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North Carolina Sfate Library 



of the 

State Department of Archives and History 


North Carolina State Library 


Willie Person Mangum. From an oil portrait, painter unknown, in the possession of 
Mangum Turner of Winston-Salem, North Carolina. 

North Caroiina Stale Library 



Volume Four 


State Department of Archives and History 


f^orth Carouua i.^Je 



McDaniel Lewis, Chairman 
Gertrude Sprague Carraway William Thomas Laprade 

Clarence W. Griffin Mrs. Sadie Smathers Patton 

Josh L. Horne Mrs. Callie Pridgen Williams 

Christopher Crittenden, Director 


Preface vii 

List of Illustrations ix 

A Calendar of Manuscripts in The Mangum Papers (1844-1846) 
Omitted From This Volume xi 

A Chronological List of Mangum Papers (1844-1846) 

Included in This Volume xvii 

Symbols Used to Designate The Location of Mangum Papers xxviii 

The Mangum Papers 1 

Index 533 


The letters in this volume are for the years 1844-1846, years 
of great optimism and great disappointment for the Whigs. 
During the first nine or ten months of 1844, the Whigs were con- 
fident that Clay would be elected President. His defeat in 
November was a severe disappointment to them, especially to 
Mangum, who, as chairman of one of the committees, helped to 
direct the campaign. The letters for 1844 throw light on the 
thinking and campaign methods of Mangum and his friends. 
Among the revealing letters are several from Mangum himself 
to his co-workers and of other important Whig leaders includ- 
ing Clay himself to Mangum. Not all of the letters for 1844 are 
concerned with the political campaign, but most of them are. 

For the period after Clay's defeat and after Mangum gave 
up his position as president pro tempore of the Senate in March, 
1845, there are fewer letters. Nevertheless these throw light on 
Whig reaction and activities on the issues of the day, national 
and local, especially on the Texas question and Polk's financial 

In 1846 the number of letters increased. Many of these con- 
cern the Oregon and Mexican crises. They reveal something of 
the role which Whigs, such as Mangum, played in preventing a 
war with England and in attempting to prevent, and, after it 
started, to end the War with Mexico. 

Some valuable letters from Mangum to J. Watson Webb for 
the years 1842-1847 were discovered too late to include in this 
and the previous volume. Along with some other papers dis- 
covered after the publication of the volumes in which they 
logically belonged, these letters will be included in the last one 
of this series. 

H. T. S. 
Birmingham, Alabama 
February 1, 1955 


1. Willie Person Mangum Frontispiece 

2. United States Senate Chamber, 1844 47 

3. Henry Clay 92 

4. Mordecai Manuel Noah 155 

5. James Watson Webb 216 

6. (a) Benjamin Watkins Leigh 257 

(b) William Segar Archer 257 

7. William Cain, Junior 295 

8. (a) Edward Stanly 373 

(b) Thomas Lanier Clingman 373 

9. Paul Carrington Cameron 422 

10. James Turner Morehead 457 

11. John Jordan Crittenden 502 




1. January 6, 1844. Charles Hughes, of Marion, Alabama, to W. P. 
Mangum presenting additional certificates in support of his petition 
for a pension. MS in the Library of Congress. 

2. January 15, 1844. William Huntington, of Marion, Alabama, to 
Thomas Clancy asking him to show an enclosed letter (this en- 
closed letter is not in the Mangum Papers) to his friends in Hills- 
boro to fill in additional data in support of Hughes' pension claims 
and send the same to W. P. Mangum. MS in the Library of Con- 

3. February 22, 1844. William F. Smith, of Pleasant Hill, Wake 
County, North Carolina, to W. P. Mangum asking his aid in ob- 
taining a pension for Elizabeth Griffis whose husband, Joshua 
Griffis, fought in the Revolutionary War. MS in the Library of 

4. February 27, 1844. H. W. Miller, president of the Wake Clay Club, 

to inviting to be present April 12, 1844, 

to help his club and others welcome H. Clay on his visit to Raleigh. 
This letter is similar to the one published in this volume. MS in 
the Library of Congress. 

5. May 16, 1844. R. W. Thompson, of Terre Haute, to W. P. Mangimi 
introducing Judge John Law, of Vincennes. MS in the Library of 

6. May 23, 1844. J. F. E. Hardy and others, of Asheville, to W. P. 
Mangum inviting him to a Whig rally in Asheville July 4, 1844. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

7. May 26, 1844. J. W. Brown to W. P. Mangimi explaining that since 
his brother had to leave for the West he would be unable to accept 
Mangum's invitation to dinner Monday. J. W. Brown gave his re- 
turn address as Washington. MS in the Library of Congress. 

8. June 9, 1844. Benjamin Drake, of New York, to W. P. Mangum 
inviting him to a Whig rally in New York City, the date to be 
selected at Mangum's convenience. MS in the Library of Congress. 

9. June 12, 1844. James W. Pegram and others, of Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, to W. P. Mangum inviting Mangum to a public dinner for 
John M. Botts, June 20, 1844. MS in the Library of Congress. 

10. June 19, 1844. John P. Wetherill and others, of Philadelphia, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a political dinner on July 4, 1844, 
at Philadelphia. MS in the Library of Congress. 

11. July 1, 1844. Robert B. Gilliam and others, of Granville County, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Whig barbecue at Brassfields, 
July 6, 1844. MS in the Library of Congress. 


xii Manuscript Omitted 

12. July 8, 1844. A. Myers and others, of Anson County, North Caro- 
lina, to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a mass Whig meeting 
July 18. MS in the Library of Congress. 

13. July 10, 1844. Samuel Pleasants and others, of Richmond, Virginia, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a political barbecue July 25 at 
Howard's Grove near Richmond. MS in the Library of Congress. 

14. July 13, 1844. George F. Davidson and others, of Iredell County, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Whig mass meeting at States- 
ville July 22. A postscript is added to explain the change of the 
date from the 25th to the 22nd for W. A. Graham's convenience. MS 
in the Library of Congress. 

15. July 23, 1844. C. H. Wiley and others, of Granville County, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Whig barbecue at Oxford July 30. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

16. July 23, 1844. C. H. Wiley and others, of Granville County, to 
P. H. Mangum informing him that W. P. Mangum would attend 
the Whig barbecue at Oxford July 30 and inviting him to be 
present. MS in the Library of Congress. 

17. July 29, 1844. S. L. Venable and others, of Mecklenburg County, 
Virginia, to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a mass meeting of both 
parties "some day hereafter to be agreed on." MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

18. July 29, 1844. John C. Taylor and others, of Granville County, to 
W. P. Mangum informing him that the barbecue would be given 
July 30. MS in the Library of Congress. 

19. August 2, 1844. M. A. Williams and others, of Franklin County, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to attend a public discussion at Frank- 
linton August 13 and 14. William H. Haywood, Geo. C. Dromgoole, 
and R. M. Saunders were invited by the Democrats. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

20. August 3, 1844. J. J. Daly and others, of Mecklenburg County, 
Virginia, to W. P. Mangum inviting him to attend a * 'general Mass- 
meeting and Whig barbacue" at South Hill July 30. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

21. August 22, 1844. F. W. Venable and others, of Mecklenburg 
County, Virginia, to W. P. Mangum informing him that the mass 
meeting scheduled at Clarksville had been postponed to October 2. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

22. August 29, 1844. Committee of Whigs of the Lynchburg Con- 
gressional District to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Whig Con- 
vention at Lynchburg October 8. MS in the Library of Congress. 

23. August 29, 1844. William P. Bynum and others, of the "Clay Club 
of Rutherford County," North Carolina, to W. P. Mangum inviting 
him to a mass meeting at Rutherfordton October 11 and 12. MS in 
the Library of Congress. 

Manuscript Omitted xiii 

24. September 1, 1844. J. M. Leach and others, of Davidson County, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a ''Whig Mass Meeting'' at Lexing- 
ton October 2. MS in the Library of Congress. 

25. September 4, 1844. Haywood W. Guion and others, of the Second 
Congressional District, to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a mass 
meeting at Cowan's Ford on the Catawba River October 24 and 25. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

26. September 10, 1844. James W. Osborne, H. W. Guion and others, 
of the Second Congressional District, to W. P. Mangum inviting 
him to speak at a mass meeting at Hickory Grove, Mecklenburg 
County, North Carolina, October 24 and 25. MS in the Library of 

27. September 20, 1844. H. E. Royal and others, of Sampson County, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Whig "festival" at Holly Grove 
in Sampson County October 10. MS in the Library of Congress. 

28. September 20, 1844. George Moore and others, of Chapel Hill sec- 
tion of Orange County, to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a barbe- 
cue at Captain King's muster ground on the first Saturday in 
October. MS in the Library of Congress. 

