, 
the amount of digestible fat is multiplied by two and one-quarter and added 
to the amount of digestible carbohydrates. The sum is then divided by 
the amount of digestible protein. The first term of the ratio is always 
"1," while the second term is obtained by the following formula: 

digestible carboh ydrates + 2H X digestible fat _ ^^ term of ^ ratio 

digestible protein 

The nutritive ratio is written as "1 : 6" or "1 : 14," or whatever it 
may be. It is read as "one to six," or "one to fourteen," Thus one finds 
the nutritive ratio of corn as follows: from Table I it is found that 100 
pounds of corn contain 7.8 pounds of digestible protein, 66.8 pounds of 
digestible carbohydrates and 4.3 pounds of digestible fat. Then, substi- 
tuting in the above formula: 

66.8 +2KX 4.3 = 9g 
7.8 

Therefore, the nutritive ratio of corn is 1 : 9.8. The nutritive ratio 
of a ration containing two or more feeds may be calculated in a similar 
manner. 

Ordinarily, a nutritive ratio of 1 : 6 or less is called a narrow ratio; 
t. e., the feeding-stuff or ration contains a relatively large amount of pro- 
tein and a relatively small amount of carbohydrates and fat. A ratio of 
1 : 7 to 1 : 9 is called a medium ratio; i. e., there is present a medium 
amount of protein and a medium amount of carbohydrates and fat. A 
ratio of 1 : 10 or greater is called a wide ratio; i. e., the proportion of pro- 
tein to carbohydrates and fats is relatively small. 

The Energy Values of Feeding-stuffs. — One of the functions of the 
ration of an animal is to act as a source of energy to do work or form heat. 
Also the formation of body fat may be looked upon as a storage of energy, 
because it may be used as a source of energy to do work or for heat at any 
time when the ration is insufficient for these purposes. Hence, in addition 
to a knowledge of the digestible nutrients in feeds, the scientific stock- 
feeder should have a knowledge of the energy values of feeds, i. e. t the 
value of different feeding-stuffs for doing work, storage of fat, milk pro- 
duction, etc. Energy values of feeding-stuffs are expressed in "therms." 
A therm is the amount of energy in the form of heat necessary to raise the 
temperature of 1000 pounds of water 4° F. The energy values of some of 
the common feeding-stuffs are given in Part IV, Table II. 

Feeding-stuffs. — In general, feeding-stuffs may be divided into two 
classes, concentrates and roughages, according to the amounts of digestible 
nutrients and their energy values. 



34 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

Concentrates are feeding-stuffs which contain a relatively large 
amount of digestible nutrients and energy in a small bulk. They usually 
are highly nutritious in nature. Concentrates usually have an energy 
value of 60 or more therms per 100 pounds. Concentrates may be sub- 
divided into nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous concentrates. 

A nitrogenous concentrate is one which is relatively rich in protein- 
It usually contains 11 per cent or more of digestible protein. Common 
examples are tankage, cottonseed meal, linseed meal, gluten feed, dried 
distillers' grains, dried brewers' grains, soy beans, bran, middlings and 
shorts. As a rule, but few nitrogenous concentrates are produced on the 



The Respiration Calorimeter in Use for an Experiment. 1 

farm and therefore they must be purchased. Nitrogenous concentrates 
are almost essential in the rations of all growing animals in order to furnish 
protein and mineral matter so essential to the proper development of 
muscle and bone. Likewise the milk cow requires nitrogenous concentrates 
in order to provide the large amounts of protein and mineral matter which 
she excretes in her milk. Fattening animals and work horses often need 
small amounts of nitrogenous concentrates, especially if they are still 
growing. 

A non-nitrogenous concentrate is low or only medium in protein con- 
tent, but is usually rich in carbohydrates. It generally contains less than 

i Year-Book. U. 8. Dept. of A*rkultui*. 1910. 



FEEDS AND FEEDING 35 

11 per cent of digestible protein. Examples are corn, barley, oats, wheat, 
rye, molasses and dried-beet pulp. Ordinarily the farmer raises all the 
non-nitrogenous concentrates necessary, and usually it will not pay him 
to buy such feeds on the market. All classes of fattening animals require 
large amounts of non-nitrogenous concentrates in order to furnish the 
carbohydrates and fats which, as has already been stated, are the cheapest 
sources of body fat. Also work horses must have large amounts of non- 
nitrogenous concentrates in order to furnish energy for doing their work. 
Milch cows need medium amounts, while they should be used more spar- 
ingly in the rations of growing and breeding animals. 

Roughages are feeding-stuffs which contain a relatively small 
amount of digestible nutrients, or net energy in a large bulk. They usually 
contain less than 40 therms of energy per 100 pounds. Roughages contain 
a large amount of crude fiber which lowers their feeding value considerably. 
Roughages, like concentrates, may be sub-divided into nitrogenous and 
norir-nitrogenous. 

Nitrogenous roughages usually contain 6 per cent or more of digestible 
protein. Examples are clover, alfalfa, cowpea, soy-bean hay and alfalfa 
meal. In general, all the legume hays fall under this sub-class. Nitro- 
genous roughages should be grown on nearly every farm, not only for their 
feeding value but also for their fertilizing value in the crop rotations. It 
will rarely pay to buy nitrogenous roughages on the market, as they can 
be produced more cheaply at home. The nitrogenous roughages are valu- 
able in the rations of nearly all classes of animals except hogs, and even 
they make valuable use of some of them at times. Fattening animals, 
with the exception of hogs, should have nitrogenous roughage. Unless 
they do, it will be necessary to feed large amounts of nitrogenous concen- 
trates, and even then the results will be only fair, unless corn silage is used. 
Growing animals should have nitrogenous roughage, as it furnishes much 
of the protein and mineral matter so essential to their proper development. 
Even pigs may make use of some alfalfa or clover hay. It is almost 
impossible to produce milk economically unless nitrogenous roughages 
are used. Breeding cattle and sheep need little or no other feed than 
nitrogenous roughages in winter. Brood sows and boars will eat consider- 
able of the leaves. Horses may have nitrogenous roughages if they are 
clean, well cured and free from dust. Often, however, they are too dusty 
for horses. 

Non-nitrogenous roughages usually contain less then 6 per cent of 
digestible protein. Examples are timothy hay, corn silage, corn stover, 
oat straw, wheat straw, barley straw and rye straw. Silage is the best 
form in which to get all the feeding value of the corn crop. It may be used 
to advantage in the rations of practically all classes of animals except hogs, 
if it is properly supplemented with other feeds. The other non-nitroge- 
nous roughages have. little value except in the rations of mature breeding 
animals, stackers and work horses. 



36 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

The Requirements of Farm Animals. — Knowing the digestible nutri- 
ents and the energy in the different feeding-stuffs and the amounts of 
nutrients and energy required by farm animals, one can formulate 
approximately a proper ration for different farm animals under different 
conditions. 

The Balanced Ration. — A balanced ration is a ration which contains 
all the nutrients in such proportions, forms and amounts as will nourish 
properly and without excess of any nutrient, a given animal for one day. 
Extended study of the amount of each nutrient required by the different 
farm animals for the various purposes for which they are kept has led to 
the formation of so-called "feeding standards." Theoretically, feeding 
standards may be looked upon as formulas which tell at a glance the amount 
of each nutrient necessary to produce a given result. In practice, however, 
feeding standards cannot be regarded as such, but only as a guide to be 
used in connection with one's practical knowledge of the amounts, propor- 
tions and combination of feeds which are used in stock feeding. Although 
there are a number of valuable feeding standards, the limits of this chapter 
will permit a discussion of only a few. 

The Wolff-Lehmann Standards show the requirements of farm animals 
under different conditions, expressed in pounds of total dry substance, 
digestible crude protein, digestible carbohydrates and digestible fat per 
1000 pounds live weight. The nutritive ratio required by the animal also 
is given. 

The calculation of a ration according to any feeding standard consists 
essentially of three steps: (1) Having given the requirements for an 
animal of a given weight, usually 1000 pounds, the requirements of the 
animal under consideration are determined. (2) A "trial ration" is 
assumed, using the amounts and proportions of concentrates and rough- 
ages which, in the opinion of the feeder, are necessary. (3) The trial 
ration is modified by adding or deducting concentrates or roughages of 
such composition as to furnish approximately the required amounts of 
nutrients. 

Thus, for example, one calculates a ration according to the Wolff- 
Lehmann standard for a 1200-pound horse at light work as follows: 
According to the standard (see Part IV, Table III) the requirements 
of a 1000-pound horse at light work are as follows: dry substance, 20 
pounds; digestible protein, 1.5 pounds; digestible carbohydrates, 9.5 
pounds; and digestible fat, 0.4 pounds. The. first step is to calculate the 
requirements of a 1200-pound horse, which are found to be as follows: 
dry substance, 24 pounds; digestible protein, 1.8 pounds; digestible car- 
bohydrates, 11.4 pounds; and digestible fat, 0.5 pound. The second step 
is to assume a trial ration which will meet approximately the requirements 
as determined in the first step. From the amount of dry substance required 
and from practical experience, one judges that a ration consisting of 12 
pounds of oats and 14 pounds of timothy hay will about answer the pur- 



FEEDS AND FEEDING 



37 



pose. Calculating the dry substance and digestible nutrients of this ration 
from Table I, the following results are obtained: 





Dry 

Substance, 

pounds. 


Digestible 
Protein, 
pounds. 


Digestible 

Carbohydrates, 

pounds. 


Digestible 

Fat, 
pounds. 


Oats, 12 pounds 


10.8 
12.2 

23.0 


1.1 
0.4 

1.5 


5.9 
5.9 

11.8 


0.5 


Hay, 1 4 pounds 


0.2 




0.7 



Comparing the nutrients of the trial ration with the requirements of 
the standard, it is seen that the trial ration is a little below the standard 
in dry substance and protein, and a little above it in carbohydrates and fat. 
Thus the third step is to modify the trial ration so that its nutrients con- 
form to the standard. Consequently, a feed which is high in protein and 
low in carbohydrates should be substituted for part of the ation. Inas- 
much as it is not desirable to lessen the bulk of the ration as the dry 
substance is already a little low, one may substitute two pounds of linseed 
meal for two pounds of the oats of the ration. The ration then contains 
the following nutrients: 





Dry 

Substance, 

pounds. 


Digestible 
Protein, 
pounds. 


Digestible 

Carbohydrates, 

pounds. 


Digestible 

Fat, 
pounds. 


Oats, 10 pounds 

Oil meal, 2 pounds 

Timothy hay, 14 pounds. 


9.0 

1.8 

12.2 

23.0 


0.9 
0.6 
0.4 

1.9 


4.9 
0.6 
5.9 

11.4 


0.4 
0.1 
0.2 

0.7 



The nutritive ratio is: 



11.4 + 2.25 X 0.7 Qr 1:6g 
1.9 



This ration, except that it is a trifle low in dry substance, comes very close 
to satisfying the standard. Of course, in many cases, especially until one 
has had considerable practice in the calculation of rations, the trial ration 
may have to be modified several times before the ration conforms with 
the standard. However, by applying his practical knowledge, the stock 
feeder should not have much difficulty in calculating balanced rations. 

In view of modern investigations, certain modifications must be made 
to the Wolff-Lehmann standards to adapt them to American conditions. 
In practically every instance the amount of dry substance prescribed is 
10 to 20 per cent too high. The protein prescribed is from 10 to 40 per cent 
too high, the greatest difference being in the case of fattening and working 
animals, and, consequently, the nutritive ratio is too narrow. Very little 
attention should be given to the fat content of the ration, it being con- 
sidered satisfactory if the requirements for protein and carbohydrates are 
fulfilled. 



38 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



The Armsby Standards express the requirements of farm animals in 
pounds of digestible protein and in therms of energy. Instead of giving 
separate standards for all the different classes of farm animals, Armsby 
gives standards for maintenance and growth. Inasmuch as any excess 
of feed above maintenance may be used for fattening or milk production, 
he gives the amount of nutrients above the maintenance requirements 
necessary to produce a pound of gain or a pound of milk. Thus, the stand- 
ards for fattening and for milk production vary with the amount of gain 
or with the amount of milk produced. To determine the standard for a 
fattening animal, one adds 3.5 therms per each pound of daily gain to the 
energy requirement for maintenance, as all the energy above the mainte- 
nance requirement may be used for the production of flesh and fat. Armsby 
recommends that a 1000-pound ruminant should receive 20 to 30 pounds, 
or an average of 25 pounds of dry matter per day. A horse should have 
somewhat less. The amounts of digestible protein and of energy in the 
common feeding-stuffs as presented by Armsby are given in Table II. 
His feeding standards are given in Table IV. For example, if one desires 
to calculate a ration for a 1000-pound steer gaining two pounds per day, 
the first step is to determine the requirements. From Table IV it is seen 
that the requirements of a 1000-pound steer gaining two pounds per day 
are 1.8 pounds of digestible protein and 13.0 therms of energy. As the 
second step, we will assume a trial ration consisting of 10 pounds of corn 
and 8 pounds of clover hay. Referring to Table II, it is found that the 
digestible protein and energy in this ration are as follows: 



Corn, 10 pounds 

Clover hay, 8 pounds 

Total ration 



Dry 

Substance, 
pounds. 



8.91 

6.78 

15.69 



Digestible 
Protein, 
pounds. 



0.68 
0.43 

1.11 



Energy 
therms. 



8.88 
2.78 

11.66 



Comparing the trial ration with the standard, we find that it is low 
in both protein and energy. As the third step, we will add 2 pounds of 
cottonseed meal, as it is high in both protein and energy. The ration then 
contains the following nutrients: 



Corn, 10 pounds 

Clover hay, 8 pounds 

Cottonseed meal, 2 pounds 

Total ration 



Dry 

Substance, 

pounds. 



8.91 
6.78 
1.84 

17.53 



Digestible 
Protein, 
pounds. 



0.68 
0.43 
0.70 

1.81 



Energy, 
therms. 



8.88 
2.78 
1.68 

13 .34 



This ration, although a trifle low in dry substance, fulfils the requirements 
of the Armsby standard. 



FEEDS AND FEEDING 



39 



In calculating a ration for a dairy cow according to the Armsby stand- 
ard, one adds to the requirements for maintenance, 0.05 pounds of digest- 
ible protein and 0.3 therm of net energy for each pound of milk produced. 
For example, one wishes to calculate a ration for a 900-pound cow giving 
22 pounds of milk. According to Table IV the requirements are as follows: 





Digestible 
Protein, pounds. 


Energy, 
therms. 


For maintenance of 900-pound cow 

Total requirement 


0.45 
1.10 

1.55 


5.7 
6.6 

12.3 



The ration is then calculated in the manner previously described. 

The Haecker Standard for Dairy Cows holds that the requirements 
of the dairy cow vary not only according to her weight and the quantity 
of milk yield, but also according to the quality of the milk. According to 
Haecker, a 1000-pound cow requires for maintenance 0.7 pound of digestible 
crude protein, 7.0 pounds of digestible carbohydrates, and 0.1 pound of 
digestible fat. For each pound of 4 per cent milk the Haecker standard 
requires the addition of 0.054 pound of digestible crude protein, 0.24 pound 
of digestible carbohydrates, and 0.021 pound of digestible fat in addition 
to the maintenance requirement. If the milk contains less than 4 per cent 
of fat, smaller amounts of nutrients are prescribed. The amounts of 
digestible nutrients to produce one pound of milk containing various per- 
centages of butter fat are given in Table V., 

For example, to calculate a ration according to the Haecker standard 
for a 900-pound cow giving 20 pounds of milk daily containing 5 per cent 
of butter fat, the process is as follows: (1) determine the maintenance 
requirement for a 900-pound cow; (2) add to the maintenance require- 
ment the requirement to produce 20 pounds of 5 per cent milk; and (3) 
calculate a ration to conform with this standard. Thus a cow weighing 
900 pounds requires 0.63 pound of digestible protein/ 6.30 pounds of 
digestible carbohydrates and 0.09 pound of digestible fat for maintenance. 
According to Haecker, to produce one pound of 5 per cent milk requires 
the consumption of 0.060 pound of digestible crude protein; 0.28 pound 
of digestible carbohydrates, and 0.024 pound of digestible fat, in addition 
to the maintenance requirements. Thus the total requirement to produce 
20 pounds of 5 per cent milk is calculated as follows: 





Digestible 
Protein, 
pounds. 


Digestible 

Carbohydrates, 

pounds. 


Digestible 

Fat, 
pounds. 


For maintenance 


0.63 
1.22 

1.85 


6.30 
5.60 

11.90 


0.09 


To produce 20 pounds of 5 per cent milk 
Total 


0.50 
0.59 







The ration is then calculated in the same manner as described under the 
discussion of the Wolff-Lehmann standards. 



40 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

REFERENCES 

"Principles of Stock Feeding." Smith. 

"Feeds and Feeding." Henry. 

"First Principles of Feeding Farm Animals." Burkett. 

"Principles of Animal Nutrition." Armsby. 

"Feeding of Animals." Jordan. 

"Productive Feeding of Farm Animals." Woll. 

"Profitable Stock Feeding." Smith. 

California Expt. Station Bulletin 256. "Value of Barley for Cowb Fed Alfalfa." 

Illinois Expt. Station Bulletin 172. "Study of Digestion of Rations for Steers." 

Minnesota Expt. Station Bulletin 140. "Investigations in Milk Production." 

Missouri Research Bulletin 18. "Maintenance Requirements of Cattle." 

Nebraska Expt. Station Bulletin 151. "Corn Silage and Alfalfa for Beef Production." 

New Hampshire Expt. Station Bulletin 175. "Analysis of Feeding-stuffs." 

South Dakota Expt. Station Bulletin 160. "Silage and Grains for Steers." 

Texas Expt. Station Bulletin 170. "Texas Feeding-stuffs, Their Composition ana 

Utilization." 
Wisconsin Expt. Station Circular 37. "The Feeding Unit System for Determining 

the Economy of Production by Dairy Cows." 
Wisconsin Research Bulletin 26. "Studies in Dairy Production." 
Wyoming Expt. Station Bulletin 106. "Cottonseed Cake for Beef Cattle." 
Pennsylvania Expt. Station Bulletin 111. "Feeding." 
Farmers , Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

346. "Computation of Rations for Farm Animals." 
655. "Cottonseed Meal for Feeding Beef Cattle." 



CHAPTER 4 

Horses and mules 

By E. H. Hughes 

Assistant Professor in Animal Husbandry, College of Agriculture, 
University of Missouri 

The horse even today plays a very important part in moving mer- 
chandise and performing other labor. The work on our farms is largely 
accomplished by the horse, and in spite of the motor truck the horse is 



Morgan Staujon, "General Gates." 1 

considered indispensable in a large amount of business in the city. Modern 
methods of transportation move enormous quantities of freight, yet the 
demand for the work horse does not diminish. 

Development of Type. — The usefulness of a horse depends upon his 
power of locomotion and the characteristics which adapt him to the different 

» Courtt»y of U. 9. Dept. of Agriculture. 

41 



42 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

kinds of service determine his type. Whether he moves with power, 
speed, extreme action and style or to carry weight, will determine whether 
he is a draft, a race, a show or a saddle horse. 

Our modern breeds of light horses have probably been developed with 
the Arabian horse as foundation stock. The Arabians developed a light 
horse with endurance and courage for desert travel, and intelligence and 
friendliness for companionship on the long journey. 

The low-lying, luxuriantly vegetated Flanders led to the development 



of the patient, sluggish Flemish horse with plenty of power to accomplish 
the heavy work required of him. The Flemish blood is the most important 
basis of the draft types. 

The Light Horse. — It is essential that the horse of this class show 
refinement in all his parts. His conformation, action, style, finish and 
endurance should be such that he can meet the requirements for a distinct 
purpose. 

Action is essential in this class. The coach horse should show high 
action; the roadster must be able to haul a light vehicle at a rapid trot; 
and the saddle horse is required to give the rider satisfaction. 



i Courtesy of U. S. Dept . of Agriculture. From Fanners' Bulletin 491. 



HORSES AND MULES 43 

Weight is not so important. The carriage horse must necessarily 
be heavier than the roadster, because he is required to draw a heavier 
vehicle and the saddle horse must be able to perform the gaits of his class. 
Size will depend upon the use to which he is put. 

Draft Type. — Horses of this type are used in hauling heavy loads at a 
comparatively slow gait, and should possess strength and endurance. A 



Perchehon Stallion. 1 

draft horse should be massive, relatively close to the ground and weigh at 
least 1600 pounds. He should have a heavy body; a short, strong back; a 
strong constitution; a sloping shoulder and a long, level croup. He should 
also have plenty of bone of good quality and large, sound feet. His legs 
should set properly under him and his pasterns should be long and sloping. 
The important gait of the draft horse is the walk. The stride should be 
long and straight. A combination of weight, muscle and good feet and 

1 Courtesy of Tin Field, New York City. 



44 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Light Horses. 



Breeds. 


Native 
Country. 


Origin. 


Height, 
hands. 


Weight, 
pounds. 


Color. 


Other Characteristics. 


Arabian. 


Arabia 


Native horses. 


14-15.2 


850-1000 


Bay, brown, chestnut, 
occasionally black or gray. 


Good action; intelligent 


Thorough- 
bred. 


England. 


Arabian mixed 
by English peo- 
ple. 


14.2-16.2 


900-1100 


Bay, brown, chestnut, 
black or gray. 


Running horse; great 
speed; intelligent, some- 
tunes difficult to manage. 


Standard 
bred 
horse. 


America. 


English horse. 


14-16.2 


900-1200 


Bay, brown, chestnut 
or black; few grays and 
roans. 


Fastest of harness horses; 
remarkable endurance; in- 
telligent. 


Morgan 
(branch 
of stand- 
ard bred) 


America. 


Thoroughbred 
(Justin Morgan 
foundation 
horse). 


14.3-16 


950-1150 


Bay, chestnut, brown 
or black. 


Not extreme action or 
speed; noted for endur- 
ance; intelligent. 


Saddle. 


U. S.: 
Virginia, 
Kentucky, 
Missouri. 


Thoroughbred. 


15-16 


900-1200 


Chestnut, black, bay, 
brown, gray and roan. 


Action, style, manners, 
five gaits, walk, trot, can- 
ter, rack, running-walk, 
foxtrot or slow pace. 


Hackney. 


England. 


Arabian; thor- 
oughbred native 
horse. 


13.2-16 


750^1200 


Chestnut, bay, brown, 
black, and roan, white 
markings common. 


Extreme high action. 



German coach, French coach and Cleveland bay horses have not greatly influenced the horse business in this country. 



Draft Horses. 



Breed. 


Native 
Country. 


Origin. 


Height, 
hands. 


Weight, 
pounds. 


Color. 


Other Characteristics. 


Percheron. 


France. 


Native horses, 
Flemish, 
Arabian. 


15.3-17 


1600-2200 


Gray, black, bay, 
brown, roan, chestnut. 


Good action; intelligent. 


Belgian. 


Belgium. 


Flemish. 


15.3-17 


1600-2400 


Roan, chestnut brown, 
black, gray. ' 


Compact, deep and wide; 
heavily muscled. 


English 
Shire. 


England. 


Native horses, 
Flemish. 


16-17.3 


1700-2400 


Bay, black, brown, 
gray, chestnut, roan, 
white on legs and face. 


Largest of draft breeds; 
heavy feather on legs. 


Clydesdale. 


Scotland. 


Native horses, 
Flemish. 


16-17 


1600-2100 


Bay, black, brown, 
chestnut, roan, gray, 
white on face and legs. 


Very good action; in- 
telligent; feather on legs. 


Suffolk- 
punch. 


England. 


Native horses. 


16-16.2 


1600-2000 


Chestnut. 


Smallest of the draft 
breeds. 



Mules. 



Class. 


Height, 
hands. 


Weight, 
pounds. 


Color. 


Other Characteristics. 


Draft. 


16-17.2 


1200-1600 


Bay, brown, gray 
or dun. Most desir- 
able color is black 
with a tan nose and 
flank. 


Large, heavy boned, heavy set mules. 


Sugar. 


16-17 


1150-1300 


Tall, with considerable quality and finish. 


Cotton. 


13.2-15.2 


750-1100 


Small and compact, with quality. 


Mining. 


12-16 


600-1350 


"Pit" mules, small; "miners," large and rugged. 


Farm. 


15.2-16 


1000-1350 


Plain and thin, with good constitutions. 



HORSES AND MULES 45 

legs should be an indication of a horse's ability to haul a load at a fair rate 
of speed. 

The Mule is a hybrid, having for parents a mare and a jack. Because 
of this fact it shows many parental characteristics which are common to 
both ancestors. It has longer ears than the horse, a Roman nose, heavy 
lips, clean legs, small, narrow feet of good quality, and a scanty growth of 



English Shirk Stallion. 1 

hair on the tail and a scanty mane. The sexual organs of both mare and 
horse mules are undeveloped, consequently they do not breed. 

The mule is generally smaller than the draft horse, being from 14 to 
17 hands high, and weighing from 600 to 1600 pounds. Mares of good 
quality weighing about 1350 pounds when bred to a heavy-boned jack with 
long ears produce mules which have good size, quality and action. As a 
rule, mare mules bring better prices on the market than do horse mules. 

America has done more towards the economical development of the 
■ Courtay ol The FleU. New York City. 



46 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



mule than any other country, and more than one-half the mules in the 
world are in the United States. 

Due to his hardiness and his ability to take care of himself, the mule is 
adapted to most climates and to kinds of work for which it would not be 
practical to use a horse. In most contagious and infectious diseases, 
however, the mule has no more resistance than a horse. 

Market Requirements. — The market requires that a horse shall fill 
some definite purpose. There is a demand for good horses that fill a definite 





Classification 


of Market Classes of Horses.* 


Class. 


Sub-Class. 


Height, 
hands. 


Weight, 
pounds. 


Other Characteristics. 


Draft. 


Light draft. 
Heavy draft. 
Loggers. 


15.3-16.2 

16-17.2 

16.1-17.2 


1600-1750 
1750-2200 


Heavy, rugged, compactly built, denoting strength and 
endurance. 


Chunks. 


Eastern Ex- 
port. 
Farm. 
Southern. 


15-16 

15-15.3 
15-15.3 


1300-1550 

1200-1400 
800-1250 


The same type as draft, except that he is more compact and 
lighter in weight. 

Low down, blocky horses not as heavy as the Eastern 
chunk. Possess quality finer and not so heavy as the other 
sub-classes. 


Wagon. 


Expressers. 

Delivery. 
Artillery. 

Fire horses. 


15.3-16.2 

15-16 
15.1-16 

15-17.2 


1350-1500 

1100-1400 
1050-1200 

1200-1700 


Upstanding, deep-bodied, closely coupled, with good bone 
quality, energy and spirit. 

Conformation similar to express; not so large. 

Sound, well bred, with quality; prompt action in walk, trot 
or gallop. Free from vicious habits, without blemish, and 
broken to harness and saddle. 

More rangy in conformation than expressers; ability to 
take long runs. 


Carriage. 


Coach. 

Cobs. 
Park. 
Cab. 


15.1-16.1 

14.1-15.1 

15-15.3 

15.2-16.1 


1100-1250 

900-1150 
1000-1150 
1050-1200 


Smoothly turned, full-made horses with high action com- 
bined with beauty of form. 

Small horses of stocky build with p.enty of quality. 

Excellent quality; high act : on. 

Similar to coach horses; calk in finish; good feet and legs 
and endurance. 


Road. 


Runabout. 
Roadster. 


14.3-15.2 
15-16 


900-1050 
900-1150 


Not so stockily built as cob, having more speed. 
Conformation more angular than runabouts, denoting 
speed, stamina and endurance. 


Saddle 
horses. 


Five-gaited. 

Three-gaited. 

Hunters. 

Cavalry. 
Polo Ponies. 


15-16 

14.3-16 

15.2-16,1 

15-15.3 
14-14.2 


900-1200 

900-1200 

1100-1250 

950-1100 
850-1000 


Conformation denoting style, action, with strong back; 
possesses five distinct gaits under the saddle. 

Size depending on weight to be carried with ability to 
walk, trot and canter. 

Large, strong; must be jumpers; stand long country 
rides. 

Sound,wellbred; have quality; broken to saddle; easy gaits. 

Smallest saddle class; used for playing polo. 



purpose, but misfits sell at a low figure. The horse should be sound, at 
least serviceably sound, with a conformation adapted to the work required 
of him. He should be in good condition in order to look well and be ready 
for hard work. Condition is also an indication of the health and feeding 
quality of the horse. The market requires that a horse be broken and of 
good disposition. Horses between five and eight years old sell the best. 
Solid colors are preferred because they can be matched more easily, and 
many firms use their teams of two, four or six horses and equipment as a 
part of their advertising. 

* Tllinnia Experiment Station Bulletin No. 122. 



HORSES AND MULES 



Fig. 1. — Atone year of age the 
jaw is narrow, the temporary teeth 
are small and the corner incisora are 
not yet in contact, 



. 3. — At three years of 
jermanent incisora above 
iw are in wear. Note the 
width and length in coin- 
to the temporary teeth. 



Fig. 4. — At four years 
of age the permanent and in- 
termediate incisora on lower 
and upper jaws are in wear. 
The corner pair of temporary 
teeth have not been dis- 
placed; they appear very 
small in comparison with the 
permanent teeth. 



Note. — Photographs showing teeth at various agea, by courtesy of Prof. ; 
faimpson, Agricultural Extension Service, Missouri Experiment Station. 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 




Fio. 5. — Complete Bet of lower 

permanent incisors showing deep cups 
at five years. 

Flo. 6. — The cups in the lower 
central i n cisors ha ve nearly disappeared 
and the tables are smooth at six years. 

Flo. 7. — The cups in the lower in- 
termediate pair of incisors have dis- 
appeared at seven years. 

Fio. 8.— The cups in the lower 
corner pair of incisors 1 
and the tables are all 
eight years. 



Fra. 9. — The cups in the central 
incisors above have practically dis- 
appeared at nine years. 

Fro. 10.— The cups in the inter- 
mediate incisors above have dis- 
appeared at ten years. 

Fio. 11. — At eleven years the 
tables on the upper jaw are nearly 
smooth. 

Fio. 12. — Note the smooth tables 
and the length of the teeth showing 
considerable wear at fifteen years. 



Fio. 13.— Showing a comparison 

of the angles of the iaw at five and 
twenty-one years. Note the acute 
angle of the teeth at twenty-one. 



Fio. 14.— Showing order of appearance 
of the permanent incisors. The central pair 
at 2J to 3 years. The intermediate pair at 
31 to 4 years. The corner or outside pair at 
4$ to 5 years. 



Photographs showing teeth at varioi 
., Agricultural Extension Service, Missouri 



HORSES AND MULES 49 

The Age of the Horse. — The teeth form the most accurate basis for 
estimating the age of a horse. The first teeth which appear are called 
colt, milk or temporary teeth. As the horse grows older these are replaced 
by broader, thicker, darker-colored permanent teeth. 

The central incisors in the upper and lower jaws usually appear within 
two weeks after foaling. The intermediate incisors, one on each side of 
the central incisors, make their appearance between the second and 
fourth week, and the corner or outside incisors are in at six months of 
age (Fig. 1). 

The central pair of permanent incisors will displace the temporary 
incisors and be in use at three years of age. (Fig. 3). The permanent 
intermediate ones will be in use at four (Fig. 4) and the corner pair of 
permanent incisors will displace the temporary corner or outside incisors 
at five years of age. 

The five-year-old horse has a full mouth of permanent teeth (Fig. 5). 
These have large cups that wear smooth as the age of the horse advances. 
The cups or tables of the central incisors below have worn smooth at six 
years of age, the intermediate incisors below are smooth at seven and the 
corner pair at eight. (See Figs. 6, 7 and 8.) 

The cups of the central pair of incisors on the upper jaw have dis- 
appeared at nine, the intermediates above are smooth at ten and the 
cups in the corner incisors are worn smooth when the horse reaches his 
twelfth year. (Sfee Figs. 9, 10, 11 and 12.) 

There is no accurate method of estimating the age of a horse after he 
is twelve years old; however, the angle of the teeth becomes more acute 
as he becomes older (Fig. 13). 

HORSE FEEDINGS 

Proper management in feeding and caring for the horse is an essential 
for his best health and development. The digestive system of a horse 
is not large, therefore a comparatively small amount of roughage and a 
relatively larger amount of grain is required. Sudden changes in feed 
should be avoided, as the digestive system requires time to readjust itself 
to the new conditions. 

Grinding or soaking of feed is not economical except in the case 
of colts or horses doing exceptionally hard work; however, many 
horsemen favor rolling the oats they feed. Salt should be accessible at 
all times. 

Feeds for the Horse. — It is economical under most conditions to use 
the feeds at hand. The most common feeds for horses are oats with timo- 
thy hay, or a mixture of timothy and clover. In many sections corn is 
substituted for a part or all of the oats in the ration and prairie hay or 
alfalfa is substituted for the timothy. 

A combination of oats and timothy hay forms an excellent ration for 
work horses. The nutrients are in about the proper proportions and the 



50 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

bulk seems to fit the needs of the horse. Both are usually free from dust. 
For the light horse that is required to make long, hard drives no satisfactory 
substitute for oats and timothy hay has been found. 

Grain. — Corn and barley are used extensively in some sections for a 
part or all of the grain ration. Because of its hardness the barley should 
be ground or cracked. 

Bran and oil meal are often used to supplement corn or barley, and 
for growing animals or brood mares corn, oats and bran form an excellent 
ration. The bone and muscle-building elements in bran and its laxative 
effect are considered indispensable by many horsemen. 

Roughages. — A mixture of timothy and clover is considered an excel- 
lent roughage for horses. Either clover or alfalfa hay is good, except for 
horses doing heavy or rapid work. Oat hay, when cut a little green, forms 
an excellent roughage and sheaf oats are often fed with good results. Millet 
hay is considered unsafe to feed by most horsemen. 

Corn stover and oat straw are used with success when properly bal- 
anced with a grain ration. 

Good clean silage that is not too acid is an excellent feed for brood 
mares, idle horses and growing colts, though it should be fed in limited 
quantities and with some dry roughage. It has been fed with good results, 
but great care must be exercised in feeding. No mouldy or musty silage 
should be fed. 

Watering. — Horses, under natural conditions, drink frequently. The 
most common practice among horsemen is to water the horses before 
feeding, although many practice watering before and after feeding. Horses 
that are heated should be compelled to drink very slowly. The value of 
good running water in the horse pasture cannot be overestimated. 

The Work Horse. — A horse at work should receive ten to eighteen 
pounds of grain daily, depending upon the kind of work performed and 
the size of the horse. On days when idle the grain ration should be reduced 
and the roughage increased. The addition of a small amount of bran is 
recommended. 

The Foal. — The foal should be taught to eat grain and hay as early 
as possible. Oats and bran with some clover or alfalfa hay of good quality 
are the best feeds because they contain the muscle and bone-forming 
elements required for growth. 

While the mare and colt are in the pasture some grain can be fed very 
satisfactorily in a small creep. After weaning, at about five or six months 
of age, feed for growth rather than condition. 

The Orphan Foal. — Milk from a fresh cow, one whose milk is low in 
butter-fat, is well adapted to raising an orphan foal. To a dessert-spoonful 
of granulated sugar should be added enough warm water to dissolve it. 
To this three tablespoonsful of limeVater and enough fresh milk to make 
a pint should be added. A small amount, one-half pint, should be given 
each hour. In a short time the amount should be increased and feed should 



HORSES AND MULES 51 

be given every two hours, more being given gradually and the time between 
feeding lengthened. 

The Brood Mare, used for breeding purposes only, does well without 
grain when on good pasture. In winter, if she is in foal, she should be 
given feeds high in protein and mineral matter for the best development 
of the foetus. She should receive plenty of exercise at all times. 

The Stallion. — Good whole oats and bran with plenty of clean timothy 
hay is a very good ration for the stallion. The addition of corn or barley 
to the ration lends variety and increases its palatability. Exercise is at 
all times absolutely essential for the best results with any stallion. When 
standing for service he should be required to walk six to ten miles per day. 

STANDARD RATIONS 

Foals: Parts. Pan*. Parts. 

Ground oats 6 Oats 4 Oats 4 

Ground corn 2 Corn 4 Bran 4 

Bran . . 2 Bran 2 Corn 2 

Whole oats ] 

Shelled corn - equal parts. 

Bran J 

With either of the above rations, feed clover, alfalfa, or timothy and clover 
mixed. 
Work Horses: 

Oats 5 Oats. Corn 9 

Corn 5 Hay. Oatmeal 1 

Hay. Hay. 

Timothy and clover mixed or just timothy is recommended as roughage. 
Brood Mare: 

Corn 4 Corn 7 Corn 8 

Oats 4 Bran 2 Linseed oil meal 1 

Bran 2 Linseed oil meal 1 

Clover or alfalfa of good quality, or timothy and clover mixed are good 

l roughages to feed with the above grain rations. 

Grooming. — For the best health of the horse he should be groomed 
before he is harnessed and at night after the harness has been removed. 
A good currycomb, a stiff brush and a soft woolen cloth are the only uten- 
sils ordinarily needed. The currycomb is used to loosen the dirt and sweat 
in the hair and skin over the body and is followed by the brush. The 
woolen cloth is then nibbed very firmly over the entire body to take up 
the fine dust and to put the coat in good condition. 

REFERENCES 

"Productive Horse Husbandry." Gay. 

"The Horse Book." Johnston. 

"The Horse." Roberts. 

"Breaking and Training Horses." Harper. 

"Management and Breeding of Horses." Harper. 

Farmers , Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

451. "Draft Horses and Care of Horses." 

667. "Breaking and Training Colts." 



CHAPTER 5 

BEEP CATTLE 

By W. A. Cochbl 
Professor of Animal Husbandry, Kansas Agricultural College 

Beef production is associated with the best type of farming in every 
country. A careful survey of any community shows that the cattlemen 
are leaders in public matters, are financially responsible, farm the best 
land and are considered among the best citizens. Counties and communi- 



Pure-bred Hereford Bull. 1 
A hardy, early maturing, beef breed of good quality. 

ties noted for their production of beef are also noted for their large yields 
of agricultural crops and their great productive wealth. There never has 
been a permanent and profitable system of farming established on an 
extensive scale in any country where beef cattle have been eliminated from 

' Courteey of The Held, New York City. 

C52) 



BEEF CATTLE 53 



the farms. Beef cattle make the greatest and most profitable use of rough- 
age and grass, are comparatively free frQm disease, require less shelter and 
attention than other farm animals, enable the farmer to distribute his 
work uniformly throughout the year and are easily marketed. 

Sources of Profit. — The cattleman has four sources of profit: (1) 
from growing crops; (2) from feeding crops; (3) from using by-products 
which otherwise have no market value, such as straw, stover, damaged 
hay and grain; and (4) from increasing soil fertility and the yield of crops. 
It frequently happens that the greatest profit comes from the use of farm 
by-products and the increase of soil fertility. The successful cattleman of 
the future must be as good a farmer as the man w;ho produces grain and 
hay for the market, and also have the ability and judgment to select and 
feed animals that can convert grain and hay into meat profitably. 