29. September 27, 1844. T. G. Coffin and others, of Guilford County, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a barbecue October 25 and 26 
at Jamestown. MS in the Library of Congress. 

30. September 30, 1844. R. P. Latham and others, of Craven County, 
to W. P. Mangum requesting him to use his influence to obtain a 
discharge from the United States Army for Henry Hinton in order 
that he may help support his destitute sister and brother. MS in 
the Library of Congress. 

31. October 3, 1844. Grisham Choise and others, of Franklin County, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a barbecue at A. S. Brooks' in 
Franklin County October 18. MS in the Library of Congress. 

32. October 3, 1844. James G. Stanly and others, of New Bern, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a "Whig Mass Meeting" at New 
Bern October 22. MS in the Library of Congress. 

33. October 6, 1844. David A. Barnes and others, of Northampton 
County, to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Whig "mass meeting" 
at Jackson November 1. MS in the Library of Congress. 

34. October 14, 1844. P. Hamilton and others, of Granville County, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Whig meeting at Williamsboro 
October 30 and 31. MS in the Library of Congress. 

35. October 22, 1844. M. Campbell, of Statesville, to W. P. Mangum 
requesting his assistance to obtain the pension papers of Isaac 
Marshall, a Revolutionary soldier. MS in the Library of Congress. 

36. October 26, 1844. J. H. Haughton and others, of Chatham County, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Whig mass meeting at Pitts- 
boro November 2. MS in the Library of Congress. 

xiv Manuscript Omitted 

37. October 26, 1844. Jesse P. Smith, of Chapel Hill, to W. P. Mangum 
inviting him to address the two literary societies of the University 
at the commencement of 1845. Mangum had not replied to a similar 
letter written in August. MS in the Library of Congress. 

38. November 7, 1844. E. H. Carrington, of Adair County, Kentucky, 
to W. P. Mangum requesting information about the wills and dis- 
tribution of the property of John Lay, Sr., and Thomas Sellers, 
Sr., deceased. MS in the Library of Congres. 

39. November 16, 1844. Charles Hughes, of Marion, Alabama, to W. P. 
Mangum giving information to support his claim for a pension for 
service in the Revolution. MS in the Library of Congress. 

40. December 10, 1844. William B. Hawkins, of Memphis, to W. P. 
Mangum asking his assistance to obtain an appointment in the 
navy. MS in the Library of Congress. 

41. December 26, 1844 or 1845. Memucan Hunt, of Texas, to W. P. 
Mangum introducing Colonel Thomas William Ward, commissioner 
general of the land office of Texas, who planned to visit New York. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

42. January 9, 1845. Thomas E. Clinton, of Washington, to W. P. 
Mangum inviting Mangum and his friends to see his "gun fired and 
Mr. Von Schmidt's Steamboat run by a new propeller." MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

43. January 30, 1845. E. D. Bullock, of Mobile, to W. P. Mangum, re- 
questing his assistance with the General Land Office to obtain a 
patent for his client, James T. Vivian. Major Harris committed 
suicide December 16 or 17, 1844. MS in the Library of Congress. 

44. January, 1845. Samuel Smith, of Hillsboro, to W. P. Mangimi 
requesting his assistance in obtaining a pension for his father's 
Revolutionary services. MS in the Library of Congress. 

45. February 1, 1845. J. A. Spencer, of New York, to W. P. Mangimi 
introducing General Leavenworth, who planned to visit Washing- 
ton and the South. MS in the Library of Congress. 

46. February 18, 1845. James L. Gillespie, of Oxford, North Carolina, 
to W. P. Mangum requesting a copy of a map of Texas printed by 
the Senate. MS in the Library of Congress. 

47. February 28, 1845. Thomas Turner, of Windsor, to W. P. Mangum 
requesting his assistance in obtaining a pension for his uncle, 
Benaiah Turner, who was in the Revolutionary War. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

48. March 11, 1845. Statement of Sally Walker, no place, asking 
Henry Weatherspoon to settle her account of $12 with Hugh 
Woods. MS in the Library of Congress. 

49. April 23, 1845. Charles Hughes, of Marion, Alabama, to W. P. 
Mangum about his pension request. MS in the Library of Congress. 

Manuscript Omitted xv 

50. August 25, 1845. Charles Hughes, of Marion, Alabama, to W. P. 
Mangum requesting him to return a letter he sent Mangum and 
W. A. Graham about his pension claims. MS in the Library of 

51. October 27, 1845. R. Haywood, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, to W. P. 
Mangum requesting his assistance in obtaining an appointment for 
A. D. Hughes to West Point. MS in the Library of Congress. 

52. November 1, 1845. Hugh Waddell, of Hillsboro, to W. P. Mangum 
asking for letters of recommendation for Mrs. Benjamin Rounsa- 
ville, who planned to move to Arkansas. MS in the Library of Con- 

53. November 28, 1845. Petition of Mary A. Bland, of Orange County, 
North Carolina, to the House of Representatives of the United 
States certifying that she was the only heir of William Hendricks, 
and asking for a donation of land for his Revolutionary services. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

54. December 5, 1845. James A. Cain, of Ruffins Mills, North Carolina, 
to W. P. Mangum about the claims of Mary A. Bland for Revolu- 
tionary bounty land of her uncle, Captain William Hendricks. MS 
in the Library of Congress. 

55. December 22, 1845. A copy in Mangum's handwriting of a letter 
of Alexander F. Vache to W. P. Mangum. The original is included 
in this publication. MS of the copy in Mangimi's handwriting is 
in the Library of Congress. 

56. January 5, 1846. Charles R. Eaton, of Granville County, to W. P. 
Mangum asking him to pay for his subscription for the Weekly 
Union and National Intelligencer. MS in the Library of Congress. 

57. January 30, 1846. James A. Cain, of Rufiins Mills, North Carolina, 
to T. L. and A. Thomas Smith, Washington, D. C, about the pension 
claims of James Cain for his Revolutionary services. Included is 
a certificate of William F. Collins, comptroller, Raleigh, on the rec- 
ords in his office for James Cain's pension. MSS in the Library of 

58. February 17, 1846. J. W. Norwood, of Hillsboro, to W. P. Mangum 
asking assistance for pension claims of Mary Bland. He also en- 
closes a statement of the relation of Mary Bland to William Hend- 
ricks, who originally came from Pennsylvania. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

59. February 21, 1846. J. H. Kirkland, Raleigh, to W. P. Mangum ask- 
ing assistance to obtain reimbursement for his mother-in-law, Mrs. 
Sarah Bass, for the Revolutionary services of her father. MS in 
the Library of Congress. 

60. March 12, 1846. Samuel Smith, Hillsboro, to W. P. Mangum ask- 
ing assistance for obtaining a pension for his father for his Rev- 
olutionary service. MS in the Library of Congress. 

xvi Manuscript Omitted 

61. John C. B. Ehringhaus, Elizabeth City, North Carolina, to Asa 
Biggs asking his assistance for Carl Hinricks, Ehringhaus' brother- 
in-law and a New York City merchant, who seeks a patent for a 
friend. MS in the Library of Congress. 

62. March 25, 1846. Mary G. Young to W. P. Mangum asking assist- 
ance to obtain a pension for the Revolutionary service of her 
father, William Christian. MS in the Library of Congress. 

63. April 20, 1846. John F. Poindexter, Germanton, North Carolina, 
to W. P. Mangum asking his assistance in obtaining a West Point 
appointment for Reuben D. Golding, of Germanton. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

64. April 23, 1846. T. L. Clingman, Morganton, to W. P. Mangum in- 
troducing a friend, D. John Dickson, of Buncombe County, who 
"is on his way north." MS in the Library of Duke University. 

65. April 25, 1846. Joseph P. Santmyer, Alleghany County, Maryland, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to become a member of the Mt. 
Savage Mechanical Lyceum. MS in the Library of Congress. 

66. May 6, 1846. W. A. Duer, Morristown, N. J., to W. P. Mangum 
asking his support for a position of regent of the Smithsonian In- 
stitute. MS in the Library of Congress. 

67. May 29, 1846. Thomas Russell and others, Harpers Ferry, Virginia, 
to W. P. Mangum asking him to deliver an oration on July 4 for 
the Virginia Lodge No. 1 of the I.O.O.F. MS in the Library of Con- 

68. July 21, 1846. Charles Paist, Wittenberg College, Springfield, 
Ohio, to W. P. Mangum informing him that the Excelsior Society 
had elected Mangum an honorary member. MS in the Library of 

69. July 31, 1846. John Peabody to W. P. Mangum and other members 
of Congress to accept Miss Woodside, Peabody's wife's aunt, as 
housekeeper. She lived on Missouri Avenue in Washington. MS 
in the Duke University Library. 

70. July, 1846. Invitation of Thomas B. Bailey and others, of Hills- 
boro, to Martha Mangum to a "party," July 31, 1846. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

71. August 2, 1846. Martin Stevenson and others, New Bern, North 
Carolina, to W. P. Mangum asking him to speak October 28 at the 
dedication of the "New Hall" of the Eureka Lodge No. 7, I.O.O.F., 
at New Bern. MS in the Library of Congress. 

72. September 13, 1846. Alexander C. Blount, New Bern, to W. P. 
Mangum renewing the request in the preceding letter (no. 69). 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

73. November 7, 1846. William D. Cooke and others, Raleigh, to W. P. 
Mangum inviting him to deliver an address to the Manteo Lodge 
No. 8, 1.O.O.F., at a date convenient to Mangum. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 


of the 




































































































J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum .... 1 

C. H. Wiley to Willie P. Mangum 1 

Perley S. Chase to Willie P. Mangum 

and Enclosure 3 

L. W. Wilson to Willie P. Mangum 5 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 7 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 8 

Willie P. Mangum to Daniel Webster .... 9 

Daniel Webster to Willie P. Mangum .... 9 

John McLean to Willie P. Mangum 10 

Charles F. Mayer to J. McPherson 

Berrien 11 

J. Watson Webb to W. H. Morrell 13 

Henry L. Brooke & others to Willie P. 

Mangum 15 

Hugh Waddell to Willie P. Mangum 16 

William Cain, III, to Willie P. Mangum 17 
Thomas Kirkpatrick to Willie P. 

Mangum and Enclosure 18 

David L. Swain to Willie P. Mangum .... 23 
Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. 

Mangum 25 

George Constantine Collins to Willie P. 

Mangum 25 

B. B. Blume to Willie P. Mangum 27 

Willie P. Mangum to David L. Swain .... 28 

Spencer O'Brien to Willie P. Mangimi .. 29 

H. P. Hunt to Willie P. Mangum 31 

John M. Clayton to Willie P. Mangum 

with Enclosure 32 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Man- 
gum 34 

Thomas Kirkpatrick to Willie P. 

Mangum 35 

Daniel Webster to Willie P. Mangum .... 36 

Josiah Randall to Willie P. Mangum 37 

Lewis Thompson to Willie P. Mangum .. 37 
Washington Hunt to Willie P. Mangum 

with Enclosure 38 

Asa Pedington to Willie P. Mangum .... 40 

Willie P. Mangum to Paul C. Cameron .. 41 

Robert Ransom to Willie P. Mangum .... 43 


Chronological List of Papers 















































, Mar. 































































, April 






Walter Lenox & others to Willie P. 

Mangum 44 

Horace T. Royster to Willie P. Mangum 45 

Calvin Colton to Willie P. Mangum .... 47 

Thurlow Weed to Willie P. Mangum .... 48 

William A. Graham to Willie P. Mangum 49 

Henry W. Miller to Willie P. Mangum .. 50 

Washington Hunt to Willie P. Mangum 51 
James William McCulloh to Willie P. 

Mangum 51 

Septimus Tuston to Willie P. Mangum .. 53 

Willie P. Mangum to W. A. Graham 53 

Memucan Hunt to Willie P. Mangum .... 57 

H. W. Miller to 58 

George Wallace McGiffin & others to 

Willie P. Mangum 58 

Samuel S. Phelps to Willie P. Mangum 59 

O. H. Tiffany to Willie P. Mangum 59 

Isaac N. Jones to Willie P. Mangum 60 

J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum .... 61 

W. J. Bingham to Willie P. Mangum .... 61 
J. Watson Webb to Messrs. Willie P. 

Mangum & J. T. Morehead 62 

M. H. Grinnell to J. Watson Webb 64 

Joseph L. Tillinghast to Willie P. 

Mangum 65 

Willie P. Mangimi to John M. Clayton .. 65 
William B. Reed to Willie P. Mangum 

and Enclosure 68 

S. H. Harris to Willie P. Mangum 70 

Joseph Ridgway to Willie P. Mangum .... 72 

J. R. Lambdin to Willie P. Mangum 72 

George Constantine Collins to 

Willie P. Mangum 73 

Reverdy Johnson to Willie P. Mangum 74 
Willie P. Mangum and James T. More- 
head to John M. Clayton 75 

Memucan Hunt to Willie P. Mangum .... 76 

B. W. Leigh to Willie P. Mangum 79 

Robert B. Gilliam to Willie P. Mangum .. 84 

John M. Clayton to Willie P. Mangum .... 85 
Willie P. Mangum & others to 

Asbury Dickins 87 

R. H. Atwell to Willie P. Mangum 88 

T. Hamer to Willie P. Mangimi 88 

G. C. Collins to Willie P. Mangum 89 

Reverdy Johnson to Willie P. Mangum 92 

Chronological List of Papers 







6 or 13] 






























































1 April 





















































William Hay den to Willie P. Mangum .... 92 
James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum .. 94 
J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangimi .... 95 
John B. Thompson to Willie P. 

Mangum 96 

John T. Towers to Willie P. Mangum .... 98 
J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum .... 99 

James Webb to Willie P. Mangum 101 

Henry Clay to Willie P. Mangum 102 

B. W. Leigh to Willie P. Mangum 103 

Richard H. Atwell to Willie P. Mangum 104 
Memucan Hunt to Willie P. Mangum .... 106 
James R. Wood to Willie P. Mangum .... 107 
Edward S. Tod to Major W. B. Morris & 

others 108 

A. W. Gay to Willie P. Mangum Ill 

B. W. Leigh to Willie P. Mangum 114 

C. F. Welles, Jr., to Willie P. Mangum .... 115 
Wesley Hollister to Willie P. Mangum .. 117 

B. L. White to Willie P. Mangum 118 

John Walker to Willie P. Mangum 119 

Lewis Eaton to Willie P. Mangum 119 

Mica j ah Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 120 
William Kinney to Willie P. Mangum .... 121 

S. P. Walker to Willie P. Mangum 122 

P. U. Murphey to Willie P. Mangum .... 123 

Isaac N. Jones to Willie P. Mangum 124 

J. H. Haughton to Willie P. Mangum .... 125 
Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Man- 
gum 127 

Willie P. Mangum to Priestley H. Man- 
gum 127 

William S. Ransom to Willie P. Mangum 129 
J. R. Lambdin to Willie P. Mangum .... 131 

Willis Hall to Willie P. Mangum 132 

Circular letter of Augustus Reese and 

others to Willie P. Mangum 133 

Henry Clay to Willie P. Mangum 134 

Printed circular from Vandalia Com- 
mittee to Willie P. Mangum 134 

William Stevens to Willie P. Mangum .... 135 
James W. Pegram & others to Willie P. 

Mangum 136 

W. S. Archer to Willie P. Mangum 137 

R. B. Gilliam to Willie P. Mangum 138 

B. B. Blume to Willie P. Mangum 139 

S. A. Wales to Willie P. Mangum 140 


Chronological List of Papers 






































July 15. 

July 23. 

July 25. 

July 27. 

July 27. 

Aug. 4. 











































Sept. 11. 

Sept. 12. 
Sept. 16. 

Sept. 17. 

Sept. 17. 

George S. Yerby to Willie P. Mangum .... 

Questions asked to the Candidates at 
Anderson Court House on Sale Day 
in June 

Robert B. Gilliam to Willie P. Mangum 

John Cameron to Willie P. Mangum 

Richard Hines to [Willie P. Mangum] .... 

Jonathan Worth to Willie P. Mangum .... 

S. Starkweather to Willie P. Mangum .. 

John M. Morehead to Willie P. Mangum 

John Kerr to Willie P. Mangum 

R. W. Lassiter et als. to Willie P. Man- 

Charles E. Russ et als. to Willie P. Man- 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum .. 

J. M. Edwards to Willie P. Mangum 

John B. Bobbitt to Sally Mangum 

Daniel R. Goodloe to William P. Man- 
gum , 

Thomas K. Thomas to Willie P. Man- 

S. H. Harris to Willie P. Mangum 

P. C. Cameron to Willie P. Mangum 

Robert Ransom to Willie P. Mangum .... 

S. Starkweather to Willie P. Mangum .. 

Henry E. Rochester to Willie P. Mangum 

Jesse P. Smith to Willie P. Mangum .... 

Henry E. Rochester to Willie P. Mangum 

David L. Swain to Willie P. Mangum .... 

B. S. Gaither & others to Willie P. Man- 

Nathan Sargent to Willie P. Mangum .... 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum .. 