There are four distinct methods of handling beef cattle, dependent 
upon the amount of capital available and the kind of crops adapted to the 
farm, as follows: (1) breeding pure-bred cattle, (2) producing stockers and 
feeders, (3) grazing cattle, and (4) fattening cattle. 

Breeding Pure-Bred Cattle.— This is the highest type of beef produc- 
tion and requires the investment of a large amount of money for a series 
of years. The breeder must not only understand and practice the best 
methods of breeding, feeding and developing livestock, but must also follow 
the best methods of farming. He should keep the buildings and grounds 
neat angl attractive to impress customers with the fact that breeding pure- 
bred livestock is profitable and attractive. 

Excellent pasture should be available for summer grazing and the best 
methods of feeding must be practiced during the winter to develop the 
inherited type and form to the maximum. More breeders fail because of 
poor feeding than of any other one factor. In addition to the ability to 
select the approved type of the breed and to feed successfully, the breeder 
of pure-bred cattle must be a business man and a salesman so that he can 
successfully dispose of what he produces. It is usually better for the 
beginner to start with grade or market cattle and, if he succeeds, to purchase 
a few pure-bred animals and go into the business gradually, than to invest 
all his capital in a specialty with which he is unacquainted. 

Producing Stockers and Feeders. — The production of stockers and 
feeders should be confined to those parts of the country where the larger 
part of the land cannot be plowed profitably, and grass is the principal 
crop. This class of cattle is kept on grass during the summer season and 
fed on roughage, with little or no grain, during the remainder of the year. 
Lying east of the Rocky Mountains is a large area which is peculiarly 
adapted to the production of grass and roughage, such as Kaffir and sor- 
ghums on the uplands, and alfalfa on the bottom land, and which logically 
should be the great stocker and feeder producing section of the United 
States. Where both legumes and silage crops are produced, little or no 
commercial feeds are required. If it is impossible to grow legumes, protein 



54 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

should be supplied in the form of linseed meal, cottonseed cake or some other 
protein concentrate. 

It is essential that cattle of the best beef type be used in producing 
stockers or feeders, because the chief profit comes from producing animals 
of superior merit for which there is always a keen demand. It is very 
important that the herd of cattle used for this purpose be uniform in type, 
color, size, breeding and quality and that the animals have large feeding 
capacity, because buyers prefer to buy feeders or stockers as nearly alike 
as possible. 

Grazing Cattle. — The business of grazing cattle is generally followed 
in those sections where the area of land in cultivation is very small compared 
with that which must be left in grass. The cattle are seldom produced in 
the grazing sections, but are usually shipped in by the train-load about the 
first of May, and are pastured on grass until they are fat enough to be 
marketed as grass-fat cattle during the late summer and early fall. 

The cattle used to convert grass into fat are usually older, coarser and 
plainer than cattle selected to convert corn into the same product. Not 
so much attention is paid to quality and breeding as in pure-bred cattle, 
stockers or feeders, because the profit comes from the increase in value 
secured by fattening rather than in the final price per hundredweight. 
Very thin steers, three years old or older, make much larger gains than 
younger or fatter cattle. However, it frequently happens that when 
fleshier cattle are used, they may be shipped from grass earlier in the 
season, thus avoiding extreme heat, flies, water shortage or a heavy run 
of cattle on the market, which will more than overbalance the larger gains 
made by thinner cattle. 

Fattening Cattle. — This has proven profitable in sections where corn 
is the leading crop and the area devoted to permanent pasture is relatively 
small. The kind of cattle selected for the feed lot depends upon the season 
of the year, the feeds available, the probable demand for the cattle when fat 
and the experience of the feeder. Young cattle make cheaper gains than 
older cattle, but they require a longer feeding period to become fat, because 
they use a large part of their feed for growth. 

Calves that are to be fattened should show quality and breeding. 
They should have short legs and blocky, broad, deep bodies, otherwise 
they will grow rather than fatten. It will require from eight to nine 
months from the time calves are weaned to make them prime even when 
on full feed. An excellent ration is ten pounds of silage, five pounds of 
alfalfa hay, one pound of linseed meal or cottonseed cake per head daily, 
and all the corn they can eat. Older cattle consume more roughage in 
proportion to the grain and are fed where corn is relatively scarce. 

To fatten cattle successfully and to secure satisfactory gains, the 
ration should be improved as the animals become fat. The customary farm 
practice is to start the cattle on roughage, such as silage, hay and fodder, 
with about six pounds of corn per thousand pounds liveweight daily, and 



BEEF CATTLE 55 



to increase the amount of corn as they become fatter. This makes the 
period when they are really on full feed very short. 

Fitting Show Animals. — The production of show animals is in reality 
a form of advertisement, and is restricted largely to the breeders of pure- 
bred cattle. Every art known to the feeder is utilized to develop such 
animals. The ration is quite similar to that fed to fattening animals 
during the last part of the feeding period, and is improved by grinding 
the grain, cutting the hay and adding a greater variety of feeds. Some- 
times barley is boiled and fed at the rate of one gallon per day and sugar 
or molasses is mixed with the grain to increase the palatability. In fact, 
everything possible is done to keep up the animal's appetite. 

THE SELECTION OF CATTLE FOR THE FEED LOT 

The selection of cattle for the feed lot is probably the most vital 
question before the cattle feeders today. Upon this one problem depends 
the ultimate financial success of those who make a business of converting 
grain and roughage into beef. There are three factors which should always 
be given consideration: (1) the purpose for which the cattle are to be 
used, (2) the ability of the individuals to consume feed over and above that 
required for maintenance, and (3) the probable demand for beef when the 
cattle are returned from the feed lots. 

Methods of Feeding. — Cattle feeders may be divided into different 
groups according to their methods of feeding: (1) those who produce 
market-topping animals, (2) those who handle shortfed cattle, and (3) 
those who produce the great bulk of beef which usually finds its way to 
market after a period of grazing or roughing followed by a finishing period 
of either short or long duration. 

Characteristics of Good Feeders. — It makes little difference which 
method is followed. The essential characteristics of a good feeding steer 
remain constant. He must have good constitution and capacity associated 
with as much quality and type as it is possible to secure. A wide, strong, 
short head; short, thick neck; and deep, wide chest indicate constitution, 
and a deep, roomy barrel indicates capacity. These characteristics may 
be found in steers of plain as well as of excellent breeding, which accounts 
for the fact that individual dairy and scrub steers frequently make as 
rapid gains in the feed lot as beef-bred steers. The type, quality, form 
and finish as indicated by the deep covering of muscle, even distribution 
of fat, high percentage of the higher priced cuts of meats, high dressing 
percentage, smoothness and symmetry of carcass, and quality and texture 
of meat, are always associated with beef blood. 

The success of a feeder buyer depends largely upon his ability to see 
in thin cattle the possibility of improvement which results from the deposit 
of fat. As a general rule, there is little change in the skeleton proper. A 
feeder with a low back will finish into a fat steer with a low back. A feeder 
with a high tail; head or prominent hook-bones will finish into a fat steer 



Ill 

m 



fir. 

aa-a 

s 111. 
a Nl] 

■ 2 a! g f 



■2 g« 9 
fjlj 

f|l 

"III 



BEEF CATTLE 57 



with these same deficiencies. A feeder with a long, narrow head, long legs, 
or shallow body will not alter his type in the feed lot. The greatest 
improvement comes in those regions of the body where the natural covering 
of muscle is thickest, in the shoulder, crops, back, loin and round. The 
body will increase more in width than in length and will decrease in apparent 
paunchiness due to the greater proportional increase in the width of the 
upper half of the body than in the lower half. The quality of meat will 
be improved by the deposit of fat within the bundles of muscle fiber, and 
the tenderness of meat will be improved because of the distention of all cells 
with fat, and the proportion of edible to non-edible parts of the animal 
will increase during the fattening period. These are potent^ reasons for 
the immense industry represented by the cattle feeders. 

Kind of Feed Related to Class of Cattle. — In addition to these factors 
which are inherent in the steer, the successful feeder buyer must give 
attention to the kind of feeds at his disposal. If he intends to use a large 
amount of grass or roughage in proportion to grain, he should select thin 
steers carrying some age. Older and thinner cattle will make better use 
of roughage than those which are younger and fleshier. If the feeder has 
a large acreage of corn and comparatively little pasture and roughage, he 
should select either heavy, fleshy feeders which he can return to market 
within a comparatively short time, or fancy calves of the best possible type 
and breeding which will develop into prime yearlings. If heavy fleshy 
feeders are selected, their quality and type should determine their market 
value, as compared with that of the plainer sort. The probable demand for 
the various grades of beef at the close of the feeding period is also a deter- 
mining factor. The feeder should limit his selection to those cattle which 
will make the greatest improvement in value per hundred pounds while 
in the feed lot. 

Calves and Yearlings. — Quality and type are essential in the selection 
of calves for feeding purposes. They should be bred for early maturity, 
otherwise they will grow rather than fatten and the cost of production 
will exceed their market value. The majority of yearlings are marketed 
from sixty to ninety days before they are fat, which indicates that it is 
essential to secure calves of the type that will fatten. The feeder should 
realize that he is entering into a proposition that requires eight to twelve 
months to complete and that he must feed the best of feeds in a concen- 
trated form to secure satisfactory gains and finish. 

Time to Market. — The time to market fat cattle is when further gains 
will not result in an increase in the value per hundredweight. For this 
reason plain, rough steers which will not produce attractive carcasses 
should be sold before they are thoroughly fattened. When fancy cattle 
of quality and type are fed, it is a general rule that they are more profit- 
able the fatter they become, because there is usually a demand for fancy 
finished beef. 

The season of the year also controls to some extent the quality of 



58 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

■ 

cattle that should go into the feed lot. Where grain-fed steers are to be 
marketed from the middle of July to the first of December, a better grade 
of cattle and a higher finish are demanded than at any other season of 
the year. In the late summer and early fall the markets are usually well 
supplied with beef that has been produced cheaply on grass with which 
the half-fat grain-fed cattle cannot compete profitably. After the Christ- 
mas holidays all the cattle come from dry lots and have been fattened 
on expensive feedstuffs so that the plain, rough cattle can be marketed 
to better advantage than during the grazing season, because the com- 
petition of grass-fed cattle is eliminated. 

The reasons for feeding beef cattle are that they reduce farm crops 
into a more concentrated market product and they are a means of per- 
manently maintaining the soil fertility. All feeding operations should 
be conducted with these facts in mind. The selection of feeding cattle 
which will serve the purpose and at the same time oroduce an immediate 
profit is the mark of the successful cattle feeder. 

THE DEFICIENCY IN THE MEAT SUPPLY 

Statistics need not be presented to substantiate the assertion that 
there is a decided deficiency in the supply of meat. The shortage is the 
result of a long-continued series of years during which the final value of 
the finished animal was less than the market value of the crops necessary 
for its production. During the early development of the country there 
were a considerable number of meat animals bred and fed in the Atlantic 
states. When the territory west of the AUeghenies and east of the 
Mississippi River was settled, the breeding industry moved to this section 
because cattle were the only means of marketing the grass, grain and 
forage. When transportation facilities were provided for the shipment 
of grain and other farm products, the breeding industry moved on to 
Missouri, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska, where more favorable conditions 
existed. Here it dominated the agricultural practice until the free range 
in the West was made available through the suppression of lawlessness. 
The trend of the cattle-breeding industry has been westward toward the 
less expensive grazing lands, until there is now no cheap land available. 
With the decline of breeding operations, finishing or fattening for market 
became a well-established practice in those sections where the breeding 
of livestock was unprofitable. The result of this condition is that the 
demand for animals suitable for the feed lot has finally become so great 
that the West is no longer able to furnish an adequate supply of feeders, 
with subsequent high prices. 

In recent years the papers and magazines have kept up an almost 
continual agitation against the high price of meat. The high price has 
been attributed to the avarice of the farmer, the packer, the stockyards 
or the retail dealer, rather than to the laws of supply and demand. It has 
discouraged many from entering into a legitimate business venture for 



BEEFCATTLE 59 



fear that unfavorable public opinion might at any time crystallize into 
the form of laws of such restrictive nature as to obliterate profits. 

Reliable data in regard to methods of meat production are insufficient 
to enable us to recommend practices which can be substantiated by records 
of unquestioned reliability. There is, however, so great an abundance 
of information as to methods of fattening that it is possible for one familiar 
with the publications and the general farm practices to recommend rations 
which are certain to produce rapid and economical gains in the feed lot 
with acceptable dressing percentages. 

Tenant Fanning Unfavorable to Beef Production. — The rapid growth 
of tenant farming has eliminated the production of meat from thousands 
of acres of land which should never have been plowed, and will probably 
continue to exert a depressing influence upon the business until the value 
of farm lands is based upon production rather than upon speculation. 
Under the present system of renting, it is almost impossible to handle 
beef cattle profitably on a tenant farm. The cattle business requires a 
number of years to develop and a system of farming that will produce 
the feeds necessary to maintain a herd of cattle during the winter. A 
further reason is that the chief profit in cattle farming is the increase in 
the fertility of the soil and the yield of crops which comes from using the 
manure on the land. Where land is rented annually there is no incentive 
to build it up and increase crop production when a different renter may 
farm it the next year. A system of longer leases must result which will 
give the tenant an incentive to increase rather than exhaust the fertility 
of the soil. 

Breeding Cattle Requires Capital. — If means of financing breeding 
operations were provided, the supply of breeding animals on both farms 
and ranges would be increased tremendously. It is possible for a farmer 
who has produced a crop of corn or has pasture, to go to almost any bank 
and secure funds with which to purchase steers to consume these products. 
Money is loaned for ninety to one hundred and eighty days with the 
privilege of renewal. It is impossible, however, for him to borrow the 
same money with breeding females as security, because three to five years 
must elapse before the increase will be marketable. This is probably 
the greatest problem to be solved if breeding operations are to be materially 
increased in the near future. 

Breeding herds should be established in the South, the East and in 
the cut-over districts near the Great Lakes on the land that is adapted 
to the production of pasture grasses. More attention should be given 
to pastures to increase their carrying capacity by fertilizing them with 
manure or fertilizers, by thickening the stand of grass by natural or artificial 
means and by using silage during unfavorable periods. While grass is 
the most important crop produced in the United States, more land being 
devoted to its production than to all others except trees, there is not an 
important investigational project on the subject reported which the meat 



60 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

producer can use in a practical manner. Throughout the great grazing 
areas of the country something of definite permanent value must be done 
to re-establish pastures or the supply of feeding stock will diminish rather 
than increase in the next few years. 

The tremendous waste of the farm by-products of the cereal crops, 
corn, oats and wheat, which takes place annually throughout the entire 
country is sufficient to maintain thousands of animals in good breeding 
condition. This material has not, as yet, been successfully used on a large 
scale, but recent investigational work indicates that the use of a succulent 
feed during the winter makes these dry, coarse feeds palatable to a large 
extent. Refinement in the methods of feeding will in the future enable 
us to utilize other waste products which are now considered almost 
worthless. 

In the sub-humid sections, the use of the silo to preserve drought- 
resisting crops, such as Kaffir, milo, feterita and sorghums, and the intro- 
duction of new crops, such as Sudan grass, will make it possible to more 
than double the livestock production of that area. In all parts of the 
United States at least 300 pounds increase in weight can be secured on 
the average two-year-old steer by furnishing him an abundance of grass 
in the summer and an abundance of roughage in the winter. A limited 
amount of high protein feed should be used to make up the deficiency cf 
the ordinary roughages usually produced where legumes cannot be success- 
fully grown. 

It is probable that the loss of livestock from infectious and contagious 
diseases will be greatly reduced by the practice of sanitary measures, that 
a more careful study of breeding will result in the production of animals 
of greater efficiency, that a better knowledge of feeding will result in 
decreasing the cost of production, but the most potent remedy for the 
present deficiency in the meat supply is now being administered in the 
form of market values which leave a reasonable profit to the man who 
has courage to invest his capital in breeding cattle and the feeds necessary 
to maintain them. The farmer, as a business man, increases his operations 
along those lines which promise to return the greatest profit. 

REFERENCES 

"Beef Production." Mumford. 

Indiana Expt. Station Circular 29. "Livestock Judging for Beginners." 

Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

588. "Economical Cattle Feeding in the Corn Belt." 

680. "Beef Production in the South." 

612. "Breeds of Beef Cattle." 
Pennsylvania Expt. Station Bulletin 133. "Steer Feeding Experiments." 



CHAPTER 6 

Swine 

By John M. Ewahd 

Chief in Smne Production, Animal Husbandry Section, 
Iowa Experiment Station 

The hog is one of the most valuable and profitable domestic animala 
the farm can produce. 

In the selection of the herd these factors need to be considered: 
1. Personal Preference is a most important consideration. 



Chester White Boar.* 

2. The Feeds Available. — In the corn belt lard type hogs are best 
because of their adaptation, whereas in Canada a bacon type will utilize 
the northern grown feeds to better commercial advantage. 

3. Location and Climate. — The hog that is best for a certain county in 

1 Courtesy of The Field, New York City. 



62 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



' Courtesy of The HeU. New York City. 



SWINE 63 

Iowa may be ill-adapted to a county in Maine because various community 
conditions, such as customs, pasture range and cattle raising have their 
unmistakable effects. The climate in the South, because of the hot, long 
hours of piercing sunshine, puts the white hog at some disadvantage, 
whereas in the northern country he gets along exceptionally well. 

4. Distribution. — A large number of swine of one type in a certain 
district usually indicates that they are well adapted. When in doubt, 
that breed which is well distributed in the community should be adopted. 
To raise Poland Chinas in a county where practically cone but Tam- 



Chester White Sows. 1 
Lard Type Hogs. 

worths were raised, may result in disappointment, this being especially 
true if one depends upon local buyers for the sale of hogs. 

5. Markets. — A nearby market which demands the bacon type, 
discriminating against the lard type, pound for pound, would have much 
influence in determining the kind of swine to raise in that particular 
section. 

Breeds of Swine. — The two principal types of hogs are the lard and 
the bacon. Lard hogs are noted for their great depth, breadth, general 
compactness, smoothness, short legs, large hams, heavy jowls, relatively 
heavy shoulders, mellow finish (due to heavy fat layers) and docile 

'Courtesy of The Hold, New York City. 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



> Coiirtwy of The Held, Now York City. 



SWINE 65 



temperament. Bacon hogs stand in marked contrast in that the typi- 
cal representatives have greater relative length, medium depth and 
breadth, similar smoothness but more trimness, long legs; small, trim, 
tapering hams; very neat, tidy jowls; very light and trim shoulders; 
exceptionally firm finish (with slight external fat layers) and active 
temperament. 

The general or dual purpose breeds are a combinaton of the bacon 
and lard types, emphasis being placed upon the development of suitable 
market hams, bacon, ribs and loin, as well as the tendency to produce 
marketable animals suitable for lard. 

The most typical lard type representatives are the Poland Chinas, 
black with white markings or spotted black, white and sandy; the Duroc 
Jerseys, entirely of a cherry red; and the Chester Whites, wholly white. 
These three breeds are especially popular in the corn belt, and deservedly 
so. Other lard type breeds are the Mulefoots, black, sometimes with white 
markings; the Victorias, white; the Cheshires, white; the Suffolks, white; 
the small Yorkshires, white; the Essex, black; and the Sapphires, blue 
(sometimes white markings). 

The typical bacon type representatives are the large Yorkshires, 
white; and the Tarn worths, red; both being especially prominent in Can- 
ada and the northern United States. 

The dual purpose representatives are the Berkshires, black with white 
markings; the Hampshires, black with white belt; and the middle white or 
middle Yorkshires, white but little known in this country. 

Of Jhe breeds mentioned, seven are white, six all black or black with 
either white of sandy markings, two red and one blue. The most widely 
distributed pigs in the Canadian country are white, whereas in the corn 
belt and southern districts they are either black or red. This probably 
represents climatic adaptation. 

Grading Up the Herd. — An ordinary farm herd composed of native 
individuals may be advantageously graded up by using successive pure- 
bred sires of the same breed. The first-cross animals are especially vigorous 
for market as well as for breeding purposes; they gain very rapidly and 
economically, and likewise make very good mothers. 

In a grading-up program, assuming that a Duroc Jersey is used for the 
first cross and the offspring of the first cross are again bred to Duroc 
Jersey sires, it is surprising how quickly the offspring approach the Duroc 
types. In a few years, providing gilts only are kept each year for breeding, 
a typical Duroc Jersey herd, resembling closely the typical pure breed, 
will be a reality. The same grading-up process may be followed with any 
pure breed. This is an excellent practice and one to be followed with 
profit in the production of a uniform, dependable market type. 

The crossing of breeds already crossed is to be discouraged, largely 
because of the heterogeneous individuals which result, these being of 
various types, sizes, colors and so on; this dissimilarity of offspring being 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



■Courtesy of Tho Field, New York City. 



SWINE 67 



all the more marked if the original pure-breds used are very different and 
less true if they are very similar. 

Age of Breeding Stock. — Mature sows as compared to gilts enjoy 
some very marked and practical advantages, as follows: 

1. A larger number of pigs at farrowing time. 

2. Heavier, stronger, bigger-boned new-born pigs. 

3. More pigs usually saved to each sow up to weaning time, hence more 
reach the market. 

4. They are tried mothers, the undesirable brood sows being naturally 
eliminated. 

5. Less high-priced protein feeds are needed to supplement the cheaper 
carbohydrates. 

6. More rough feeds may be used, such as alfalfa hay and pasture. 

7. Matured and tried-out sires can be used to advantage; this 
ofttimes not being feasible with young gilts unless a breeding crate is 
used. 

8. Immunized, cholera-proof sows may be continuously kept, and the 
expense and bother of the annual immunization of young sows thus 
eliminated. 

9. Two litters a year are raised with less difficulty. All young gilts 
cannot raise two litters successfully the first year. 

10. Less loss in condition during the suckling period. 

11. More dependable as breeders. 

The disadvantages of sows older than gilts are not to be overlooked, 
and are as follows: 

1. Require more feed. 

2. More house room necessary. 

3. If the "one Utter a year" practice is followed these sows must be 
carried through a six months' unproductive period, which is relatively 
expensive. 

4. Greater capital investment imperative. 

5. Greater risk involved because of the greater capital invested. 

6. Swine money not turned so often because the sows are kept longer 
and not sold annually as are the gilts. 

7. Docked more on marketing, ofttimes twenty-five cents per hun- 
dred, than " trim-bellied' ' gilts. 

8. Gains while "fattening off for market" more expensive. 

9. Usually need an older, mature boar, because the younger ones 
are not so handily used; hence, the breeding more difficultly managed. 

10. Apt to become overfat, clumsy and awkward, and hence overlie 
the new-born pigs. This tendency to overfatness must be carefully 
guarded against. 

11. More difficult, generally speaking, to manage. 

In profitable practice, a happy combination of both gilts and old 
sows may be kept to good advantage. The breeder of pure-bred swine 



68 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

1 

obviously may well keep more old sows proportionately than does the 
market man. 

In the selection of individual sows for the herd it is well that they show: 

1. Trueness to the particular type and breed wished, having a desi- 
rable ancestry and being preferably from a prolific, tested family. 

2. A well-formed udder with active teats and no blind ones. 

3. Feminine characteristics of refinement. 

4. Roominess and capacity. 

5. A kindly disposition. 

6. Good breeding record as manifested in their offspring. 

7. Absence of overfatness and flabbiness. 

8. A good, healthy constitution free from vermin and diseases. 

The boar should possess most of these general requirements, emphasis 
being placed upon his masculinity as indicated in the well-developed 
crest, shield, tusks and general ruggedness. A mature, tried boar is more 
acceptable than an immature, untried one. 

Housing. — In the housing of swine emphasis should be placed upon 
warmth, dryness, abundance of light and direct sunlight, shade, ventila- 
tion, sanitation, safety, comfort, convenience, size, durability, low first 
cost, minimum cost of maintenance and pleasing appearance of the struc- 
ture to be used. This applies to the large centralized community or the 
small movable individual type. 

The selection of a correct site for the location of the hog house is very 
important. Emphasis should be placed upon the economy of labor and 
time in management, drainage, exposure, slope, windbreaks, nearness to 
pasture and shade, elevation, prevention of odors reaching home dwelling 
and risk from disease infection. To place any hog house in an undesirable, 
ill-adapted place is to invite loss, dissatisfaction and possible failure. 

The large community house as compared with the small movable 
one has some advantages in that the time and labor required for some 
operations is less; durability is usually greater; lighting from direct and 
diffuse sunlight better arranged; ventilation made more simple and 
systematic; general equipment usually less and more compactly arranged; 
close attention to the herd easily and practically possible; herdsman 
experiences minimum of exposure; feed storage, water supply and general 
rooms may be conveniently arranged; sanitation in some respects may 
be more encouraged; vermin more largely eliminated; site selection is 
simplified because only one site is needed; the heating problem is compara- 
tively easy; common feeding floor and water wallow may be more handily 
arranged; danger of loss less than with large number of houses in common 
yards; provides headquarters for the swine farm; fire and other risk may 
be minimized through masonry construction; a number of swine under 
one cover become better acquainted; makes possible adjustable pens; 
facilitates collection of liquid manure; and advertising value may be 
greater. 



SWINE 69 



On the other hand, the community house is a disadvantage in that 
location is not easily changed; isolation is practically impossible; sanita- 
tion may be sometimes discouraged; construction is more complex; it is 
not so practical for beginners; the first cost is somewhat high; more fencing 
is required to provide similar range conditions; it is likely to be used 
solely for a farrowing house and thus decrease serviceability; and fire 
and other hazardous risks may be greater if it is built of wood and is in 
close proximity to other buildings. 

A combination of the two types of houses, i. e., the large centralized 
or community one supplemented with the small movable one, deserves 
favor in practice. Each type has its own peculiar advantages and dis- 
advantages, whereas the two together counterbalance each other so as to 
make a very complete efficient practical combination system. 

Feeds for Swine. — Feeding swine has to do with the balancing of 
the grain ration to make it most efficient. The shortcomings of corn as 
feed for swine have their counterpart in other grains used less extensively 
in pork production, namely, barley, wheat, rye, sorghum seed, Kaffir corn 
and milo maize. 

The predominating deficiencies of corn as a grain for growing swine are: 

1. Low in Protein. — A young growing pig should have a pound of 
protein with every three to four pounds of carbohydrates. Corn has 
only one pound of protein to about eight and one-half pounds of 
carbohydrates. 

2. The Quality of Protein is Only Fair. — Corn products alone, partly 
because of the protein content being of low quality, are inefficient in dry 
lot feeding, even though an abundance of protein be supplied as in the 
form of gluten meal. 

3. Lacking in Mineral Elements. — Corn is particularly low in cal- 
cium, which comprises 40 per cent of the dry ash of bone. The young 
pregnant gilt would have to eat something like thirty pounds of corn a 
day in order to get enough calcium to supply the growing foetus. Common 
salt and calcium and potassium phosphate have been found beneficial 
when added to a corn diet. The deficiency of minerals in corn has been 
largely responsible for the widespread general use of condimental material, 
such as wood-ashes, charcoal, bone phosphate, rock phosphate, cinders, 
slaked coal and others being used in practical hog feeding. 

4. Presents an Acid Ash. — When corn is high in protein this acidity 
is especially marked. To make corn more productive this acidity should 
be counteracted. This is made possible by the judicious use of efficient 
and proper supplements. 

The most acceptable, practical supplements to corn and the other 
similar starchy grains may be briefly enumerated as follows: skimmed 
milk, buttermilk, tankage, blood meal, linseed oil meal, cottonseed meal, 
gluten meal, wheat middlings, Canada field peas, soy beans, alfalfa and 
clover hay. 



'p 
70 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

The production of pastures is an economical proposition and is to be 
encouraged on every American as well as Canadian swine farm in order 
to obviate the necessity of purchasing high-priced protein concentrates. 
The most profitable supplemental pastures in the corn belt in the order 
of merit are: alfalfa, rape, red clover, blue grass and sweet clover of the 
first year's growth. In the South cowpeas, soy beans, Spanish peanuts 
and Lespedeza clover may be added, inasmuch as these plants give excellent 
success in warm climates and on soils that are sandy and relatively unpro- 
ductive as compared to the corn belt soils of Iowa and Illinois. 

Swine feeding and dairying, along with judicious use of green forages 
in a good corn, barley or other similar grain country, is a most excellent 
swine-farming proposition. If alfalfa can be raised, so much the better. 

Preparation of Feeds. — Hard, tough, fibrous-shelled seeds such as 
Kaffir corn, sorghum, milo maize and millet will be much more efficient 
if fed in the ground condition. If grinding is impossible, soaking is the 
next best possible procedure. 

Wheat, rye and barley likewise give better results when ground, and 
can also be soaked as an alternative. Some experiments show as much 
as 20 per cent increase in the efficiency of wheat through the grinding 
as compared to feeding the grain dry and whole. 

The general herd, young pigs and sows on a maintenance ration do 
better on ear corn than any other form. However, fattening sows and 
heavy fat hogs in the final stages of fattening make more economical gains 
on the soaked shelled grain. If any preparation should be used other 
than dry ear, it should be shelled soaked corn rather than the ground 
grain dry or soaked. 

Corn-and-cob meal has little to commend it to any class of swine 
except possibly the brood sows on maintenance, and even with these the 
ear corn is the most profitable. 

Hays, such as ground alfalfa, may be ground ofttimes in order to 
facilitate their mixture with the grain rations and to encourage their 
consumption. 

Wetting and cooking of feeds is not ordinarily profitable, although 
to produce rapid gains these procedures are sometimes permissible, this 
being especially true in the production and finishing of show stock. 

Hand vs. Self-Feeding. — Better results will be secured by the self- 
feed method than by hand-feeding twice daily. However, feeding three 
times a day is the most efficient, considering rapidity of gains and economy 
in feed required for 100 pounds of gain. Under our ordinary high-priced 
labor conditions, thrice a day is not enough better to excel self-feeding. 

The " Free-Choice" scheme of feeding consists of allowing acceptable 
feeds before swine in such a manner that they can balance their own 
rations. In 1914 a group of pigs fed at the Iowa station according to 
this scheme, receiving shelled corn, linseed oil meal, oats and meat meal 
(or tankage), limestone, charcoal and salt in separate feeds, weighed 316 



SWINE 



71 



pounds when 8 months 7 days old. They did as well as if they had been 
fed according to accepted feeding standards. Tests now in progress (1915) 
at the Iowa station indicate that pigs can feed themselves better than a 
trained animal husbandman can feed them if he follows the customary 
feeding standards. 

When pigs are allowed starchy corn and high-protein meat meal 
(tankage) in separate feeders, this feed being kept before them from wean- 
ing time until they reach a weight of 300 pounds, they will eat of these 
two dry lot fed feeds approximately as follows: 



Weanling 

Shote 

Fattening hog 

Fat marketable hog 



Approximate 
Age, days. 



60 
120 
180 
240 



Approximate 
Weight, 
pounds. 



35 
100 
210 
300 



Pounds 60 Per Cent 

Protein Meat Meal 

(Tankage) Eaten 

with Every 100 

Pounds Corn. 



20 

15 

8 

1 



Pounds Protein 
Eaten with 
Every 100 
Pounds Starches. 



3.38 
3.84 
4.79 
6.50 



The self-feeding method is excellent in dry lot feeding, on pastures 
and where skim milk or buttermilk is used. 

Feed for the Brood Sows. — The brood sow should have good feed in 
order to produce strong, healthy pigs. Skim milk, tankage, alfalfa pas- 
ture, etc., combined with corn or other grains, often increase the litters 
as much as one pig over corn alone. 

To demonstrate the advantage of supplementing the starchy grain 
feeds such as corn with the proper protein supplement, the resulting average 
weight and strength of the pigs secured is given for a few typical rations: 



Ration Fed.* 


Average Weight 
per Pig, 
pounds. 


Strong Pigs, 
per cent. 


Cost of 

New-born Pigs, 

cents. 


Corn only 


1.74 
2.01 
2.23 
2.12 


68 
92 
93 

98 


41 


Corn dIus 4 per cent tankage 


18 


Corn plus 16 per cent tankage 


22 


Corn plus alfalfa in rack 


31 







These gilts were charged at the rate of 50 cents a bushel for shelled 
corn, $2.50 for meat meal and $15 a ton for the alfalfa hay; yet in spite of 
the comparative high cost of the supplements, the pigs produced were not 
only cheaper but much better pigs were secured, the animals being much 
larger and stronger than where corn only was fed. 



* Animal Husbandry Section — Iowa Experiment Station Results. 



72 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

The unborn pig must be well fed indirectly through its host the brood 
sow if a strong, vigorous, active pig carrying big bone and strong muscle 
at the time of farrow is desired. 

In general, it is well to emphasize in brood sow management: 

A. Acceptable balanced feeds in sufficient quantity. 

B. Maximum growth without excessive fattening. 

C. Abundant exercise, especially the latter two months of 

gestation. 

D. Riddance of lice and worms. 

E. Moderate laxativeness, because constipation is a menace. 

F. Gentleness in handling the herd. 

The suckling sow and litter should be fed better than any other class 
of swine. The demand for growing feeds by both the sow and pigs at 
this time is great. Such feeds as corn, barley, skim milk, buttermilk, tank- 
age, wheat middlings, alfalfa, rape, clover, blue grass and other pastures, 
and similar feeds equally as good are to be particularly commended. 

Feeding the Pigs. — From time of weaning to maturity pigs should 
have plenty of suitable forage. Nothing is better than pastures of clover, 
alfalfa, rape, etc. Here they may be given a full or limited ration, depend- 
ing on circumstances. 

If the usually better early fall markets are the goal, full-feeding will 
be in order; whereas if the later but somewhat lower markets are most 
acceptable, the grain ration can be limited. Ordinarily, it is not a paying 
proposition to feed less than three pounds of grain with every 100 pounds 
of pig daily. A lesser amount, especially if the pasture be poor, will cause 
the pigs to become stunted. 

The fall pigs which are raised in winter dry lot must be fed a relatively 
high-priced ration; in other words, one high in protein. The fall pigs 
need warm shelter, and it is best to feed them inside the shelter. They 
must be protected from the cold winds, snows, hails, and general wintry 
conditions, while the spring pig should be protected from the hot sun and 
the flies. The fall pig lives at a time when attacks from worms are at 
low ebb and are not readily passed from one host to another. 

The "hogging-down*' of corn deserves much emphasis. It is prac- 
ticed profitably in all of the corn belt states. It may be likened to dry 
lot feeding if the field is clean and free from weeds, and supplemental pro- 
tein feeds should be supplied accordingly. It is well to have an alfalfa, 
rape or similar pasture field adjoining in order to supply this protein 
at the lowest cost. 

Rape, winter rye or winter wheat in the northern corn belt may be 
sown in the corn at the last cultivation or shortly thereafter with excel- 
lent success; in the more southern districts cowpeas and soy beans 
may be included with profit. 

Successful swine rations for general American conditions, and suitable 



SWINE 



73 



for the various sizes, ages and classes of hogs are suggested in a ready 
reference table presented herewith: 



The Swine to be Fed. 



I. Growing and Fattening for Market. 

1. Suckling pigs (a creep) 5-40 pounds 

2. Weanling pigs, 30-100 pounds 

3. Shoats, 100-175 pounds 

4. Hogs, 175-250 pounds 

5. Fat Hogs, 250-350 pounds 

II. Fattening Sows for Market. 

1. Yearlings (gilts) after weaning. 

A. In poor condition, run-down . . . 

B. In good condition, thrifty 

2. Two years or older. 

A. In poor condition, run-down . . . 

B. In good condition, thrifty 

III. Stags f Fattening. 

A. Young 

B. Old 

IV. Carrying Sows, Breeding. 

1. Breeding swine, flushing. 

A. Gilts 

B. Yearlings and older 

2. During pregnancy. 

A. Gilts 

B. Yearlings and older , 

V. Suckling Sows. 

A. With large litters 

B. With small litters , 



Pounds of Tankage* (60 per cent Protein) to be 

Fed along with every 100 Pounds of Corn to 

Swine of Various Classes in 



Dry Lot. 



25 

25-18 
18-10 
10-4 

4r-l 



11-8 
9-5 

6-4 
2-0 



9-4 
5-0 



14 
11 

14r-10 

10-6 



25-18 
20-8 



Low-Protein 
Pasture.! 



25 

23-16 

16-9 

9-4 

4r-l 



11-8 

8-5 

6-4 
2-0 



9-4 
5-0 



14 
11 

10-7 
6Ht 



25-18 
20-8 



High-Protein 
Pasture. X 



20-12 

12-5 

5-2 

2-2 





5-0 


4-0 









10 

8 

0-5 
0-4 



10 
3-5 



* If corn is not available, it may be substituted pound for pound in these proportions with barley, 
wheat, rye, sorghum seed, Kaffir corn, milo maize, or feterita, or a combination of any of these. If 60 
per cent protein tankage is not available, linseed oil meal or soy bean meal may be substituted, 2 to 2\ 
times as much being used. For example, the suggested dry lot ration for growing and fattening shoats 
is "corn 100, tankage 18 to 10;" now substitute oil meal 2 times as much and we have corn 100, linseed 
oil meal 36 to 20. To substitute wheat middlings, allow 17 times as much, skim or buttermilk 20 times, 
and blood meal 60 per cent as much, or almost two-fifths less. Blood meal runs about 85 per cent protein 
and but little is required, but blood meal is not so good a supplement as tankage, everything considered. 

"f Low-Protein Pastures. — Dry, hard, fibrous blue grass: sorghum; feterita; millet; Sudan grass; 
milo maize; timothy when over four inches high; rye or wheat over eight inches; or oats and barley 
over five inches, or beginning a couple of weeks before beginning to joint; and sweet clover of second 
year's growth after two feet high. 

% High-Protein Pastures. — Alfalfa; rape, Dwarf Essex; medium red, mammoth, alsike, and white 
and other clovers; young, tender, sweet clover, first year's growth; quite early, tender, new coming 
timothy, rye or wheat; short, "shooting," tender, green, succulent blue grass, cowpeas; and soy beans. 



74 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

REFERENCES 

"Productive Swine Husbandry." Day. 

"Swine in America." Coburn. 

"Swine." Dietrich. 

"Forty Years' Experience as a Practical Hog Man." Lovejoy. 

"The Hog Booky Dawson. 

Alabama Expt. Station Bulletin 185. "Dipping Vat for Hogs and Dips;" "Hog Worms, 

Lice and Mange;" "Hog Lot, Houses and Water Supply." 
Kentucky Expt. Station Circular 4. "Mai-Nutrition of Hogs." 
Nebraska Expt. Station Bulletin 147. "Pork Production." 

Ohio Expt. Station Bulletin 268. "Fattening Swine with Substitutes for Corn." 
South Dakota Expt. Station Bulletin 157. "Rape Pasture for Pigs in Cornfield." 
Wyoming Expt. Station Bulletin 107. "Swine Feeding." 
Canadian Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin 225. "Swine." 
Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 
411. "Feeding Hogs in the South." 
438. "Hog Houses." 