Hamilton C. Jones to Willie P. Mangum 

Colin Mclver to Willie P. Mangum 

Thomas Williams, Jr., and others to 
Willie P. Mangum 

Henry Clay to Willie P. Mangum and 

Robert Ransom to Willie P. Mangum .... 

Circular of Maine Whig State Central 

Nathaniel J. Palmer to Willie P. Man- 

John Sergeant and others to Willie P. 

. 141 

Chronological List of Papers 


[1844, Sept. 27.] 

1844, Sept. 29. 

1844, Sept. 30. 

1844, Oct. 1. 

1844, Oct. 2. 

1844, Oct. 7. 

1844, Oct. 9. 




























1844, Nov. 12. 

1844, Nov. 29. 

1844, Dec. 2. 

[1844, Dec. 2.] 







[1844,] Dec. 











































R. J. IVEitchell to Willie P. Mangum 198 

David Lambert to Willie P. Mangum .... 199 
S. Starkweather to Willie P. Mangum .... 201 
John H. Pleasants and others to Willie 
P. Mangum 201 

A. M. Burton to Willie P. Mangum 203 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum .. 205 
Walter A. Mangum to Priestley H. Man- 
gum 207 

William Churchill to Willie P. Mangum 208 
S. Starkweather to Willie P. Mangum .. 209 
James C. Mangham to Willie P. Man- 
gum 210 

James Auchincloss to Willie P. Mangum 213 
Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum .... 214 
J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum .... 216 
Willie P. Mangum to Albert B. Dodd .... 217 

Dennis Heartt to Willie P. Mangum 218 

Thomas L. Ragsdale to Willie P. Man- 
gum 220 

Walter R. Johnson to Willie P. Mangum 221 

J. C. Barrett to Willie P. Mangum 222 

Charles Gibbons to Willie P. Mangum .... 223 
William H. Haywood, Jr., to Willie P. 

Mangum 223 

Edward Stanly to Willie P. Mangum .... 224 

C. L. Hinton to Willie P. Mangum 226 

Daniel R. Goodloe to Willie P. Mangum 226 

D. L. Swain to Willie P. Mangum and 
Enclosure 227 

Edward Stanly to Willie P. Mangum .... 229 
William Prescott to Willie P. Mangum .. 230 
Charity A. Mangum to Willie P. Man- 
gum 231 

E. D. Bullock to Willie P. Mangum 233 

B. HI. Kosciuszko to Willie P. Mangum 235 
J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum ..237 
Robert W. Alston to Willie P. Mangum ..237 
Willie P. Mangum to Sally, Patty, and 

Mary Mangum 239 

Willie P. Mangum to David Lowrie 

Swain and Enclosure 240 

Sketch of Willie P. Mangum 242 

Willie P. Mangum to D. Francis Bacon .. 244 
J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum .... 245 
William S. Mullens to Willie P. Man- 
gum 246 


Chronological List of Papers 

1845, Jan. 10. 












Jan. 15. 
Jan. 16. 


Jan. 21. 

Jan. 30. 

Feb. 5. 

Feb. 8. 








































Mar. 3. 

Mar. 7.] 

Mar. 11. 

Mar. 13. 

Mar. 16. 

Mar. 19. 

Mar. 19. 

April 29. 

May 3. 

May 16. 

May 17. 

Edmund Pendleton Gaines to Willie P. 

Mangum 247 

Willie P. Mangum to D. Francis Bacon .. 250 
Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Man- 
gum 251 

Reverdy Johnson to Willie P. Mangum .. 253 

D. Francis Bacon to Willie P. Mangum .. 254 
William H. Battle to Willie P. Mangum 254 

C. L. Hinton to Willie P. Mangum 255 

George E. Badger to Willie P. Mangum 256 
Willie P. Mangum to Patty Mangum .... 257 
Redwood Fisher to Willie P. Mangum .. 258 
Samuel B. Williams to Willie P. Man- 
gum 259 

William G. Cochran to Willie P. Man- 
gum 260 

Edward Stanly to Willie P. Mangum .... 261 
Louisa S. Childs to Willie P. Mangimi .. 262 
W. A. Graham to Willie P. Mangum and 

Enclosure 263 

Edward Stanly to Willie P. Mangum .... 264 
Quinby Williams to Willie P. Mangum 266 
Tod R. Caldwell to Willie P. Mangum .... 266 
Willie P. Mangum to Tod R. Caldwell .. 267 
J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum .. 270 
Willie P. Mangum to William A. Gra- 
ham 271 

C. N. B. Evans to Willie P. Mangum .... 273 
Calvin Colton to Willie P. Mangum .... 274 
Thomas Ruffin to Willie P. Mangum .... 274 
James Cass Williams to Willie P. Man- 
gum 276 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Man- 
gum 277 

J. Whitehorne to Willie P. Mangum .... 277 
Stephen Moore to Willie P. Mangum .... 278 
Thomas L. Ragsdale to Willie P. Man- 
gum 279 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Man- 
gum 280 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum .. 281 
William S. G. Brown to Willie P. Man- 
gum 285 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum .. 286 

E. D. Bullock to Willie P. Mangum 288 

Nathan Sargent to Willie P. Mangum .... 290 
John T. Towers to Willie P. Mangum .... 291 

Chronological List of Papers 












































































































George H. Colton to Willie P. Mangum 293 

D. M. Barringer to Willie P. Mangum .... 295 
Daniel R. Goodloe to Willie P. Man- 
gum 295 

James Webb to Willie P. Mangum 296 

Samuel Martin to Willie P. Mangum .... 297 
Charles Manly to Willie P. Mangum .... 298 
P. H. Mangum to Ellison G. Mangum .. 299 
William K. Ruffin to Willie P. Mangum 301 

John Cameron to Willie P. Mangum 302 

Thomas F. Davis to Willie P. Mangum .. 306 

E. W. Hall and others to Willie P. Man- 
gum 307 

William Piper to Willie P. Mangum 308 

Henry Clay to P. Henry Langdon 309 

J. Pope, Jr., and others to Willie P. 

Mangum 310 

John H. Young to Willie P. Mangum .... 312 
Samuel Winfree and John M. Sheppard 

to Willie P. Mangum 313 

William Hickey to Willie P. Mangum .... 314 
T. L. Clingman to Willie P. Mangum .... 315 

J. S. Skinner to Willie P. Mangum 317 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 318 

Thomas J. Green To The Electors Of The 
Western Congressional District Of The 

State Of Texas 319 

James P. Scales & others to Willie P. 

Mangum 324 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Gra- 
ham 325 

Joseph B. Hinton to Willie P. Mangum .. 326 

John Minge to Willie P. Mangum 327 

A. W. Gay to Willie P. Mangum 329 

Thomas J. Green to Willie P. Mangum ..331 
Willie P. Mangum to Asbury Dickins .... 333 

D. Clapp to Willie P. Mangum 333 

Charles G. Percival to Willie P. Man- 
gum 334 

Report of the Work of the Whig Re- 
publican Association 335 

W. G. E. Agnew et als. to Willie P. Man- 
gum 336 

Thurlow Weed to Willie P. Mangum .... 337 
P. U. Murphey to Willie P. Mangum .... 338 
Alexander F. Vache to Willie P. Man- 
gum 339 

Daniel Mallory to Willie P. Mangimi .... 340 


Chronological List of Papers 

1845, Dec. 24. 


















































































































"A True American" to Willie P. Man- 
gum 342 

Willie P. Mangum to James K. Polk .... 344 
Willie P. Mangum to Sally, Patty, and 

Mary Mangum 344 

James Cooper to Willie P. Mangum .... 345 

Francis B. Whiting to Willie P. Mangum 346 

Willie P. Mangum to Sally A. Mangum .. 347 

Samuel Martin to Willie P. Mangum .... 348 

W. Claiborne to Willie P. Mangum .... 349 

George W. Jones to Willie P. Mangum .. 350 

J. R. Creecy to Willie P. Mangum 351 

Thomas J. Green To The People Of 

Texas 352 

John M. Botts to Willie P. Mangum .... 363 

Henry M. Bickel to Willie P. Mangum .. 364 
William H. Haywood, Jr., to Willie P. 

Mangum 365 

John Hill to Willie P. Mangum 365 

J. C. Clark to Willie P. Mangum 366 

Thurlow Weed to Willie P. Mangum .... 368 
C. P. Kingsbury to Willie P. Mangum .... 369 
Abraham W. Venable to Willie P. Man- 
gum 372 

J. S. Skinner to Willie P. Mangum 373 

Edward Stanly to Willie P. Mangum .... 373 
J. R. Lambdin to Willie P. Mangum .... 375 
Priestley H. Mangum to Willie P. Man- 
gum 376 

Willie P. Mangum to Willie A. Graham 378 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum 379 

R. W. Brown to Willie P. Mangum 379 

James Manney to Willie P. Mangum .... 381 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 383 

Gouverneur Kemble to Charles Fisher 384 

John D. Hawkins to Willie P. Mangum 386 
William Gibbs McNeill to Willie P. 