CHAPTER 7 

SHEEP AHD GOATS 

By T. C. Stone 
Instructor in Animal Husbandry, Ohio State University 

Early Importance of Sheep. — There is evidence that sheep were under 
domestication in Europe in prehistoric times. The primitive man used the 
skin for clothing and the meat and milk for food. As man has advanced 
in civilization, sheep farming has become an important branch of agricul- 



A Typical Cotswold Ewe.' 

ture. Sheep and their wool were very early acknowledged to be the founda- 
tion of the national prosperity and the wealth of Great Britain and other 
European countries. The more recent introduction of silk manufactures 
and the establishment of the cotton trade have lessened the demand for 
woolen goods; still, the sheep and its fleece are of great importance. 

< Courtesy of The Field. New York City, 

75 



76 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

The Sheep of Spain. — The Spanish Merino, the only type of sheep in 
Spain, are noted for: (1) the production of a very fine wool, (2) hardiness 
and ability to travel, and (3) the disposition to stay close together when 
feeding, resting and traveling. These characteristics have had an impor- 
tant influence on their later history. 

The Sheep of England. — In England were developed several types of 
sheep, and each type or breed was adapted to a certain locality. These 
breeds were quite unlike in fleece. The wool found favor on the market 
because of its variety in length and quality, which made it adaptable to 



A Typical Lincoln Ewe. 1 

different uses. The Royal Agricultural Society of England in its show 
catalogue recognizes twenty-five breeds. These were all developed on the 
British Isles. Some were developed in the lowlands, some in the hills and 
others in the midlands. They were developed principally for meat; fresh 
meat in England, with its great population, being of greater consequence 
than wool. The various breeds were divided into four classes, namely, the 
long-wool breeds, the middle-wool breeds, the highlanders or mountain 
breeds and the upland breeds. 

Breeds of Sheep. — Two distinct types of sheep have been produced, 
namely, the mutton and wool types. The former are valued chiefly on 

i Courtesy of The Field, New York City. 



SHEEP AND GOATS 77 

account of their ability to make mutton economically, although the wool- 
producing ability of the mutton sheep constitutes no small part of their 
value to the farmer. The wool type, however, is raised mainly for the wool 
it produces. 

In conformation, the mutton sheep are compact, with a short head and 
neck, a broad, level back, a full leg of mutton, a deep body and short legs. 
The wool ranges in length from 2J inches in the middle-wools to 10 inches 
in the long-wools. The fleece does not cover the body so compactly as 
does the fleece of the fine-wool sheep. The medium-wool breeds greatly 



A Typical Shropshire. 1 

excel the long-wools in this respect. The fleece of the medium-wool breeds 
is much less fine in quality and has much less yolk or oil in it than does the 
fleece of the Merino sheep. 

LONG- WOOL BREEDS 

Leicester. — Very large sheep, wool 6 inches long at 12 months, being 
bright and lustrous; face and legs white; no wool on head. Weight of 
mature rams ranges from 225 to 250 pounds; ewes from 175 to 200 pounds. 

Cotswold. — Wool 8 inches long at 12 months ; pronounced tuft of wool 
on forehead; face and legs white. Rams weigh from 250 to 275 pounds; 
ewes from 200 to 225 pounds. 

'Courtesy of The Field. New York City. 



78 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

Lincoln. — No breed furnishes so long a fleece as the Lincoln. It 
ranges from 8 to 12 inches; tuft of wool on forehead. Bams weigh about 
385 pounds; ewes about 275 pounds. 

MEDIUM- WOOL BREEDS 
Southdown.— They are smallest of the middle-wools, very low-set and 
compact, with steel-gray or mouse-brown markings on face and legs. 
Fleece is 2£ inches long at 12 months. Earns weigh from 185 to 200 pounds ; 



A Typical Cheviot,* 

ewes from 125 to 140 pounds. Criticised for lack of wool production and 
insufficient size. Much improvement has been due to this breed. 

Shropshire. — They are stylish sheep with pronounced extension of 
wool over face and legs; color marking is a deep, soft brown. Wool 3 
inches long at 12 months. Rams weigh about 225 pounds; ewes from 140 
to 160 pounds. Rank high as a dual purpose breed. 

Oxfords. — They resemble the Shropshire, but are larger and do not 
have as great wool extension over face and legs. Lighter brown is the color 
marking, and usually are more upstanding. Wool is 4 inches long at 12 

1 Courtesy of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



SHEEP AND GOATS 79 

months. Heavier than Southdowns and Shropshire, equal to Hampshires. 
Rams weigh from 275 to 300 pounds; ewes about 175 to 200 pounds. They 
give size and weight when crossed on short-wools and quality and better 
mutton when crossed on the long-wooled breeds. 

Hampshires. — They have darker color markings than the Oxfords, 
and a very pronounced Roman nose. Wool is 2\ inches long at 12 months. 
Very early maturing sheep. 

Dorset Horn. — Have white color markings; very little wool on face 



A Typical Merino. 1 

and legs and it does not extend well over lower parts of the body. Both 
ewes and rams have horns. Wool at 12 months is 3 inches long. Weight 
of rams from 250 to 275 pounds; ewes 175 to 185 pounds. A mutton breed 
of merit; valued as early lamb raisers. 

Cheviot— They are very alert, stylish sheep with white markings. 
Face and legs are free from wool. Wool is 4 inches long. Rams weigh 
from 200 to 225 pounds; ewes from 125 to 140 pounds. It is a very hardy 
breed and individuals graze independently of each other. 

Fine-Wool or Merino Sheep. — This type is the result of efforts to 

> CourMay of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



produce a fleece of finest quality. In developing this type some breeders 
did not overlook the mutton qualities, while others did. The Spanish 
Merino was the foundation of the three classes of Merinos as they exist 
today. The three classes are A, B and C. This classification is based on 
differences in conformation, character of fleece, and number and disposition 
of wrinkles or folds on the sheep. 

The Merino blood must predominate on our western ranges because of 
the gregarious nature of this breed. They have great constitution and 
vigor and are much less susceptible to parasitic trouble than the breeds of 
the mutton type. They can be kept in smaller quarters and the ewes do 
not need as much care at lambing time as ewes of the mutton breeds. They 
are lacking greatly in mutton qualities, and there is a strong demand for 



A Typical Flock of Sheep in Pastures. 1 

the dual purpose animal. The Merino will not be supplanted, but as the 
demand for mutton becomes stronger, they will no doubt be supplemented 
very largely by the mutton breeds. 

Establishing a Flock. — Sheep may be kept profitably on either high 
or low-priced land. On the high-priced lands of England sheep are found 
in great numbers and they would certainly not be kept if they were not 
profitable. Sheep do best on slightly rolling land where dry footing pre- 
vails. They get more sustenance and at the same time do the land more 
good than any other class of livestock. The manure from sheep contains 
more fertilizing value per ton than any other kind of farm manure with 
the exception of poultry. 

ompany, N. Y. Fram "Crops and Methods for Soil Improve- 



r SHEEP AND GOATS 81 



Very little capital is needed to start a flock of sheep. They need not 
be housed in expensive buildings. Nature has fitted them to endure cold 
weather. A small flock requires very little labor, especially during the 
busy summer. These advantages, along with the fact that sheep destroy 
weeds, thereby helping to beautify the farm, make the sheep a valuable 
asset to the American farmer. These advantages are not mentioned with 
the view of urging the farmer to give up other classes of farm animals, 
but to remind him of the advantage of supplementing his stock with a 
small flock of, say, forty ewes or even less. 

Essentials to Success. — One should choose the breed best adapted 
to local conditions, especially the climate and market. There is no best 
breed for all conditions. It is best that a man gain his experience with 
grade stuff. One may purchase either Merino or mutton breeds and then 
grade them up by using a pure-bred ram. The latter is of great importance. 
A ram having a good pedigree and good individuality should be selected. 
He should be purchased from a reliable breeder and the stockman should 
not hesitate to pay a good price for a desirable ram. The ram should 
possess good breed type and be masculine. An effeminate ram should 
have no place in a flock. Masculinity is indicated by a short, broad head, 
large, broad nostrils, ruggedness in appearance and a lack of too great 
refinement throughout. Rams should have a good conformation, and 
those which have been very highly fitted should be avoided, as they often 
prove non-breeders. There are only a few instances where it would be 
permissible to use a ram lamb to head the flock. This is done more often 
in the case of the Hampshire breed than others. Older rams usually make 
the best breeders. A ram of the middle-wool breeds is sufficiently devel- 
oped and fit for service at the age of 1% years. 

Only ewes that are sound in their mouths and udders, and that possess 
feminine characteristics and good general conformation should be pur- 
chased. It must be remembered that the ewes are half the flock. 

One should not make the mistake, after establishing a flock, of allow- 
ing the sheep to care for themselves. Suitable but inexpensive shelter 
and plenty of forage should be provided and plenty of salt and water 
should be kept before them. It is necessary to be on the lookout for 
internal parasites, especially in lambs, during the summer months. 

The Breeding Season. — The breeding season of the year in this 
country commences in September or just as soon as the cool nights begin. 
The heat periods of the ewes last from one to two days and normally 
appear at intervals of 16 days. The Dorset Horn and Tunis will breed 
at any time. 

Period of Gestation. — The usual period is 146 days. Ewes, however, 
are very irregular about bringing forth their young. Shepherds in the 
old country figure on 140 days. The period of gestation is often longer 
for Rambouillets than for other breeds. 

Care of Ram During Breeding Season. — Not more than 40 ewes should 



> Courtesy of U. 8, Dept of Agriculture. "J 
(82) 



SHEEP AND GOATS 83 

be allowed to one ram. The last born lambs are often weaker than those 
born earlier in the season. This indicates that it is not advisable to 
breed the ram to too many ewes. In a large flock, the ram should be put 
with the ewes for an hour at the end of each day. In a small flock, he may 
be allowed to run with the ewes all the time. Where hand coupling is 
not practiced, one should paint the brisket between the ram's fore-leg with 
paint. Red lead and linseed oil make a desirable paint for this purpose. 
This mark will indicate that the ewes have been bred. After 16 days 
the ram may be painted another color. By this means the breeder may 
know whether the ewes are returning. The ram should be fed liberally 
during the breeding season, but not too well. A mixture of equal parts 
of oats, bran and oil-cake, say one pint, both mornings and evenings, will 
prove a good ration. 

Winter Care of Ewes. — A lamb gets its start on the right or wrong 
way before it is born. The pregnant ewes should be sufficiently fed, but 
not overfed during winter. They should be given plenty of exercise; the 
more they get, the healthier the lamb crop will be. The feeding of too 
much grain just previous to lambing time should be avoided. Bran, oats, 
oil meal and clover make an ideal ration for the breeding ewe. Silage and 
roots are good succulent feeds, but must be fed in small quantities and 
must be of good quality. 

Care of Young Lambs. — Lambs should be weaned when 3}4 to 4 
months old, and put on fresh pasture. The secret of successful and profit- 
able lamb raising is to keep them growing and in good condition from 
birth to maturity. Lambs should be given grain as soon as they can 
thoroughly digest it. In order that they may eat at will, it is necessary 
to build creeps for them. The feeds given and the amount will depend 
largely on the purpose for which they are being prepared. These being 
fitted for the market should be fed liberally with grain until they are of 
market age. Their ration may consist almost wholly of corn. A good 
grain ration for lambs just beginning to eat is ground corn, one part; 
crushed oats, one part; linseed oil meal, one part; and wheat bran, 
two parts. 

All lambs should be docked and all males intended for the open market 
should be castrated. Lambs that are not castrated often sell for at least 
$1.50 per 100 pounds less than castrated lambs. This does not take into 
consideration the loss of flesh due to activity of ram lambs. The lamb 
that is not docked gets filthy around the dock and presents a poor appear- 
ance on the market. They may be docked and castrated when about 
two weeks old. It is much more convenient to do both at the same time, 
and no evil results will follow if the operations are performed in the right 
way. 

Marketing the Lambs. — It is usually best to market the lambs at 
weaning time. This will occur about July 1st. There is great demand 
for lambs weighing from 65 to 70 pounds. They furnish a superior prod- 



84 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

uct for the consumer and make very economical gains for the producer. 
There are other reasons for marketing lambs at this time. First, lambs 
gain very little during hot summer months; second, there is risk of losing 
them through the internal parasites; third, one avoids heaviest run of 
western lambs; and lastly, one gets the use of his money earlier. 

Shearing the Flock. — Time of shearing depends on the weather, the 
season and the locality and equipment. It is advisable to shear as soon 
as warm weather begins in the spring. Late shearing is unadvisable, as 
the sheep will lose in weight if compelled to carry heavy fleeces. They 



An Angora Bock. 1 

are also liable to lose some of their wool during the later months. Well- 
fed ewes with comfortable sheds may be sheared fairly early. They will 
not suffer if the days should become a little cool. Wethers fed under 
the same conditions may often be sheared as early as March. They will 
gain faster when fleeces are removed. Care should be exercised to see 
that they do not overeat at this time. 

Both hand shearing and machine shearing are practiced. 

Dipping the Flock. — All sheep should be dipped for three reasons. 
First, to promote healthy condition of the skin; second, as a remedy for 
scabies in sheep; third, to kill the lice and ticks. 

' From Farmers' Bulletin E73, V. S. Dept. of Agrl culture. 



SHEEP AND GOATS 85 



The time for dipping depends upon the time of shearing. It is best 
to dip five or six days after shearing. The ticks and lice leave the shorn 
ewes and go to a more sheltered place on the bodies of the young lambs. 
If one delays dipping for any length of time after shearing, the lambs will 
suffer a great deal with these pests. A second dipping should take place 
during the fall. 

Any of the recommended coal tar dips may be used. In using these, 
one should see that they have the approval of the Department of Agri- 
culture and should follow the directions carefully. 

A flock thus handled will afford the owner much pleasure and profit 
for capital and labor invested. The earnings from sheep will compare 
very favorably with those of any of our domestic animals. 

GOATS 

Goats are very valuable as a renovator of brush lands. They are 
not naturally grazing animals, but rather browsers. In some states, the 
cost of clearing large tracts of land has been greatly reduced by pasturing 
with flocks of goats. 

Besides this, many goats, especially the representatives of the breeds 
of milch goats, are noted as milk producers. They have held a recognized 
place as such for a great many years among the poorer people of the world. 
In some countries varieties of goats are bred especially for their milk- 
producing qualities. 

In this country, the Angora goat and the common goats give milk, 
but milking families have not been produced. 

The Angora goat yields a fleece which is valued highly on the market. 
It is commercially known as mohair. It is coarser than fine wool, but 
longer and stronger. 

When sold on the market, goats bring a lower price than sheep. The 
mutton from goats is not considered nearly as good as mutton from sheep. 

Angora and common goats are found in almost every state in this 
country . They seem to do well under a wide range of climatic conditions. 
A dry climate, however, seems most favorable for them. 

REFERENCES 

"Sheep Farming." Craig and Marshall. 

"Sheep Farming in America." Wing. 

''Productive Sheep Husbandry." Coffey. 

"Sheep Farming." Kleinheinz. 

"Sheep Feeding and Farm Management." Doane. 

"The Winter Lamb." Miller and Wing. 

"Angora Goat Raising and Milch Goats." Thompson. 

Nebraska Expt. Station Bulletin 153. "Fattening Lambs." 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry, Bulletin 68. "Information 

Concerning the Milch Goat." 
Farmers' Bulletins. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

573. "The Angora Goat." 

676. "Breeds of Sheep for the Farm." 

652. "The Sheep Killing Dog." 



CHAPTER 3 

The Farm Flock (Poultry) 

By M. C. Kilpatrick 
Instructor in Poultry Husbandry ', Ohio State University 

Improved methods of production and the establishment of large 
specialized poultry farms have greatly increased the supply of poultry and 
eggs during recent years. The demand for these products, however, has 
been increasing even more rapidly than the supply. This increasing demand 
is due both to the rapid increase of the consuming population and to a 
growing preference for these products as food. The increase in the demand 
for eggs is especially marked, due largely to the increased price of meats 
and the fact that modern transportation facilities, storage warehouses and 
improved methods of handling eggs have resulted in a better distribution of 
the supply throughout the year and a higher standard of quality upon the 
large city markets. 

Importance of the Farm Flock. — The farm flocks of the country 
furnish 90 and possibly 95 per cent of the total supply of poultry and eggs. 
It is natural that the general farms should be the principal source of supply, 
because poultry husbandry is essentially a livestock industry, and for this 
reason, best adapted to development under farm conditions. The farm 
provides those conditions which are essential to profitable poultry produc- 
tion, viz., ample range and pasture at low cost, cheaper feeds, the oppor- 
tunity to make use of waste materials and convert them into marketable 
products, low labor cost, and of greatest importance, natural conditions 
which tend to increase rather than to decrease the health and vigor of 
the flock. 

Unf ortunately, the average farm flock falls far short of its productive 
possibilities. This is due largely to the fact that fowls are kept on the farm 
primarily for the purpose of supplying the home table with fresh meat and 
eggs and have not been regarded as an important source of income. This 
has resulted in flocks of small size and poor quality, inadequate equipment 
and a general indifference toward poultry on the farm. The increasing 
demand for poultry and eggs, and the general increase in the farm price 
of these products have resulted in making the farm flock of good size and 
quality, and properly equipped and handled, an important source of 
income. In addition it performs its primary function in supplying poultry 
and eggs for the home table. 

The Size of the Farm Flock. — The size of the farm flock is an important 
factor in determining whether poultry is to be a profitable farm enterprise 

(86) 



THE FARM FLOCK (POULTRY) « 

or not. The optimum size of the flock for a particular farm depends upon 
a number of conditions. These conditions are so variable that it is impos- 
sible to set a definite standard which will be applicable to all farms. It is 
evident, however, that the flock should number at least 100 fowls, and, 
except under very favorable circumstances, should seldom exceed 500 
fowls. As many fowls should be kept as possible without allowing the 
poultry work to come in direct competition with more important farm enter- 
prises. For the average farm, this will mean a flock of 300 to 500 fowls. 
Sources of Income. — The principal sources of income from the farm 
flock are poultry and eggs for market. The production. of eggs for market 
is the more important because of the relatively greater demand for them 
and the greater convenience with which they may be produced and mar- 



A Typical Fabm Flock. 

keted. It is impossible to separate the two and, under some conditions, the 
production of market poultry may become the more important. Other 
possible sources of income are the sale of eggs for hatching, fowls for breeding 
purposes, day-old chicks, and the production and sale of pullets for egg 
production. The relative importance of each of these sources of income and 
the extent to which they may be combined will be determined by the 
personality of the poultryman and the organization of the farm business. 
Advantages of Pure-Bred Poultry. — A second factor of greater impor- 
tance in determining the value of the farm flock is the quality of the fowls. 
Pure-bred poultry is superior to mongrel, cross-bred or grade fowls because 
of greater reliability in breeding, more attractive appearance, ability to 
feed more efficiently, greater uniformity in the size, shape and color of the 
eggs, and greater uniformity in the appearance and condition of the 
dressed fowls. The first cost of pure-bred fowls is greater than of inferior 
stock, but no greater investment is needed. The best practice in starting 



White Plymouth Rocks. 1 



Bdjt Orpingtons. 1 

First Prize Exhibition Pen, Madison Square Garden, N. Y., December 31, 1915- 

January 5, 1916. 



if Owen Farms, Vineyard Haven, Man., Maurice F. Dolano, Proprietor. 



THE FARM FLOCK (POULTRY) 89 

a flock of ptire-bred fowls is to purchase a pen consisting of a male and four 
to ten females. These should be housed apart from the main flock and all 
of the good eggs laid during the breeding season should be incubated. Pure- 
bred fowls of good quality may be purchased in the late summer or early 
fall for $3 to $5 each for males and $2 to $4 each for females. Yearlings or 
two-year-old stock should be bought. After the pure-bred flock has been 
established, the many advantages of the pure-bred fowls are obtained 
without additional cost. 

Grading Up a Farm Flock. — While pure-bred poultry are always to be 
preferred, it is possible to improve the quality of the average farm flock 
by the use of a pure-bred male. If a pure-bred male of the desired variety 
is mated with ten or twelve of the best hens on the farm, the offspring will 
carry one-half the blood of their sire. If the male is a strong, prepotent 
individual, a large percentage of the offspring will resemble him in many of 
his characteristics. Ten or a dozen of the best pullets resulting from the 
original mating should be selected and mated to their sire for the second 
season. The offspring from this mating will carry 75 per cent of the blood 
of the pure-bred male. For the third season, ten or a dozen of the best 
of these pullets should be mated to another pure-bred male of the same 
variety and of similar breeding. It is advisable to obtain the second male 
from the same breeder as the first one. If the fowls used have been care- 
fully selected, the offspring from this third mating will be practically as 
uniform in size, shape and color as pure-bred fowls. 

The Choice of a Variety. — The choice of a variety for the farm depends 
upon the purpose for which poultry is kept and the type of product most 
in demand in the best available market. The efficiency of the various 
varieties depends more upon the breeding and handling of the fowls than 
upon breed or variety differences. 

The most popular fowl for the production of white eggs is the Single 
Comb White Leghorn. It is not a good market fowl, however, because 
of its small size, nervous temperament, and greater loss in dressing. The 
cockerels make good broilers at weights of 1J^ to 13^ pounds, but do not 
make good roasters or capons. 

The Plymouth Rocks, Rhode Island Reds and Wyandottes are the 
most satisfactory breeds for the production of both eggs and meat. The 
solid-colored varieties of the Plymouth Rock and Wyandotte, particularly 
the white and buff, are preferable on account of the absence of dark- 
colored pin feathers. The Columbian varieties are rapidly increasing in 
popularity. The most popular farm fowl in the past has been the Barred 
Plymouth Rock. It is slowly being replaced by some of the newer vari- 
eties. The three breeds mentioned are good layers, hardy, easily handled; 
the chicks grow rapidly, making them well adapted to the production of 
broilers. They make superior roasters and capons. Where the market 
prefers brown eggs or will not pay a premium for white eggs, one of the 
many varieties of these three breeds should be chosen. 



White Wtandottko. 1 
First Prize Pen, Chicago Show, December, 1912. 



Single Comb Rhode Island Reds. 1 
First Prize Young Pen at Boston Show, January, 1915. 



THE FARM FLOCK (POULTRY) 91 

Selection of the Breeding Stock. — It is seldom necessary and never 
desirable to use all of the fowls on the farm for breeding. Special matings 
are necessary each season in order to make any definite improvement in 
the quality of the flock. It is seldom necessary to use more than 20 per 
cent of the entire flock for breeding. The fowls used for this purpose 
should be the choicest on the farm. They should be strong, healthy and 
vigorous, above the average in size for the variety, good layers and fully 
matured. Hens are always preferable to pullets, because the eggs from 
hens are larger, hatch better and produce larger and more vigorous chicks. 
Strong, vigorous, early-hatched cockerels may be used, but yearling or 
two-year-old cocks of proven breeding ability are to be preferred. Care 
should be taken to avoid using for breeding purposes any fowl which has 
had any sickness at any time, no matter how well it may appear to "have 
recovered. 

Housing the Breeding Stock. — It is not necessary to house the breed- 
ing flock separately during the entire year. The fowls to be used for 
breeding should be separated from the main flock three or four weeks 
before it is necessary to save eggs for hatching. They should be housed 
in portable colony houses during the breeding season, and may be returned 
to the main flock as soon as the last eggs needed for hatching are gathered. 
The colony houses may then be used for the growing chicks or for some 
other purpose. 

INCUBATION 

Selection of Eggs for Hatching. — Eggs for hatching should weigh not 
less than two nor more than two and one-half ounces each. They should 
be of a medium type, neither very long and pointed nor very short and 
rounded. The shells should be clean, smooth and strong, free from ridges, 
cracks, transparent spots or lime deposits. The eggs selected should be 
as uniform in color as possible. Dead chalk-white or uniform brown eggs 
are to be preferred. Careful selection of the eggs to be incubated will aid 
greatly in improving the general quality of the eggs produced by the flock. 

Care of Eggs for Hatching. — Eggs for hatching should be gathered 
frequently, two or three times daily, and immediately removed to a clean, 
dry place where the temperature is less than 68° F. A temperature of 
50° to 60° F. is best. Eggs for hatching should not be held longer than 
two weeks, as there is a rapid loss of vitality after that time. They should 
not be washed. Eggs hatch better if they are turned once daily from the 
time they are laid until set. 

Natural or Artificial Incubation. — Whether hens or incubators should 
be used depends upon local conditions. If chicks are wanted before 
April 1st, or if non-setting varieties are kept, or if more than 150 chicks are 
to be reared each season, incubators should be used. There is no apparent 
difference between the vigor and vitality of hen-hatched and incubator- 
hatched chicks. 

Hatching with Hens. — Hens of medium weight, from five to seven 



92 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

pounds, arid of quiet disposition should be selected. They should be 
kept where they will be comfortable, easily controlled and free from 
annoyance by other fowls. A small brood coop is advisable for each hen 
during warm weather. These coops may be placed in a cool, shady location 
and the nest made upon the ground, a bottomless box about five inches high 
being used to confine the nesting material. During cool weather, a com- 
fortable room should be provided. The nests used should be approximately 
14 inches square. They should be constructed so that each hen may be 
confined to her own nest. In this way a number of hens may be set in 
the same room, all being released for food and water at the same time. 
It is necessary to see that each hen returns to her nest as soon as through 
feeding. Several hens should be set at the same time. This will save 
labor and allow the chicks hatched by two or three hens to be given to 
one for brooding. Hens should be removed from their regular nests to 
the nests in which they are to be set after dark. If handled quietly and 
given a few decoy eggs they may usually be moved without difficulty. 
The hen should be allowed to become accustomed to her new surroundings 
before setting her. This usually requires two to three days. 

Setting hens must be kept free from lice and mites. The nest box 
and the walls of the coop or room should be painted or sprayed with a 
good lice killer a few days before the hens are set. The hen should be 
well dusted with a good insect powder two or three days before the eggs 
are placed under her and again two or three days before the chicks hatch. 

The feed for setting hens should consist of hard grains. No wet or 
dry mashes should be given. A constant supply of fresh water, grit and 
shell should be provided. 

One hen should not be given more than twelve eggs during cold 
weather or more than fifteen during warm weather. 

Should any eggs become broken in the nest, the nesting material 
should be renewed and all badly soiled eggs washed in water at a tem- 
perature of 90° F. 

Hatching with Incubators. — There should be no difficulty in hatching 
chicks with incubators if a good machine and good eggs are used. Different 
types of incubators require different care. Each manufacturer has com- 
piled a set of directions for the operation of his incubator under average 
conditions. These directions should be carefully followed and an exact 
record kept of the operation of the machine throughout the hatch. If 
results are not satisfactory, variations should be made in the operation 
of the incubator during the following hatch as the judgment of the operator 
indicates. Poor hatches are more often due to poor eggs than to any 
failure on the part of the incubator. 

BROODING 

Importance of the Brooder. — The greater part of the mortality among 
young chicks occurs during the first four to six weeks. The losses during 



THE FARM FLOCK (POULTRY) 93 

this period are very great, careful observers placing the total mortality 
as high as 40 to 50 per cent of all chicks hatched. The greater part of 
this loss is due directly or indirectly to poor brooding. In order to reduce 
the mortality among chicks to a minimum , good brooders must be 
used. 

Qualifications of a Good Brooder. — A good brooder for farm use should. 
be capable of maintaining a temperature of 90° to 100° F. under the hover 
and a temperature of 70° to 85° F. outside of the hover. The chicks should 
be allowed to choose the temperature in which they are most comfortable, 
and should not be com- 
pelled to submit to any 
given temperature. 

The brooder must 
be well ventilated, pro- 
viding an abundant sup- 
ply of pure, fresh air 
without drafts striking 
the chicks. Fresh air is 
as essential for growing 
chicks as good food and 
water. A two-compart- 
ment brooder is advis- 
able, as it permits of 
feeding the young chicks 
in fairly cool, fresh air 
and they are not re- 
quired to pass directly 
from the warm hover , 
into the outside atmos- 
phere. 

The brooder for 
farm use should be por- 
table. Chickens should A Bhooder Heated by Oil Lamp.* 
not be reared on the 

same ground year after year. The most satisfactory results will be 
obtained by rearing them in the orchard, in the cornfield after the last 
cultivation, or on the hay and grain fields after the crops are harvested, 
moving the brooders from place to place frequently. If handled in this 
manner, the chicks will make use of a large amount of waste material and 
will be more healthy and vigorous and make more rapid growth than 
if confined to small yards. 

The brooder should be usable for some purpose during the entire 
year. Any brooder which can be used only for brooding chickens is 
unsatisfactory for farm use. It should be capable of housing the chicks 

■Courtesy of JJnixiv 8 fate Incubator Company. Homer City, Pa. 



*± SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



from the time they are hatched until fully matured, and should be readily 
convertible into a breeding house or fattening pen. 

The brooding device which best meets these requirements is a portable 
colony house 6 by 8 feet to 8 by 15 feet in size, equipped with portable 
hovers, gasoline brooder heater or a coal-burning brooder stove. 

Management of the Brooder. — During the first two weeks a tem- 
perature above 90° and below 100° F. should be maintained two inches 
above the floor in the warmest part of the brooder, that is, beneath the 
hover. After the second week the temperature should be gradually 
reduced, the exact temperature to be maintained being determined from 
the actions of the chicks. If the temperature is right, the chicks when 
at rest will be spread out around the outer edge of the hover. Any evidence 
of crowding is an indication of a lack of heat. If the temperature under 
the hover is kept a degree or two higher than the chicks actually need, 
there will be very little crowding. 

The brooder must be kept absolutely clean at all times. The floor 
should be covered to a depth of several inches with clean, dry litter, such 
as short-cut clover, alfalfa, straw or chaff. The Utter should be removed 
whenever it becomes damp, dusty or soiled/ 

Ration for Chicks. — A good ration for chicks consists of a grain mix- 
ture of 30 pounds finely cracked corn, 20 pounds cracked wheat and 
10 pounds pin-head or cracked hulled oats. With this should be fed a 
mash consisting of 30 pounds wheat bran, 30 pounds tyheat middlings, 
30 pounds corn meal, 20 pounds fine beef scrap or granulated milk and 
10 pounds of bone meal. This ration should be supplemented by a liberal 
supply of succulent food such as alfalfa, clover, sprouted oats or beets. 
Fine grit, finely crushed oyster shell, charcoal and clean fresh water should 
be before the chicks at all times. If skim milk is available, the chicks 
should have all they will consume. 

The grain should be scattered in the litter on the floor of the brooder 
in order to induce the chicks to exercise. Grain should be fed early in 
in the morning, at noon and later in the afternoon. As much should be 
fed as the chicks will clean up from one feeding time to the next. If any 
considerable amount remains in the litter, a feed should be omitted and 
the amount reduced. No definite information can be given as to the 
exact amount to feed, as the needs of the chicks vary from day to day. 
The poultryman must study the appetite and actions of the flock in order 
to feed intelligently. 

The mash should be fed dry. Shallow pans may be used for feeding 
the mash while the chicks are small. Small feeding hoppers should be 
used as soon as the chicks are large enough to feed from them. Chicks 
should never be without the dry mash. 

This method of feeding should be continued until the chicks are large 
enough to do without artificial heating or are weaned from the hen, with 
the exception that the cracked wheat should be gradually replaced by 



THE FARM FLOCK (POULTRY) 95 

whole wheat, and the finely cracked corn by the coarse cracked corn, 
when the chicks are six to eight weeks old. After the chicks have free 
range, the grain mixture may be changed to equal parts of cracked corn 
and whole wheat. The same dry mash should be continued until the 
chicks are mature. The grain may also be fed in hoppers after this time. 
The Care of Growing Chicks. — The age at which chicks may be 
deprived of artificial heat will depend upon weather conditions and the 
condition of the chicks. This should not be done until all danger of sudden 
changes in temperature is past and the chicks are well feathered out. 
During the brooding period the brooders may be kept close to the farm- 
stead and small, portable runs provided for the chicks. As the chicks 
increase in size, the brooder should be moved farther away and the size 
of the yards increased. As soon as the chicks no longer require artificial 
heat they should be given free range. They must have plenty of shade, 
abundant pasture, be kept free from lice and mites and protected from 
their natural enemies. The brooder should be proof against rats, weasels, 
etc., and should be closed every night. The chicks should be confined to 
the house in the morning until the grass is well dried off. This practice 
should be followed at least until they are half grown. The cockerels should 
be separated from the pullets as soon as the sex can be determined. It is 
advisable to caponize all males except a few of the most promising to be 
reserved for breeding purposes. The pullets will be hindered in their 
development if the cockerels are allowed to remain with them. The 
cockerels, if not caponized, should be put together in a separate field or 
on another part of the farm. 

The Care of the Pullets. — The pullets should be transferred from 
the colony house on the range to their permanent winter quarters as soon 
after # the first of September as possible. This will give them an opportunity 
to become accustomed to their new surroundings before cold weather sets 
in. Careful attention must be given the pullets at this time. There is 
usually a tendency for them to crowd on the roosts at night or to roost 
above the open doors and windows. This should be prevented, as it may 
result in colds which will hinder egg production. The bulk of the eggs 
received from October 1st to March 1st are produced by the pullets. 

Feeding Mature Fowls. — The principal object in feeding should be 
to use the poultry on the farm for the purpose of converting grains, mill 
by-products and waste materials not suitable for human consumption 
in their raw state into concentrated, easily handled, nutritious food 
products. For this reason the farmer should make use of grains grown 
on his own farm and of mill products which are easily obtained at com- 
paratively low prices, supplementing them with the necessary protein 
concentrates. 

Suitable rations may be made from a great many combinations of 
grains and mill feeds. There is no one combination which is superior to 
all others under all conditions. For this reason it is possible for the farmer 



96 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

to adjust any suggested ration to meet his own conditions without seriously 
impairing its efficiency. 

The ration should contain in proper proportions the various food 
elements required by the fowl. It should be easily digested and assimilated, 
palatable, economical, suitable for its intended purpose, easily obtained, 
easily handled and conveniently fed. It should be a two-part ration 
consisting of a grain mixture of scratch feed and a mash. It is not possible 
to obtain a maximum of production with either grain or mash alone. 
They should be fed in combination with grain constituting approximately 
two-thirds of the ration. 

The following ration and method of feeding is particularly adapted 
to farm conditions. The ration as given is based on feeds at normal 
prices and may be varied with a variation in the price of any feed. The 
grain mixture consists of 200 pounds corn, preferably cracked, 200 pounds 
wheat, and 100 pounds heavy oats. If buckwheat is available, 100 pounds 
may be added during cold weather. The mash consists of 200 pounds 
corn meal, 100 pounds wheat bran, 100 pounds wheat middlings and 
100 pounds of beef scrap containing not less than 55 per cent protein. 

The grain should be fed by hand, being scattered in clean litter six 
to twelve inches deep. The grain should be fed at least twice daily, prefer- 
ably early in the morning and late in the afternoon. If it is necessary 
to keep the fowls confined to the house, it is advisable to give additional 
light feeds in the middle of the forenoon and in the middle of the afternoon 
in order to keep the fowls busy. 

The amount to be fed will vary with the variety, the weather condi- 
tions, the egg production and various other factors. It should be deter- 
mined by the actions and appetites of the fowls. They should be well 
fed. Endeavor should be made to regulate the feeding so that they will 
consume approximately twice as much grain as mash. Fowls of medium 
size when in full lay will consume from 2 to 2J^ ounces of grain daily. 

The mash should be fed dry. Self-feeding hoppers should be used. 
For Leghorns and similar varieties and for pullets of the dual purpose 
varieties, such as Plymouth Rocks, Wyandottes, etc., the hopper should 
be open during the entire day. For yearlings and older hens of the dual 
purpose varieties, the hopper should be opened at noon and closed when 
the evening feed is given. 

This ration should be supplemented by a constant supply of clean, 
fresh water, grit and oyster shell. Sour skim milk should be fed as a 
drink if it is available, allowing the fowls to consume all they will. Succu- 
lent feed of some sort is necessary. During the late fall and winter, 
mangels, sprouted oats, unsalable cabbage, beets, apples, potatoes, 
steamed clover or alfalfa, or any other succulent food available may be 
used. The yards should furnish all the green feed required during the 
spring and summer. 

The Care of Market Eggs. — The quality of market eggs is determined 



THE FARM FLOCK (POULTRY) 97 

by their size, shape, appearance and freshness or interior quality. AH of 
these factors may be controlled by the poultryman to a considerable 
degree through breeding and the care with which the eggs are handled, 
Improvement of the quality of the eggs produced is fully as important 
from a financial point of view as increased production. If the following 
suggestions are observed, there should be no difficulty in producing eggs of a 
quality that will meet the requirements of the best grades in any market. 

Breed only from hens which lay eggs of the desired size, shape and 
color. 

Provide for at least one clean, convenient, well-ventilated nest for 
every four or five hens in the flock. 

Renew the nesting material whenever it becomes damp, dusty or 
soiled. Planer shav- 
ings make excellent 
material for nests, but 
soft hay and clean 
straw may be used. 

Gather eggs at 
least twice daily and 
more often if conve- 
nient. This is par- 
ticularly important 
during cold weather 
to avoid freezing, and 
during warm weather 
to avoid the develop- 
ment of the embryo 
and to retard evap- 
oration. Shipping Cases for Eggs.' 

From the time 
eggs are gathered until marketed, keep them in a clean, cool, dry place. 
Fertile eggs will begin to develop at any temperature over 68° F. 

Do not put eggs into a box, basket, carton or case until all the animal 
heat has escaped. When gathered, place them on a wire tray similar 
to an incubator tray for ten to twelve hours and then grade and pack 
them in standard cartons or cases. 

Market eggs at least once weekly and more often if possible. Nothing 
is ever gained by holding eggs for a rise in price. The egg is a perishable 
food product and should be marketed as soon as possible in order to avoid 
deterioration and loss. 

Market eggs in standard egg packages. The standard thirty-dozen 
egg case is preferred. If production is not great enough to enable a case 
or two of graded eggs to be shipped weekly, use the smaller, returnable 
cases which may be secured from any dealer in poultry supplies. 

> Courteey of Missouri State Poultry Experiment Station, Mt. Qrove. Ma. 



98 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

When eggs are being transported from the farm to the market or 
shipping point, they should be protected from the rays of the sun. 

Do not wash eggs. The washing of eggs greatly impairs their keeping 
qualities and spoils their appearance. Market eggs should never be allowed 
to become wet. Moisture dissolves the protective bloom or covering of 
the shell, opens the pores and allows bacteria and moulds to enter. Avoid 
the necessity for washing by providing sufficient nests and keeping the 
house and yards clean. 

Remove all males from the flock as soon as the hatching season is 
over and keep them away from the hens during the warm weather. The 
male has no influence on the number of eggs produced. His only function 
and use on the farm is to fertilize the eggs to be used for hatching. Fertile 
eggs spoil very quickly during warm weather. Approximately 18 per cent 
of all eggs produced upon farms become unfit for food before reaching 
the consumer. At least half of this loss could be avoided if only infertile 
eggs were produced. 

REFERENCES 

"Productive Poultry Husbandry." Lewis. 

"Turkeys." Reliable Poultry Journal Co. 

"Principles and Practices of Poultry Culture." Robinson. 

"How to Keep Hens for Profit." Valentine. 

"The Beginner in Poultry." Valentine. 

"Farm Poultry." Watson. 

"Races of Domestic Poultry." Brown. 

"Poultry Production." Lippincott. 

"Poultry Breeding." Purvis. 

"Our Domestic Birds." Robinson. 

North Carolina Expt. Station Bulletin 233. "Common Diseases of Poultry." 

Ohio Expt. Station Bulletin 284. "Rations for Roosters and Capons." 

Purdue Expt. Station Bulletin 182. "Poultry Investigations." 

West Virginia Expt. Station Bulletin 102. 

Canadian Dept. of Agriculture Bulletins: 

189. "Farm Poultry." 

193. " Tuberculosis in Fowls." 

217. "Farm Poultry." 
Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

309. "Incubation of Eggs:" "Causes of Young Chicks' Death:" "Snow for 
Chicks." 

317. "Water Pans and Catching Hook for Poultry." 

357. "Methods of Poultry Management at Maine Station." 

452. "Capons and Caponizing." 

528. "Hints to Poultry Raisers." 

530. "Important Poultry Diseases." 

585. "Natural and Artificial Incubation of Hen's Eggs." 

624. "Natural and Artificial Brooding of Chicks." 

656. "The Community Egg Circle." 

682. "A Simple Trap Nest for Poultry." 



CHAPTER 9 

Bees 

Many farmers are unaware of the great service rendered them by the 
honey bee; especially in horticulture and vegetable raising is he a necessary 
asset. Estimates from reliable data show that bees in the United States 
produce $25,000,000 worth of honey and beeswax annually. Their value 
as agents in the pollinization of fruits and vegetables is many times their 
worth as producers. Many small fruits are entirely dependent upon 
insect visitors for fertilization. Cucumbers, squash, melons and tomatoes 
are also dependent upon the bees for the production of fruit. [_Pear trees 
especially need the bees for cross-pollinization. 

Aside from the service rendered as pollinators, bees, if properly 
handled, make a most profitable side line in the business of farming. 
While they need intelligent care, and care at the proper time, yet much of 
this can be given at odd hours and at times when the regular farm work 
is not pressing. Even the time of swarming can be anticipated and to some 
extent regulated. 

Bee keeping furnishes a most pleasant recreation and one that pays 
its own way as well as produces a profit. There is so much of marvel in 
the economy of the honey bee that the most casual observer becomes an 
enthusiast. 

One disadvantage may be mentioned, however. Many orchard and 
garden diseases are easily spread by means of spores carried by insects. 
The bee plays no small part in the distribution of plant contagion. Pear- 
tree blight, the brown rot of plums and the wilt of cucumbers and melons 
are diseases spread through the agency of bees and other insects. The 
danger of infection may be reduced to the minimum by exterminating all 
diseased plants and trees; thus giving the bees no opportunity to carry 
contagion. 

Breeds of Bees. — The German bee is the most common in the United 
States. Although not very attractive in color, being black, they winter 
well and make whiter honey combs than any other race. At times they are 
inclined to be cross and frequently use their stings. They are not easily 
handled by the novice. 

The Cyprian bees are handsome, being yellow in color, but have not 
come into wide popularity on account of their extreme sensitiveness. 
When once aroused, they will not even be subdued by smoke. 

The Carolina bee is one of the most gentle of all bees. It is gray in 
color and very prolific. The chief objection to this bee is its ever-ready 
tendency to swarm. 

99 



100 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

The Caucasian bee has only recently been introduced into this country 
and has not yet established wide popularity. It is prolific and so gentle 
that some report it to be without sting. This, however, is not the case. 

The Italian bee is the most satisfactory and profitable. It is more 
gentle than either the German or Cyprian, and quite prolific. It is hand- 
some in color, having yellow bands, and is an energetic worker in gathering 
honey. It is also most active in defence of its home against marauders. 
In order to winter well, the Italian bee must be well protected. 

Personnel and Activity of Colony. — A bee colony consists ordinarily 
of one queen bee, who is the mother of the colony, and a multitude of 
females (sexually undeveloped), who carry on the work of the hive. The 



Tbe Homer Bee.' 
A — Wo'rker. B — Queen. C — Drone. Twice natural size. 

queen bee lays all the eggs. The female workers lay no eggs at all. It is 
their duty to gather honey, feed the young, keep the hive clean; in fact, 
perform all the labors of the hive. 

_ During some parts of the year, hundreds of males, commonly called 
drones, live in the colony. These perform no labor. Their mission is to 
mate with the young queens. Their number should be restricted by the 
keeper. 

The bee hive permits of no idlers after the young queens are mated. 
The drones are then destroyed by the workers. Even the queen bee is 
killed or superseded by a younger queen as soon as she lays no more eggs. 
In fact, any individual in the colony who ceases to be useful is immediately 
put to death or thrown out to perish. 

The length of life of any bee depends much upon the time of year and 
amount of labor performed. In summer, which is the working season, a 
worker bee will live about 45 days. During the winter months, while 

1 Courts 3j of U. 3, Dept. of Agriculture. Farmers' Bulletin 147. 



BEES i ; :■ :■;■. , .■ ,-•-:;- 101 

dormant, time of life will extend from 6 J to\8: months, ; •!*„»- thereforei 
necessary to maintain a strong, prolific queen -in -order-* tcC tepqpt&ite the 
colony. 

Size and Location of Apiary. — Authorities agree that for the most 
intensive bee culture, 100 colonies are all that can be managed with profit. 

The beginner will do well to start with a colony or two and gradually 
build up as he becomes more familiar with the work. A year or two will 
prove his success or failure. While the necessary initial capital is small, 



General View or an Apiary. 1 

still a plunge into the bee business without previous experience and a 
thorough knowledge of bee habits is very apt to end in disaster. 

The ideal location for an apiary is in an orchard or near fields where 
bloom is plenty; although colonies have been successfully maintained in 
city back yards and even on housetops. 

Although bees travel a distance of two miles in search of nectar, it is 
best to provide for it nearer home. The time wasted in transit is negative, 
as the bee flies very rapidly; but if far from home, sudden rain or wind 
storms bewilder the bees and cause loss of life. In rainy or cold weather, 
bees do not travel far from the hive. Should the nectar be far afield, con- 
tinued unfavorable weather necessarily decreases their activity. 

The hives should be placed a few feet apart so that in working with 

'Courtayof U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. FiuineiV Bulletin 447. 



102 



SUC£E$SFUL FARMING 

• • • •• • • • 




one, the adj$ce«t.hivc is &ot.disfeirbed. They should be far enough away 
from roectsrte .wfelks acf a? not *to annoy passersby. 

In the North, hives should be placed on a sunny slope, facing away 
from the prevailing winds. Some shade is desirable, but the hives should 

be so placed as to catch the 
morning sun. This encourages 
bee activity early in the day, 
thus gathering the best of the 
nectar. 

The colony must be located 
in a dry place and kept free from 
weeds, each hive being raised a 
few inches from the ground by 
means of a stand. These stands 
may be of wood, stone or con- 
crete, and serve to keep the 
hive dry. 

Shade and Ventilation. — A 
reasonable amount of shade is 
beneficial, although dense shading 
of the apiary is disastrous. It 
promotes dampness and encour- 
ages disease. If a natural shade 
is not possible, a temporary 
shade of boards or canvas should 
be used during the heated por- 
tions of the day. Newly swarmed 
hives should be kept well shaded 
and cool. Temperature influ- 
ences the swarming habit; a 
colony subjected to the burning 
rays of the sun will swarm much 
sooner than one well shaded. 

Roomy, well-ventilated hives 
are necessary for comfort and 
health. During warm weather, 
ventilation is improved by 
raising the front of the hive 
two or three inches by supporting it upon small blocks of wood. Care 
must be taken, however, to lower the hive in case of a change in 
temperature. Most authorities do not approve of opening the upper 
part of the hive. It is apt to cause a draft through the hive, and also 
encourage robber bees. A wide entrance at the bottom is much preferred 
for ventilation purposes. 

1 Courtesy of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Farmers' Bulletin 503. 




A Modern Bee Hive. 1 



BEES 103 

Stocking the Apiary. — Bees may be secured more easily at swarming 
time and the colonies are apt to be stronger at that time. Usually the 
purchaser provides a hive into which the apiarist puts the new swarm. 
This may be moved at night and, if taken a distance of a mile or more, 
there is no danger of the bees returning. A good strong colony purchased 
at this time will yield a second swarm if the season is favorable. 

Introducing a New Queen. — The prosperity of the colony depends 
much upon the strength of the queen. Bees from a strong queen winter 
better than those from a weak one, and are more prolific in spring. If the 
queen becomes weakened, it is best not to wait until the workers destroy 
her, but to make away with her and introduce a new one at once. Queens 
may be purchased from any dealer in bee-queens. They are sent through 
the mail in a small cage, accompanied by a few workers. 

Many methods of introducing a new queen are used, but if the queen 
is a valuable one, it is best to use a perfectly safe method. Remove the 
old queen in the evening. In the morning lay the cage containing the 
new queen and attendants, wire side down, on the frames under the quilt. 
Close the hive and leave it alone. In a short time the bees will have 
eaten their way into the cage and released the queen. The wait over 
night is necessary on account of the excited condition of the bees when 
their queen is removed. This excitement might cause them to destroy 
the new queen. Queens introduced in this manner are generally at work 
in two or three days laying eggs. 

Some introduce by first blowing tobacco smoke down the hive to 
drive the bees down, then: release the queen and allow her to run down 
between the combs, blowing a little smoke after her. This not only obscures 
all strange odors about the queen, but stupefies the bees. 

Introducing a queen makes the opportunity to change breeds of 
bees, as the new queen is usually mated when purchased. Queens are 
sold under one of three labels: tested queens that are mated with a 
drone whose race is known; untested queens mated with an unknown 
drone; and breeding queens, those that have shown superiority for breed- 
ing purposes before leaving their home. The bees in the colony have no 
influence on the progeny of the new queen already mated. By the time 
the new brood hatches out, the old ones begin to die, and soon the race 
is changed. 

Uniting and Transferring Colonies. — It often becomes advisable to 
unite two weak colonies, making one strong one. Some fundamental 
facts about bees must be understood in order to make this a success. 
Every colony has a distinct odor and resents bees from other colonies. 
It is necessary, therefore, to obscure this odor by using smoke. Smoke 
also stupefies the bees and renders them more docile. Both colonies 
should be smoked, but care should be taken not to use too much smoke, 
or the bees will be completely overcome. One queen should be destroyed; 
the one saved should be caged for a day or so to prevent the bees killing 



104 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

I 

her. At swarming time when the bees are full of honey, it is a simple 
matter to unite colonies. If the two colonies are not near each other, 
one should be moved nearer the other, a few feet each day, that the bees 
may not notice the changed location. When side by side the change can 
be made without difficulty. 

Transferring a colony from a box hive to one with movable frames 
often becomes necessary. This should be done during the honey season 
and while the larger number of bees are in the field. The two hives should 
be adjacent. The new hive should contain combs or sheets of foundations. 
Turn the box hive upside down and fit over it a small empty box, inverted. 
Then drum on the hive until most of the bees desert their combs and go 
into the empty box above. These may be carried to the new hive and 
put at the entrance. Care must be taken to secure the queen, as the 
bees will not remain without her. If there is brood in the old hive, turn 
it right side up again and after twenty-one days this will be hatched out. 
These bees may then be gathered in the same manner and, by smoking 
both colonies, reunited in the new hive. 

General Methods of Handling. — Certain general rules will apply 
at all times in handling bees. 

Hives should never be jarred or disturbed more than necessary. 
Rapid movements should be avoided. Bees have a peculiar eye structure 
which enables them to see movements more readily than objects. Quick 
movements irritate them, causing them to sting. Stings are not only 
painful, but the odor of the poison irritates the other bees, thus making 
them difficult to manage. The novice should wear a veil over a broad hat, 
and use a good smoker. A few puffs are sufficient to subdue the bees. 
Gloves generally prove a nuisance, but rubber bands on the arms prevent 
the bees crawling up inside the sleeves. Black clothing is particularly 
objectionable to bees. Do not handle bees at night or on cold, wet days, 
unless absolutely necessary. The middle of the day, particularly during 
the honey season, is the best time to manipulate bees. Always stand to 
the side or back of the hive, never in front of the entrance. In handling 
frames, care should be taken not to let the bees drop off on to the ground. 

Swarming. — Swarming is the exit of the original queen with part 
of her workers to seek a new home. In this manner, new colonies are 
formed. An abundant supply of honey and a crowded condition of the 
hive are the immediate causes of swarming. Swarming may occur in 
May, but is more apt to occur during July and August, or when the honey 
flow is at its best. 

The only outward indication preceding swarming is a partial cessation 
of field work and the loafing of many bees about the entrance, as if waiting 
for some signal. Suddenly the bees all rush forth, accompanied by the 
old queen, and after circling about for a time, cluster on a nearby limb. 
This is the critical time for the bee keeper. If he has made no previous 
preparation to house his departing swarm, he may lose them altogether. 



BEES 103 

A wise keeper will have clean hives in readiness. These should be 
kept in a shady place, so as to be cool as possible for the incoming swarm. 
Newlj swarmed colonies will not remain in overheated hives. For this 
reason the hive should be kept well shaded and well ventilated for several 
days after the swarm goes into it. Some recommend giving a frame of 
brood to the newcomers, as bees are less apt to desert this. 

Bees rarely fail to cluster after swarming. If they light on a limb 
that can be spared, it may be sawed off and the bees carried to the new 
hive. If this is not practical, the bees may be shaken off into a basket 
or box and taken to the hive. A box with a long handle is useful for swarms 
on high limbs. It is not necessary to secure all the bees. If the queen 
is hived the rest will follow. If she is not hived, 
however, the bees will leave the hive and join 
the cluster again. Bees are usually peaceful at 
swarming time, having filled themselves with 
honey before starting out. A little smoke blown 
into the cluster usually subdues them. 

Great care must be used in handling the bees 
that none be crushed. The odor from a crushed 
bee excites the living bees and makes them diffi- 
cult to handle. ■ 

Soon after hiving the bees resume their 
normal duties. The queen begins to lay eggs 
and the workers store honey in anticipation of 
the new brood. Extra frames should now be 
placed for the storage of honey. If there were 
incomplete supers on the parent hive, these 
should be lifted over on the new hive. 

The departing swarm leaves behind several 
queen cells which will hatch in a few days. All Queen Cells. 1 

but one of these will be destroyed by the workers. 

Two or three days after the remaining queen bee has been fertilized she 
begins to lay eggs and the colony resumes its normal routine. 

How to Prevent Swarming. — A reasonable amount of swarming is 
desirable, as in this manner new colonies are Btarted. However, much 
swarming weakens the colonies. Weak colonies do not store an abundance 
of honey or winter well. Neither do they resist moths and disease. An 
overcrowded colony is the most common cause of swarming. As a pre- 
ventive, plenty of room should be kept in the hive by removing the 
honey supply often and furnishing extra supers. The hives should be 
kept well shaded and ventilated. 

One queen to a colony is the rule. Too many queens cause swarming. 
If the queen cells are carefully watched and cut out, the number can be 
regulated. The queen cells are readily recognized by the keeper, as they 

• Courtesy of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Farmers' Bulletin 447. 



106 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

are larger than any other cells. They are rough on the outside and hang 
vertically on the comb, having much the shape of a peanut. The supply 
of queens should not be entirely cut off, however, as a vigorous colony 
needs requeening at least once in two years. 

Artificial swarming is sometimes resorted to by dividing an over- 
crowded colony and furnishing a new queen to the queenless portion. 
This process is expedient, however, only after indications of swarming 
are observed. Otherwise, the bees may swarm naturally later on. 

Clipping the queen's wings to prevent her flying is sometimes resorted 
to to prevent swarming. In this event, she will be found near the hive 
when the swarm issues and can be recaptured and put into a new hive. The 
parent colony should be removed and the new hive put in its place. The 
swarming bees will then enter the new hive. The bees afield at the time 
of swarming will also return to the new hive, thus strengthening the new 
colony and relieving the congestion of the parent colony. The same 
shifting of hives should take place in event of a natural swarming. 

Wintering of Bees. — Queens showing lack of vitality as winter 
approaches should be replaced, in order that the colony may begin the 
inactive period with young and vigorous bees. Cellar wintering is not 
advisable unless under the direction of an experienced bee keeper. The 
dangers from moths, sweat and other bee troubles make the practice 
doubtful. A dry, well-ventilated cellar with an even temperature is 
imperative. 

Throughout the South, where the winters are mild, no packing is 
needed for outside wintering. The entrance should be closed enough, 
however, to keep out cold drafts and prevent the entrance of mice and 
other enemies. Enough space must be left for the passage of the bees. 

In the North the hives must be well packed to retain the heat gener- 
ated by the bees. Heavy building paper tacked around the hive, leaving 
the entrance open, makes a good winter protection for bees. A piece of 
burlap, tacked over the front of the hive and hanging over the entrance, 
makes a good shield from snow and wind. This may be lifted on fair days 
to permit the passage of the bees. Dark wrapping paper should be avoided, 
as it absorbs the rays of the sun. This creates a rise in temperature within 
the hive, resulting in too much bee activity. Dampness is more fatal 
than cold to bees. It is advisable to place burlap or other absorbent 
material on top of the frames to absorb the dampness which otherwise 
might condense and dampen the cluster of bees. 

Bee Feeding. — A colony of bees should enter the winter with from 
25 to 40 pounds of honey stored for food. The quantity depends upon 
the length and severity of the winter. 

Fall and spring feeding is often resorted to in order to continue activity 
in the colony late in the season and stimulate it early in the spring. Honey 
from unknown sources should not be fed, on account of introducing 
disease. Syrup made from granulated sugar makes a satisfactory food. 



BEES 107 

A small pan filled with shavings or excelsior saturated with the syrup 
may be placed on top of the frames. 

Hives. — There are many good hives on the market, but the one most 
widely used is the Langstroth hive. Unless one is skilled in making hives, 
it is best to purchase them ready-made. All hives in the apiary should 
be of the same style and size, so that the frames are interchangeable. 

Foundation Combs. — Foundation combs should be furnished either 
as starters or as entire sheets. The finished product will then be beauti- 
fully uniform. If the bees are left to furnish their own wax, much time 
is consumed and the resulting comb is irregular. Full sheets of foundation 
produce the finest quality of comb. When one super is half full or more, 
it should be raised and an empty one put under it. Care must be taken 
not to furnish too many sections at once or some will be left unfinished. 

Handling and Marketing. — In handling the honey combs, care must 
be taken to keep the frames in a perpendicular position. If placed on 
their sides, the combs will be broken. The same caution applies in packing 
for market or in handling foundation or brood frames. 

Honey should not be stored in a cool, damp cellar, but kept in a warm, 
dry room. Honey taints easily and care must be taken to use as little 
smoke as possible in the hives in handling the bees. 

The home market is the best for the small honey producer. The 
product deteriorates rapidly in shipping, and much care is needed to pack, 
so as to ship without loss. Unless handled in large quantities the added 
expense of packing will offset the higher price at a distant market. 

Wax from extracted honey and that scraped from frames can be 
melted and made into beeswax. Beeswax not only has a market value 
as wax, but if sent to a foundation factory, new foundations can be made 
from it at a cost much less than the purchasing of new foundations. 

Diseases of Bees. — Moth is not a disease, but is a common enemy 
of the bee. The presence of moth denotes a weak colony, for a strong 
colony will destroy moth webs and keep them out. Once in, not much 
can be done save to so strengthen the colony, that it rids itself of the 
moth. 

Foul brood is the most common bee disease. It is a germ disease, 
much to be dreaded, as it spreads rapidly from one apiary to the other, 
the first trace is noticeable in the grubs. They turn yellow and stretch 
out in their cells instead of being white and curled up. Later a stench 
arises from the hive. Drastic measures must be taken at once to keep the 
disease from spreading. The bees should be removed to a clean hive with- 
out comb and kept for thirty-six hours with the hive closed. At the end 
of that time they may be put into a new hive with clean comb and a fertile 
queen. Sugar syrup must be furnished them for a time. The infected hive 
and all its parts must be burned. 

So serious has this disease become that many states have passed 
laws governing its control, and provide inspectors to see that the laws 



108 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



are enforced. It is to a bee keeper's advantage to co-operate in every 
way possible with these inspectors in controlling this disease. 

REFERENCES 
"Bee Keeping." Phillips. 
"How to Keep Bees for Profit." Lyon. 
"Bee Book." Biggie. 
Canadian Dept. oiAgriculture Bulletins: 

213. "Bee Diseases." 

233. "Natural Swarming of Bees; How to Prevent." 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology, Bulletin 14. "Diseases of Bees." 
Farmers' Bulletins. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

442. "Treatment of Bee Diseases." 

447. "Bees." 

603. "Comb Honey." 

652. "Honey and Its Uses in the Home." 

695. " Outdoor Wintering of Bees." 



PART II 
DAIRY FARMING 

(Dairy Husbandry) 



« 109 



CHAPTER 10 
The Dairy Herd; Its Selection and Improvement 

By F. S. Putney 
Assistant Professor of Dairy Husbandry , The Pennsylvania State College 

The dairy cow of today has been so long domesticated that it is 
impossible to identify her exact origin. Several possible origins have been 
written about, but one thing we are sure of is that the original cow gave 
milk only for her young for a few months. The modern dairy herd is the 
result of selection and improvement by man. 

Scrubs, Grades, Crosses and Pure-Breds. — A dairy herd which is the 
result of accident and which has never been improved is called a common 
or scrub herd. Such a herd usually has the blood of several breeds, but has 
been bred without thought. Occasionally a scrub dairy cow is profitable, 
but it is rare indeed to find a scrub herd that is profitable. A large per- 
centage of the dairy cattle in the country today are high-grades. A grade 
animal carries over 50 per cent of the blood of some particular breed. The 
pure-bred sire is now believed to be an essential of a good dairy herd, hence 
the result is that most of the cows are now high-grade, carrying over 75 
per cent of the blood of one breed. A cross-bred animal has the blood of 
two pure-bred animals of different breeds in its veins. Such breeding is 
good to produce vitality, but is not good for milk production; especially 
is this true in the crossing of such distinct breeds as the Holstein-Friesian 
and the Jersey. Comparatively few pure-bred dairy herds exist. However, 
the number is sufficient to permit of every one owning a pure-bred sire, 
and the number of pure-bred animals is on the increase. A pure-bred 
animal does not have the blood of any other breed since the founding of 
that breed. 

Value of Pedigrees. — A pedigree is a list of the names and registry 
numbers of the ancestry of an animal. A dairy farmer who keeps pure- 
bred animals should exercise care in keeping his animals registered in the 
herd-book of the breed association. This is profitable because pure-bred 
animals sell better than grade animals, as the offspring are more uniform, 
especially in type and color. The latter fact adds a great deal to the 
selling price. Further, the pure-bred dairy animals have been developed 
to higher milk production than any other class of farm animals and natu- 
rally the dairyman is willing to pay for their production ability. The more 
high producing animals in the ancestry of an animal, the better is that 
pedigree. 

Ill 



112 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

Breed Differences. — Within dairy cattle are several definite strains 
of a special type. These definite strains are called breeds. Some breeds 
have been developed for the large amount of milk they give, other breeds 
for the large percentage of fat which the milk contains. The size of the 
different breeds also varies a great deal. These breeds are quite largely 
the result of conditions that exist in different countries. Great as is the 
difference in the quantity and the quality of the milk and size of the breeds, 
the individual variations within a breed are nearly as great. 

The following table, from Bulletin No. 114 of the Pennsylvania Experi- 
ment Station, shows the difference in percentage of fat of breeds: 

Per cent. 

All Jerseys or Guernseys of high-grade . 5.0 

Mixed herd with some Jersey or Guernsey animals 4.5 

Common mixed herd 4.0 

Mixed herd with some Holstein animals 3.5 

All Holsteins 3.0 

A Standard of Production Necessary. — In order to select and improve 
animals for the dairy herd, it is necessary to have a standard of production. 
The standard is, of course, the lowest limit for profitable production. Since 
production of milk varies with the age of the animal, it is necessary to have 
a standard for the first few lactation periods. A heifer with first calf 
usually gives about 70 per cent of her future production as a mature cow. 
A cow makes her maximum production at about seven years of age. The 
standard of production varies with each community, but in a very general 
way, where up-to-date dairying is followed, a cow should produce between 
6000 and 8000 pounds of milk and 250 to 300 pounds of fat to stay in 
the herd. 

Individual Selection. — If it is necessary to have a standard of produc- 
tion for each cow, it is equally necessary to have some way of selecting 
animals that should come up to this standard. This will be discussed in 
the paragraphs on Records which follow. In order to improve a herd 
properly, one must keep more than records of production. The individuals 
must be selected for size, vigor and trueness to type. This selection must 
begin with the calf. Only calves of the right type and vigor should be 
raised. Size in the animal is important, but vigor is even more essential. 
Vigor and lung capacity are essential to enable the cow to resist all the 
diseases to which the dairy cow is heir. It is desirable to raise farm 
animals that have shown prolificness, as this quality is reproduced to a 
marked degree in dairy animals. Having decided to raise a particular 
breed, it is necessary to know the characteristics of that breed better than 
any other. 

In starting a new herd, the females should be selected for uniformity 
of type, and should be typical of the breed they represent. In selecting 
a bull, some breeders prefer one that is strong, where the females in the 
herd are weak. If possible, this is a good practice. The bull should always 



THE DAIRY HERD 



113 < 



be from as long a line of high producing animals as is possible to secure. 
In starting a herd, do not allow passing fads to have undue weight. To 
illustrate, the Jersey cattle have been greatly hurt by the solid color fad 
that went over the country. The breed was not solid colored at its founda- 
tion, and whatever fad comes into a herd after it has been founded reduces 
the number of animals to select from for production and hence weakens the 
herd instead of strengthening it. The Guernsey fad of light-colored noses 
and the white color of the Holstein-Friesian and Ayrshires are illustrations 



# 




mmw: 



A Typical Cow, Marked to Show Points in Judging. 1 



1 — Head. 2 — Muzzle. 3 — Nostril. 4 — Face. 5 — Eye. 6 — Forehead. 7 — Horn. 
8— Ear. 9— Cheek. 10— Throat. 11— Neck. 12— Withers. 13— Back. 14— Loins. 
15— Hip Bone. 16— Pelvic Arch. 17— Rump. 18— Tail. 19— Switch. 20— Chest. 
21— Brisket. » 22— Dewlap. 23— Shoulder. 24— Elbow. 25— Forearm. 26— Knee. 
27— Ankle. 28— Hoof . 29— Heart Girth. 30— Side or Barrel. 31— Belly. 32— Flank. 
33— Milk Vein. 34— Fore Udder. 35— Hind Udder. 36— Teats. 37— Upper Thigh. 
38— Stifle. 39— Twist. 40— Leg or Gaskin. 41— Hock. 42— Shank. 43— Dew Claw. 

of this fad. In order to select animals wisely, one should be a good judge 
of the breed in which he is interested. 

Records. — While a breeder can select cows by the eye for many good 
and desirable points, the only real test of a dairy cow is the record of her 
milk and butter-fat yield. This should be kept for every year that a cow 
stays in the herd. If the farmer has the time, he should keep other records, 
such as list of offspring, feed records and the like. The greatest improve- 
ment is possible only when complete records have been kept. 

In order to ascertain the production of a cow, a pair of scales, a Bab- 
cock testing outfit and milk sheets are necessary. The most popular 
scale today is the Chatillon Improved Spring Balance, which can be hung 

i Courtesy of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. B. A. 1. 15th Report. 



114 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

in some handy place in the barn or milk room. The two hands on the 
dial enable one to read the amount of milk directly. The milk sheet can 
be made for the month, week or any convenient length of period. The 
monthly record is the most popular. It is desirable to have a space for 
tabulating ten-day periods for the reason that grain is usually fed in 
accordance with the yield of milk. The amount fed should be adjusted 
at least as often as every ten days. Some adjust it every week, but when 
added for ten days the amount can be read directly without division. 

Records show that about one-third of the cows in the United States 
are "boarders," or cows that do not even pay for their feed. When it 
is remembered that so many cows are unprofitable, and that if records are 
not kept, the daughters of these same unprofitable cows will be retained in 
the herd, and in turn more than likely become unprofitable, the value of 
records in dairy herd improvement is readily understood. Records show 
that one-third of the dairy cows in the country should be killed. The net 
profits of the herds remaining would then be greater than is now 
the case. 

Cow-Testing Association Records. — Since it takes time to keep 
records, groups of farmers find it economical to organize and employ a 
man to keep records for them. This man is called a supervisor, and his 
services enable a group of both small and large farmers to practice selection 
based on production. Since the supervisor must visit each farm at least 
one day in a month, only about twenty-five farmers can co-operate in 
the hiring of one man. A supervisor can be had for from $500 to $600 a 
year with board and room. If these twenty-five farms keep 500 cows, 
the expense of keeping records by the supervisor method is less than though 
the owners paid themselves for the time that they would take to keep 
the same records. The supervisor weighs all feed given to the cows during 
the day on which he visits the farm. From this data he figures the cost 
of the feed by the month. In the same way he weighs the milk from each 
cow and tests it for butter-fat. This enables him to calculate the pro- 
duction for a month. He figures for the owner the value of the product 
from each cow for the month at the price that the owner is receiving. 

Each cow-testing association is bound together by by-laws, contracts 
and some sort of articles of confederation. In some cases the association 
buys feed in carload lots so as to reduce the cost to the members. Such 
an association must be gathered from a community covering a small area. 
Some cow-testing associations stretch over considerable territory. 

Bull Associations. — One of the outgrowths of the cow-testing associa- 
tion is the bull association. These associations are often formed from a 
group of men within the cow-testing association. It is necessary that 
the members keep the same breed of stock. These men own a bull, or 
several bulls, together. The bull is kept in the community as long as he 
is a good producer. A good producing bull is one that is a sure getter, 
and whose heifer calves prove to be better producers as cows than their 



THE DAIRY HERD 115 

dams. Such a bull should be given a herd as long as he will breed. 
Through the bull associations, it is often possible to bring into a community 
a bull of better breeding than any single member of the community could 
finance alone. It is not the cost of the bull that determines its value, but 
rather the producing ability of his daughters. 

The bull association, to be of value, needs records, and the cow- 
testing association assures the records. They work well together. 

Advanced Registry Records. — Any daughter or son of a registered 
dam and sire can be registered in the herd-books of that breed association. 
Unfortunately, many registered animals are no better producers than 
scrubs. In order to improve the animals within a breed, the different 
breed associations have started Advanced Registry Requirements. These 



requirements are based upon performance, and hence only worthy animals 
find their names on its lists. The different breeders have different names 
for the books in which such animals are listed, but all serve the same 
purpose. Representatives from the different experiment stations vouch 
for the production of the animals after personal visits. Such records 
have done much toward developing the modern, wonderful milking cow. 
Pure-bred sires should have some near relatives whose names appear in 
the advanced registry of the particular breed. All breeders of pure-bred 
stock should be encouraged to make advanced registry tests so as to improve 
the sale of bull calves from their herds. 

The Bull is Half the Herd.— It is one of the sayings of breeders that 
"the bull is half the herd." Where in-breeding is practiced, he is even 

I Courtesy of the Department of Dairy Husbandry, Pennsylvania State Co11g£b. 



1 From Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 177. 



THE DAIRY HERD 117 

more than half. Even if the cows are scrubs, there is no place in the herd 
for a grade or scrub bull. Only a pure-bred bull should head a herd of 
cows. The bull should possess quality and type and come from a long 
line of good producing females. In order to be sure that a bull can improve 
a good herd of cows, only tested bulls should be used. In order to test 
a bull he should be bred when young to a few of the good cows in the herd 
and the resulting heifer calves watched. If they are better than their 
dams, a good herd sire is indicated. 

Professor W. J. Fraser, of the University of Illinois, calculates that 
in a herd of thirty-five cows it costs $3 per heifer more to have them sired 
by a pure-bred bull than by a scrub. This, then, is the total cost of pro- 
viding each heifer calf with one good parent. If this same heifer calf 
produces only three pounds of milk more a day than her dam, this, at 80 
cents a hundred pounds, means that in six years of milking, for 300 days 
a year, she would bring the owner $43 more than her dam. On this basis 
the rate of interest on the investment is better than anything else on the 
farm. Professor Fraser believes his figures to be conservative. 

The University of Missouri has a Jersey herd that has had the fortune 
of having some excellent bulls at its head and the misfortune of having 
had some sires of very poor quality. To illustrate: ten daughters from 
Lome of Meridale, one of their bulls, would have produced in six years 
$900 more than their dams, while ten daughters of Missouri Rooter in the 
same time would have produced $980 less than their dams. This shows 
that two farmers of equal ability living on farms side by side, and of the 
same size, would differ $2000 in wealth at the end of six years with only, 
ten daughters from such different character bulls. The necessity of 
records is seen when it is remembered that the "bull is half the herd." 

Buying Cows or Raising Calves. — One cannot build up a dairy herd 
and continue to improve it by buying cows. The only way to improve 
a herd is by raising calves that are better than their dams. Near large 
cities it is a common practice to buy cows to replenish the herd. In this 
country, far from large cities, an excess of calves is raised. If all the cows 
in this far-removed section had good records this method could continue. 
The farmer who gets his herd free from tuberculosis and contagious abor- 
tion can hope to keep it so, providing he raises his own calves. It can 
never be done if he buys cows. 

The new-born calf must be well fed and made to grow. The feeding 
of the calf undoubtedly has some effect on the later usefulness of the cow. 
A stunted calf will never be as good a cow as though she had never been 
stunted. 

For purposes of record it is necessary that every calf be marked before 
being taken from its mother. This often seems unnecessary, but when 
the young heifer spends her first summer on pasture, the owner is liable 
to forget the particular animal unless he visits the pasture frequently, or 
unless the heifer has some very distinguishing mark. If the habit of 



118 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

putting a tag in the ear, or some other good system of marking is estab- 
lished, trouble is avoided. 

The calf should be fed so as not to develop scours or disorders of any- 
kind. The best way is to feed the mother's milk for a few days, and see 
that all milk is warmed to blood heat. It should be fed only from clean 
pails. For the first few days it is well to feed three times a day; after 
that, twice a day is sufficient. The calf should be fed liberally, but more 
danger comes from over-feeding than under-feeding. Modern milk sub- 
stitutes grow good dairy calves. 

Developing the Young Animal. — Dairy cows are developed success- 
fully in several different ways. The essential point is that the bone must 
be nearly grown at the time of dropping the first calf. Some feeders simply 
give large amounts of roughage to heifer calves during the winter after 
weaning from milk. In this way the frame grows, but little fat is put on. 
Other feeders give some grain, up to four pounds per animal per day, and 
this assures the heifer being in good flesh. When pastures are excellent, 
the first method is all right, but when pastures are only good or fair, better 
results are obtained by feeding some grain to heifers. A well-developed 
growing heifer gives more milk than one poorly developed, since she 
requires less feed for growth. 

Open Stables for Heifers. — Heifers over one year old are today kept 
in open sheds facing the south. It is believed that this open-air method 
develops a stronger constitution and more hardiness, two qualities of 
great value in warding off disease later. This method of housing is much 
cheaper than housing in expensive closed quarters, and the results are 
at least equally good. 

REFERENCE 
Nebraska Expt. Station Bulletin 149. "Raising the Dairy Calf." 



CHAPTER 11 
Dairy Herd Management 

By C. W. Larson 
Professor of Dairy Husbandry, The Pennsylvania Stale College 

The dairy cow is more sensitive to her treatment than any other of our 
productive animals. By care and breeding she has been developed into an 
animal of habit, and upon the care she receives depends largely the profits 
of the herd. The feed is an important item in the cost of milk production, 
but the systems practiced also materially affect the profits of the herd. 
It is no longer profitable to keep a cow all the year for the small amount 
of milk that she produces during the summer months while on pasture. 
The cheapest method of keeping a herd is not always the most profitable. 
This chapter deals only with the heifers from breeding time. 

Age to Breed. — The age at which a heifer should be bred depends 
largely upon her size, but in general, an animal that has grown well can be 
bred to have her first calf when two years of age. During the last three 
months of the gestation period a heifer grows very little, so that it is not 
advisable to breed a small heifer too young, and some prefer to wait until 
the heifer is two and one-half years old before she has a calf. A heifer bred 
too young will not attain a large size, which is desirable in a dairy cow. 

Gestation period. — The gestation period of a cow is from 280 to 285 
days. It is a gopd practice to keep a record of service, so that the cow can 
be properly taken care of before calving time. 

Regularity. — A regular routine of work should be planned for the herd 
so that the cows will receive the same treatment each day. Any disturb- 
ance or irregularity affects both the amount and quality of milk. The 
cows should be milked at the same time each day. The milker should start 
at the same end of the row and be as regular in the treatment of the cows 
as possible. There are a number of points to keep in mind in planning 
the routine of the cow stable. Grain may be fed before milking, but hay 
should not be, because of the length of time it takes to eat it and because 
of the dust it will raise. Silage also should not be fed immediately before 
milking, because of the effect in the flavor of the milk. . The stable should 
be cleaned before milking, if possible, and if the cows are kept in the stable, 
the grooming should also be done before milking. The cows need not be 
watered until after the morning feed is given. Hay should be fed late in 
the evening. 

Care of Cow at Calving Time. — A cow should be carefully watched and 
fed during calving time. She should be provided with a clean, well-bedded 

119 



120 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

stall. For several days previous to calving she should be fed a bulky 
ration and one that is laxative. She should not be given heavy grains. A 
mash of ground oats and bran is good. For two or three days before calving 
time she should be given slightly warmed water. Do not give cold water. 
After two or three days the cow can gradually be put on the regular grain 
and roughage feed, but the feeding should not be too heavy to start with. 
Rest for Dairy Cows. — It is desirable to give a cow at least six weekB 
of rest each year. Most cows dry off before this time, but occasionally 
persistent milkers give a considerable supply up to the tune of their next 
calving. When this is allowed, it is at the sacrifice of the milk in the next 



A Good Cow Stable.' 



lactation period, and alsoeometimes at the sacrifice of the calf. It is some- 
times difficult to dry off a cow, but usually by cutting down the grain and 
giving straw or timothy hay she can be reduced to a sufficient amount to be 
safe to stop milking her. It is sometimes desirable to milk once a day for a 
while and then stop altogether. It is not safe to stop milking her if she is 
giving too much, although cows producing as much as six to eight quarts 
have been dried off without injuring them. 

Care of Cows when Dry. — A cow should be well taken care of when 
dry, for she is then preparing for her next milking period, besides growing 
the calf. Nearly all of the development of the calf takes place during the 
last few weeks. She should be given succulent and laxative feeds and should 
be well fed. 

'Courteaj'ofthBPepartmMit of Dairy Hiubandry, Pemuylvinta SUt* Colleje, 



DAIRY HERD MANAGEMENT 121 



Exercise. — Many dairymen believe that a cow receives all the exercise 
she needs ih producing milk, but on many farms it is desirable to turn the 
cows out for a part of the day. It not only gives a better opportunity to 
clean out the barn, but also gives the cows an opportunity to rub them- 
selves, and their feet and legs keep in better condition. Too much exercise, 
of course, requires energy at the expense of milk production. Cows that 
are required to walk long distances do not do as well as those that are 
more confined. Cows should not be turned out during bad weather and 
exposed to rains and cold winds. 