Mangum 388 

Note of Willie P. Mangum on the "His- 
tory of Ivory Crucifix" 389 

J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum .... 390 

William Hooper to Willie P. Mangum .... 391 

J. Whitehorne to Willie P. Mangum 392 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 393 

T. L. Clingman to Willie P. Mangum .... 395 

Daniel S. Hill to Willie P. Mangum 396 

Washington Hunt to Willie P. Mangum .. 398 

Chronological List of Papers 




Feb. 25.] 































































































June 4. 
















J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum .... 399 
William B. Lewis to Willie P. Mangum 399 
Henry W. Moncure et als. to Willie P. 

Mangum 400 

Samuel F. Man to Willie P. Mangum .... 402 
Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Man- 
gum 403 

Samuel F. Man to Willie P. Mangum .... 405 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 407 

Samuel F. Man to Willie P. Mangum .... 409 
William Albright to Willie P. Mangum 410 
John G. Roulhac to Willie P. Mangum ..411 
George C. Collins to Willie P. Mangum .. 412 
*'A True Whig" to Willie P. Mangum .... 414 
D. Francis Bacon to Willie P. Mangum 417 
William G. Webster to Willie P. Man- 
gum 419 

John Hogan to Willie P. Mangum 419 

William H. Thomas to Willie P. Mangum 421 
Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum .. 422 
Louis Thompson to Willie P. Mangum .... 423 
Willie P. Mangum to D. Francis Bacon .. 424 
John Cameron [?] to Willie P. Mangum 425 
A. H. Shepperd to Willie P. Mangum .... 428 

L. D. Dewey to Willie P. Mangum 430 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangimi 430 

John Cameron to Willie P. Mangum .... 432 
Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Man- 
gum 434 

Elipht. Nott to Willie P. Mangum 435 

Fabius Stanly to Willie P. Mangum 437 

A. H. Shepperd to Willie P. Mangum .. 438 
James S. Russell to Willie P. Mangum .. 440 
James Linch et als. to Willie P. Mangum 440 
Thomas G. Polk to Willie P. Mangum .. 442 

O. F. Long to Willie P. Mangum 443 

Willie P. Mangimi to the Secretary of 

the Navy 444 

Willie P. Mangimi to Charity A. Man- 
gum 445 

J. R. Greecy to Willie P. Mangum 445 

Willie P. Mangum to Messrs. Gales & 

Seaton 447 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 448 

Willie P. Mangum & W. S. Archer to 

James Watson Webb 449 

Thomas J. Green to Willie P. Mangum 451 


Chronological List of Papers 

1846, June 22. 

[1846, June 22.] 

1846, June 29. 

1846, July 8. 

1846, July 14. 

1846, July 17. 

1846, July 20. 

1846, July 20. 

1846, July 24. 

1846, July 28. 















































































Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Man- 
gum 451 

Josiah Randall to Willie P. Mangum .... 452 
Willie P. Mangum to Messrs. Gales & 

Seaton 453 

Dudley Selden to Willie P. Mangum .... 454 
George Constantine Collins to Willie 

P. Mangum 455 

William H. Thomas to Willie P. Man- 
gum and Enclosure 457 

Jo. H. Jacobs to Willie P. Mangum 459 

Charles Miner to William A. Graham .... 460 
J. W. Carr to Willie P. Mangum and 

Enclosure , 464 

Benjamin Coleman to Willie P. Man- 
gum 466 

P. U. Murphey to Willie P. Mangum .... 467 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 468 

Abram R. Laurence to Willie P. Man- 
gum 470 

A. G. Hodges to Willie P. Mangum 471 

Benjamin H. Brewster to Willie P. 

Mangum , 472 

Asa Whitney to Willie P. Mangum 474 

James Auchincloss to Willie P. Man- 
gum 474 

John B. Fry to Willie P. Mangum 476 

T. L. Clingman to Willie P. Mangum .... 476 
James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum .. 479 

John Wilson to Willie P. Mangum 482 

John Hogan to Willie P. Mangum 492 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum .. 493 
Weston R. Gales to WilHe P. Mangum .. 496 
Charles Nichols to Willie P. Mangum .. 497 

N. Sargent to Willie P. Mangum 498 

John B. Fry to Willie P. Mangum 499 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum .. 500 
Henry A. S. Dearborn to Willie P. Man- 
gum and Enclosures 502 

Thomas J. Green to Willie P. Mangum 511 
J. H. Clay Mudd to Willie P. Mangum .... 512 
P. C. Cameron to Willie P. Mangimi .... 513 
Willie P. Mangum to Paul C. Cameron .. 514 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 515 

John W. Norwood to Willie P. Mangum 517 
Winfield Scott to Willie P. Mangum .... 519 











































Chronological List of Papers xxvii 


Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Man- 
gum 519 

John W. Norwood to Willie P. Mangum 520 
N. P. Tallmadge to Willie P. Mangum .. 520 
Josiah Randall to Willie P. Mangum .... 522 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 523 

Job Worth to Willie P. Mangum 526 

Willie P. Mangum to the Editor of the 

Union 527 

William H. Thomas to Willie P. Man- 
gum 527 

John Cameron to Willie P. Mangum .... 528 
John McLean to Willie P. Mangum .... 529 

Calvin Colton to Willie P. Mangum 529 

Willie P. Mangimi to the President of 

the United States 530 

Willie P. Mangum to J. J. Crittenden .... 530 
John Beard to Willie P. Mangimi 531 


(The location of papers from other collections is indicated by footnotes.) 

WPM-D Willie P. Mangum Papers at Duke University, Durham, 
North Carolina. 

WPM-LC Willie P. Mangum Papers in the Library of Congress, 
Washington, District of Columbia. 

WPM-NC Willie P Mangum Papers in the State Department of Ar- 
chives and History, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

WPM-UNC Willie P. Mangum Papers, Southern Collection, University 
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 




J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum. 

[2 January, 1844] 
My Dear Sir. 

Permit me to introduce to your favourable acquaintance Mr. 
Freeman Hunt^^ the editor of the Merchants Magazine, one of 
the very best publications of the kind ever got up in this City. 
Mr. Hunt is politically & personally, the friend of Mr. Clay; & 
yet takes the liberty of entertaining & advocating his own views 
in relation to the tariff etc. etc. 

If you can be of any service to him you will greatly oblige 

Your friend & obt. Srvt. 
J. Watson Webb 

Jany. 2. 1844. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon: W. P. Mangum 
Washington City. 
Mr. Hunt. 

C. H. Wiley^ to Willie P. Mangum, 

Oxford, N. C. Jan. 5th. 1844 — 
Dear Sir: 

If you can spare a few hours to the subject of this letter, your 
kindness will greatly oblige a friend.- I am becoming dissatis- 
fied with my location; not that I have not met with sufficient en- 

^Freeman Hunt, 1804-1858, a native of Massachusetts, had little formal schooling. Beginning as 
an office boy in a print shop, he soon rose to head the firm of Putnam and Hunt, which in the 
late 1820's and early 1830's published numerous small magazines. He moved to New York and 
established the Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review. After 1850 this was called Hunt's 
Merchants' Magazine. This was his love; he worked on it until his death in 1858. In politics 
he was a Whig. D. A. B., IX, 384. 

^Compare the letter from Wiley to W. P. Mangum June 19, 1841. See above. Ill, 174-175. 