Grooming. — Cows kept in the stable all, or nearly all, of the time 
should be carefully groomed at least once a day. It is believed by many 
that grooming has an effect upon the milk flow. Cows seem to do better 
for having been groomed. 

Milking. — A good milker has a fairly rapid, uniform stroke which he 
continues throughout the milking period. The whole hand should grip the 
teat and the pressure should come from the whole hand. The practice of 
using the thumb and first finger is not recommended. The milking of 
diagonal teats is thought to give best results. The Hegelund method of 
the manipulation and milking has been found to stimulate milk production. 
A cow milked by this process gives more milk. The steps are described as 
follows: 

"First Manipulation: The right quarters of the udder are pressed 
against each other (if the udder is very large, only one quarter at a time is 
taken) with the left hand on the hind quarter and the right hand in front 
on the fore quarter, the thumbs being placed on the outside of the udder 
and the forefingers in the division between the two halves of the udder. 
The hands are now pressed toward each other and at the same time lifted 
toward the body of the cow. This pressing and lifting is repeated three 
times, the milk collected in the milk cistern is then milked out, and the 
manipulation repeated until no more milk is obtained in this way, when the 
left quarters are treated in the same way. 

"Second Manipulation: The glands are pressed together from the 
side. The fore quarters are milked each by itself by placing one hand, 
with fingers spread, on the outside of the quarter and the other hand in 
the division between the right and left fore quarters; the hands are pressed 
against each other and the teat then milked. When no more milk is 
obtained by this manipulation, the hind quarters are milked by placing 
a hand on the outside of each quarter, likewise with fingers spread and 
turned upward, but with the thumb just in front of the hind quarter. 
The hands are lifted and grasped into the gland from behind and from 
the side, after which they are lowered to draw the milk. The manipulation 
is repeated until no more milk is obtained. 

"Third Manipulation: The fore teats are grasped with partly closed 
hands and lifted with a push toward the body of the cow, both at the 
game time, by which method the glands are pressed between the hands 



122 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

and the body; the milk is drawn after each three pushes. When the 
fore teats are emptied, the hind teats are milked in the same manner." 

Difficult Milking. — Occasionally cows are difficult to milk because 
of defective teats. Sometimes the openings are too small, in which case 
an instrument known as the bistoury may be used, but there is danger of 
greatly injuring the teat, and it should be used only by those experienced 
in its use. Only with especially good animals does it pay to spend much 
time with such cows. Sore teats, caused sometimes by teats becoming 
wet and exposed to the cold, can best be treated by rubbing them with 
vaseline or some antiseptic grease. A cow that has developed the kicking 
habit is a great annoyance. Sore teats and abuse, however, are often the 
cause. Most cows, by gentle treatment and care of the teats, will cause 
little trouble. Some, however, are naturally vicious, but these are few in 
number. A strap tied around the body of the cow just in front of the 
udder, and drawn fairly tight, will prevent most cows from' kicking. A 
clamp made of wood with two straps, long enough to reach around the 
leg of the cow, will prevent her from bending her leg, making it impossible 
for her to kick. 

Abuse.— A dairy cow should always be handled gently, for any dis- 
turbances affect her. Loud noises or any unusual disturbances should 
be avoided. A cow should never be struck or mistreated, nor should 
she be talked to in a loud voice. 

Water and Salt. — A cow requires considerable salt, and this should 
be given regularly. One practice is to mix it with the grain, but the maxi- 
mum requirements should not be given in this way, for a cow may be 
required to eat more than she wants of it. A little in the grain is all right, 
but a small amount should be given regularly, perhaps once a week, so 
that she can get all she wants. A cow will eat about one-half pound of 
salt a week. 

An abundance of good water should be provided for dairy animals. 
A cow producing large quantities of milk will consume as much as one 
hundred pounds, or more, per day. Heavy milkers should be watered 
twice a day. The water should not be too cold, but at the same 
time it is well not to have it too warm. A uniform temperature is 
desirable. 

Stabling. — With most large dairy herds it is customary to have 
regular stanchions in which the cows can all be tied up in rows. This 
seems the best system where high-class milk is being produced. For the 
small herd, the practice of allowing the cows to run in an open shed is 
being followed. This method of housing, however, makes it possible to 
keep the cows in a more healthy condition and to produce milk more 
economically. An experiment has been conducted by The Pennsylvania 
State College of housing cattle in an open shed as compared with a closed 
stable, and is summarized as follows: 

"1. From the data presented it appears that cows kept under an 



DAIRY HERD MANAGEMENT 123 

open shed have keener appetites and consume more roughage than those 
kept in stables. 

"2. There was sufficient protein consumed when either Van Norman's 
or Eckles' Standard was used to account for the yield of milk in addition 
to maintenance. 

"3. Figured on Eckles* Standard, there was a slight excess of energy- 
consumed above maintenance and milk production the first two years, 
and a small deficiency the last year. When computed on Van Norman's 
Standard, there was a deficiency in energy consumed for maintenance 
and milk production, except for one group the second year. 

"4. The milk yield of the outside group decreased more rapidly each 
winter than that of the inside group. 

"5. Sudden drops in atmospheric temperature caused corresponding 
decreases in milk yield for both groups, the outside group having a slightly 
greater decrease. 

"6. More bedding was required outside, but less labor was necessary 
to keep the animals clean. 

"7. Both groups finished each winter's trial in good health with the 
exception of one that reacted to the tuberculin test in April, 1914. She 
had shown no reaction in two previous tests. The hair of the animals 
kept outside was longer and coarser the first two winters. The third 
winter this was noticeable in only one ainmal." 

Flies. — In the management of a milking herd, the problem of flies 
is a difficult one. Not only are they annoying to the cow and the milker, 
but they also carry disease. They should be reduced to as small a number 
as possible. It is believed that they do not travel a great distance, so that 
a farmer may have them fairly well under his control. Manure should 
not be allowed to accumulate, and if it does, it should be treated with 
some spray or disinfectant that will kill the flies. There are a number of 
sprays on the market that can be used for killing flies in the barn. Some 
have found traps to be practical. 

Marking the Cow. — For the purpose of identification, dairy animals 
should be marked. Some have a system of clipping the ears with certain 
notches to represent the various figures and thus of keeping records. 
This, however, is not very satisfactory. An ordinary hog ring with a 
metal or composition tag fastened to it makes a satisfactory marker. 
Occasionally these are torn out, but if they are properly put in and the 
tag is small and round, they will stay a long time. The tattoo is also 
being used successfully when good tattoo material is used. 

Dehorning. — In the general milking herd all cows should be dehorned. 
There is more or less pain connected with the operation, but it does not, 
in the estimation of the writer, compare with the pain due to the cows 
being gored day after day. It prevents the possibility also of one animal 
that may be "boss" depriving others of their rightful share of food and 
water. The dehorning, however, should not be done until the animal has 



124 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

reached the age of two years, for if it is done before this, growth takes 
place and ecure will be formed. The dehorning should be done in cold 
weather and when there are no flies. The horns should be cut or clipped 
as quickly as possible. 

CASE OP THE BULL 
A young bull should not be used too much for breeding purposes. 
He should be kept growing and should be well cared for, but not overfed. 
A good, thrifty young bull may breed six or seven cows before he is one 



Leasing a Bcll. 1 

year old with no injury to him. Even during the second year he should 
not be used too much. Often a young bull is injured by overuse. A cow 
should be served only once during a period of heat. A bull should never 
be allowed to run with the herd, but should be kept in a separate inclosure. 
He should be given exercise and be kept out in the open as much as possible. 
Where two bulls are needed in a herd, it is a good practice to dehorn them 
and then turn them together, or even train them to drive. A yard in which 
a bull is kept should be strongly fenced, for they are powerful, and once 
they break through a pen, it is very difficult to get anything that will hold 
them. They should be sheltered from the winds and rain, but can stand 
the cold. Bulls sometimes become vicious, due to treatment, although 

1 Courtesy of Oranfft-Judd Company. N. Y. From " The Young Fanner," by Hunt. 



DAIRY HERD MANAGEMENT 125 

some bulls are naturally cross. In any case, great care must be take 
with them. They should never be trusted. They should always have 
a ring in their noses and be led by a stock from the ring. Bulls seem to 
know when a man is afraid and are more apt to attack such a one than one 
who is more courageous. A bull that becomes vicious is often subdued 
by being thrown with a rope. He then learns that he is under the control 
of man. The amount of service that a bull may have depends upon his 
age and condition. During the second year, a good, thrifty bull can be 
used once a week. A mature bull may serve one hundred to two hundred 
cows a year if the periods are distributed well throughout the year. In 
general, however, because of the variation in the intervals in which cows 
come in heat, a bull should be provided for each forty to fifty cows. 

REFERENCES 

"Dairy Cattle and Milk Production." Eckles. 

Iowa Expt. Station Circular 16. "Care, Feed and Management of the Dairy Herd." 

Minnesota Expt. Station Bulletin 130. "Feeding Dairy Cows." 



CHAPTER 12 
Dairy Breeds of Cattle 

By George C. Humphrey 
Professor of Animal Husbandry, University of Wisconsin 

Dairy Breeds Essential. — Choosing a dairy breed of cattle is funda- 
mental to successful dairying. The modern improved breeds of dairy 
cattle are the result of high ideals, carefully laid plans and systematic 
effort on the part of many generations of dairymen who realized there 
were great possibilities in the development of breeds of cattle especially 
adapted for large and economical production of milk and butter-fat. 
Cattle which are true representatives of the recognized dairy breeds are 
very distinct from ordinary native cattle and cattle of the improved beef 
breeds, both in conformation and production of milk. They also tend to 
reproduce themselves from generation to generation with such marked 
degree of uniformity that one familiar with their history and character- 
istics would reject any other kind if he were engaged primarily in dairying. 
Natural laws that govern the reproduction of plant and animal life and 
preserve forms of like character from generation to generation and the 
experience of a vast number of dairymen teach the value of preserving and 
utilizing the distinct dairy breeds of cattle for dairy purposes. 

Dairy Type Common to All Dairy Breeds. — The development of dairy 
breeds has established a distinct dairy type that is naturally correlated 
with extensive milk production. Dairy type refers to the conformation 
and peculiarities of the body that are characteristic of animals capable of 
producing large and economical yields of milk and includes the following: 

1. Medium to large size of body for the breed. 

2. Large feed capacity, as indicated by a roomy and capacious abdom- 

inal cavity, a large mouth and sufficient strength of body to 
consume and utilize a large quantity of feed. 

3. Dairy temperament or a disposition to convert the larger portion 

of feed consumed into milk rather than body flesh. It is 
indicated by the absence of surplus flesh and a comparatively 
lean and refined appearance of the entire body. 

4. An udder that is large, carried well up to the body, evenly and 

normally developed in all quarters and of good quality. 

5. A strong, healthy flow of blood to all parts of the body, giving 

vigor, alertness and constitution. These characteristics are 
indicated by prominent facial, udder and mammary veins, 
abundant secretions in the ears, skin of the body and at th§ 
end of the tail and a coat of fine straight hair. 

126 



DAIRY BREEDS OF CATTLE 127 

Ignorance of breeds and breeding and of proper feeding and manage- 
ment cause a great many cows to fall below the standard embodied in the 
foregoing qualifications for dairy type. This fact, however, is no argument 
against the merit of improved breeds and should not cause one to question 
the value of well-established dairy breeds. 

Recognized Dairy Breeds of America. — Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, 
Guernsey, Holstein-Friesian and Jersey breeds of cattle are recognized and 
have been exhibited at the National Dairy Shows of America as specific 
dairy breeds. Dairy cattle of the Dutch Belted, French Canadian and 



A Typical Ayrshire Cow. "Auchenbrain Hattie." 

Medium in raze, usually red and white, horns upturned and pointed. 

Kerry breeds are bred and maintained in America in comparatively small 
numbers. The unimportance of these breeds in well-developed dairy 
districts, however, does not warrant more than mention and a very brief 
discussion of them in the limited space of this article. 

AYRSHIRE CATTLE 

Origin and Development— The County of Ayr in southwestern 

Scotland is the native home of the Ayrshire breed. The land in this section 

is rolling and more or less rough, the climate moist and the winters extremely 

cold, except for being somewhat tempered by the Irish Sea. The hills 



128 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



produce rolling pastures in most parts, while the better lands grow grain 
crops and grass in abundance. The conditions, on the whole, demand a 
hard yrustling breed of dairy cattle, and Ayrshires have been developed to 
suit the needs of their native country. Early history records the use of 
several different breeds of cattle which undoubtedly have contributed to 
the establishment of the Ayrshire breed. Teeswater, Shorthorn, Dutch, 
Lincoln, Hereford, Devon and West Highland breeds are mentioned by 
various authors as having been used. Whatever the true origin may have 
been, the breed has been bred pure for many years, and its character 
fixed after the manner of other pure breeds of livestock developed by the 
Scotch people. The production of a breed of .cattle suited to the condition 
of environment of that country, and especially adapted for the production 
of large yields of milk, was the standard which guided the breeders in fixing 
the characteristics of this breed. The breed has found favor in other 
countries and to a greater or less extent in all dairy sections of America, 
especially in the New England states and the provinces of Canada. 

Characteristics of Ayrshire Cattle. — Ayrshire cattle are medium in 
size. Cows should weigh on the average 1000 pounds and bulls 1500 
pounds. The color is a combination of white, red, brown and black. 
White predominating with red or brown markings is the more popular 
color. There are black and white Ayrshires in Scotland whose purity of 
blood is not questioned. A neat head with horns of medium length, inclin- 
ing upward, a body with straight top line, well-developed chest, arched ribs, 
deep flank, and comparatively smooth hind quarters and an udder. that is 
symmetrical and well balanced in form and well carried up to the body 
characterize the typical Ayrshire cow. The size of teats in many cows is 
subject to the criticism of being too small and one will do well to bear this 
in mind in making selections. The milk production of mature cows has in 
a few instances, under official tests, exceeded 20,000 pounds of milk per 
annum. An Ayrshire cow should be expected to yield 6000 to 8000 pounds 
of milk under ordinary conditions. The milk tests in the neighborhood of 
four per cent butter-fat. The highest official yearly production for an 
Ayrshire cow to date was made by Auchenbrain Brown Kate 4th, 27943, 
owned by Percival Roberts, Jr., Narberth, Pa. Her yearly production 
amounted to 23,022 pounds of milk testing 3.99 per cent and 917.6 pounds 
of butter fat. 

BROWN SWISS CATTLE 

Origin and Development. — The Brown Swiss breed of cattle has its 
origin in Switzerland and the cattle by virtue of their native home are 
strong, rugged and hardy. In this country they have been developed 
with reference to their dairy qualities to the extent that they have become 
recognized as one of the distinct dairy breeds. Up to 1907 they were 
bred and largely advertised as a dual purpose breed. In the meantime, 
however, the American breeders have given careful attention to selecting 



DAIRY BREEDS OF CATTLE 129 

types and developing strains which excel more particularly in yield and 
economy of milk production. In the eastern and middle sections of the 
United States the breed is gaining favor and promises to have a place 
sooner or later of equal rank with older and better recognized breeds of 
dairy cattle. 

Characteristics of Brown Swiss Cattle. — The breed is noted for its 
large size and ruggedness. Due to comparatively large bones and robust 
appearance, it is sometimes regarded as too coarse for economy of pro- 
duction. Cows will vary from 1200 to 1400 pounds in live weight at 



A Bbown Swiss Cow. 1 

maturity, and bulls quite frequently exceed 2000 pounds in weight. There 
is a tendency toward refinement and less size where dairy type is sought 
and selected to take the place of the former dual purpose type. Breeders 
aim, however, to maintain good size and large capacity for milk production 
in their efforts to develop herds of this breed. 

A dark-brown or mouse color with a line of gray along the back, a 
mealy ring about the muzzle, a light fringe of hair on the inner side of 
the ear and more or less light hair on the under side of the body, constitutes 
the characteristic color of the cattle of this breed. Quite frequently the 
lighter gray color covers the entire body. 

' Courteiy of Tb» Field, New York. 



A Guernsey Bthl. 1 



> Court«y of ThB Hail, New York. 
130 



A TmcAi Guubnset Cow. 



DAIRY BREEDS OF CATTLE 131; 

The head and neck are comparatively heavy; the males, and quite 
frequently the cows, carrying more or less dewlap. Well-developed udders, 
proportionate in size to the size of body, are sought in the selection of 
mature cows. A register of production for animals of superior merit has 
been formed by the American Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders' Association 
and there is a loyal effort on the part of breeders to make records that 
will compare favorably with records of other breeds. The breed has 
demonstrated its ability to make very profitable productions of milk and 
butter-fat. The milk tests on the average about 4.0 per cent. The high- 
est official yearly record for a Brown Swiss cow at the present time is 
19,460.6 pounds of milk, testing 4.1 per cent and 798.16 pounds of butter- 
fat. This record was made by the cow College Brauvura 2d, 2577, owned 
by the Michigan Agricultural College, East Lansing, Mich. 

GUERNSEY CATTLE 

Origin and Development. — Guernsey cattle take their name from 
Guernsey Island, located in the English Channel not far from France. 
This island and two smaller ones, Alderney and Sarnia, belong to the 
Channel Islands group, and is where the Guernsey breed originated and 
has been developed. These islands, of which Guernsey is the largest, 
contain only 2600 acres. On Guernsey the land is more or less hilly and 
rough, and the farms are small and devoted exclusively to horticulture and 
dairying. Many of the crops, such as grapes, melons and flowers, are 
grown in greenhouses. The cattle are owned in small herds and, in order 
to make the best use of the available pastures, are tethered or staked 
out when allowed to graze. 

The people devote their attention to the one breed of cattle and 
exclude all other cattle from the island, except those which may be imported 
for immediate slaughter. The breed undoubtedly has its origin in stock 
of early French varieties known as Brittany and Normandy cattle. The 
production of a rich quality of high-colored milk and butter has always 
been the principal object in breeding and developing this breed, and 
naturally this has resulted in excellence of performance on the part of 
well-grown cattle of the breed. 

Guernsey cattle were introduced into America early in the nineteenth 
century, but not until 1893, when the dairy qualities of Guernsey cattle 
were brought to the attention of the general public by records made at 
the World's Columbian Exhibition at Chicago, did Guernsey interests 
develop to the extent they deserved. The American Guernsey Cattle 
Club was organized in 1877, and of late years many importations of 
Guernsey cattle have been made and much enthusiasm has been aroused 
on the part of dairymen in exploiting and developing the interests of the 
breed. The breed ranks at the present time as one of the most popular. 

Characteristics of Guernsey Cattle. — The standard weight for Guern- 
sey cows is 1050 pounds, and for bulls 1500 pounds. Standards which 



A Holotelv-Friesian Bull. 1 
The largest of dairy breeds — color, black and white. 



A Typical Holstein Cow. 1 



1 Court™? at The Field. New York. 
132 



DAIRY BREEDS OF CATTLE 133 

demand excellence in conformation and characteristics pertaining to 
dairy type are fulfilled by many cattle of the breed. Development for 
usefulness rather than for beauty of form has resulted in a lack of refine- 
ment and neatness of outline in a good many of the cattle. The compara- 
tively few Guernsey cattle in the country encouraged breeders to retain all 
pure-bred animals and this accounts for much of the lack of uniformity 
that exists. The American Guernsey Cattle Club was first to establish 
an advanced registry for official annual productions of milk and butter-fat 
and this again has been a standard toward which breeders have worked 
to a greater extent in many instances than they have for excellence of 
form. Marked improvement, however, in uniformity and excellence of 
dairy form has been noted in the show herds exhibited during the past 
few years. 

In color the Guernsey is a shade of fawn, varying from dark-red to 
light-yellow with white markings. The color of the muzzle in most 
instances, which is regarded as most desirable, is buff or flesh color. A 
dark muzzle is permissible but undesirable on the part of critical judges. 
More emphasis is laid upon rich yellow secretion in the skin, especially 
in the ear and at the end of the tail, together with a yellowish appearance 
of the horns and hoofs than is laid upon the color markings. The rich 
orange secretions of the body are believed to indicate a rich yellow color 
of the milk, which is regarded as a most important Guernsey characteristic! 
Guernsey milk is not only yellow but of good quality, testing in the neigh- 
borhood of five per cent. The yield of milk under ordinary conditions 
should be 6000 to 7000 pounds per annum. Under official tests, many 
Guernseys have far exceeded this amount. In three instances Guernsey 
cows have held the world's championship record in butter-fat production. 
The highest official yearly record of milk and butter-fat production held 
by a Guernsey cow was made by Murne Cowan, 19597, owned by O. C. 
Barber, Akron, Ohio, her production amounting to 24,008 pounds of 
milk, testing 4.57 per cent and 1098.18 pounds of butter-fat. 

HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN 

Origin and Development — Holstein-Friesian cattle, commonly called 
Holsteins in America, have their origin in Friesland, a province of Holland 
bordering on the North Sea, where low, fertile dyke lands have been 
favorable for the development of a large breed of cattle capable of making 
large productions of milk. History records that for a thousand or more 
years these cattle had been bred and utilized for dairy purposes. Since 
1885 they have been extensively introduced into most of the dairy sections 
of America and because of their large size and the large quantity of milk 
which it is characteristic of them to produce, the breed ranks as one of 
the most popular. 

Characteristics of Holstein-Friesian Cattle. — The type and size of 
the cattle of this breed varies considerably and the terms "beef," "beef 



134 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

and milk," "milk and beef," and "milk forms" are used to describe the 
different types. The milk and beef form is the most generally accepted 
type and should be the aim of men engaged in the breeding of these cattle. 
Extreme milk form is usually the result of improper growth on the part 
of young animals or selection of breeding stock which produces too much 
refinement. The following quotation characterizes true Holstein type 
and owners and breeders of Holstein-Friesian cattle base their claim for 
the superiority of this breed on the following points: 

1. "That the Holstein-Friesian is a large, strong, vigorous cow, full 

of energy and abounding in vitality. 

2. "That her physical organization and digestive capacity is such 

that she is able to turn to the best advantage the roughage 
of the farm, converting the same into merchantable products. 

3. "That she produces large quantities of most excellent milk fit 

for any and all uses, and fit especially for shipping purposes. 

4. "That heredity is so firmly established through her long lineage 

that she is able to perpetuate herself through strong, healthy 
calves. 

5. "And that when, for any reason, her usefulness in the dairy is 

at an end, she fattens readily and makes excellent beef." 
Cows of this breed should weigh 1200 to 1400 pounds. Mature 
bulls ordinarily weigh 1900 to 2000 pounds or over. 

Black and white is the characteristic color in America. More or 
less white should extend below the knee and at least some black should 
be present where white predominates. The two colors should be 
distinct from one another. In Holland red and white is characteristic 
of many cattle of this breed and occasionally in America there are cattle 
born of this color; Such cattle, however, are not eligible to register in 
the herd books of the American Holstein-Friesian Association. 

The breed excels in quantity of milk rather than quality, the fat 
in the milk under ordinary conditions being 3 to 3.5 per cent. A 
higher test is unreasonable to expect where the large flow of milk 
characteristic of this breed is maintained. In some instances, the fat 
falls below 3 per cent, which is regarded as too low, even in cheese 
districts where this breed is very popular. A low percentage of fat should 
be avoided by the careful selection of sires whose dams yield milk of a 
higher percentage of fat. Naturally this breed with its large size and 
natural tendency to produce milk of low percentage of fat has always 
excelled all other breeds in milk production. Cows of this breed have 
in four instances won the championship record for both milk and butter- 
fat production, and hold the world's record at the present writing, with 
a production amounting to 28,403.7 pounds of milk testing 4.14 per cent 
and 1176.47 pounds of butter-fat, made by the cow, Finderne Pride 
Johanna Rue, 121083, owned by Somerset Holstein Breeders' Company, 
Somerville, N. J, 



Holstein-Fkiesian Bull a 



&( 

in 
i 

H 
Ot 



DAIRY BREEDS OF CATTLE 135 

JERSEY CATTLE 
Origin and Development — Jersey cattle were originally developed 
on the Island of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands group, where 
a delightful climate, a rich soil and a people united in their effort to excel 
in the production of a single breed of dairy cattle combined to make con- 
ditions most favorable for perfecting and preserving the breed. In 1793 
enactments began restricting the importation and maintenance of cattle 
other than Jerseys, which finally resulted in its being a crime to keep 
cattle of other kinds on the island for a longer period than twenty-four 
hours when they had to be slaughtered for beef. 



A Jehsbt Cow. 1 

Jerseys, as nearly as history reveals, share with Guernseys the blood 
of the old Brittany and Normandy cattle of France, in which they undoubt- 
edly have their principal origin. 

The Jersey breed early attracted the attention of England's aristoc- 
racy, who introduced them into England to beautify parks and furnish 
the rich milk that it was characteristic of them to produce. Beauty of 
form has been as much a part of the standard of excellence that guided 
the breeders in the development of their cattle as has production of milk, 
and has resulted in cattle of marked refinement and beauty. 

' Courtecy of The Field. New Tort 



136 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

Remarkable herds were produced in England, From the herd of 
Philip Dancey of that country, the bull Rioter, 746E, was brought to 
America and to him the St. Lambert family of Jersey cattle, so prominent 
in this country, all trace. 

The American people have imported many Jersey cattle both from 
the Isle of Jersey and from England, and have always regarded cows of 
the breed most excellent butter producers. Practical dairymen whose 
choice of breeds has been the Jersey, have favored the larger-sized cows 
and persistently worked to secure large productions of milk and butter. 
As a result, many of the American-bred Jerseys are larger and more robust 
and productive than the so-called island type. The greater size and pro- 
duction of the American type of Jerseys has enabled the breed to hold 
a popular place in dairy states and districts with other dairy breeds. 

Parallel with the development of the American-bred type of Jersey, 
many people have taken great pride and pleasure in maintaining and 
preserving the refined and smaller sized island type. Jersey cattle have 
been quite universally distributed over the world and under proper care 
and supervision give excellent satisfaction. 

Characteristics of Jersey Cattle. — Jersey cattle conform to a dairy type 
that is usually extreme. They are regarded as most economical producers of 
butter because of the marked dairy capacity they possess in proportion to 
their size. The size varies according to the strain or family and for cows 
ranges from 700 to 1000 pounds. Bulls will range from 1100 to 1500 pounds. 
The American-bred families, more especially the St. Lambert's, are larger 
than the imported stock from the Isle of Jersey or from England. 

The breed matures early and as a result many mistakes have been 
made in carelessly and intentionally having young heifers produce their 
first calves at too young an age. This practice, together with scant feed 
rations, not only reduces the size but the constitution and usefulness of 
any breed and, for a breed that is naturally small, results in severe criti- 
cisms that are unfair when they apply to a breed rather than to individuals. 
Jersey [cattle that are properly reared and well cared for tend to be long 
lived and very satisfactory dairy cattle. They have ranked high in 
economy and production tests at many shows and expositions and the pro- 
duction of cows admitted to the Jersey register of merit verify the fact that 
cows of this breed have highly developed powers for dairy production. The 
milk is of rich quality, testing ordinarily around 5 per cent. It is reason- 
able to expect a production of 300 pounds of butter-fat annually as an 
average per cow in herds that are well selected and managed. Jacoba 
Irene, 146443, an American-bred cow, owned by A. O. Auten, Jerseyville, 
111., in three consecutive years produced 42,900 pounds of milk and 2366.1 
pounds of butter-fat. The present highest yearly record of butter-fat 
production made by a Jersey cow is 999.14 pounds, the amount of milk 
being 17,557.8 pounds testing 5.69 per cent, a record made by Sophie 19th 
of Hood Farm, 189748, owned by C. I. Hood, Lowell, Mass. 



DAIRY BREEDS OF CATTLE 137 

OTHER DAIRY BREEDS 

The Dutch Belted, French Canadian and Kerry breeds of cattle 
heretofore mentioned rank as dairy breeds, but representatives of them 
are comparatively few and in many sections unknown. 

Dutch Belted cattle are so-called from their peculiar marking which 
is black with a white band about the middle of the body. This character- 
istic color is uniformly found in all pure-bred herds of the breed, and is 
the result of scientific breeding experiments in Holland where the breed 
had its origin, and was known as Lakenfeld cattle from the word "Laken," 
meaning blanket or sheet about the body. 

The usefulness of the breed was not a primary object in its develop- 
ment and for that reason it does not enjoy a popularity common to more 
prominent breeds. 

Marked general improvement in type and production and an increase 
in the number of cattle is the ambition of those who are promoting the 
breed in America. 

French Canadian cattle are a local and popular class of dairy cattle 
in the somewhat rough country and severe winter climate of the province 
of Quebec, Canada, Here the breed has beeji developed from early French 
stock and bred for over two hundred years. The characteristics of the 
cattle resemble very much the Jersey breed and lead to the belief that they 
have the same origin in blood. Their hardiness and adaptability to with- 
stand Canadian winters and make economical yields of rich milk are 
commendable. 

A production of 5000 pounds of milk testing 4 per cent or more is 
regarded as a fair average annual production for cows of this breed. 

Kerry cattle originated in the Kerry mountains of Ireland under most 
adverse conditions of soil, climate and people. They have been called 
"the poor man's cow." They are very small as a natural result of their 
poor environment, bulls weighing 800 to 1000 pounds and cows 400 to 700 
pounds. There are two types of the breed resulting from a cross which 
resulted in the type called the Derter-Kerry, which is smaller and more 
beefy than the original true Kerry. The economic value of Kerry cattle 
is best appreciated in its native home, where its adaptability, hardiness 
and ability to rustle and thrive recommend it. The novelty of the breed 
has led to a very limited distribution of the breed, a few herds having 
been introduced into Canada and the United States. 

DAIRY BREED ORGANIZATION IN AMERICA 

The welfare and preservation of breed interests are secured by respon- 
sible national breed associations that are recognized and approved by 
the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, and 
the Canadian Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ont. All the dairy 
breeds of cattle except the Kerry have such organizations which are sup- 
ported by a membership composed of the cattle breeders whose interest 



138 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



prompts them to become members, and by all who register pure-bred 
cattle of the respective breeds. Each association registers only cattle 
that are eligible by virtue of their purity of breeding, proper identification 
and being formally and regularly presented for registration on forms of 
application furnished by the association and certified to by the breeder 
or owner. Certificates of registry are furnished the breeders or owners 
and all transfers of ownership of registered animals where the identity of 
subsequent offspring is to be preserved must be formally reported. Upon 
being reported it is recorded and a certificate of transfer issued to the 
owner. 

The associations all publish herd books containing a complete list 
of all registered animals and in most instances also publish literature that 
is useful and helpful in promoting its cattle interests. One who is particu- 
larly interested in a given breed will do well to avail himself of such litera- 
ture, which is usually furnished gratis to those who apply for it. The 
location of the office and the secretaries of the respective associations can 
be readily determined by writing the national departments of agriculture, 
heretofore mentioned, if not by acquaintance with breeders of registered 
stock. 

In addition to a registry of the names of pure-bred animals, the five 
more important breed associations maintain an advanced registry or 
register of merit for cattle which have excelled in production and made 
official records of milk and butter-fat equivalent to or surpassing definite 
standards fixed for periods varying from seven days to one year. 

Following is a tabulated statement of the requirements for respective 
breeds, ages and periods of production: 



Age. 



2 years 

3 years 

4 years 

5 years 

6 years 



• • 



Atbshibid. 



Year Record. 



Pounds 
Milk. 



Require- 
ments 
increase 
each day 
by pound 



6000 
6500 
7500 
8500 



1.37 
and 
2.74 



Pounds 

Butter 

Fat. 



214.3 
236.0 
279.0 
322.0 



0.06 
and 
0.12 



Bbown Swiss. 



Year Record. 



Pounds 
Milk, 



6000* 

6430 

7288 

8146 

9000 



2.35 



Pounds 

Butter 

Fat. 



GUBBNSBY. 



222.0* 

238.5 

271.3 

304.2 

337.0 



0.09 



Year 
Record. 



Pounds 

Butter 

Fat. 



250.5 

287.0 
323.5 
360.0 



0.1 



HOLSTKIN. 



7-Day 
Record. 



Pounds 

Butter 

Fat. 



7.2 
r 8.8 

10.4 
12.0 



Jbbsey. 



7-Day Record. 



Pounds 

Butter 

Fat. 



12.0 
12.0 
12.0 
12.0 



0.00439 



Pounds 

Butter 

Fat. 



14.0 
14.0 
14.0 
14.0 



Year 
Record. 



* Two and one-half years. 



Pounds 

Butter 

Fat. 



250.5 

287.0 
323.5 
360.0, 



.1 



DAIRY BREEDS OF CATTLE 139 

Great advancement in the appreciation and breeding of pure-bred 
cattle has been and is being brought about by volunteer state and com- 
munity organizations. The closer contact which these associations have 
with the masses engaged in dairying make their opportunity greater than 
that of national associations for giving encouragement to men to use the 
very best breeding animals, especially sires, that it is possible to secure. 
In fact, such organizations cannot be encouraged too much, for in the 
work of local breeders and community effort lies the success of maintaining 
high standards of excellence and the preservation of all breeds. 

» 

REFERENCES 

"Types and Breeds of Farm Animals." Plumb. 
"Study of Breeds." Shaw. 



CHAPTER 13 
Clean Milk Production 

By C. W. Larson 
Professor of Dairy Husbandry, The Pennsylvania State College 

More than half of the milk produced in the United States is used for 
direct consumption. Pure, clean milk is an excellent food and is cheap. 
It contains all the essential elements for a complete and balanced ration 
for man. On account of its being used by infants, children and invalids 
who are least able to resist the effects of unclean food, and because milk is 
so easily contaminated, it is essential that great care be taken in its pro- 
duction and handling. 

CLASSES OF MILK 

Sanitary Milk is no definite class of milk. It is simply a term used to 
designate good, clean milk produced with extra care. It is usually sold at 
a price somewhat above prevailing milk prices. 

Guaranteed Milk is milk that the producer guarantees to be produced 
under certain conditions and usually with some standard of fat and bac- 
terial content. 

Standardized Milk is milk which has been altered in its amount of 
butter-fat by skim m ing or the adding of cream. 

Certified Milk is milk that has been produced under certain conditions 
prescribed by a commission, usually consisting of a veterinarian, a physi- 
cian, a chemist and a bacteriologist. The prescribed conditions include 
scrupulously clean methods, healthy cows, healthy milkers and carefully 
sterilized utensils. Such milk should not contain over 10,000 bacteria per 
cubic centimeter. It is usually sold at a considerably higher price than 
ordinary milk. 

Inspected Milk is produced from healthy cows that have been 
inspected. The inspection involves an examination by a city or state 
inspector of premises and methods. 

Pasteurized Milk is milk that has been heated to a sufficiently high 
temperature to kill the harmful bacteria, or germs, and then immediately 
cooled. The temperature to which it is heated varies with the length of 
time it is held. For market milk, it is customary to heat to 140° to 145° F. 
for twenty minutes. 

Modified Milk is high-class milk, such as certified or sanitary milk, 
altered in composition to suit certain uses. Such milk is used for infants 
and invalids. 

140 



CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION 141 

EQUIPMENT AND METHODS 

Clean, Healthy Cows. — The first essential in the production of clean, 
healthy milk is to have cows that are clean and free from disease. The milk 
from emaciated animals, or those suffering from any disease, should not be 
sold. The milk from cows having inflamed udders or sore teats should not 
be put into the general supply. The cows should be comfortable in order 
to produce normal milk. Any unusual condition or disturbance will cause 
them to produce abnormal milk. They should be kept in dry, clean, 
properly-bedded stalls. The food should be free from mustiness and no 
decomposing silage or wet foods should be given after they become mouldy. 
The drinking water should be clean and fresh. 

Most of the dirt that finds its way into the milk pails falls from the 
bodies of the cows. It is essential, therefore, that the cows be kept clean. 
One of the most important factors in keeping cows clean is to have the 
platforms on which they stand the proper length, so that the manure will 
drop into the gutter. Adjustable stanchions are also desirable, so that the 
proper alignment can be made on the platform. Cows kept in the stable 
should be groomed at least once a day, but this should be sufficiently long 
before milking time to permit the dust to settle. Wiping the udder and the 
flanks with a clean, damp cloth requires only a short time and will do much 
to remove dirt that would otherwise fall into the pail. It is practical, 
where clean milk is being produced, to clip the udder and flanks occasion- 
ally. This prevents the dirt from sticking, and makes it possible to keep 
the cows cleaner. 

Stables. — Expensive barns are not essential to the production of clean 
milk. The health of the cows and the methods of the milker are of greater 
importance and have more effect upon the finished product. Good con- 
struction and convenient arrangement of the stable may lessen the work, 
keep the cows more comfortable and have a beneficial effect upon the 
milkers. 

The barn should be located on well-drained land and be free from 
contaminating surroundings. Horses, chickens, stagnant water and 
manure piles, when near the stable, may pollute the air. Odors are easily 
absorbed by milk. The stable floor should be of concrete or seme other 
material that does not absorb the liquid manure, and at the same time 
should be sufficiently smooth to be easily cleaned. The walls should be 
smooth and free from ledges to avoid collecting dirt. The occasional use 
of whitewash on the walls and ceiling is recommended. 

The barn should not be overcrowded and at the same time should not 
have an excessive amount of space in cold climates. From 500 to 1000 
cubic feet per cow is satisfactory. Too much light cannot be provided. 
Sunlight destroys bacteria and also makes a healthy atmosphere for the 
cows. The more light the better, and it is well that it be evenly distributed 
and that -the windows be located, if possible, so that the light can shine into 
the gutter. 

48 



142 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



The dairy barn should be well ventilated. Experiments at the 
Pennsylvania Experiment Station have shown that cows will do well even 
in an open shed, providing they are kept dry and out of the wind. Since, 
therefore, it is not necessary to have the dairy barn warm, the problem 
of ventilation is greatly lessened. It is not difficult to get fresh air into the 
barn, but it is difficult to get sufficient fresh air without cooling the atmos- 
phere. The air in the barn should be changed, even if it does become cold. 
Cows must have fresh air in order to produce their maximum of milk and 
keep healthy. Have many and small intakes and few and large outlets. 
The capacity of the intakes and the outlets should be equal and provide 
about one square foot in cross section for each four or five cows. 



i » 1 1 ■ * i * , 



J 





I 

J 

1 



Milk Pails of Best Design. 1 

Milkers. — A clean and careful milker can produce clean milk in a 
poor barn, but an unclean milker cannot produce clean milk in any barn. 
The milker must be clean and healthy and, above all things, should milk 
with dry hands. The practice of wetting the hands with milk is deplorable. 
It is unnecessary. The milker should always wash his hands before start- 
ing to milk. The air, during the milking, should be kept free from dust 
and odors. Manure should not be removed from the barn, nor should any 
dusty feed be given during the milking time. Silage or other feeds that 
have an odor should be fed at least three hours before milking, so that 
the odor will not be taken up by the milk. 

Small-top Milk Pails. — Most of the dirt that gets into the milk 
drops from the cows during milking time. If, therefore, the opening at 
the top of the pail is closed to one-sixth the size of an ordinary pail, only 

1 Courtesy of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 



CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION 143 

one-sixth as much dirt gains access to the milk. With a little practice, 
the small-top milk pail can be used as easily as the large-top pail. 

Clean Tinware. — All the cans and pails that are used for milk should 
be of metal, and all of the joints and corners should be completely filled 
with solder. Wooden pails should not be used. To wash the tinware, 
it should first be rinsed with lukewarm water, then thoroughly scrubbed 
with brush, hot water and washing powder, and finally, either steamed 
or rinsed with boiling hot water. It should not be wiped with a cloth, 
but should be allowed to drain and dry. The heat of the steam or boiling 
water will soon dry the tinware. 

Strainers. — Where milk is produced in a clean way it is not necessary 
to have a strainer. It is usually not desirable to have a strainer on the 
milk pail, for the dirt collected will have all the injurious effect washed 
from it into the pail during the milking. A strainer may be used on the 
can or milk cooler. For this a cloth strainer, made especially for that 
purpose and used only once, is satisfactory. The cheesecloth strainer 
that is used from day to day contaminates the milk instead of purifying 
it. A metal strainer is satisfactory. 

Handling the Milk. — As soon as the milk has been drawn it should 
be removed from the stable so that it will not absorb odors. A convenient 
milk-room should be provided. This room should be clean and free from 
dust and odors. The milk should be cooled at once. Under the best of 
conditions, some bacteria or germs get into the milk, and the problem, 
therefore, is to prevent these bacteria from increasing in number. At a 
temperature of 70° F. one bacterium may increase to two in twenty min- 
utes, but at 50° F. or lower it requires a much longer time. One bacterium 
at 50° F. may increase in twelve hours to six or seven, while at 70° F. 
it may increase to six or seven hundred. Since, therefore, there are several 
hundred bacteria in every cubic centimeter of good milk, some realization 
may be had of how many thousands of bacteria will be developed in ten 
or twelve hours at 70° F. The following table, prepared by Stocking, 
shows the importance of cooling milk at once to a low temperature. The 
milk that was used in this experiment contained a low percentage of bac- 
teria when produced. 

Effect of Different Temperatures Upon the Development of Bacteria 

in Milk. 

Temperature Maintained Bacteria per c.c. at 

for 12 Hours. end of 12 Hours. 

40° F 4,000 

47° F 9,000 

60° F 18,000 

64.5° F 38,000 

60° F 453,000 

70° F 8,800,000 

80° F 55,300,000 

Coolers. — There are various styles of apparatus on the market for 
cooling milk. These are called coolers. They are arranged so that the 



144 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

water passes on the inside of the tubes and the milk passes over them. 
By haying a supply of cold water passing through the tubes, the milk 
can be cooled to within two or three degrees of the temperature of the 
water. Unless the cooler is placed in a room free from dust, the milk 
may become contaminated. Coolers with a hood or covering are preferred. 
Those having few joints so that they may easily be cleaned are also pref- 
erable. When it is not necessary to cool the milk immediately for ship- 
ment, or otherwise, it may be cooled by. placing the can in a tank of cold 
water. Unless the water supply is plentiful and the water cold, it is desir- 
able to have ice. 

Suggestions for Improvement — A list of suggestions and instructions 
of good methods and practices placed in a conspicuous place in the barn 
does much to improve the quality of the milk. A list of twenty-one 
suggestions, composed by Webster, gives the essential points to be fol- 
lowed in the production of clean milk. These suggestions are as follows: 

11 1. Cows. 

"1. Have the herd examined frequently by a skilled veterinarian. 
Remove all animals suspected of not being in good health. Never add an 
animal to the herd unless it is known to be free from disease. 

"2. Never allow a cow to be abused, excited by loud talking or other 
disturbances. Do not unduly expose her to cold and storm. 

"3. Clean the under part of the body of the cow daily. Hair in 
the region of the udder should be kept short. Wipe the udder and sur- 
rounding parts with a clean, damp cloth before milking. 

"4. Do not allow any strong-flavored foods such as cabbage, turnips, 
garlic, etc., to be eaten except directly after milking. 

"5. Salt should always be accessible. 

"6. Radical changes of food should be made gradually. 

"7. Have plenty of pure, fresh water in abundance, easy of access 
and not too cold. 

"II. Stables. 

"8. Dairy animals should be kept in a stable where no other aninmls 
are housed, and preferably one without a cellar or storage loft. Stables 
should be light — f our feet of glass per cow — and dry, with at least 500 cubic 
feet of air for each animal. The stable should have air inlets and outlets 
so arranged as to give good ventilation without drafts over the cows. It 
should have as few flies as possible. 

"9. Floors, walls and ceilings should be tight and the walls und ceiling 
should be kept free from dust and cobwebs and whitewashed twice a year. 
There should be as few dust-catching ledges and projections as possible. 

"10. Allow no musty or dirty litter or strong-smelling material in 
the stable. Store the manure under cover at least forty feet from the 
stable and in a dark place. Use land-plaster in the gutter and on the floor. 



CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION 



143 



"IIL Milk House. 

"11, The can should not remain in the stable while being filled. 
Remove the milk from each cow at once from the stable to a clean room. 
Strain immediately through absorbent cotton or cotton flannel; cool to 
50° F. as soon as possible. Store at 50° F. or lower. 

"12. Utensils should be of metal with all joints smoothly soldered. 
If possible, they should 
be made of stamped 
metal. Never allow 
the utensils to become 
rough or rusty inside. 
Use them for nothing 
but milk. 

"13. To clean the 
utensils, use pure water. 
First rinse them with 
warm water, then wash 
them inside and out in 
hot water in which a 
cleaning material has 
been dissolved. Rinse 
again and sterilize in 
boiling water or steam. 
Then keep them in- 
verted in pure air, and 
in the sun as much as 
possible, until ready to 



A Clean Milker r 
Milku 

Note the clean suit, sanitary milking stool, small-top 
pail, cow with clean flanks and udder, and sanitary 
stable construction. Under these conditions clean milk 
can be easily produced. 



"IV. Milking and 
Handling Milk. 

"14. A milker 
should wash his hands 
immediately before 
milking and should 
milk with dry hands. 
He should wear a clean 
outer garment, which should be kept in a clean, place when not in use. 
Tobacco should not be used while milking. 

- " 15. In milking be quiet, quick, clean and thorough. Commence milk- 
ing the same hour morning and evening. Milk the cows in the same order. 

"16. If any part of the milk is bloody, stringy or not natural in 
appearance, or if, by accident, dirt gets into the pail, the whole should 
be rejected. 

i From Fustsn' Bulletin 602, D. S. Dipt, of Ajricultun. 



146 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

" 17. Weigh and record the milk given by each cow. 

" 18. Never mix warm milk with that which has been cooled. Do 
not allow milk to freeze. 

11 19. Avoid using any dry, dusty feed just previous to milking. 

"20. Persons suffering from any disease, or who have been exposed 
to any contagious disease, must remain away from the milk. 

"21. The shorter the time between the production of the milk and 
its delivery, and between its delivery and its use, the better will be the 
quality." 

REFERENCES 
" Dairy Chemistry." Snyder. 
" The Milk Question." Rosenau. 
" Bacteria and Country Life." Lipman. 

" Modern Methods of Treating Milk and Milk Products." Van Slyke. 
"Practical Dairy Bacteriology." Conn. 

Kentucky Expt. Station Circular 6. " Inexpensive Appliances and Utensils for Dairy." 
Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

348. "Bacteria in Milk." 

366. " Effect of Machine Milking and Milk Supply of Cities." 

413. " Care of Milk and Ite Use m the Home.'' 

602. " Production of Clean Milk." 

608. " Removal of Garlic Flavor from Milk." 



CHAPTER 14 

DAIRY BUTTER-MAKING 

By Ernest L. Anthony 
Assistant Professor of Dairy Husbandry, The Pennsylvania State College 

Farm dairying has attracted public attention to an uncommon degree 
in the last few years. This is due largely to the modern development in 
the dairy field as well as to the adaptability of dairy farming or certain 
phases of it to average farm practices. 

Adaptation. — Dairy farming is especially adapted to farms located 
near markets, because of the regular demand for fresh dairy products. 
Dairy products are, as a whole, perishable and must be marketed soon after 
being produced. For this reason easy and frequent access to markets is 
very desirable. Dairying is also adaptable as a side line in general farming, 
fruit raising and poultry farming. It provides for the utilization of 
waste products on the farm as feed for cows and aids in the continuous 
and economical employment of labor. 

It is also particularly adapted to the person starting in to farm on a 
small scale, as it is possible with a comparatively small capital to start a 
dairy business which enables the dairyman to live while his business grows. 

The Need of Dairy Farming. — According to late authorities, the 
people of the United States consume over seven-tenths of a pint of milk per 
capita daily. To this should be added the enormous consumption of 
butter, cheese, ice cream, condensed milk and other minor dairy products. 
This gives an idea of the possibilities which are before the American dairy- 
man today. 

Types of Dairy Farming. — Several types of dairy farming are pursued 
in the United States; they are: (1) the production of milk for wholesale 
and retail trade; (2) the production of cream for creameries and ice cream 
factories; (3) the manufacture of cheese on the farm; (4) the manufacture 
of butter upon the farm, or farm butter-making. 

Market Milk. — The production of market milk is one of the leading 
types of dairy farming. It requires easy access to reliable markets, and is 
most successful when conducted on a fairly extensive scale. It requires 
less labor than most other types of dairy farming. Clean milk production is 
discussed in the preceding chapter. 

Farm Cheese-making. — This type is especially adapted to dairy 
farms not located close to dairy markets. Cheese is less perishable than 
the other dairy products and this enables the farmer to engage in dairying 

147 



US SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

and market his products at his convenience. Farm cheese-making is most 
extensive in the eastern part of the United States, especially in the rougher 
sections. Cheddar and brick cheese are largely made. Much soft cheese, 
such as schmier kase, cottage and Dutch hand is also produced in many 
localities. Successful farm cheese-making requires some special cheese 
apparatus, as well as a fair understanding of the principles which govern 
cheese manufacture. 

Farm Butter-making. — On the general farm more attention is paid 
to the making of farm 
butter than to any 
other phase of farm 
dairying. This is true 
because of the large 
marketforthe product 
and the adaptability 
of farm butter-making 
to average farm con- 
ditions. 

Control of Prod- 
ucts. — The production 
of good butter of uni- 
form quality starts 
with the cow. Milk 
from unhealthy cows 
can never be made 
into first-class prod- 
ucts. Neither can 
cows that are kept in 
unclean, unsanitary 
places produce clean 
milk. 

. _ _ „ One making but- 

A Good Type of a Dairy Houbb. 1 . „_ ,, »„„_ „„„ 

ter on the farm can 

have complete control 
of his milk from the time that it is drawn from the cow until it is made 
into butter. This is not true of the creamery man or manufacturer, who 
* has to secure his product from outside sources over which he has no 
supervision. This advantage means much to the farm butter-maker if he 
realizes it and makes the most of it. 

Cleanliness Necessary. — The cows should always be brushed off and 
kept clean at milking time. Care should be taken that all utensils be kept 
clean and in good condition, so that the cream, whether skimmed or sepa- 
rated, shall be good, sweet and not absorb any undesirable taints or odors. 
Much butter which would otherwise be good is damaged in flavor because 

' Hygienic Laboratory, Washington, D. C, 



DAIRY BUTTER-MAKING 149 

care is not taken to keep dirt and impurities out of it. Milk not separated 
by a cream separator should be at once cooled by some suitable method 
and held as cold as possible until the cream has risen. Cream should be 
cooled as soon as it is separated. 

Percentage of Fat in Cream. — If a separator is used the percentage 



A Good Type of Cream Separator. 1 

of fat in the cream may be regulated. When it is impossible to test the 
cream for its percentage of fat, the separator so regulated that about 12 
to 14 per cent of the total milk is separated and comes out as cream, will 
give approximately the proper richness to the cream. The best results 

1 Courtly of the 8tuupl» Separator Company, Weet Charter. P«. 



160 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

will be obtained when the cream has about 28 to 30 per cent of fat. Cream 
with too high a percentage of fat has a tendency to adhere to the sides of 
the churn, which causes difficult churning and increases the danger of loss 
of fat in the buttermilk. 

Thin Cream Undesirable. — When cream is too thin or has too small a 
percentage of fat in it, as in the case of hand-skimmed cream containing 
from 12 to 20 per cent of fat, good, uniform churning is hard to secure. 
Such cream loses too much fat in the buttermilk and also requires longer 
churning. 

Methods of Ripening Cream. — Poor quality in farm butter is most 
frequently due to a lack of proper ripening of the cream previous to churn- 
ing. On the farm it is often necessary to store the cream from two or 
or more days' milkings in order to secure a sufficient amount for a churning. 
The common method now in use on most farms is simply to collect in a 
cream can or jar successive creamings, until enough has been secured 
for a churning. Meanwhile the cream is held in the cellar, milkhouse, 
back porch or springhouse. The temperature at which it is held varies 
with the weather, season of year and other conditions. Under these 
conditions the cream usually ripens or develops acid until at the end of 
three or four days it becomes sour and is then stirred and churned. If 
it is kept too cold for ripening during this holding period, it is warmed 
for several hours and allowed to sour before churning. 
\ This is a bad practice and is responsible for many of the taints and 
off flavors found in farm butter. The reason for this is that the temperature 
of the cream is usually about 55° F., which is a little too low to secure 
a good growth of the lactic or acid-forming bacteria which produce the 
proper flavors in the cream. Some claim that this average cellar tem- 
perature favors the proper conditions for the growth of the bacteria that 
produce objectionable flavors and taints in cream. These undesirable 
bacteria produce no acid, will not grow well in the acid medium and seem 
to grow best at a temperature of 50° to 60° F. 

The Pennsylvania Experiment Station, Bulletin 135, has conducted 
some experimental work to determine the best way to ripen cream on the 
farm. This work indicates that there are three other methods, any one 
of which will give better results than the storing of cream at cellar tem- 
peratures. They are: (1) holding or storing the cream at a very low 
temperature (below 45° F.) until enough is secured for a churning, and 
then warming it up to 70° to 80° F. and ripening; (2) ripening the first 
collection of cream at once and adding each skimming to it, from day to 
day, until a churning is secured; (3) adding a portion of buttermilk to 
the first cream gathered and then adding each skimming until enough 
is secured for a churning. 

The first method is a good one for butter-tnakers who have ice for 
keeping the cream cold. Immediately after separating each day's cream, 
it should be cooled to 45° F. or below, and held at this low temperature 



DAIRY BUTTER- MAKING 151 

until enough is secured for a churning. It is then warmed up to 75° F. 
and held at that temperature until the proper amount of acid is developed 
in it. At this temperature about twelve hours is required to develop the 
proper percentage of acid. 

The second method is to ripen the cream of the first separation that 
is to form the new churning at about 75° F. until 0.3 per cent of acid is 
developed. It is then cooled to the temperature of the springhouse or 
ceUar, and each subsequent creaming, after it has been cooled, is added 
to this lot until enough is secured for a churning. Under average conditions 
this will give enough acid development in the whole churning for best 
results. The ripening of the first separation of cream develops a large 
number of lactic acid bacteria and produces some acid, which serves to 
hold in check the undesirable types of bacteria. 

The third method is to add a portion of buttermilk of good quality 
to the first separation, and then add each succeeding creaming and 
hold the whole amount at cellar or springhouse temperature until a 
sufficient quantity is secured for a churning. If the ripening has not 
sufficiently developed by that time the temperature can be raised to 
75° F. and the cream allowed to ripen until the proper amount of acid 
has developed. 

The object in the last two methods is essentially the same, namely, 
to hold in check the undesirable bacteria by having developed or intro- 
duced into the cream a preponderance of the desirable bacteria and a 
small amount of acid. The last two methods are simple, handy and 
require no special apparatus. Care must be taken, however, in the last 
method to make sure that the buttermilk comes from butter of a good 
flavor and quality. The using of buttermilk of medium or poor quality 
is very likely to produce butter of much the same kind as that from which 
the buttermilk was secured. 

Amount of Acid to Develop, or Degree of Ripening. — Large amounts 
of farm cream are ripened or soured too much before churning. Because 
of this, an old and tainted or stale flavor is developed. Cream ripened 
until it is sharply sour usually contains from 0.6 to 0.8 per cent of acid, 
which is too much. The best flavors and keeping quality are secured when 
it is ripened so as to contain about 0.4 to 0.5 per cent of acid. Where 
no acid test is used, this amount of acid may be approximated. The cream 
should taste only very mildly sour. Cream naturally ripened at 70° to 
75° F. will develop about this amount of acid if held ten hours. 

The Use of Starters. — Starters are not much used on the farm and 
when used are generally of the natural kind, that is, made up of buttermilk 
or good sour milk. They are very desirable, if care is taken to use only 
good buttermilk or sour milk, and in most cases will improve the quality 
of the butter produced. They are especially desirable when cream is 
hard to churn because of improper ripening, and where it is difficult to 
secure proper ripening. The amount to use varies with the con- 



152 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

dition of the cream, but in most cases from 10 to 20 per cent is a suitable 
quantity. 

Natural Starter. — The natural starter made from sour milk is perhaps 
the best for farm conditions. To make it, set several samples of good, 
clean skim or whole milk in small jars until the milk becomes sour. The 
holding temperature should be about 70° F. When the samples have 
become sour they should be examined. They should have formed a good, 
smooth curd, free from gas bubbles. The flavor and taste should be clean 
and sharply sour. The sample showing the best flavor and condition of 
the curd should be selected for the starter. It may be built up in larger 
quantities by adding the sample to about ten times its volume of clean, 
sweet skim milk and allowing the mixture to stand at about 70° F. until 
it has coagulated. The coagulated milk is then the starter to use in the 
cream-ripening process. It contains a preponderance of the desirable 
lactic bacteria which are necessary for that process. 

The Amount of Starter to Use. — The amount of starter to add to 
cream varies from 8 to 50 per cent. If the starter is a good one, the more 
added the better, but if too much be added it will dilute the cream too 
greatly and make it hard to churn. About 10 per cent is a common 
amount to use. 

Churning Temperatures. — The temperature at which cream is churned 
is very important. Properly ripened cream should be cooled down to the 
temperature at which it is to be churned and held at that temperature 
at least two hours to allow the fat to become cool and firm enough to churn. 

The churning temperature varies widely. It is affected by the seascn 
of the year, kind of feed given the cows, condition of the cream and tem- 
perature of the churning room. 

Variations in Churning Temperature. — In the spring and summer, 
when the cows are fresh and the feeds succulent and soft, the butter-fat 
is naturally softer than later in the season. Under average conditions 
temperatures ranging from 52° to 56° F. will give best results for these 
seasons. This temperature should be increased to about 56° to 60° F. in 
the winter. Much cream is now churned on the farms at above 60° F. 
Experiments seem to indicate that the lower temperatures are to be pre- 
ferred, as butter is much firmer when coming from the churn, does not so 
easily incorporate buttermilk, and will stand more working, thus producing 
a better body and a more uniform quality. Because of the cream being 
poorly ripened or abnormal in some way, it is often necessary to use higher 
temperatures than are here given. When difficulty in churning is expe- 
rienced, the cream should never be raised in temperature by adding hot 
water to the churn, but should be poured from the churn into a can and 
gradually raised a few degrees in temperature by setting the can in a 
pan of warm water. 

Care of the Churn. — The proper care of cream in the ripening process, 
although very essential, does not insure good butter, Good cream can 



DAIRY BUTTER-MAKING 153 

easily be spoiled in churning. Unless the churn is kept in good condition 
it is impossible to make good butter with it. The churn should always 
be well scalded out and well cooled down before using. There are two 
reasons for this: first, the hot water will scald out and kill all moulds that 
may be growing in the wood and will close the pores of the wood bo that 
the cream or butter will not adhere to it; second, the churn should be 
cooled so that the temperature of the cream will not be raised while churn- 
ing and yield soft, greasy butter. 

Length of Time to Churn. — The length of time best for churning 
varies with the condition of the cream, but ranges from 15 to 30 minutes. 



Farm BcTTER-MAKINa APPARATUS. 1 

If the cream churns in less than 15 minutes, the butter is very likely to be 
too soft to work well and will have a poor body when finished. Cream 
that requires much longer than 30 minutes may be improperly ripened 
or abnormal in some way. Taking the cream from the churn and raising 
the temperature in the manner suggested above will in most cases over- 
come the trouble. 

The churning should stop when the butter begins to collect in the 
buttermilk in granules from the size of a pea to that of a grain of corn. 
Granules of this size do not contain so much buttermilk as do larger ones. 
The butter is easier to wash, salt and work. 

Washing Butter. — It is a common practice on the farm to wash butter 
through several wash waters. This is unnecessary if the churning has 
been stopped at the right time. If the granules are about the size of peas 

' CottrUny of Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment SUtion. 



154 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

or grains of corn, one washing will remove all the buttermilk. Too much 
washing has a tendency to remove the finer flavors and give the butter 
a flat taste. The amount of wash water should be about equal to the 
volume of cream churned. 

Temperature of Wash Water. — The temperature of the wash water 
may vary considerably, but it should not be much above or below the 
churning temperature. Very cold wash water is to be avoided. Cold 
water absorbs the flavors of the butter readily, causes brittleness of body 
and lowers the quality. 

When a low churning temperature is used, the washing temperature 
may be the same, and should never be more than 4 to 6 degrees less. Where 
a higher temperature is used for churning, the washing temperature may 
differ as much as 4 to 10 degrees from that of the churning. The wash 
water should be pure and clean and free from odors or taints, as these 
will be readily absorbed by the butter. 

Preparation of Working-Board. — After the wash water is drawn from 
the butter — unless a combined churn and worker is used — the butter 
should be taken out in the loose, granular form and placed on the working- 
board or table. This table should be clean and thoroughly wet with 
cold water. Butter will stick to a dry, warm or dirty board. . 

Salting. — Fine dairy salt of the best quality should be used. The 
quantity varies with the taste of the maker and the markets on which 
the butter is sold. Under average conditions where the butter is 
worked on a hand-worker, three-quarters of an ounce of salt to each 
pound of butter-fat is a desirable amount to use. Butter made in a 
combined churn requires heavier salting, and as much as one and one- 
quarter ounces of salt per pound of butter-fat may be required. This 
larger amount is necessary because of the wash water which is held in 
the churn. 

The salt should be evenly distributed over the granules of butter on 
the working-board, and the working may begin at once. It is a common 
practice to let the butter stand with the salt on it for a while before working. 
This is unnecessary if the butter is in a good granular condition, firm in 
body and the salt fine and of a good grade. 

Working of Butter. — The working should begin by first using the 
sharp edge of the worker to cut and flatten the butter out into a thin 
sheet. This sheet should then be folded to the center of the working-board, 
and the process repeated. 

The working of butter accomplishes three important things: It 
evenly incorporates the salt, removes the excess water and makes the 
body compact. The working should be continued until the excess water 
no longer appears and the salt is worked evenly through the mass. The 
texture of the body may be ascertained by breaking off a piece of the 
butter. The break should show a brittle, grainy appearance, similar to 
that of broken steel. 



DAIRY BUTTER-MAKING 155 

When the butter has been sufficiently worked it should be printed 
into some desirable shape. The common rectangular one-pound mould is 
the best, as it makes a neat, attractive print and is easy to handle. 

Wrapping of Butter. — After the butter is printed it should be wrapped 
in a good grade of parchment butter paper. This is very essential. Much 
butter is wrapped in cloth or oiled paper. This is a very bad practice, 
as the cloth holds moulds, which readily grow and produce taints and odors. 
The oiled paper, if kept for any length of time in a warm place, becomes 
very rancid and imparts undesirable flavors. 

Value of Standard Product — It is always advisable to have the name 
of the producer or his farm name on the wrapper of the butter, if it is 
sold on the market. If the butter 
is of good quality, this will tend to 
increase the sales and be an in- 
centive to the highest effort for 
maintaining uniformity in quality. 
The attractiveness and neatness of 
the package always helps to sell the 
butter, often at much above the 
average market price. 

Care of the Farm Churn. — 
After the butter is taken from the 
churn, the latter should be rinsed 
out with warm water and the rinsing 
followed by a thorough washing 
with very hot water. The rinsing 
out with warm water will remove 
any buttermilk which may remain 
in the pores of the wood. The hot 

water will remove any fat which Butter Printer 

may be left in the churn. 

It is never well to use soap powders on the interior of the churn, but 
the occasional use of a small amount of dairy washing powder or lime- 
water is beneficial. 

To keep the churn sweet and free from odors and taints a small handful 
of lime placed in some water in the churn or in the last rinsing of the churn 
is very effective. It is essential in good butter-making to see that all 
apparatus used is absolutely clean and free from undesirable odors and 
taints, as these are quickly absorbed by the butter. 

Dairy Apparatus. — In the selection of dairy apparatus there are 
several things which must be taken into consideration. They are: Sim- 
plicity of construction, ease of cleaning, durability and first cost. 

Care of Other Dairy Apparatus. — All other dairy apparatus should 
at all times be kept scrupulously clean and free from rust. Pails, buckets, 
crocks, etc., after being used should be rinsed out and washed well with 



156 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

a brush and a dairy washing powder. After they are carefully cleaned 
they should be rinsed out and then either scalded with very hot water 
or steamed if steam is available. 

The cream separator should be taken apart and well cleaned after 
each milking and left apart until its next use. If it is left unclean, or 
is not well aired, bad taints and odors will develop in the cream, causing 
a poor quality of finished product. 

All dairy apparatus should be placed in the sun after it is washed, 
as the sun will quickly dry it. Sunlight also acts as a powerful disin- 
fecting agent. However, care should be taken to see that the appa- 



Butter Ready for Market. 1 

ratus is so placed that there is no- danger of dust and dirt blowing in 
on it. 

Churns. — The farm churn should be of ample size for the largest 
churning made during the year. The common barrel churn is the most 
practical for farm use, as it is simple, easy to clean and very durable as 
well as economical in the first cost. On farms where large amounts of 
butter are made a small combined churn, as illustrated, is very desirable. 

On farms where more than three cows are kept a cream separator, 
of a size depending upon the number of cows kept, is advisable. It is best 
to select a make of separator that is sold in the community, so that the 
purchaser can always quickly secure necessary repairs. Cream separators 
have been so well perfected that there is practically no difference in the 
skimming efficiency of the several machines. They all skim sufficiently 

'Courteny of Hinde A Daucb Paper Co., Sandusky, Ohio. 



DAIRY BUTTER-MAKING 



157 



clean, but one should look to simplicity of construction and 
durability of wearing parts. 

Buckets and Tinware. — All buckets should be made of 
heavy stamped metal, heavily tinned and with all joints and 
corners smoothly soldered so as to leave no place for dirt or 
impurities to collect. Buckets like those shown in the pre- 
ceding chapter are desirable for milking purposes, as they 
admit the smallest amount of dust and dirt and are still 
simple in construction. 

Wooden Apparatus. — Wood is best suited for the con- 
struction of certain dairy apparatus such as butter ladles, butter 
moulds, workers, etc., because, by proper treatment, butter 
will not adhere to wood as it will to other materials. 




Wooden 
Ladle. 



REFERENCES 

"Principles and Practice of Butter Making." McKay and Larson. 

"The Business of Dairying." Lane. 

"Milk and Its Products." Wing. 

"Dairy Farming." Michels. 

"First Lessons in Dairying." Van Norman. 

"Science and Practice in Cheese Making." Van Slyke and Publow. 

"Farm Dairying." Laura Rose. 

Pennsylvania Expt. Station Bulletin 135. "A Study of Manufacture of Butter/ 5 

"Methods of Making Farm Butter." 
Purdue Expt. Station Circular 51. "Producing Cream for Good Butter." 
Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

349. "Dairy Industry in South." 

541. "Farm Butter Making." 



part m 

ANIMAL DISEASES, CROPPING AND 

FEEDING SYSTEMS 



(159) 



CHAPTER 15 
Diseases of Animals and Their management 

By Dr. S. S. Buckley 
Professor of Veterinary Science and Pathology, Maryland Agricultural College 

"You say you doctored me when lately ill; 
To prove you didn't, I'm living still." 

Domestic animals contribute largely to the benefits of country life, 
and, aside from house pets, these pleasures are denied the residents of towns 
and cities. Farms devoted to trucking and fruit growing may prove 
financially profitable, as do mercantile pursuits, but they fail to make the 
farm a home as do those which possess a varied assortment of species of 
live stock. 

Domestic animals share our labor, contribute to our food supply and 
furnish the means for improving our soil and maintaining its fertility. 
While the different species of domestic animals are materially unlike in 
some respects, yet the general scheme on which their conformation and 
action is planned makes it possible to apply similar broad rules for the care 
and management of them all. 

Animals in health are by nature intended to serve man's purposes 
and, according to the degree of impairment of health, so is the degree of their 
usefulness to man affected. 

Strictly considered, there are not different degrees of health, since 
health signifies a normal condition of the body. Abnormal conditions of 
the body occur, however, which are variable in degree, and these constitute 
disease. 

Disease, therefore, may range from slight unrecognizable disturbances 
of the body functions to extremely complex modifications which terminate 
life in death. 

An animal is most highly profitable to its owner when in a normal or 
healthy condition, and its value to him diminishes according to the degree 
of abnormality or disease. It is for the stockman, therefore, to interest 
himself in maintaining animals in health, rather than in the study of the 
nature and treatment of their diseases, if he is to derive the greatest benefits 
from them. 

The Essentials for Health. — In order to be most successful in the 
management of animals, a study should be made of the efficacy of sound, 
wholesome food and pure water; the necessity for pure air and proper 
exercise; the effects of proper dieting, over-feeding and abstinence; the) 

» 161 



162 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

necessity for comfortable quarters, and lastly the benefits of humane and 
intelligent treatment. This means familiarity with the laws of hygiene 
and as far as possible with the structures (anatomical parts) and the 
functions (normal actions) of the animal body. There is a general simi- 
larity of the organization of animal bodies and of the human body, and what 
is bad for mankind is most likely bad for animals. 

Knowledge of Disease Should Precede Treatment. — No one should 
undertake the treatment of a disease of animals whose nature he is not 
familiar with, nor to administer medicines whose effects are unknown to 
him, any more than he should attempt to treat similar disorders in the 
human. The mere fact that one is animal and the other human does not 
alter the chances for success, nor prove more creditable to his intelligence. 

Stockmen should exercise common sense in the management of animals 
in health and disease, and remember that there is always to be regarded 
the powerful effort on the part of nature to combat bodily disturbances 
and disease. Intelligent assistance would frequently restore, where indis- 
creet meddling will destroy. 

There is a strong propensity on the part of stockmen to resort to the 
use of powerful remedies for all diseases without first deliberating on the 
nature of the disorder, its cause, its symptoms, its course, its normal duration 
and, finally, its rational treatment. Such deliberation would frequently 
indicate that the disorder was due to some lapse in management; that some 
of the symptoms were mere evidences of nature's effort to overcome the 
disorder; that its normal cause and duration was dependent upon the 
duration of mismanagement and that rational treatment should be directed 
towards assisting rather than in opposing nature's efforts. For example, 
an animal has been over-fed and diarrhea results. More frequently than 
otherwise, such a case is treated with opium preparations or astringents, 
to check the diarrhea, possibly with serious consequences; while on the 
other hand, rational treatment would consist in restricting the diet, perhaps 
modifying it, and administering a mild laxative, mashes, flaxseed tea, or 
raw linseed oil, to assist nature in her efforts at the expulsion of the offending 
material as shown by the condition of diarrhea. After the desired result 
has been secured, the animal is brought back, by gradually increased 
amounts of food, to the usual ration which had been fed. 

Intelligent and judicious management is essential, both in preserving 
health and in restoring it when impaired. 

GENERAL RULES FOR MAINTAINING HEALTH 

1. Feed only sound, wholesome grain and fodder. Supply abundantly 
pure water, at short intervals. 

2. Supply salt regularly to all animals. Rock salt is preferable to 
purified salt, as it contains other needed elements than soda. Hogs and 
poultry need little salt compared to other farm animals, excessive amounte 
being Doisonous to them. - 



DISEASES OF ANIMALS 163 

3. Charcoal may be given occasionally with benefit to all animals, 
and may be fed with salt. 

4. Feed with extreme regularity, and according to the requirements of 
animals, in quantity and nutritive value. 

5. Developing or growing animals, females with young, pregnant 
females, males for breeding purposes, work animals and animals not at 
work require different feeds, in quantity and quality. 

6. Animals at pasture require, attention. Pasturage may be adequate 
or it may need to be supplemented with additional feed. 

7. Make all changes in rations gradually. Add any new variety of 
feed to the ration in small and successively increasing amounts until the 
desired addition is secured. 

8. Unwholesome food is frequently produced on farms, and, being 
unmarketable, is kept for feeding purposes. Such foods may be fed safely 
if proper methods are employed. 

Damaged grain, soft, rotten, mouldy, worm-eaten and otherwise 
unwholesome, may be made safe for feeding if it is first shelled from the 
cob or threshed from the straw and then carefully fanned to remove the 
light, badly damaged and unwholesome grains. By the same process, the 
spores of mold and poisonous dust are largely eliminated. 

Damaged fodder and hay may be made less objectionable and safer 
by shaking out as much as possible the dust and must as it is removed from 
the stack. It should then be nm through a cutting box and cut into con- 
venient lengths. This cut fodder should be mixed with a proper amount of 
grain and salted at the rate of one pound of salt to the hundred pounds of 
chop. Moisten the entire mass and after macerating for several hours, it 
can be fed. Where this is practiced, the chop box should be kept scrupu- 
lously clean. 

Comfort. — Animals may be well bred and well fed and yet not develop 
nor thrive properly if kept in uncomfortable surroundings. 

Stables which are comfortable should be well lighted, but the light 
must be admitted into the building in such a way as not to subject the 
animals to a constant glare of bright sunlight and they should not face dark, 
unlighted walls. Stables, however, should be so arranged that all parts 
of the enclosure are well lighted with diffuse light. They should be devoid 
of dark recesses which might serve for the accumulation of filth, as breeding 
places for vermin or for the decomposition of feed and fodder. 

Mangers and racks for feed should be convenient alike for feeder and 
animals and easy to clean. Refuse must not be allowed to accumulate, 
as when moistened with saliva it sticks to the mangers and affords an ideal 
place for decomposition processes and the development of attendant poisons. 

Floors must be kept with even surfaces, and be clean. If hard and 
impervious, they should be well bedded. If porous, they must not be 
permitted to become foul. Foot and hoof troubles, lameness and foul 
skins develop in dirty stalls. 



164 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

The air of stables must be pure. Any ventilating system which admits 
an abundance of pure air and allows the escape of foul air is a proper one. 
There is no one system suited to all stable designs. Muslin stretched across 
window openings, instead of glazed sash, makes a desirable covering. It 
at thv, same time allows the passage of air through its meshes and subdues 
the light from without. 

Animals must be kept well groomed. It is an old adage that "groom- 
ing is half the feed." The skin of animals becomes dirty with dust from 
without and from the dried sweat and skin emanations from within the 
body. Unless accumulations are removed through grooming, the natural 
function of the skin is impaired and debility results. Dirty coats of animals 
afford desirable breeding places for vermin. 

Proper light, pure air, suitable mangers and floors, together with 
cleanliness of stables and bodies, all tend toward the comfort of animals, 
and the less perfect these are, the more likely is it that the animals will be 
affected with abnormal sight, unhealthy skin, disordered respiration and 
impaired digestion, with all their consequent ills. It is necessary, therefore, 
to study carefully the comfort of animals, to insure good condition or 
physical fitness of their bodies. 

Exercise. — Regularity of exercise in the open air is necessary for the 
health of all classes of animals. Animals closely confined in stables, even 
though well fed and watered, properly groomed and otherwise well cared 
for, will become soft, their body tissues more or less watery. They become 
less resistant to disease and less vigorous in every way. 

The proper assimilation of food and bodily comfort is dependent upon 
proper exercise. The appearance of animals is deceptive in this respect. 
If a lot of young animals with similar treatment is divided and one part is 
allowed a paddock for exercise and the other part confined to stalls, the 
latter will usually appear to better advantage. They will be well rounded, 
smooth and apparently in prime condition, compared with the other lot, 
which is rough, rugged and more or less angular. As they mature, however, 
the lot which has been allowed to exercise in the open will continue a steady 
development to maturity, while the stalled lot will undergo a period of 
arrested development and fail totally in becoming large,- robust, resistant 
animals. It is in the young and developing animals particularly that 
opportunity for exercise in the open should be given. 

Failure to provide this has resulted, among other things, in the 
unnecessary susceptibility of horses to heaves, or cattle to tuberculosis, 
and of hogs to thumps, etc. 

General Management. — Intelligent management of animals, there- 
fore, may be said to consist of the following essentials: 

1. An abundant supply of pure air at all times. 

2. Proper food and water, regularly and judiciously provided. 

3. Good grooming for all animals when stabled. 

4. Proper exercise in the outside air. 



DISEASES OF ANIMALS 165 

Nursing. — In spite of intelligent management and due regard for the 
laws of hygiene, disorders and disease of the animal system will occur. 
Sick animals require intelligent care and greater attention to details of 
management even than do animals in health. Good nursing is of prime 
importance in the treatment of disease. 

Sick animals should be placed in detached, well-ventilated and clean 
box stalls, conveniently located. Such stalls should be roomy, clean, 
cool and dry. In certain cases body clothing — blankets and bandages — : 
are necessary. 

All utensils, buckets, brooms, etc., used in the care of sick animals 
should be kept clean and should not be used in other parts of the stable. 

All food not eaten should be removed from the sick animal and under 
no circumstances offered to other animals. 

Bedding must be clean, sufficient in amount and comfortable for the 
patient. 

Sick animals should be seen frequently, but should not be disturbed 
more nor oftener than is absolutely necessary. 

Sick animals are more comfortable and improve more rapidly when the 
bowels are in a lax state. Mashes and soft feed tend to keep them in this 
condition. In addition to having laxatives, mashes, flaxseed tea, apples, 
carrots or potatoes are serviceable in catering to their appetites. Exposure 
for a short while daily to sunlight acts as a tonic to convalescent animals 
and enables them to regain strength rapidly. 

Disease. — With the appearance of disease in an animal, it is essential 
that its true nature be speedily recognized or diagnosed. , To this end there 
are observed the modifications in the external visible or otherwise acces- 
sible parts of the body which indicate the nature of the internal changes 
occurring. 

These modifications are perceived through one or more of the special 
senses: sight, revealing alteration in size, conformation, color, etc.; sound, 
differentiating cavities and solid parts; touch, the texture, sensibility to 
pain, temperature variation, etc.; smell, the natural or modified odor and 
even the sense of taste, in milk examination for instance, serving an 
important end. 

In addition to the immediate employment of the senses, the clinical 
thermometer gives accurately the internal temperature, and various 
tests are at the command of veterinarians for special examinations. It is 
necessary for the stockman to recognize health and the earliest approach 
of disease and be capable of applying the treatment prescribed. To do so, 
he must acquaint himself with a system of examination which will enable 
him to fairly well approximate the condition of the animal, as well as to 
secure information which, compared with later examinations, will show the 
progress of disease. 

The modifications in form and function of the body are known as 
symptoms. By observing these the disease is located, and by them also 



166 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

its character is shown or a diagnosis made. For correctly diagnosing disease 
it is necessary that all changes be noted. 

The following procedure is recommended to the stockman who should 
make written rather than mental notes, in order to have positive and 
complete information about the patient prior to a veterinarian's exami- 
nation, if such proves to be necessary. 