2 State Department of Archives and History 

couragement, according to the capabilities of the place; but be- 
cause the Country cannot afford encouragement. I have, it is 
said, done w^ell for a young man, that is, succeeded well, & yet 
what is it? — no man possesses stronger attachment for his na- 
tive State than I. No one can more respect her laws, & law ob- 
serving people; no one more admire her patriotism or venerate 
her ancient renown.- Often, often have I wished that my lot 
had been to be born with those means by which I could make 
myself useful & valuable to the place of my nativity, instead 
of being one of that class who must look for a location useful 
to them. So tender & sincere is my regard for the good Old 
North State, that in preparing to leave it, I feel myself called 
on to make this apology. But as I said, I am one of those who 
have their own way to carve: & I too am resolved to make my 
way by my profession & the pursuits of literature. I am unfor- 
tunately, so constituted, that my chief happiness consists in the 
study of books, the history of Governments &c &c.- Such tastes, 
no man in the provincial situation, can gratify to any great ex- 
tent, unless possessed of an easy fortune.- Nor is there any hope 
of a young man's ever accumulating much in a country like this 
at the law : & if he abide here, he must spend a life of drudgery 
for a poor subsistence & in his old age - must reflect that he has 
neither founded a fortune, nor explored to any extent the Treas- 
ure House of knowledge.- My desire is to settle in a City: I 
could there gratify my tastes, & there have hopes, by industry 
& steady habits of rising into a lucrative business. Besides the 
insuperable argument of necessity which induces me to look 
out for such a situation, & the inducements which it holds out 
to a man of literary turn, there are other cogent reasons, op- 
erating on my mind.- A large city is a sort of focus of talent & 
accomplishments of all sorts: man is brought into frequent col- 
lision with man, mind grapples with mind: & thus we are im- 
proved both by having our own intellectual powers developed 
& polished, & by the constant aids of foreign lights, surrounding 
us on every side.- Besides, I believe that great events are on the 
wing & should I live the usual allotted period of man's existence, 
I shall expect to see mighty changes in my day.- I wish to be 
where I can get the earliest insight into the progress of these 
changes & be prepared to act my part.- As a great, but in my 
opinion bad man, asked ''Where am I to go?" Now the labour 
which I wish to impose on you, in addition to that of reading 

The Mangum Papers 3 

this letter, is this: I wish you to give me some information for 
which your position will eminently enable you.- If I go hence, 
I must have the means of certain support where I settle.- This I 
propose to make in two ways : First by getting into the office of 
an old Attorney as a junior partner, or secondly, by getting an 
engagement as assistant Editor to some political Whig, Clay pa- 
per. As to my qualifications for the former, I can say, I have 
the habits & principles of a son of the Old North & can get recom- 
mendations from the first lawyers in our State. As to my fitness 
for the second, [I] can say, that I have had some success at all 
sorts of writing: political, literary, & dramatic — Few of my age 
are better practiced, at least, with the pen, & this is all I will 
say — Would you do me, the very great favour of looking out for 
a location for me? If you could spare the time (I know you have 
the will ) to exert yourself a little for me, you will be conferring 
a favour — that will, at some day, return upon you with interest. 
You see men from all the cities : Will you make some enquiries, 
& give me a recommendation? I should think, in the ensuing 
campaign, a vigorous Whig pen in St. Louis, in Louisville, or 
Nashville, might "do the State some service." I merely suggest 
this as a hint. — 

Expecting an answer, I have the honour to remain. 

Most respectfully & truly, yours, 

C. H. Wiley 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Washington City 

D. C. 

Perley S. Chase to Willie P. Mangum and Enclosure. 

Manchester, Jan.^^ 5th, 1844. 

To the Presdt. of the U. S. Senate- 
Dear Sir Agreeably to a vote of of [sici the New Hampshire, 
State Washingtonian Temperance Society^ in Convention as- 

^he temperance movement began in Concord, New Hampshire, in 1827. Reverend Nathaniel 
Bouton, as the leader, began the movement. In 1830 he organized the Temperance Society. By 1841 
numerous societies had been formed. Franklin Pierce became a sponsor of the movement. By 1847 
a referendum was authorized. Petitions poured into the legislature and by 1855 a temperance law 
was passed. Everett S. Stockpole, History of New Hampshire, IV, 251-256; R. F. Nichols, Franklin 
Pierce: Young Hickory of the Granite HUls, Philadelphia, 1931, 57, 123-124, 125-126. 

4 State Department of Archives and History 

sembled at Manchester, N. H. on the 3d & 4th days of Janry. 
1844, I transmit to you the following Resolutions, which were 
adopted by the Convention, and signed by the President & Sec- 
retary of the above named Society. 

I am very respectfully your 
Obt Servant 
Perley S. Chase ) Cor. Secretary 

Hon. W P. Mangum 
Presdt. Senate 

1. Resolved — That this Convention regards with deep interest 

the welfare of the American Sailor, and has heard with 
great pleasure of the generally successful efforts in the 
Merchant Service to abolish the use of alcohol. 

2. Resolved — ^That in the opinion of this Convention, the honor 

of our Country - the welfare of the sailor, and the good 
of society require that the Spirit Ration of the Navy 
should be at once & utterly abolished; that while the use 
of alcohol is chiefly abandoned in the Merchant-Service, 
its continuance on board our Ships of War, is alike in- 
jurious & disgraceful. 

3d. Resolved — ^That copies of the foregoing votes, attested by 
the President & Secretary be forwarded to the Presiding 
Officers of each House of Congress, with a request that 
the same be communicated to their Respective Houses & 
printed for the information of the members. 

Anthony Cobly ) President 

Perley S. Chase Cor Secretary. 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Presdt. U. S. Senate 

Washington, D. C. 

The Mangum Papers 5 

L. W. Wilson^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York Jany 6, 1844 
Honble. W. P. Mangum, 

Pardon the liberty of one who was once honoured with a 
slight acquaintance with you, while Judge of the Superior Court 
of N. Carolina for addressing you. But well knowing your ard- 
ent love of Country as well as the only policy that possibly can 
render our beloved Country prosperous & happy, I shall with- 
out further preliminary make you acquainted with the low, 
small potatoe conduct of Loco foco Henshaw^ - In the first place 
he commenced his Great reform, by descending to remove Whig, 
Master Joiners, Master Labourers &c out of the Navy yard, at 
this place & appoint in their stead men entirely unquallified to 
fill their Stations, but Strong Loco focos; never was there a set 
of men, placed on public duty, that were more faithful public 
servants than those removed by Mr. Henshaw, and every Whig 
he is turning out with all possible dispatch, as fast as he can 
make the even semblance of a cause. Capt. Frelon, a loco foco 
of hot blood who is ordered to the U. S. S. Preble, had the priv- 
ilege of choosing his forward officers; a few days past, a man by 
the name of Berry of the Same Stamp, applied to Capt. Frelon 
to be made Carpenter of his Ship the reply was, go and get a 
line from Mr. Murphy,^ & you shall be appointed. Murphy is a 
member of Congress from Brooklyn District and is a man who is 
in the habit of doing the Kennel work for the Party — This in- 
formation I had from Berry who was then waiting at the Bank 
door in Brooklyn to receive the promised check that was to be 
honoured by Secretary Henshaw; what contemptable small busi- 
ness say you, for the Secretary of the Navy of the greatest 
Republic that ever existed to stoop to, but what then could be 
expected from appointments made by the Accidental President 
& a traitor to his professed principals — 

*Unable to identify. 

^David Henshaw, a railroad pioneer and a Democrat, was appointed Secretary of the Navy by 
Tyler in the summer of 1843. His appointment was not confirmed by the Senate, the vote being 
8 to 34. 

In October, 1843, a number of workmen were discharged at the several navy yards. According 
to Whig partisans, these removals were due to the faa that the workmen were Whigs. Henshaw 
denied the accusation. Niles' Register, LXV, 135, 388. 

^Henry Cruse Murphy. 1810-1882. held several offices in Brooklyn and New York State before 
he entered Congress in March, 1843. He served from 1843 to 1845 and 1847 to 1849. He was 
owner and editor of the Brooklyn Eagle. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1346. 

6 State Department of Archives and History 

Please bear in mind that when Secretary Badger made re- 
movals in the Navy Yard, there was uncontrovertible proof that 
the incumbent, had been guilty of the most barefaced Pilfering, 
and some of these Sir are yet retained in the Service of the Govt, 
to wit Comdr. Renshaw & Saml. Hart Naval Contractors had the 
Proofs Sir charged on these men, been proven in a Court of Civil 
or Criminal Justice, they would long since have been consigned 
to ignominy - but they were of the party &; it required the hardi- 
hood of a traitor to retain & reward them for their villany. — 

Some months Since, charges was made against the Master 
Sail Maker of this yard, which could have been established 
without the least doubt, & resulted in his discharge from the 
Service, but he belonged to the party & Secretary Henshaw, 
Sent the persons to Sea who made the charges & is now carry- 
ing on a Court of enquiry in the yard, which I am told will re- 
sult in the acquittal of Van Voris, this information rely on, and 
I give it you, that our party may not be accused of participating 
& confirming the appointment of a man so incompetent to the 
Station & a mind that cannot possibly soar above little things. — 

Driven from N. Carolina by misfortune & from a Lucrative 
Situation by Vanburen, I was by the recommendation of Judge 
Badger, placed in employment in the Navy Yard at this place & 
have had an opportunity of making myself well acquainted with 
much abuse of public confidence in many public officers, I am 
now discharged, because & only because I was consistent in my 
political principals & prefer Mr. Clay to any other man that I 
know of for the next President. I have always lived & enjoyed 
affluence until Vanburen drove me to day labour & as I am not 
one of them, they would condescend to employ me in the Yard if 
I would work as a day labourer at the m[ost] menial employ- 
ment - to old Nick with them - Any information that I can give 
you from this quarter please ask for & you will confer a favour 
on me by replying to this.- 

Very respectfully Sir Yr Obt. Servt 
L. W. Wilson 

[Addressed:] Honble Willie P. Mangum 

Senate U. States 

Washington City. 