Examination of Sick Animals. — 1. Description oj Animal. — This refers 
to the kind of animal, the sex, color, age, size and breed. This serves not 
only as a mark of identification, but such information may limit the 
diagnosis to certain diseases or may eliminate certain diseases from 
consideration. 

2. Characteristic Pose. — The attitude of the patient, whether standing 
or lying down, and the particular positions assumed are to be noted. The 
mere pose of an animal is more or less significant in some diseases, e. g., by 
rigidity of muscles, dilated nostrils, slightly extended tail and extension 
of the haw over the corners of the eyes in the standing horse, picture 
tetanus or lockjaw; the recumbent cow with muzzle at the flank, dull eyes, 
slow respiration and grating teeth, with history of calving within a few hours 
or days, designates calving fever or paralysis, etc. 

The physical condition of the animal suggests the possibility of certain 
diseases, e. g. } azoturia, while conformation and temperament may point 
equally well to other diseases; e. g., long-coupled, thin-barreled and long- 
legged horses are liable to scours. 

3. The Skin. — The condition of the skin indicates in an accurate way 
the condition of the body. In its examination we must take into account 
the disposition of the hair, the action of the sweat glands, presence of 
enlargements or growths upon the skin, any changes in the color of skin 
and whether these are confined to the skin or are evidences of general 
disease. 

4. The Eye. — An examination of the eye will indicate the volume and 
character of the blood, as seen in the visible capillary vessels. The color 
of the conjunctiva shows the condition of the animal and the character of 
its blood. The discharge of tears and swellings about the eyes should be 
noted as important to diagnosis. 

5. Temperature. — The internal body temperature in health varies 
within certain narrow limits, the average being for — 

Horses 100.0M01 .5° F. 

Cattle 100.5°-102.5° F. 

Sheep 102.5°-105.0° F. 

Hogs 100.5°-104.0° F. 

In diseases, these temperatures may range for — 

Horses 102.0° F. and over 

Cattle 103.5° F. and over 

Sheep 104.0° F. and over 

Hogs 104.0° F. and over 



DISEASES OF ANIMALS 167 

In all animals the temperature may rarely reach as high as 110° F., 
but life will soon terminate at such. The temperature must be accurately 
gotten with a thermometer inserted into the rectum for at least three 
minutes. The clinical thermometer registers only from 95° to 110° F. and 
is self-registering. This allows ample time for accurate reading and does 
away with the errors of estimating fever by the sensation of touch. 

Temperatures should be taken throughout the course of the disease 
and should be taken at about the same hour, once or twice daily. 

Fevers are measured by temperature and, in addition, by noting the 
accompanying chill, the uneven surface temperature, the alteration of pulse 
and respirations, the alteration of appetite and the general depression 
produced. 

6. The Pulse. — The pulse or blood force in the arteries indicates the 
frequency or rapidity of circulation, its rhythm or regularity and its quality 
and character. 

The normal pulse rate for animals is for — 

Horses 30-40 

Cattle 40-60 

Swine 60-80 

Sheep 70-80 

The rapidity of circulation or pulse frequency varies and is easily 
influenced by age, sex, external temperatures, exercise, the digestive 
processes, and by disease. 

The regularity of the pulse beat is greatly modified according to the 
state of health. 

The quality or character of the pulse is determined by the resistance 
to pressure by the finger tips when placed over the accessible arteries. 

7. The Respirations. — The examination of the respiratory system 
should be complete and thorough. The respirations are to be noted as to 
frequency, the manner in which they are produced and by the various 
chest sounds. The normal respiration of animals is as follows: 

Horses 8-16 

Cattle 10-30 

Swine 10-20 

Sheep 12-20 

In health, the respirations are carried on noiselessly. There are certain 
physiological or normal noises, as the snort and the blowing sound made by 
horses when galloping. 

On the other hand, with abnormal conditions, there is the snoring 
sound produced with the mouth partially open in semi-comatose Animals 
from any cause; a wheezing sound from the nostril when polyps, tumors 
or thickening of the bones occur; gargling or gurgling sounds are produced 
when mucus is present; and, finally, grunting sounds occur when the 
abdomen is greatly distended. 



168 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 1 

The breath of animals in health is inoffensive. In disease it may 
become l intensely disagreeable. It may indicate bad teeth, pus in the 
sinuses or chronic catarrhal conditions. Septic and gangrenous pneumonia 
is accompanied by foulness of breath. 

The nasal discharges signify various conditions by their quantity, 
color, consistency, odor, and by the presence of particles of food, blood, etc. 

They afford an excellent opportunity for examination of the quantity 
and the character of capillary blood circulation and characteristic evidences 
of particular diseases. 

The cough is indicative of various conditions such as heaves, bronchitis 
or pneumonia. 

8. The Mouth. — An examination of the mouth is of particular impor- 
tance, inasmuch as it exposes to view mucous surfaces which are altered in 
some diseases. It allows an opportunity for judging age, by the characters 
upon the teeth; and further, the amounts of secretion present indicate the 
degree to which the secretory glands are disturbed. 

9. The Kidneys and Bowels. — Direct examination of the kidneys and 
bowels is only safely conducted by experienced and trained men, but the 
stockman has an opportunity to examine the urine and the excrement. He 
should note the amount, color, consistency and any unusual odor of either. 
He should observe the frequency of the evacuations and whether they were 
made without causing distress. 

Rational Measures for Treatment. — Not until after having made a 
critical examination of the sick patient is the stockman or attendant 
justified in the attempt to supply remedial measures. 

If the condition of the patient justifies it, the services of a veterinarian 
should be secured promptly. If, on the other hand, there is no necessity 
for professional services, it is advisable that a comparison be made of the 
symptoms presented by the animal and the symptoms described in books 
on diseases of animals. When these are found to closely correspond, then, 
and only then, should the administration of medicines be begun. Many 
animals are destroyed or permanently ruined by unwise treatment. The 
eagerness "to do something" for these animals prevents proper deliberation 
and proper judgment, and the result is that the "cure is worse than the ill." 

REFERENCES/ 

"Common Diseases of Farm Animals." Craig, j 
"Care of Animals." Mayo. 
"Diseases of Animals. 11 Mayo. 
Kentucky Expt. Station Circulars: 

5. "A Remedy for Clover Bloat." 

7. "Blackhead of Turkey." 
Montana Expt. Station Bulletin 105. "Intradermal Test for Bovine Tuberculosis" 
Ohio Expt. Station Bulletin 280. "Important Animal Parasites." 
Canadian Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin. "A Plain Statement of Facts Concen*-'" - 

Tuberculosis." 
Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture; 

351. "Tuberculin Test." 



DISEASES OF ANIMALS 169 

Fanners' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 
366. "Hookworm Disease of Cattle." 

379. "Hog Cholera." 

380. "Loco-Weed Disease." 
439. "Anthrax." 

449. "Rabies or Hydrophobia." 

473. "Tuberculosis*" 

669. "Texas or Tick Fever." 

666. "Foot and Mouth Disease." 



CHAPTER 16 
Cropping and feeding Systems 

The character of cropping and feeding systems on a farm determines to 
a considerable extent the success of the farm. Cropping systems from the 
standpoint of crop production and maintenance of soil fertility will only 
be discussed here in a general way. The discussion will pertain more 
especially to the farm management phase of it and its relation to the 
other enterprises of the farm. 

Feeding systems pertain to the rations and methods of feeding live- 
stock and will be discussed especially from the farm management stand- 
point. 

The Farm Scheme. — Success in farming does not rest on the results 
of a single year. It is not enough to be successful in the production of one 
crop, but one must continually grow a satisfactory crop at regular intervals. 
This calls for a cropping system in order that the chief crop or crops may 
be rotated with other crops to avoid the numerous difficulties mentioned 
in the chapter on rotations. 

From the crop standpoint the two dominant factors are how to main- 
tain the yield of cash crops year after year and at the same time prevent 
any decline in soil fertility. When animals enter into the farm scheme 
the cropping system must also meet the needs for animal feed, including 
necessary bedding. Profits necessitate considering the enterprises as a 
whole. The order in which crops may be grown and the feeding system to 
be adopted is a local question. It will be determined by a great many 
factors, such as character of soil, climatic conditions, price of land, markets, 
transportation and the personal preferences of the farmer. No definite 
system can be laid down that will be best under all conditions, but there is 
a philosophy underlying the question that will aid every farmer in working 
out the system best suited to his conditions. 

Crops Related to Farm Management. — Crops are grown either to sell 
or to feed to livestock. One farmer may desire to grow corn principally, 
another cotton, a third one potatoes, and still another some other crop. 
Usually, several crops are grown. The problem from the standpoint of 
farm management will be that of determining how much of each of the 
different crops should be grown. From the standpoint of crop production 
the farmer is interested only in the method of growing the crop, and when 
the crop is harvested the task is completed. As a farm manager, it will be 
necessary for him to decide what to do with the crop. Will he profit more 
by feeding it or by selling it? If so, when should it be sold or to what class 
of livestock can it be most profitably fed? 

63 ' 170 



CROPPING AND FEEDING SYSTEMS 171 

Animals Related to Farm Management. — Most farmers raise some 
livestock. They should know the nature of animals and their require- 
ments. The care, the character of feed and the breeding that will give best 
results are generally questions of animal husbandry. From the standpoint 
of farm management, farmers must decide what classes of stock they will 
raise. This will be determined by many factors. The class of livestock 
to be kept will depend largely upon the character of the crops to which the 
farm is best adapted. On some farms, horses, sheep and poultry may be 
most desirable. On others, dairy cows for market milk will prove most 
profitable. The problem resolves itself into making plans for a specific 
farm, arranging it into fields, selecting the kinds of crops and the classes of 
livestock that are best adapted to it, and deciding upon the proper propor- 
tion of each. The buildings, equipment and capital must all be considered 
in this connection. 

Cropping and Feeding Systems are Related. — When crops are of prime 
importance on the farm, the livestock kept is generally selected chiefly 
for the utilization of by-products. Statistics show that four-fifths of the 
farms in the United States keep dairy cows. Two-thirds of the farms make 
butter. The small dairies are maintained largely on cornstalks, straw and 
hay of poor quality, and the cows are pastured on land that is not well 
adapted to the growing of crops. 

On most farms a few swine and 50 to 100 head of poultry are kept 
largely as scavengers to utilize what would otherwise be wasted. In some 
instances a few sheep are kept in the same way, and more might be kept in 
small flocks at low cost, to the advantage of both the farmer and the 
consumer of meat. 

On farms where livestock predominates, crops become subsidiary and 
the crops grown are those that meet the needs of the livestock. 

Adaptation of Cropping and Feeding Systems. — Crop adaptation must 
take into account the texture and structure of soils as well as the rotation 
of crops, but there is a further adaptation involved in the cropping system 
as well as in the feeding system. These two are dependent upon each 
other. If crops are grown chiefly for livestock, consideration must be 
given not only to yields, but also to feeding values. Corn generally pro- 
duces more digestible nutrients per acre than any of the small grains, 
clovers or grasses. For example, 12 tons of ensilage, a fair yield on an acre, 
contains approximately 3600 pounds of digestible nutrients. An acre of 
timothy yielding 2 tons contains only about 1700 pounds of digestible 
nutrients. An acre of clover yielding 2| tons of hay contains about 2300 
pounds of digestible nutrients. The clover also contains much more 
protein than the timothy. Crops for feed must be compared in this way, 
and definite information from the standpoint of yield and feeding value 
may be ascertained from the tables given on "Feeding Values of Different 
Crops" in Part IV. V 

Adaptation must also be considered from the standpoint of cost of 



172 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

production and the relation to the labor problem of the farm as a whole. 
The relative cost per unit of digestible nutrients is the safest basis for 
comparison. 

Usually the farms Bhould provide sufficient pasture or the number of 
animals should be regulated in accordance with the available pasture. 
Generally the cropping system should provide all of the necessary pasture 
and roughage for livestock. To secure these from the outside usually 
entails much additional expense. In most cases the farm may also produce 
the major portion of the concentrates, and in many cases will produce all 
of the concentrates. This will generally be true in case of the production 
of swine, beef cattle and sheep. It is less frequently true in case of the 



Hogging Down Corn. 1 

production of dairy products. There are many factors that determine 
the proportion that should be produced and that should be purchased. 

Cropping System Related to Future. — The plan of the cropping system 
should take into consideration the future productivity of the soil. Humus 
and nitrogen are most important in this connection. No cropping system 
will prove satisfactory for a long term of years that does not include at 
intervals of four to five years a leguminous crop such as clover, alfalfa or 
some of the annual legumes. Nitrogen in commercial form is much more 
expensive than that secured through the production of legumes. There is 
about $11,000,000 worth of nitrogen in the air resting on each acre of land. 
It is of prime importance to secure the soil nitrogen for crop production 
from this abundant supply. The humus will be maintained largely 

' Coustay of South Dakota Kiperimsnt Station. BrocWna, S. D. 



CROPPING AND FEEDING SYSTEMS 173 

through the return of crop residues in the form of barnyard manure. This 
calls for the feeding of a considerable portion of the general farm crops. 

Crop Rotations. — From the standpoint of the farm scheme, a rotation 
should ordinarily provide the roughage and pasture for the number of 
animals that are to be kept. It should include a sod and a legume for the 
supply of organic matter and nitrogen. It. should also include as large an 
area of the profitable cash crops as can be produced advantageously. In 
nearly every region there is one cash crop or sometimes several that pay 
better than other crops. In the South it is cotton; in the corn belt it is 
corn; in the New England states it may be hay; in some other districts it 
is apples. These crops should dominate both from the standpoint of area 
and the care which they are given. Agricultural surveys show that the 
most successful farmers follow this practice. 

Crops for Cash or for Feed. — The cash products may be either soil 
products or animal products. When animals dominate, the cropping system 
should be adjusted to meet their needs. Many small factors should be 
considered. The amount of bedding required should not be neglected. 
A crop that is of low value as a cash crop may be grown particularly for the 
straw it supplies for bedding. 

Milk may be produced more cheaply by allowing the liquid excrements 
of the cows to go to waste rather than by going to the expense of securing 
sufficient bedding to absorb it. If, however, the saving of the liquid by the 
use of straw will increase the yield of corn for ensilage and result in 12 tons 
per acre instead of 8 and a corresponding increase in the other crops that 
are grown for feed, the enterprise as a whole will undoubtedly be much more 
profitable by providing the necessary straw for bedding purposes. 

Straw contains a considerable part of the fertilizer constituents removed 
from the soil by a crop of grain. Prices for straw seldom justify selling it. 
If it cannot be used as bedding for livestock and returned to the fields in the 
manure, it should be returned in some other way. The practice of burning 
straw should be universally condemned. In cereal farming, the grain 
should be cut as high as possible, thus leaving the major portion of the straw 
on the land. 

In some localities a cash crop may be grown, marketed and the pro- 
ceeds enable the farmer to purchase twice as much of a given stock feed as 
he could produce on an equal area of land. Under such conditions the 
exchange is justifiable. In dairy districts farmers are often able to produce 
potatoes, and with the potatoes purchase more cow feed than they could 
possibly produce on the land devoted to potatoes. 

Crops Related to Feed Requirements. — When grown chiefly for live- 
stock, the proportion of the different crops should be determined to con- 
siderable extent by the requirements of the stock. One can ascertain how 
much of each crop should be produced by establishing what seems to be the 
best feeding system for the animals in question and calculating the year's 
requirements of silage, clover hay and grain as concentrates. Knowing the 



174 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

yield for these crops on the farm in question, the relative acreage of each 
can then be approximately determined. 

Plenty of pasture may reduce the requirements for hay. Where corn 
does well, it is generally cheaper to feed than oats. A horse or mule without 
pasture generally requires about 3 tons of hay or its equivalent annually. 
He needs approximately 70 bushels of com or 100 bushels of oats. Some of 
each is better than either alone. 

Cows usually require about 1 to 1J^ tons of grain, 1 ton of hay and 4 
tons of silage per year. If silage is not available, about 2J-£ tons of hay per 
cow is needed. 

Seven sheep require about as much feed as one cow. Hens eat about 
twice as much in proportion to their weight as other farm animals; 100 
hens are equivalent to a 1000-pound cow and are considered an animal unit. 



Buildings on a Dairy Fabu.' 

Changing Cropping System. — The development of the livestock 
enterprises on the farm will often necessitate changing the cropping system 
to meet the feed requirements. This will often require increasing the area 
of crops that produce the roughage. Such a change may be effected by 
substituting forage crops for cash crops or by increasing the length of the 
rotation. For example, the amount of hay produced could be very mate- 
rially increased by increasing the ordinary four-crop rotation of equal areas 
of corn, oats, wheat and hay to a five-years' rotation of the same crops in 
which hay would remain for two years. This would increase the proportion 
of total cropped land in hay from cne-f ourth to two-fifths. 

Two Rotations on the Same Farm. — The best development of the 
cropping system often calls for two rotations. This will be determined 
chiefly by the nature of the crops grown and the sequence that gives best 

'Courtesy of Board's Dairyman. 



CROPPING AND FEEDING SYSTEMS 175 



results. Potatoes give good results when grown in a three-years' rotation 
consisting of potatoes, small grain and clover. At the same time a longer 
rotation of general farm crops may prove more advantageous for the major 
area of the farm. 

On dairy farms where soiling crops are used, a subsidiary rotation on 
small fields close to the farmstead may prove advantageous for the produc- 
tion of a succession of suitable soiling crops. These will be supplementary 
to the general farm rotation that occupies the large fields for the remainder 
of the farm. The two systems can usually be worked together, so that a 
field is sometimes in one and sometimes in the other rotation. 

Combining Fields. — Some farms are laid out in many small, irregular 
fields that cannot always be satisfactorily combined. The number and 
size of fields may not fit the most desirable rotation. This will involve a 
plan of cropping the fields in the most advantageous way to meet the desired 
cropping system. 

Having decided upon the length of the rotation, ascertain the acreage 
of all fields and divide by the years in the rotation. This will give the area 
of each crop for each year. With this data, select the fields that are to be 
cropped the same in any given year in such a way that the acreage of two or 
possibly more, may equal as nearly as possible the desired acreage of the 
crop to be grown. 

Fixed Rotations with Unequal Areas. — The livestock requirements 
often call for an unequal acreage of the several crops. This makes the 
cropping system more complicated, but never impossible of solution. 
Fields of equal area may be maintained without growing an equal area of 
each crop. Suppose the farmer wishes to grow 8 acres of potatoes, 20 acres 
of corn, 28 acres of oats, 16 acres of wheat and 40 acres of hay, making a 
total of 112 acres of crops. It will be necessary to decide on the number of 
fields that give best results in accommodating these crops. If the area is 
divided into four fields of equal size, there will be 28 acres in each. The 
following rotation and arrangement might be used: 



Field. 


1914. 


1915. 


1916. 


1917. 


1 


8 acres potatoes 
20 acres corn 


28 acres oats 


12 acres hay 
16 acres wheat 


28 acres hay 


2 


28 acres oats 


12 acres hay 
16 acres wheat 


28 acres hay 


8 acres potatoes 
20 acres corn 


3 


12 acres hay 
16 acres wheat 


28 acres hay 


8 acres potatoes 
20 acres corn 


28 acres oats 


4 


28 acres hay 


8 acres potatoes 
20 acres corn 


28 acres oats 


12 acres hay 
16 acres wheat 



Rotations for Dairy Farms. — The rotations on dairy farms will depend 
chiefly on the location and the relative cost of producing the dairy feeds as 



176 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

compared with purchasing. The cost of production may be relatively 
low, because the manure from the dairy is an important factor in the crop 
yields, and because labor will be available for a certain amount of field work 
and still fully meet the needs of the dairy. Cora as ensilage will prove an 
important crop wherever it can be successfully grown. Hay for supplemen- 
tary roughage, and oats or wheat for the sake of the straw, will frequently 
be found advantageous. 

Careful investigations of the success of dairymen show that a combina- 



A Feed Lot Rack tor Both Grain and Roughage. 1 

tion of dairy products and cash crops is generally more successful than 
dairying alone. 

Corn, wheat, clover or clover and timothy mixed is a very common 
rotation. Where wheat does poorly, oats generally succeed and may 
supplant the wheat. In other districts both oats and wheat are advanta- 
geously grown. Alfalfa in limited acreage is generally advisable. It 
affords a most excellent crop, both for hay and soiling purposes. 

Feeding Systems. — The feeding system for any particular farm should 
be based on the class of animals, their age and the chief purpose for which 
grown. The feeding system for the rearing of young stock is quite different 
than for dairy cows or stock that is being fattened. Many farmers find it 
advantageous to raise young stock and sell it for feeding purposes, while 
others are better equipped to purchase feeding stock and fatten it for 

1 Omutwy of The Pennaylvini* Firaa. 



CROPPING AND FEEDING SYSTEMS 177 

market. The cheap feeds should be utilized to the fullest possible extent. 
Waste should be avoided. 

Economy in feeding often calls for two or more classes of stock. Swine 
will follow steers and secure much feed from the droppings that otherwise 
would be wasted. They will also utilize the skim milk and buttermilk on 
farms that make butter. Under these conditions one may be justified in 
feeding steers whole grain in greater abundance than he would in the 
absence of swine. 

The rearing of young stock generally necessitates depending chiefly 
on roughage and cheap feed. The roughage develops bone, and so long 
as the animal is kept thrifty and develops a good frame, the fat required 
for marketing can be secured by the use of concentrates dining the feeding 
period. In this connection stockmen are cautioned to avoid the stunting 
of young stock by insufficient feed. The higher the grade and value of 
stock, the greater the necessity for quality in the feed consumed. 

Feeding System Depends on Type of Farming. — Types of farming 
differ greatly in different sections of the country, depending on many 
factors previously mentioned in the chapter on this subject. Consequently, 
the feeding systems will vary greatly, depending on crops available. A 
type of farming that includes intensive crops, like tobacco, that respond 
abundantly to animal manures, may be justified in adopting a feeding 
system in which concentrates predominate. This results in more valuable 
manure which may increase the value of the cash crop to such an extent 
that stock can be fed on such a basis, even though there is no direct profit 
in the feeding enterprise. 

The type of farming, however, will regulate the feeding system more 
largely from the standpoint of the products that are available for feed. 
On the grain farms in the corn belt, roughage in the form of stover and 
straw, supplemented with corn and oats, together with small amounts of 
hay, should constitute the chief products in the feeding system. In the 
cotton belt, corn and annual legumes which can be grown advantageously 
with cotton, should constitute the major portion of the livestock ration. 
This may be supplemented with cottonseed meal. 

In the semi-arid belt, grazing combined with alfalfa and Kaffir corn 
would doubtless dominate the feeding system. 

Feeding System Related to Cost of Production. — Agricultural surveys 
show that crops generally pay better than livestock for the time put upon 
them, but a combination of crops and livestock is generally more profitable 
than either alone. The feeding system for livestock produced in combina- 
tion with cash crops will generally be more economical than that used when 
livestock alone is sold. When full time is spent upon crops, the waste 
products are not utilized and there is absence of manure to maintain yield; 
and when one devotes full time to livestock, time is spent in a line of produc- 
tion that is carried on at a very low margin of profit. It is a mistake either 
to overstock or understock on general farms. It is a good policy to keep 



178 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

enough livestock to consume all the by-products. When a farm is so heavily 
stocked that all the farm products are consumed, in years of low yields 
feed will have to be purchased, generally at such a high price as to make 
livestock an unprofitable enterprise. 

Feed Units. — Feeds of different kinds are most readily compared by 
using a standard. Corn, being the leading crop in America, is the best 
standard to use. When com is taken as 1, the equivalent value of a few 
other products is as follows: mixed hay .4, alfalfa .5, cottonseed meal 



The Scale is a Necessary Adjunct to Profitable Feeding. 1 

1.25, wheat bran, oats, malt sprouts and similar feeds .91, corn silage .17, 
root crops .08. These equivalents vary somewhat, depending on the 
quality of the product in question. The value of other products is more 
definitely given in the feeding tables. Roughly, a cow or horse requires 
about 25 pounds of dry matter daily. This will generally contain from 18 
to 20 feed units. The relation of protein, carbohydrates, etc., will depend 
on the work that the animal is doing or the product that is made. 

Profits from Cheap Crop Products. — The cheapest stock feeds are 
products on which little labor has been expended and the cheapest way of 

1 Couitetjy of Tho PonuByl vania Firmer. 



CROPPING AND FEEDING SYSTEMS 179 

feeding is to allow animals to harvest their own feed. The grazing of 
grass lands and the pasturing of cornstalk fields is typical of this process. 
It is further illustrated by chickens and pigs in small numbers that are 
allowed to forage for themselves about the farm premises. The farmer 
who produces pork on concentrates alone is at a disadvantage with the one 
who depends partly on hog pasture. 

Livestock Gains in Relation to Feed. — Swine gain about 10 pounds in 
weight for each bushel of corn; steers require about 1000 pounds dry 
matter to make 100 pounds of gain; sheep require somewhat less food per 
pound of gain than steers; 100 pounds dry matter in dairy rations will 
produce about 74 pounds of milk containing 33^ per cent of fat. 

Better gains are made with given amounts of feed during the early 
portions of the feeding period than toward it"r close. Young animals make 
a more profitable use of feed than older on^s. It is seldom that the value 
of gain in fattening cattle is equal to the cost of the feed consumed. The 
profit is usually made on the increase in value of the total weight of the 
animal. Generally, a feeder weighing 1000 pounds can be purchased for 
from 1 to 3 cents per pound less than he will bring when in prime condition 
and weighing 1200 to 1400 pounds. 

Corn Silage as Base for Ration. — In the corn belt, corn silage should 
form the base for feeding rations. It should be supplemented with dry 
roughage and nitrogenous concentrates in such a way as to meet the require- 
ments of the stock raised. It has a wide adaptation and may be extensively 
used, either for the production of dairy products, the fattening of steers or 
the feeding of horses and young stock. 

The following are a few rations which include corn ensilage as taken 
from an article by J. G. Grigsdale, published in the Tribune Farmer: 

For yearling heifers: Pounds. 

Corn silage 25 to 35 

Straw or chaff 4 to 6 

Clover hay 4 

Bran 2 

For dry cows: 

Corn silage 50 to 60 

Straw 8 to 10 

Clover hay 4 

Bran 1 to 2 

For cows in milk: 

Corn silage 45 

Straw 6 

Clover hay 4 to 6 

Meal mixture: Bran, oats, gluten or oilcake or cottonseed 

meal, equal parts. One pound of meal to three or four 

pounds of milk produced per diem. 

For steers running over winter (1000 pounds weight) : 

Corn silage 60 to 75 

Straw 8 to 12 

Clover hay 2to 4 



180 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

For fattening steers (1000 pounds) : Pounds. 

Corn silage 50 to 60 

Straw 6 to 10 

Hay 3 to, 6 

Meal, starting at one pound, go up to 10 pounds per diem. 

Balanced Rations. — Animals require not only a sufficient amount of 
feed, but also enough of each of the different food elements as well. This 
pertains to the relationship of protein to carbohydrates and fat, and is 
spoken of as the nutritive ratio. The nutritive ratio is determined, as 
above indicated, by the character of animal and the work performed. It 
may vary somewhat within reasonable limits without seriously affecting 
the yield of animal products. The relative cost of protein and carbohy- 
drates often justifies some modification in the ratio. 

Standard rations for different classes of livestock will be found in the 
chapters pertaining to each class of animals. Methods of calculating 
rations are given in the chapter on "Feeds and Feeding," in Part I. 

REFERENCES 

Illinois Expt. Station Bulletin 125. "Thirty Years of Crop Rotation on a Prairie Soil." 
Minnesota Expt. Station Bulletins: 

104, 109. "The Rotation of Crops." 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin 102. "Planning a 

Cropping System." (In three parts.) 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

Year-Book 1902, pages 342-364. "Systems of Farm Management in the 

United States." 
Year-Book 1907, pages 385-389. "Cropping Systems for Stock Farms." 
Farmers' Bulletin 337, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Cropping Systems for New England 
Dairy Farms." 



PART IV 

TABLES OF AGRICULTURAL 

STATISTICS 



(181) 



Table I. — Percentage op Total Dry Matter and Digestible Nutrients 

in Feeding-Stuffs. 

grains and seeds. 





Total Dry 

Matter, 

per cent. 


Digestible Nutrients. 




Feeding-stuff. 


Protein, 
per cent. 


Carbohydrates, 
per cent. 


Fat, 
per cent. 


Nutritive 
Ratio, 1: 


Cereals: 

Corn meal 


89.4 
85.0 
84.9 
89.5 
89.6 
89.2 
91.3 
87.6 
92.0 

85.0 
85.4 
88.3 
92.5 

90.8 
89.7 
91.4 


7.8 
6.1 
4.4 
8.8 
8.8 
8.4 
9.5 
6.4 
10.0 

19.7 
16.8 
29.1 
25.1 

20.6 
12.5 
14.8 


66.8 
64.3 
60.0 
67.5 
49.2 
65.3 
69.4 
79.2 
' 70.3 

49.3 
54.9 
23.3 
13.7 

17.1 
30.0 
29.7 


4.3 
3.5 
2.9 
1.5 
4.3 
1.6 
1.2 
0.4 
2.0 

0.4 

1.1 

14.6 

35.6 

29.0 
17.3 
18.2 


9.8 
10.8 


Corn and cob meal 


15.1 


Wheat 


8.1 


Oats 


6.7 


Barley 


8.2 


Rye 


7.6 


Rice 


12.5 


Emmer (Spelt) 

Legumes: 
Field Dea 


7.5 
2.5 


Cowoea 


3.4 


Sov bean 


1.9 


Peanut 


3.7 


Oil-bearing seeds: 

Max seed 


4.0 


Cotton seed 


5.5 


Sunflower seed 


4.8 







CEREAL BY-PRODUCTS. 



Gluten meal 

Gluten feed 

Germ oil meal 

Corn bran 

Hominy feed 

Corncobs. 

Wheat bran 

Wheat middlings (standard) 

Wheat middlings (flour) 

Red Dog flour 

Oat hulls 

Oat dust 

Dried brewers' grains 

Wet brewers' grains 

Malt sprouts 

Dried distillers' grains 



90.5 
90.8 
91.4 
90.6 
90.4 
89.3 
88.1 
88.8 
90.0 
90.1 
92.6 
93.5 
91.3 
23.0 
90.5 
92.4 



29.7 

21.3 

15.8 

6.0 

6.8 

0.5 

11.9 

13.0 

16.9 

16.2 

1.3 

5.1 

20.0 

4.9 

20.3 

22.8 



42.5 
52.8 
38.8 
52.5 
60.5 
44.8 
42.0 
45.7 
53.6 
57.0 
38.5 
32.8 
32.2 
9.4 
46.0 
39.7 



6.1 
2.9 
10.8 
4.8 
7.4 

• • • 

2.5 
4.5 
4.1 
3.4 
0.6 
2.3 
6.0 
1.7 
1.4 
11.6 



1.9 

2.8 

4.0 

10.5 

11.3 

89.6 

4.0 

4.3 

3.7 

4.0 

30.6 

7.5 

2.3 

2.7 

2.4 

2.9 





OIL BY-PRODUCTS. 






Linseed oil meal (O. P.) 

Linseed oil meal (N. P.) 

Cottonseed meal 


90.2 
91.0 
93.0 
89.3 
91.4 


30.2 
31.5 
37.6 
42.8 
15.8 


32.0 
35.7 
21.4 
20.4 
38.8 


6.9 
2.4 
9.6 
7.2 
10.8 


1.6 
1.3 
1.1 


Peanut cake 


0.9 


Corn germ cake . . 


4.0 



183 



184 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Table I. — Percentage of Total Dry Matter and Digestible Nutrients 

in Feeding-Stuffs (Continued) . 

PACKING HOUSE BY-PRODUCTS. 



Feeding-stuff. 



Dried blood 
Tankage.... 
Meat scrap . 



Total Dry 
Matter, 
per cent. 



91.5 
93.0 
89.3 



Digeetible Nutriente. 



Protein, 
per oent. 



70.9 
50.1 
66.2 



Carbohydrate!, 
per oent. 



.... 
• . . . 
• • . • 



Fat. 
percent. 



2.5 
11.6 
13.4 



Nutritive 
Ratio. 1: 



0.09 
0.52 
0.45 



MISCELLANEOUS 


concentrates. 






Beet molasses 


79.2 
74.1 
92.0 
91.6 
90.9 
12.8 
9.4 
9.9 


4.7 
1.4 
6.1 
4.1 
9.8 
3.4 
2.9 
3.8 


54.1 

59.2 

68.7 

64.9 

40.8 

4.8 

5.3 

3.9 


• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• ■ • 

0.9 
3.7 
0.3 
1.0 


11.5 


Cane molasses 


42.3 


Molasses beet pulp 


11.3 


Dried beet duId 


15.8 


Molasses alfalfa feed . 


4.4 


Cows' milk , , T . , . T . 


3.9 


f^lcim milk . . , , 


2.1 


Buttermilk 


1.6 







HAYS. 



Legumes: 

Red clover 

Mammoth clover 

Alsike clover 

Alfalfa 

Soy bean 

Cowpea 

Grasses: 

Timothy 

Redtop 

Blue grass 

Bermuda grass . . 

Prairie grass .... 
Cereals: 

Oat 

Barley 

Millet 



84.7 


7.1 


78.8 


6.2 


90.3 


8.4 


91.9 


10.5 


88.2 


10.6 


89.5 


9.2 


86.8 


2.8 


91.1 


4.8 


86.0 


4.4 


92.9 


6.4 


90.8 


3.0 


86.0 


4.7 


85.0 


5.7 


86.0 


5.2 



37.8 
34.7 
39.7 
40.5 
40.9 
39.3 

42.4 
46.9 
40.2 
44.9 
42.9 

36.7 
43.6 
38.6 




5.9 
6.4 
5.0 
4.1 
4.1 
7.3 

16.2 

10.2 

9.5 

7.6 

15.5 

8.6 
8.0 
7.8 



Corn fodder. 
Corn stover. 



FODDER AND STOVER. 



83.3 
81.8 



2.4 
1.9 



50.4 
43.9 



1.2 
0.5 



22.1 
23.7 



STRAWS. 



Oat 

Wheat 

Barley 

Rye 



90.8 
90.4 
85.8 
92.9 



1.3 
0.8 
0.9 
0.7 



39.5 


0.8 


31.8 


35.2 


0.4 


45.1 


40.1 


0.6 


46.0 


39.6 


0.4 


57.9 



AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS 



185 



Table I. — Percentage op Total Dry Matter and Digestible Nutrients 

in Feeding-Stuffs (Continued). 



PASTURE OR FORAGE, AND SOILING CROPS. 



Feeding-stuff. 



Grasses: 

Blue grass 

Timothy 

Orchard grass v 

Bermuda grass 

Green corn 

Sorghum 

Rye 

Rape 

Legumes: 

Red clover 

Alsike clover 

Alfalfa 

Cowpea 

Soy bean 



Total Dry 
Matter, 
per cent. 



34.9 
38.4 
27.0 
28.3 
21.0 
20.6 
23.4 
14.3 

29.2 
25.2 
28.2 
16.4 
24.9 



Digestible Nutrients. 



Protein, 
percent. 



2.8 
1.5 
1.2 
1.3 
0.9 
0.6 
2.1 
2.0 

2.9 

2.6 
3.6 
1.8 
3.1 



Carbohydrates, 
per cent. 



19.7 
19.9 
13.4 
13.4 
12.2 
11.6 
14.1 
8.2 

13.6 
11.4 
12.1 
8.7 
11.0 



Fat, 
percent. 



X).8 
0.6 
0.5 
0.4 
0.4 
0.3 
0.4 
0.2 

0.7 
0.5 
0.4 
0.2 
0.5 



Nutritive 
Ratio, 1: 



7.7 
14.1 
12.1 
11.0 
14.6 
20.5 
7.1 
4.3 

5.7 
4.8 
3.6 
5.1 
3.9 



SILAGE. 



Corn 

Corn and soy bean. 



26.4 
24.0 



1.4 
1.6 



14.2 
13.2 



0.7 
0.7 



11.3 
9.3 



ROOTS. 


9.1 


1.0 


11.4 


1.0 


13.5 


1.3 


11.4 


0.8 


20.9 


1.1 



Mangel... 
Rutabaga. 
Sugar beet 

Carrot 

Potato. . . 



5.5 
8.1 
9.8 
7.7 
15.7 




5.9 

8.5 

7.7 

10.5 

14.5 



186 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Table II. — Dby Matter, Digestible Protein, and Net Energy per 100 

Pounds of Feed. (Armsby.) 



Feeding-stuff. 



Green fodder and silage: 

Alfalfa 

Clover, red 

Corn fodder, green 

Corn silage 

Hungarian grass 

Rape 

Rye 

Timothy 

Hay and dry coarse fodders: 

Alfalfa hay 

Clover hay, red 

Corn forage, field cured . . 

Corn stover, field cured . . 

Cowpea hay 

Hungarian hay 

Oat hay 

Soy bean hay 

Timothy hay 

Straws: 

Oat straw 

Rye straw 

Wheat straw 

Roots and tubers: 

Carrots 

Mangels 

Potatoes 

Rutabagas 

Turnips 

Grains: 

Barley 

Corn 

Corn and cob meal 

Oats 

Pea meal. 

Rye „ 

Wheat... 

By-products: 

Brewers' grains, dried 

Brewers' grains, wet 

Buckwheat middlings 

Cottonseed meal. 

Distillers' grains, dried: 

Principally corn 

Principally rye 

Gluten feed, dry 

Gluten meal, Buffalo 

Gluten meal, Chicago 

Linseed meal, O. P 

Linseed meal, N. P 

Malt sprouts 

Rye bran 

Sugar beet pulp, fresh 

Sugar beet pulp, dried 

Wheat bran 

Wheat middlings 



Total Dry Mat- 


Digestible Pro- 


Net Energy, 


ter, pounds. 


tein, pounds. 


therms. 


28.2 


2.50 


12.45 


29.2 


2.21 


16.17 


20.7 


0.41 


12.44 


25.6 


1.21 


16.56 


28.9 


1.33 


14.76 


14.3 


2.16 


11.43 


23.4 


1.44 


11.63 


38.4 


1.04 


19.08 


91.6 


6.93 


34.41 


84.7 


5.41 


34.74 


57.8 


2.13 


30.53 


59.5 


1.80 


26.53 


89.3 


8.57 


40.76 


92.3 


3.00 


44.03 


84.0 


2.59 


26.97 


88.7 


7.68 


38.65 


86.8 


2.05 


33.56 


90.8 


1.09 


21.21 


92.9 


0.63 


20.87 


90.4 


0.37 


16.56 


11.4 


0.37 


7.82 


9.1 


0.14 


4.62 


21.1 


0.45 


18.05 


11.4 


0.88 


8.00 


9.4 


0.22 


5.74 


89.1 


8.37 


80.75 


89.1 


6.79 


88.84 


84.9 


4.53 


72.05 


89.0 


8.36 


66.27 


89.5 


16.77 


71.75 


88.4 


8.12 


81.72 


89.5 


8.90 


82.63 


92.0 


19.04 


60.01 


24.3 


3.81 


14.82 


88.2 


22.34 


75.92 


91.8 


35.15 


84.20 


93.0 


21.93 


79.23 


93.2 


10.38 


60.93 


91.9 


19.95 


79.32 


91.8 


21.56 


88.80 


90.5 


33.09 


78.49 


90.8 


27.54 


78.92 


90.1 


29.26 


74.67 


89.8 


12.36 


46.33 


88.2 


11.35 


56.65 


10.1 


0.63 


7.77 


93.6 


6.80 


60.10 


88.1 


10.21 


48.23 


84.0 


12.79 


77.65 



AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS 



187. 