The Mangum Papers 7 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Monday evening 
Washington City, 8th. January 1844. 

My dear Love. 

I reed, a letter from you this evening, saying, that you had 
received but one letter from me.- I am astonished - as I have 
written three, & one upon business. 

I have been unwell, until within a Week past. I am not now 
entirely well.- Three weeks ago, I was more alarmed, than I 
have ever been in my life. - 

The cold with which I left home, fastened upon my lungs, 
and I suffered extremely. — Two Doctors attended me three 
weeks, or thereabouts. — 

I have been much reduced, but for some days past — say — 
eight or ten, have been improving most rapidly. — I am so well, 
that I hope, to be entirely so. — I live with the utmost care, ex- 
cept that I fear, my cold bathing is carried too far — As I have 
the brush run over my body every morning, dipt in Cold Water — 
The doctors advise it.- I was very much hurt to hear, that you 
had received but one letter from me. - I know it gave you much 
concern - & I would not have given it without cause. - I fear. My 
Love, that you take these things too much to heart.- You ought 
to know - you must know - that whatever may happen - that 
whatever defects of temper or otherwise, I may exhibit - that you 
are dearer to me, than all the world, our dear children, not even 
excepted; dear as they, and every one of them are to me. — 

I wrote about the hiring, which I hope has come to hand — 
I wrote about the blacksmith's tools. - If none are got, they m,ust 
he - Mr. Wyche at Henderson will procure what may be want- 

You will write to "Mr James Wyche" at Henderson depot to 
get such tools, as Mr. Wilkins will direct, send by the first mail — 
He will get them & write to you by the first mail.-You will 
then send for them. — 

I have not been able to go to Baltimore to get the things I 
want — If I do not go next week, I shall write to Petersburg for 
them, though I prefer to get them myself. — 

I hope the Children go on well. — Give my Love to Sally, 

8 State Department of Archives and History 

Patty, & Mary & say to them to improve w^hat they can. — To my 
son - say that I expect him to learn to spell, & read & write me 
a short letter before long. — 

I v^rite in great haste, as I have to go to a Caucus. - I live 
with Gov. Morehead of Kentucky - Nobody else — 

Always My dear Love, feel that you are dearer to me than all 
others - because such are my feelings - & because you have al- 
ways, deserved to be so. 

Your affectionate husband 
Willie P. Mangum. 


I should have got well much sooner, if I had not made it a 
point to go to the Senate every day - & for nearly a week, a 
servant had to help me up stairs. — 

I shall try to get well, & hope it will be so. — 

ever dear, accept my love, 


Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Washington. 8th. Jan: 1844. 
My dear Love- 

I have written by this mail, more at large, for you to receive 
on Saturday. — 

I now write by Franklinton - But do not know, that you will 
receive it. — 

I have been long sick, & much alarmed on account of my 
lungs.- I am getting well, & for more than a week, have been 
rapidly recovering.- My Love to the Children & a kiss to each.- 
and always My Love, feel sure, whatever may happen, that you 
are dearer to me than all the world, our dear Children not even 

Your affectionate husband 
W. P. Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 9 

Willie P. Mangum to Daniel Webster. 

Monday morning, 8th Jan. 1844. 
My dear Sir 

A friend has sent me, some 150 miles, a saddle of mutton, 
beautiful to the eye, the most beautiful, I ever saw. 

I propose with a few friends to look into it, to morrow 

Will you do me & them the favor to aid us with your coun- 

I can promise you but little except the company of some 
dozen of our friends. 

The donor of the saddle is in the City. — If I could keep the 
mutton, I cannot keep my friend - & therefore, you will join us 
prepared to excuse very hasty preparation on the part of new 
beginners. — 

I had hoped to make this request in person, last night, but 
was not well enough. 

Say at 5V2 oclock. Will you join us? 

With great respect. 
Very truly yrs. 
Willie P. Mangum. 
Mr. Webster. 

Daniel Webster to Willie P. Mangum, 

Monday, Jan. 8. [1844] 
2 o'clock. 
My Dear Sir; 

It will give me pleasure to be one of those who shall sit in 
judgment on your mutton tomorrow. 

I shall present myself at the hour proposed. 

Very truly Yrs. 

Danl Webster. 
Mr. Mangum. 

■^After Webster resigned as Secretary of State, he practiced law in Massachusetts until December, 
1843, when he went to Washington on a visit. In Washington the Whigs were not too cordial. 
Choate, who held Webster's seat in the Senate, persuaded Mangum and others to work out some kind 
of reconciliation with Webster. This dinner was probably a part of that reconciliation. See Fuess, 
Life of Webster, II, 140. 

10 State Department of Archives and History 

John McLean^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Baltimore Jan 9, '44 
My dear Sir 

Our friends in this quarter are very solicitous to knov^ the 
ultimate course of the Whigs in regard to the implied overtures 
of "Capt Tyler." Will they ground their arms, and take him 
and his friends into full-fellowship? Are his past political 
offences to be sponged, and the Traitor and his gang again to be 
taken in full-communion v^ith the Whig Church? 

May I ask the favor of you to advise me upon these matters; 
and as far as is consistent with your official duties to inform me 
of the probable issue of the important nominations now before 
the Senate- My relations with Mr Monroe of the "Patriot" and 
other Whig Editors will enable me to make profitable use of the 
information, and be of essential service to our friends in the 
Senate — 

You may rely on my discretion and high regard for your 
honor in every thing that I may do either politically or personal- 


faithfully your friend 
& obedt servt 
John McLean 
(of N. Y) 
Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

President S. U. States 


D. C. 

**A New York business leader who took much interest in education and politics. He was a grad- 
uate of Columbia College, commissary-general of New York, and regent of New York University. He 
engaged in the lumber industry. Manual for the Use of the Legislature of the State of New York for 
the Year 1834, 370; M. H. Thomas, Columbia University Officers and Alumni, 1854-1857 , New 
York, 1836. 118; Longworth, New York Directory, 1835-1836, 434. 

The Mangum Papers 11 


Charles F. Mayer^ to J. McPherson Berrien. 


12 Jany. 1844. 
Dear Sir; 

When in Washington today I was desirous of saying a few 
words to you on a matter which I deem of interest to our 
Party - but your engagements and my own prevented me. Al- 
low me now to mention it. To myself with others of the "Whigs 
the question of Mr. Spencer's appointment as Judge/^ seems to 
involve very important considerations for our prospects in New 
York as well as for our Party dignity. The eminent talent of 
Mr Spencer for the station being conceded, his rejection would 
be inflicted only as a penal retribution for imputed political in- 
stability - chiefly his supposed inconsistency with the profes- 
sions of the Syracuse Convention.^^ That imputation I learn can 
be most satisfactorily explained away. But without treating of 
any exculpation, may we not, even assuming the deflection to 
exist, doubt the propriety - the expediency - of affixing the 
same stigma of a rejection - for a stigma it will be, where the 
qualification of mind and knowledge for the position is unques- 
tionable? The publick may say that his sin was not more fla- 
grant than Mr. Taney's, - and that as in Mr. Taney's case, so in 
the present there could be no question of the Judicial rectitude 
that was to have been expected, and in Mr. Taney's Judicial ca- 
reer has been exhibited.-Ought Mr. Spencer (especially under 
the exposition that can be given in his defence as to the Syracuse 
affair) to be marked with the reprobation of the Senate? The 
Whigs wield the power and, whatever cunning views our en- 
emies may act on, would bear the responsibility and the odium - 
and the Democrats will, in Senate and out of it, watch results 
to turn them against us. They will see their triumph possibly 
in the reaction of the punishment, as it will be deemed, imposed 
by the Whigs on Mr. Spencer, by rejecting him. We have, in 

»A lawyer and civic leader of Baltimore. Livingston, Law Register, 1851, p. 437; 1860, p. 367; 
Scharf, Chronicles of Baltimore, All, 537, 543, 629. 

i°John C. Spencer had served in Tyler's Cabinet as Secretary of War and as Secretary of the 
Treasury. In January, 1844, Tyler appointed him justice of the United States Supreme Court. Because 
of Spencer's loyalty to Tyler, the Clay Whigs of New York, including Thurlow Weed, succeeded in 
defeating this confirmation. Lambert, Presidential Politics in the U. S., 1841-1842, 93-94; D. A. B., 
XVII, 449-450. 

"^In their state convention which met at Syracuse, Oaober 7, 1841, the Whigs of New York 
approved the resignation of members of Tyler's Cabinet after the split over the bank bill. Hillsborough 
Recorder, Oaober 21, 1844; Chitwood, Life of Tyler, 251. 