Table III. — Wolff-Lehmann Feeding Standards. 
(Showing amounts of nutrients per day per 1000 pounds live weight.) 



Animal. 



Oxen, at rest in stall 

Fattening cattle: 

First period 

Second period 

Third period 



Milch cows, when yielding daily 

11.0 pounds of milk 

16.6 pounds of milk 

22.0 pounds of milk 

27.5 pounds of milk 



Sheep: 
Coarse wool. 
Fine wool. . . 



Breeding ewes, with lambs. 

Fattening sheep: 

First period 

Second period 

Horses: 

Light work 

Medium work 

Heavy work 



Brood sows 



Fattening swine: 
First period . . . 
Second period . 
Third period . . 



Growing cattle (dairy breeds) : 
2-3 months, 150 pounds . . . 
3-6 months, 300 pounds . . . 
6-12 months, 500 pounds. . 

12-18 months, 700 pounds. . 

18-24 months, 900 pounds. . 

Growing cattle (beef breeds) : 
2-3 months, 160 pounds. . 
3-6 months, 330 pounds. . 
6-12 months, 550 pounds . 

12-18 months, 750 pounds. 

18-24 months, 950 pounds. 

Growing sheep (mutton breeds) 
4-6 months, 60 pounds. . . 
6-8 months, 80 pounds. . . 
8-11 months, 100 pounds. 

11-15 months, 120 pounds. 

15-20 months, 150 pounds. 



Total Dry 
Matter, 
pounds. 


Digestible 
Protein, 
pounds. 


18 


0.7 


30 
30 
26 


2.5 
3.0 
2.7 


25 
27 
29 
32 


1.6 
2.0 
2.5 
3.3 


20 
23 


1.2 
1.5 


25 


2.9 


30 

28 


3.0 
3.5 


20 
24 
26 


1.5 
2.0 
2.5 


22 


2.5 


36 
32 
25 


4.5 
4.0 
2.7 


23 

24 
27 
26 
26 


4.0 
3.0 
2.0 
1.8 
1.5 


23 
24 
25 
24 
24 


. 4.2 
3.5 
2.5 
2.0 
1.8 


26 
26 
24 
23 
22 


4.4 
3.5 
3.0 
2.2 
2.0 



Digestible 

Carbohydrates, 

pounds. 


Digestible 

Fat, 
pounds. 


8.0 


0.1 


15.0 
14.5 
15.0 


0.5 
0.7 
0.7 


10.0 
11.0 
13.0 
13.0 


0.3 
0.4 
0.5 
0.8 


10.5 
12.0 


0.2 
0.3 


15.0 


0.5 


15.0 
14.5 


0.5 
0.6 


9.5 
11.0 
13.3 


0.4 
0.6 
0.8 


15.5 


0.4 


25.0 
24.0 
18.0 


0.7 
0.5 
0.4 


13.0 
12.8 
12.5 
12.5 
12.0 


2.0 
1.0 
0.5 
0.4 
0.3 


13.0 
12.8 
13.2 
12.5 
12.0 


2.0 
1.5 
0.7 
0.5 
0.4 


15.5 
15.0 
14.3 
12.6 
12.0 


0.9 
0.7 
0.5 
0.5 
0.4 



Nutritive 
Ratio, 1: 



11.8 



6.5 
5.4 

6.2 



6.7 
6.0 
5.7 
4.5 



9.1 
8.5 

5.6 



5.4 
4.5 

7.0 
6.2 
6.0 

6.6 



5.0 
6.3 
7.0 



4.5 
5.1 
6.8 
7.5 
8.5 



4.2 

4.7 
6.0 
6.8 
7.2 



4.0 
4.8 
5.2 
6.3 
6.5 



188 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Table III.— Wolpf-T 


iBHMANN '] 


[Teeding Standards (Continued). 




Animal. 


Total Dry 
Matter, 


Digestible 
Protein, 


Digestible 
Carbohydrates, 


Digestible 
Fat, 


Nutritive 




pounds. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


■Ratio, 1: 


Growing sheep (wool breeds) : 












4-6 months, 60 pounds 


25 


3.4 


15.4 


0.7 


5.0 


6-8 months, 75 pounds 


25 


2.8 


13.8 


0.6 


5.4 


8-11 months, 80 pounds 


23 


2.1 


11.5 


0.5 


6.0 


11-15 months, 90 pounds 


22 


1.8 


11.2 


0.4 


7.0 


15-20 months, 100 pounds. . . 


22 


1.5 


10.8 


0.3 


7.7 


Growing swine (breeding stock) : 












44 


7.6 


28.0 


1.0 


4.0 




35 


4.8 


22.5 


0.7 


5.0 




32 


3.7 


21.3 


0.4 


6.0 


6-8 months, 200 pounds 


28 


2.8 


18.7 


0.3 


7.0 


8-12 months, 250 pounds 


25 


2.1 


15.3 


0.2 


7.5 


Growing fattening swine: 












2-3 months, 50 pounds 


44 


7.6 


28.0 


1.0 


4.0 


3-5 months, 100 pounds 


35 


5.0 


23.1 


0.8 


5.0 




33 


4.3 


22.3 


0.6 


5.5 


6-8 months, 200 pounds 


30 


3.6 


20.5 


0.4 


6.0 


9-12 months, 300 pounds . . . . 


26 


3.0 


18.3 


0.3 


6.4 



Table IV. — Ahmsby Feeding Standards.* 

FOR MAINTENANCE. 



Cattub. 


Horses. 




Sheep. 




live 


Digestible 


Net 


Digestible 


Net 


Live 


Digestible 


Net 


Weight, 


Protein, 


Energy, 


Protein, 


Energy, 


Weight, 


Protein, 


Energy, 


pounds. 


pounds. 


therms. 


pounds. 


therms. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


therms. 


150 


0.15 


1.7 


0.3 


2.0 


20 


0.03 


0.30 


250 


0.20 


2.4 


0.4 


2.8 


40 


0.05 


0.54 


500 


0.30 


3.8 


0.6 


4.4 


60 


0.07 


0.71 


750 


0.40 


4.95 


0.8 


5.8 


80 


0.09 


0.87 


1000 


0.50 


6.0 


1.0 


7.0 


100 


0.10 


1.00 


1250 


0.60 


7.0 


1.2 


8.15 


120 


0.11 


1.13 


1500 


0.65 


7.9 


1.3 


9.2 


140 


0.13 


1.25 



FOR GROWTH. 



Cattub. 


Sheep. 


Age, 
months. 


Live 
Weight, 
pounds. 


Digestible 
Protein, 
pounds. 


Energy 

Value, 

therms. 


Age, 
months. 


Live 
Weight, 
pounds. 


Digestible 
Protein, 
pounds. 


Energy 

Value, 

therms. 


3 
6 
12 
18 
24 
30 


275 
425 
650 
850 
1000 
1100 


1.10 

1.30 
1.65 
1.70 
1.75 
1.65 


5.0 
6.0 
7.0 
7.5 
8.0 
8.0 


6 

9 

12 

15 

18 


70 

90 

110 

130 

145 


0.30 
0.25 
0.23 
0.23 
0.22 


1.30 
1.40 
1.40 
1.50 
1.60 



• Modified from Armiby's original table for the sake of simplicity. 



AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS 



189 



Table IV. — Armsby Feeding Standards* (Continued). 

FOR FATTENING. 



Cattle. 



Live 
Weight, 
pounds. 


Digestible 
Protein, 
pounds. 


250 


1.1 


425 


1.3 


500 


1.5 


650 


1.7 


750 


1.7 


850 


1.7 


1000 


1.8 


1100 


1.7 


1250 


1.6 


1500 


1.5 



Net Energy, 
therms. 



2.4+(3.5Xdailygain) 

3.4+ 

3.8+ 

4.5 + 

5.0+ 

5.4+ 

6.0+ 

6.4+ 

7.0+ 

7.9+ 



Shbbp. 



Live 
Weight, 
pounds. 



40 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

145 



Digestible 
Protein, 
pounds. 



0.30 
0.28 
0.25 
0.24 
0.23 
0.23 
0.23 
0.22 
0.22 



Net Energy, 
therms. 



0.54+(3.5Xdailygain) 

0.70+ 

0.79+ 

0.87+ 

0.94+ 

1.00+ 

1.06+ 

1.13+ 

1.19+ 

1.25+ 

1.28+ 



♦Modified from Armsby's original table for the sake of simplicity. 



Table V. — Haecker'b Standard for Milk Production. 
Digestible nutrients for the production of one pound of milk. 



Fat in 

Milk, 

per cent. 


Protein, 


Carbohydrates, 


Fat, 


Fat in 

Millr 


Protein, 


Carbohydrates, 


Fat, 


pounds. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


1VJ.11K, 

per cent. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


2.5 


0.0446 


0.176 


0.0151 


4.8 


0.0591 


0.276 


0.0236 


2.6 


0.0451 


0.180 


0.0155 


4.9 


0.0597 


0.280 


0.0240 


2.7 


0.0455 


0.185 


0.0159 


5.0 


0.0604 


0.284 


0.0243 


2.8 


0.0460 


0.190 


0.0163 


5.1 


0.0611 


0.288 


0.0247 


2.9 


0.0464 


0.194 


0.0166 


5.2 


0.0618 


0.291 


0.0250 


3.0 


0.0469 


0.199 


0.0170 


5.3 


0.0625 


0.295 


0.0253 


3.1 


0.0474 


0.203 


0.0174 


5.4 


0.0632 


0.299 


0.0256 


3.2 


0.0478 


0.207 


0.0178 


5.5 


0.0639 


0.302 


0.0259 


3.3 


0.0483 


0.212 


0.0181 


5.6 


0.0644 


0.307 


0.0263 


3.4 


0.0486 


0.216 


0.0185 


5.7 


0.0651 


0.310 


0.0266 


3.5 


0.0492 


0.221 


0.0189 


5.8 


0.0656 


0.314 


0.0269 


3.6 


0.0501 


0.225 


0.0193 


5.9 


0.0663 


0.318 


0.0273 


3.7 


0.0511 


0.229 


0.0196 


6.0 


0.0668 


0.322 


0.0276 


3.8 


0.0520 


0.234 


0.0200 


6.1 


0.0679 


0.326 


0.0279 


3.9 


0.0530 


0.238 


0.0204 


6.2 


0.0689 


0.330 


0.0283 


4.0 


0.0539 


0.242 


0.0208 


6.3 


0.0700 


0.334 


0.0286 


4.1 


0.0546 


0.247 


0.0211 


6.4 


0.0710 


0.338 


0.0289 


4.2 


0.0553 


0.251 


0.0215 


6.5 


0.0721 


0.342 


0.0293 


4.3 


0.0558 


0.255 


0.0218 


6.6 


0.0724 


0.345 


0.0296 


4.4 


0.0565 


0.260 


0.0222 


6.7 


0.0728 


0.349 


0.0299 


4.5 


0.0572 


0.264 


0.0226 


6.8 


0.0731 


0.353 


0.0302 


4.6 


0.0579 


0.268 


0.0230 


6.9 


0.0735 


0.357 


0.0305 


4.7 


0.0584 


0.272 


0.0233 


7.0 


0.0738 


0.359 


0.0308 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Table VI. — Percentage Composition op Agricultural Products. 



Crop. 



Corn, dent 

Com, flint 

Corn, sweet 

Corn meal 

Corn cob 

Corn and cob meal 

Corn bran 

Corn germ 

Hominy chops 

Germ meal 

Dried starch and sugar feed 

Starch feed, wet 

Maize feed, Chicago 

Grano-gluten 

Cream gluten 

Gluten meal 

Gluten feed 

Wheat, all analyses 

Wheat, spring 

Wheat, winter 

Flour, nigh grade 

Flour, low grade 

Flour, dark feeding 

Bran, all analyses 

Bran, spring wheat 

Bran, winter wheat 

Middlings 

Shorts 

Wheat screenings 

Rye 

Rye flour 

Rye bran 

Rye shorts 

Barley 

Barley meal. 

Barley screenings 

Brewers' grains, wet 

Brewers' grains, dried 

Malt sprouts 

Oats 

Oat meal 

Oat feed 

Oat dust 

Oat hulls 

Rice 

Rice meal 

Rice hulls 

Rice bran 

Rice polish 

Buckwheat, .._. . . .......... 

Buckwheat flour 

Buckwheat hulls 

Buckwheat bran 

Buckwheat shorts 

Buckwheat middlings 

Sorghum seed 



Water. 


Ash. 


Protein. 


Crude 
Fiber. 


Nitrogen- 
Free 
Extract. 


Ether 
Extract. 


10.6 


1.5 


10.3 


2.2 


70.4 


5.0 


11.3 


1.4 


10.5 


1.7 


70.1 


5.0 


8.8 


1.9 


11.6 


2.8 


66.8 


8.1 


15.0 


1.4 


9.2 


1.9 


68.7 


3.8 


10.7 


1.4 


2.4 


30.1 


54.9 


0.5 


15.1 


1.5 


8.5 


6.6 


64.8 


3.5 


9.1 


1.3 


9.0 


12.7 


62.2 


5.8 


10.7 


4.0 


9.8 


4.1 


64.0 


7.4 


11.1 


2.5 


9.8 


3.8 


64.5 


8.3 


8.1 


1.3 


11.1 


9.9 


62.5 


7.1 


10.9 


0.9 


19.7 


4.7 


54.8 


9.0 


65.4 


0.3 


6.1 


3.1 


22.0 


3.1 


9.1 


0.9 


22.8 


7.6 


52.7 


6.9 


5.8 


2.8 


31.1 


12.0 


33.4 


14.9 


8.1 


0.7 


36.1 


1.3 


39.0 


14.8 


8.2 


0.9 


29.3 


3.3 


46.5 


11.8 


7.8 


1.1 


24.0 


5.3 


51.2 


10.6 


10.5 


1.8 


11.9 


1.8 


71.9 


2.1 


10.4 


1.9 


12.5 


1.8 


71.2 


2.2 


10.5 


1.8 


11.8 


1.8 


72.0 


2.1 


12.2 


0.6 


14.9 


0.3 


70.0 


2.0 


12.0 


2.0 


18.0 


0.9 


63.3 


3.9 


9.7 


4.3 


19.9 


3.8 


56.2 


6.2 


11.9 


5.8 


15.4 


9.0 


53.9 


4.0 


11.5 


5.4 


16.1 


8.0 


54.5 


4.5 


12.3 


5.9 


16.0 


8.1 


53.7 


4.0 


12.1 


3.3 


15.6 


4.6 


60.4 


4.0 


11.8 


4.6 


14.9 


7.4 


56.8 


4.5 


11.6 


2.9 


12.5 


4.9 


65.1 


3.0 


11.6 


1.9 


10.6 


1.7 


72.5 


1.7 


13.1 


0.7 


6.7 


0.4 


78.3 


0.8 


11.6 


3.6 


14.7 


3.5 


63.8 


2.8 


9.3 


5.9 


18.0 


5.1 


59.9 


2.8 


10.9 


2.4 


12.4 


2.7 


69.8 


1.8 


11.9 


2.6 


10.5 


6.5 


66.3 


2.2 


12.2 


3.6 


12.3 


7.3 


61.8 


2.8 


75.7 


1.0 


5.4 


3.8 


12.5 


1.6 


8.2 


3.6 


19.9 


11.0 


51.7 


5.6 


10.2 


5.7 


23.2 


10.7 


48.5 


1.7 


11.0 


3.0 


11.8 


9.5 


59.7 


5.0 


7.9 


2.0 


14.7 


0.9 


67.4 


7.1 


7.7 


3.7 


16.0 


6.1 


59.4 


7.1 


6.5 


6.9 


13.5 


18.2 


50.2 


4.8 


7.3 


6.7 


3.3 


29.7 


52.1 


1.0 


12.4 


0.4 


7.4 


0.2 


79.2 


0.4 


10.2 


8.1 


12.0 


5.4 


51.2 


13.1 


8.2 


13.2 


3.6 


35.7 


38.6 


0.7 


9.7 


10.0 


12.1 


9.5 


49.9 


8.8 


10.0 


6.7 


11.7 


6.3 


58.0 


7.3 


12.6 


2.0 


10.0 


8.7 


64.5 


2.2 


14.6 


1.0 


6.9 


0.3 


75.8 


1.4 


13.2 


2.2 


4.6 


43.5 


35.3 


1.1 


10.5 


3.0 


12.4 


31.9 


38.8 


3.3 


11.1 


5.1 


27.1 


8.3 


40.8 


7.6 


13.2 


4.8 


28.9 


4.1 


41.9 


7.1 


12.8 


2.1 


9.1 


2.6 


69.8 


3.6 



190 



191 



AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS 



Table VI. — Percentage Composition of Agricultural Products (Continued). 



Crop. 



Broom-corn seed 

Kaffir seed 

Millet seed 

Hungarian grass seed 

Flaxseed 

Flaxseed, ground 

Linseed meal, old process 

Linseed meal, new process 

Cotton seed 

Cotton seed, roasted 

Cottonseed meal 

Cottonseed hulls 

Cottonseed kernels (no hulls) 

Cocoanut cake 

Palm nut meal 

Sunflower seed 

Sunflower seed cake 

Peanut kernels (no hulls) , 

Peanut meal 

Rape seed cake 

Pea meal 

Soy bean 

Cowpea 

Horse bean 

Corn fodder, field cured 

Corn stover, field cured 

Corn husks, field cured 

Corn leaves, field cured 

Corn fodder, green 

Dent varieties, green , 

Dent, kernels glazed green 

Flint varieties, green 

Flint, kernels glazed green 

Sweet varieties, green 

Leaves and husks, green 

Stripped stalks, green 

Hat from Grasses: 

Mixed grasses 

Timothy, all analyses 

Timothy, cut in full bloom 

Timothy, cut soon after bloom 

Timothy, cut when near ripe 

Orchard grass 

Redtop, cut at different stages 

Redtop, cut in full bloom 

Kentucky blue grass 

Kentucky blue grass, cut when seed 

is in milk 

Kentucky blue grass, cut when seed 

is ripe 

Hungarian grass 

Meadow fescue 

Indian rye grass 

Perennial rye grass 

Rowen (mixed) 



Water. 


Ash. 


Protein. 


Crude 
Fiber. 


Nitrogen- 
Free 
Extract. 


11.5 


3.4 


10.2 


7.1 


63.6 


9.3 


1.5 


9.9 


1.4 


74.9 


14.0 


3.3 


11.8 


9.5 


57.4 


9.5 


5.0 


9.9 


7.7 


63.2 


9.2 


4.3 


22.6 


7.1 


23.2 


8.1 


4.7 


21.6 


7.3 


27.9 


9.2 


5.7 


32.9 


8.9 


35.4 


10.1 


5.8 


33.2 


9.5 


38.4 


10.3 


3.5 


18.4 


23.2 


24.7 


6.1 


5.5 


16.8 


20.4 


23.5 


8.2 


7.2 


42.3 


5.6 


23.6 


11.1 


2.8 


4.2 


46.3 


33.4 


6.2 


4.7 


31.2 


3.7 


17.6 


10.3 


5.9 


19.7 


14.4 


38.7 


10.4 


4.3 


16.8 


24.0 


35.0 


8.6 


2.6 


16.3 


29.9 


21.4 


10.8 


6.7 


32.8 


13.5 


27.1 


7.5 


2.4 


27.9 


7.0 


15.6 


10.7 


4.9 


47.6 


5.1 


23.7 


10.0 


7.9 


31.2 


11.3 


30.0 


10.5 


2.6 


20.2 


14.4 


51.1 


10.8 


4.7 


34.0 


4.8 


28.8 


14.8 


3.2 


20.8 


4.1 


55.7 


11.3 


3.8 


26.6 


7.2 


50.1 


42.2 


2.7 


4.5 


14.3 


34.7 


40.5 


3.4 


3.8 


19.7 


31.5 


50.9 


1.8 


2.5 


15.8 


28.3 


30.0 


5.5 


6.0 


21.4 


35.7 


79.3 


1.2 


1.8 


5.0 


12.2 


79.0 


1.2 


1.7 


5.6 


12.0 


73.4 


1.5 


2.0 


6.7 


15.5 


79.8 


1.1 


2.0 


4.3 


12.1 


77.1 


1.1 


2.7 


4.3 


14.6 


79.1 


1.3 


1.9 


4.4 


12.8 


66.2 


2.9 


2.1 


8.7 


19.0 


76.1 


0.7 


0.5 


7.3 


14.9 


15.3 


5.5 


7.4 


27.2 


42.1 


13.2 


4.4 


5.9 


29.0 


45.0 


15.0 


4.5 


6.0 


29.6 


41.9 


14.2 


4.4 


5.7 


28.1 


44.6 


14.1 


3.9 


5.0 


31.1 


43.7 


9.9 


6.0 


8.1 


32.4 


41.0 


8.9 


5.2 


7.9 


28.6 


47.5 


8.7 


4.9 


8.0 


29.9 


46.4 


21.2 


6.3 


7.8 


23.0 


37.8 


24.4 


7.0 


6.3 


24.5 


34.2 


27.8 


6.4 


5.8 


23.8 


33.2 


7.7 


6.0 


7.5 


27.7 


49.0 


20.0 


6.8 


7.0 


25.9 


38.4 


8.5 


6.9 


7.5 


30.5 


45.0 


14.0 


7.9 


10.1 


25.4 


40.5 


16.6 


6.8 


11.6 


22.5 


39.4 



Ether 
Extract. 

3.0 

3.0 

4.0 

4.7 

33.7 

30.4 

7.9 

3.0 

19.9 

27.7 

13.1 

2.2 

36.6 

11.0 

9.5 

21.2 

9.1 

39.6 

8.0 

9.6 

1.2 

16.9 

1.4 

1.0 

1.6 

1.1 

0.7 

1.4 

0.5 

0.5 

0.9 

0.7 

0.8 

0.5 

1.1 

0.5 



2.5 
2.5 
3.0 
3.0 
2.2 
2.6 

1.9 
2.1 
3.9 



3.6 




SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



192 



Table VI. — Percentage Composition op Agricultural Products (Continued). 



Crop. 



Hat from Grasses (Continued): 

Mixed grasses and clovers 

Barley nay, cut in milk 

Oat hay, cut in milk 

Swamp hay 

Salt marsh hay 

Wild oat grass 

Buttercups 

White daisy 

Johnson grass 

Fresh Grass: 

Pasture grass 

Kentucky blue grass 

Timothv, different stages 

Orchard grass, in bloom 

Redtop, in bloom 

Oat fodder 

Rye fodder 

Sorghum fodder 

Barley fodder 

Hungarian grass 

Meadow fescue, in bloom 

Italian rye grass, coming in bloom. 

Tall oat grass, in bloom 

Japanese millet 

Barnyard millet 

Hat prom Legumes: 

Red clover 

Red clover in bloom 

Red clover, mammoth 

Alsike clover 

White clover 

Crimson clover 

Japan clover 

Alfalfa 

Cowpea 

Soy bean 

Pea vine 

Vetch 

Serradella 

Flat pea 

Peanut vines (no nuts) 

Sainfoin 

Fresh Legumes: 

Red clover, different stages 

Alsike clover 

Crimson clover 

Alfalfa 

Cowpea 

Soy bean 

Serradella 

Horse bean 

Flat pea 



Water. 


Ash. 


Protein. 


Crude 


Nitrogen- 
Free 


Ether 








Fiber. 


Extract. 


Extract. 


12.9 


5.5 


10.1 


27.6 


41.3 


2.6 


15.0 


4.2 


8.8 


24.7 


44.9 


2.4 


15.0 


5.2 


9.3 


29.2 


39.0 


2.3 


11.6 


6.7 


7.2 


26.6 


45.9 


2.0 


10.4 


7.7 


5.5 


30.0 


44.1 


2.4 


14.3 


3.8 


5.0 


25.0 


48.8 


3.3 


9.3 


5.6 


9.9 


30.6 


41.1 


3.5 


10.3 


6.6 


7.7 


30.0 


42.0 


3.4 


10.2 


6.1 


7.2 


28.5 


45.9 


2.1 


80.0 


2.0 


3.5 


4.0 


9.7 


0.09 


65.1 


2.8 


4.1 


9.1 


17.6 


1.3 


61.6 


2.1 


3.1 


11.8 


20.2 


1.2 


73.0 


2.0 


2.6 


8.2 


13.3 


0.9 


65.3 


2.3 


2.8 


11.0 


17.7 


0.9 


62.2 


2.5 


3.4 


11.2 


.19.3 


1.4 


76.6 


1.8 


2.6 


11.6 


6.8 


0.6 


79.4 


1.1 


1.3 


6.1 


11.6 


0.5 


79.0 


1.8 


2.7 


7.9 


8.0 


0.6 


71.1 


1.7 


3.1 


9.2 


14.2 


0.7 


69.9 


1.8 


2.4 


10.8 


14.3 


0.8 


73.2 


2.5 


3.1 


6.8 


13.3 


1.3 


69.5 


2.0 


2.4 


9.4 


15.8 


0.9 


75.0 


1.5 


2.1 


7.8 


13.1 


0.5 


75.0 


1.9 


2.4 


7.0 


13.1 


0.6 


15.3 


6.2 


12.3 


24.8 


38.1 


3.3 


20.8 


6.6 


12.4 


21.9 


33.8 


4.5 


21.2 


6.1 


10.7 


24.5 


33.6 


3.9 


9.7 


8.3 


12.8 


25.6 


40.7 


2.9 


9.7 


8.3 


15.7 


24.1 


39.3 


2.9 


9.6 


8.6 


15.2 


27.2 


36.6 


2.8 


11.0 


8.5 


13.8 


24.0 


39.0 


3.7 


8.4 


7.4 


14.3 


25.0 


42.7 


2.2 


10.7 


7.5 


16.6 


20.1 


42.2 


2.2 


11.3 


7.2 


15.4 


22.3 


38.6 


5.2 


15.0 


6.7 


13.7 


24.7 


37.6 


2.3 


11.3 


7.9 


17.0 


25.4 


36.1 


2.3 


9.2 


7.2 


15.2 


21.6 


44.2 


2.6 


8.4 


7.9 


22.9 


26.2 


31.4 


3.2 


7.6 


10.8 


10.7 


23.6 


42.7 


4.6 


15.0 


7.3 


14.8 


20.4 


39.5 


3.0 


70.8 


2.1 


4.4 


8.1 


13.5 


1.1 


74.8 


2.0 


3.9 


7.4 


11.0 


0.9 


80.9 


1.7 


3.1 


5.2 


8.4 


0.7 


71.8 


2.7 


4.8 


7.4 


12.3 


1.0 


83.6 


1.7 


2.4 


4.8 


7.1 


0.4 


75.1 


2.6 


4.0 


6.7 


10.6 


1.0 


79.5 


3.2 


2.7 


5.4 


8.6 


0.7 


84.2 


1.2 


2.8 


4.9 


6.5 


0.4 


66.7 


2.9 


8.7 


7.9 


12.2 


1.6 



AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS 



193 



Table VI. — Percentage Composition of Agricultural Products (Continued). 



Crop. 



Straw: 

Wheat 

Rye 

Oat 

Barley 

Wheat chaff 

Oat chaff 

Buckwheat straw 

Soy bean 

Horse bean 

Silage: 

Corn 

Sorghum 

Rea clover 

Soy bean 

Apple pomace 

Cowpeavine 

Cow and soy bean vines mixed . 

Field pea vine 

Barnyard millet and soy bean. . 

Corn and soy bean 

Rye 

Roots and Tubers: 

Potato 

Common beets 

Sugar beets 

Mangels 

Turnip 

Rutabaga 

Carrot 

Parsnip 

Artichoke 

Sweet potato 

Miscellaneous : 

Cabbage 

Spurry 

Sugar beet leaves 

Pumpkin, field 

Pumpkin, garden 

Prickly comf rey 

Rape 

Acorns, fresh 

Apples 

Cow's milk 

Cow's colustrum 

Mare's milk 

Ewe's milk 

Goat's milk 

Sow's milk 

Skim milk, gravity 

Skim milk, centrifugal 

Buttermilk . . . , 



Water. 


Ash. 


Protein. 


~_ , Nitrogen- 
gru de Free 


Ether 








Fiber 


Extract. 


Extract 


9.6 


4.2 


3.4 


38.1 


40.4 


1.3 


7.1 


3,2 


3.0 


38.9 


46.6 


1.2 


9.2 


5.1 


4.0 


37.0 


42.4 


2.3 


14.2 


5.7 


3.5 


36.0 


39.0 


1.5 


14.3 


9.2 


4.5 


36.0 


> 34.6 


1.4 


14.3 


10.0 


4.0 


34.0 


I 36.2 


1.5 


9.9 


5.5 


5.2 


43.0 


I 35.1 


1.3 


10.1 


5.8 


4.6 


40.4 


37.4 


1.7 


9.2 


8.7 


8.8 


37.6 


> 34.3 


1.4 


79.1 


1.4 


1.7 


6.0 


► 11.0 


0.8 


76.1 


1.1 


0.8 


6.4 


15.3 


0.3 


72.0 


2.6 


4.2 


8.4 


11.6 


1.2 


74.2 


2.8 


4.1 


9.7 


6.9 


2.2 


85.0 


0.6 


1.2 


3.2 


\ 8.8 


1.1 


79.3 


2.9 


2.7 


6.C 


) 7.6 


1.5 


69.8 


4.5 


3.8 


y . c 


; n.i 


1.3 


50.1 


3.5 


5.9 


13. C 


) 26.0 


1.6 


79.0 


2.8 


2.8 


7.5 


\ 7.2 


1.0 


76.0 


2.4 


2.5 


7.2 


\ 11.1 


0.8 


80.8 


1.6 


2.4 


5. J 


\ 9.2 


0.3 


78.9 


1.0 


2.1 


o.e 


> 17.3 


0.1 


88.5 


1.0 


1.5 


O.t 


) 8.0 


0.1 


86.5 


0.9 


1.8 


o.< 


) 9.8 


0.1 


90.9 


1.1 


1.4 


o.< 


> 5.5 


0.2 


90.5 


0.8 


1.1 


1.5 


\ 6.2 


0.2 


88.6 


1.2 


1.2 


1.5 


\ 7.5 


0.2 


88.6 


1.0 


1.1 


1.5 


\ 7.6 


0.4 


88.3 


0.7 


1.6 


l.( 


) 10.2 


0.2 


79.5 


1.0 


2.6 


O.t 


\ 15.9 


0.2 


71.1 


1.0 


1.5 


1A 


J 24.7 


0.4 


90.5 


1.4 


2.4 


1.1 


> 3.9 


0.4 


75.7 


4.0 


2.0 


4.1 


) 12.7 


0.8 


88.0 


2.4 


2.6 


2.5 


I 4.4 


[0.4 


90.9 


0.5 


1.3 


1.4 


r 5.2 


0.4 


80.8 


0.9 


1.8 


l.i 


I 7.9 


0.8 


88.4 


2.2 


2.4 


l.( 


5 5.1 


0.3 


84.5 


2.0 


2.3 


2.( 


> 5.4 


0.5 


55.3 


1.0 


2.5 


4.4 


I 34.8 


1.9 


80.8 


0.4 


0.7 


1.5 


I 16.6 


0.4 


87.2 


0.7 


3.6 


• • i 


4.9 


3.7 


74.6 


1.6 


17.6 




k • 


2.7 


3.6 


91.0 


0.4 


2.1 




• 4 


5.3 


1.2 


81.3 


0.8 


6.3 




» • 


4.7 


6.8 


86.9 


0.9 


3.7 




* a t 


4.4 


4.1 


80.8 


1.1 


6.2 




9 % 


4.4 


7.1 


90.4 


0.7 


3.3 




* • 1 


4.7 


0.9 


90.6 


0.7 


3.1 




t • i 


5.3 


0.3 


90.1 


0.7 


4.0 




• 


4.0 


1.1 



194 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Table VI.— Percentage Composition of Agricultural Products (Continued). 



Crop* 



Miscellaneous (Continued): 

Whey 

Dried blood 

Meat scrap 

Dried fish 



Beet pulp 

Beet molasses 

Apple pomace 

Distillery slops 

Dried sediment from distillery 
slops 



Water. 



93.8 
8.5 
10.7 
10.8 
89.8 
20.8 
76.7 
93.7 

5.0 



Ash. 



0.4 
4.7 
4.1 

29.2 
0.6 

10.6 
0.6 
0.2 

11.3 



Protein. 



0.6 

84.4 

71.2 

48.4 

0.9 

9.1 

1.4 

1.7 

27.4 



Crude 
Fiber. 



3 




9 
6 



8.0 



Nitrogen- 
Free 
Extract. 



5.1 

• • • 

0.3 

• • • 

6.3 
59.5 
16.2 

2.8 

36.1 



Ether 
Extract. 



0.1 

2.5 

13.7 

11.6 



1.3 
0.9 

12.3 



Table VII. — Composition and Amounts of Manure Produced by Different 

Kinds of Farm Animals.* 





Analysis. 


Amount per 1000 Pounds 
Live Weight. 


Kind of Animal and 
Kinds of Food Fed. 


Water. 


Nitro- 
gen. 


Phos- 
phorus. 


Potas- 
sium. 


Pounds 

per 

Day. 


Pounds 

per 

Year. 


Pounds 
Absorb- 
ents 
per 
Year. 


Total 
Tons 
Farm 
Manure 
per 
Year. 


Sheep. — Fed hay, corn, oats; 
or nay, wheat bran, cotton- 
seed meal and linseed meal 

Swine. — Fed skim milk, corn 
meal, meat scraps; or corn 
meal, wheat bran and lin- 
seed meal 


59.52 

74.13 

75.25 
48.69 


0.77 

0.84 

0.43 
0.49 


4.10 

0.17 

0.127 
0.114 


0.59 

0.32 

0.44 
0.48 


34.1 

83.6 

74.1 
48.8 


12,446 

30,514 

27,046 
17,812 


5,000 

5,000 

3,000 
3,000 


8.7 
17.7 


Cattle. — Fed hay, silage, 
beets, wheat bran, corn 
meal and cottonseed meal 

Horses. — Fed hay, oats, corn 


15.0 
10.5 



Note. — The analyses and amounts of manure produced by farm animals, as shown in this table, 
are from the Cornell Experiment Station, and the estimates of pounds absorbents per year from " Farm 
Management," by Andrew Boss. It is estimated that under average farm conditions 60 per cent of the 
elements of fertility in farm manures is lost by leaching and fermentation. Direct hauling of manure 
to the field or composting in concerete pits will prevent much of this loss. 

* From " Field Management and Crop Rotation," by Parker. 



AORIC0LTURAL STATISTICS 



Table VIII. — List op Agricultural Colleges as 
in the United Status. 


tj Exnauacmn 


Stations 


— 


Una or Imrmjnon. 


■ssi.- 


Location or 


Alabama 




A burn 


Auburn 




j^_i — u — .1 a_fc__i _■ .1- m__i m 1 ^jj XzuJoB^jnal 


Toaksje* loatjtote 






















FeyetteriBe . .. 




































(rainer..*- 

TiBiliaaiii 






Fl rNnrw. .... 








rtnriS? 
























































Tl Ha to Coknd 


Frankfort 

Baton Rocjge 

Scotland Heighta, 
Raton Rouge 




!»**»» 


Louisiana BUte University and AcnouHan] *ad Mechanical 






Southern Unileraty And AjrimHwal And Menharteal CoOtfe 


NewOrleu-IeutK) 
Crowley frioe) 
CaIhonii,North 


Ma» 




Om 












Princea Anne Academy, £aftarn Branch of lie Maryland 














Unnenity Farm, 
Agricultural 


g|g%. 






lfUai ,1 


Mia' ' A -cult.md.nl M 1 • " i 










&. 


College 










Montane State College of Asricnltore and Mn-W:!: Art! 




Mountain Grove, 

(fruit) 
















B—gSS*** 










New Rnrawirh . 
Start Coital 




New Merico. . . 




BUt>(UUfi 


North Caroline 


The North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Ana 


WatRafeigb 

Graraaboro 

Aai-.:-j:tu<w) 
■'.1 v- 


tienera ;Btet*) 
Resign and W«t 
RaJat* 












Col>«e 














Langeton 










PenDiyJvnnin , . 
Porto Hi» 




Rtatt Cottega 




College of AinciiltuR and Mechamo Arts of Dmiecmty of 


Mayaguet (Federal) 
Rio Prtdras Or* 















196 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Table VIII.— List of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations 

in the United States {Continued). 



Btatb. 



South Carolina. 



South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 



Washington 

West Virginia. . 



Wisconsin. 
Wyoming. 



Namx of Institution. 



The Clemson Agricultural College of South Carolina 

The Colored Normal Industrial Agricultural and Mechanical 
College of South Carolina 

South Dakota State College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts 

College of Agriculture, University of Tennessee 

Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas 

Prairie View State Normal and Industrial College 

The Agricultural College of Utah 

College of Agriculture of University of Vermont 

The Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College and Poly- 
technic Institute 

The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute 

State College of Washington 

College of Agriculture of West Virginia University. 

The West Virginia Colored Institute 

College of Agriculture of University of Wisconsin 

College of Acriculture of University of Wyoming 



LOGATIOK or 

Collwh. 



Clemson College. . 

'burg 
BrooF 
Knoxvuie 
College Station 
Prairie View 

Logan 

Burlington. . . . 

Blacksburg.... 

Hampton 

Pullman 

Morgantown. . 
Institute 

Madison 

Laramie 



Location or 

EXFERIiaNT 

Station. 



Clemson College 



Brookings 
Knoxville 
College Station 

Logan 
Burlington 

Blacksburg(College) 
Norfolk (truck) 

Pullman 
Morgantown 

Madison 
Laramie 



Table IX. — How to Estimate Amount op Grain in Bins and Hat in 

Mow or Stack. 



SMALL GRAIN AND SHELLED CORN. 



Length multiplied by width multiplied by average depth in feet gives the cubic 
feet of grain. This multiplied by 8 divided by 10 equals the bushels. 

Example: — A bin of wneat is 8 feet wide by 16 feet long and the average depth of 
wheat is 6 feet. 



8X16X6X8 
10 



=614.4 bushels. 



FOR BUSHELS OF EAR CORN. 

Multiply the cubic feet occupied by ear corn by 4 and divide by 10. 



FOR TONS OF HAY. 

If hay has stood for 60 days or more and mow or stack is deep, divide cubic con- 
tents in feet by 400. For shallow mows or stacks that have stood only 30 days or 
less, divide by 600. For intermediate conditions, divide by 500 more or less, depending 
on conditions. The cubic feet in a stack may be obtained as follows: Subtract the 
width from the over (the "over" is the distance from the ground on one side over the 
stack to the ground on the other side), divide by the height, then multiply successively 
by the over, the width the length, and by ,225. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 

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