12 State Department of Archives and History 

Mr. Van Buren's instance, already suffered the force of reaction 
from such a form of rebuke as now hangs over Mr. Spencer. I 
allude to this latter experience only to show how much reaction 
is to be regarded as an element among the political forces v>/hich 
give tendency and purpose to political movements In finding a 
point for the reaction here some think that in Western New 
York, where the Spencer family have had great influence, an 
interest Democratic, Conservative, and otherwise, might rally 
to blight us there very seriously; while the rejection might 
become a test generally of passionate rally elsewhere in the 
State of New York under the urgency of Mr Spencer's friends 
and favoured, as is natural, by himself. I have never seen 
good flow from the passion of Party whether that was actually 
the sole impulse or could be plausibly so interpreted by the ad- 
verse Party. And I very much fear that the rejection of Mr. 
Spencer would be regarded as the scorn of Whigs stimulated by 
impassioned discontent with him politically - and making po- 
litical considerations a test for Judicial preferment. I make 
these allusions as only what our enemies and many even of our 
brethren may conceive. It may be a fair inquiry whether a Ju- 
dicial station would not be the proper disposition of Mr Spencer 
even if he be politically restless, and might not be the appro- 
priate sedative of the temperament, he may be supposed to 

I hope, my dear Sir, you will pardon my intruding on you 
these thoughts. They are expressed to you in no officious spirit 
but merely as the reflections which my solicitude for our party's 
just ascendency has stirred up: and which in that feeling I be- 
lieved I might be warranted in laying before you. 

You are wiser and better informed than I can be in all these 
matters - but I know your kindness, and I am sure of your in- 
dulgence therefore for my speaking to you from the bosom of 
the People, whose various sentiments you always like together 
[sic] . 

I am, my dear Sir, 

with great respect, 
Your's truly 
Charles F. Mayer. 

The Honorable 

J. McPherson Berrien 
Washington City, 

The Mangum Papers 13 

J. Watson Wehh to W. H. MorrelV^ 

[12 Jan., 1844] 
Dear Morell 

I returned from Philadelphia on Monday, & have since been 
so constantly occupied, that I could not find time to reply to 
your letter in relation to Talmadge. While as you well know, 
I have for nearly three years, known him to be a knave, I have 
never, since I brought forward the name of Mr. Clay in Feb- 
ruary '42 and called upon the Whigs to rally upon it, but on one 
occasion referred to T. and his utter worthlessness. Of course 
in this, I have acted from policy to the Whig Party; and this 
policy I shall not abandon until I perceive the possibility of his 
nomination. I shall then, should such a contingency arise, both 
during its pendency & after its occurrence, denounce him as a 
disgrace to any party and far less worthy of confidence than 
even John Tyler himself. Have no fear therefore, on this head; 
& tell Mr. Mangum, Morehead, and other friends that they 
have nothing to apprehend from the Cou. & Enq. on this sub- 
ject, and that I am as well satisfied that it is the true course, as 
I am that it would be dishonorable in me to do or say or per- 
mit to be done or said any thing in my columns in favour of his 

I am glad to hear that my article on abolition & the right of 
Petition, has done good. I felt that the views I expressed were 
just to all parties; & feeling so, I hope good would result from 
their being clearly & fearlessly expressed. I therefore, ordered 
a copy of the paper containing them to be sent to every mem- 
ber of Congress. I think however that to pursue the subject 
would do harm instead of good; but in relation to this, I am 
ready to be advised, and if it should be deemed advisable, will 
cheerfully publish whatever you or others may write, or will 
resume the discussion myself. 

We all feel that it is impossible for the Senate to confirm 
Spencer; & the hope is that the place will be kept open for John 
Tyler's successor to fill. Who that will be, we all know. Next 
winter, the Locos may feel desirous of having the place filled; 
& to guard against Treason in our own ranks, why cannot our 

^^See above. Ill, 40 In. 

14 State Department of Archives and History 

friends agree definitively with the Loco Foco Senators, that if 
Tyler will not give us a good Judge this Winter, it shall be 
deemed a vacancy not to be filled until his successor comes into 

As to the Vice Presidency, you know precisely my feelings 
& views in regard to Mr. Webster. He could be delighted to see 
Evans^^ nominated; & as the vice President cannot be taken 
from a Slave State, why not agree that the Delegates from the 
New England States, shall make the nomination to the Conven- 
tion, if they are found to be all right? New York should be put 
out of the question. John Sargeant^^ is just the honest whig 
suitable for the Station; though I should prefer Clayton or 
Mangum if the[y] dwelt in a non-slave State. But if it is said, 
Evans would unite the whole East, & give us Maine & New 
Hampshire, why little Matty'^^ might in that contingency, be left 
without a solitary State! Would not this be a glorious result? 
But be this as it may, the honest whig who can most strengthen 
the ticket, & who in case of such a contingency as occurred to 
Harrison, would be qualified to succeed him, must be selected. 
You well know that when run up Mr. Clay's banner, I wrote 
to him that I would neither ask for nor take an office; my whole 
object therefore, is success by fair & honorable means & with 
honorable men, and my views & opinions are all openly ex- 
pressed and may be quoted at all times. I have no other secrets 
in my politics than to preserve the secrets of my party & my 
friends when committed to me. 

Ask Mr. Mangum if he reed, a second letter from me, though 
a long one, in relation to the Tariff & other matters. I have just 
given Pennsylvania Repudiation a scoring. "The preservation 
of the Public Faith" must be inscribed in indelible letters on 
the Whig Banner, & it alone would insure success. As ever your 

J. Watson Webb Ja y 12 — 1844 

P.S. Please to take notice that this letter has a date although 
written after 2 A.M. I had thought it should be Jany 13. 

^^George Evans, Senator from Maine and close friend of Webster. 
"See above, III, 92, 219n. 
i^Martin Van Buren. 

The Mangum Papers 15 

Henry L. Brooke ^^ & others to Willie P. Mangum. 

Richmond Va. 17th. Jany 1844 

Honble W. P. Mangum 

of the United States Senate 

Dear Sir, 

We are instructed by the Whig Central Committee of the 
State of Virginia to invite you to attend a general convention, 
of the party to be held in this City on the 7th, February next — 

The objects of this convention are to nominate Electors to 
vote for a President & Vice President of the United States; to 
embody and promulgate in the form of an address to the peo- 
ple of Virginia, the political principles and measures of govern- 
mental policy, on their approval of which, the Whig party in- 
tend to place their hopes of success at the next Spring & Fall Elec- 
tions; to provide a more effective organization, of the party 
throughout the State; and to diffuse a warmer spirit of patri- 
otism and a more just appreciation of the importance of the 
establishment of the principles, and policy thus recommended, 
to the success of our free institutions and the welfare and pros- 
perity of the nation — 

The assembling of such a convention with such views, and 
for such purposes, has been deemed by the committee an oc- 
casion of sufficient importance to excite the interest, and invoke 
the aid of the purest virtue and most distinguished talents of 
the nation. - And in selecting from amongst our public men 
those whose political course has been most strongly illustrated 
by enlightened patriotism and distinguished services to the 
party, and the Country, we are happy to assure you that the 
Committee have found no one, in their opinion, more con- 
spicuous than yourself, or whose presence on the occasion re- 
ferred to would give sincerer pleasure to the Whigs of Virginia, 
and impart a higher degree of enthusiasm to the convention — 

"A Richmond attorney. Livingston, Law Register, 1851, p. 588; 1860, p. 927. 

16 State Department of Archives and History 

With high consideration we have the honor to be your obt 


Henry L Brooke ) Committee 
Fleming James ) of 

Jno H Pleasants) Invitation 

[Addressed : ] 

Honble. W. P. Mangum 

of the United States Senate 
Washington City 
D. C 


Hugh Waddell to Willie P. Mangum. 


Jany. 18th /44 
My dear Sir! 

I beg leave to present to yr. particular attention my young 
friend Gaston Meares^^ Esqr. son of our late excellent friend 
Wm. B. Meares Esqr. — He visits Washington with the view of 
determining his final location as a member of the Bar. — 

Knowing that Washington is the center of our system, he 
very naturally supposes that correct information from all points 
may there be had. 

Will you be so good as to introduce him to gentlemen from 
the West & South who may be of service to him. — 

I need not say he is every way worthy of such a father & such 
a name as he bears. 

Yours truly 
Hugh Waddell 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 


Mr. Meares 

i^Gaston Meares, 1821-1862, was a student at the state university in 1838-1839, a lieutenant 
colonel in the Mexican War, and a member of the state legislature before he moved to Arkansas, 
where he became a lawyer and planter. He was killed at Malvern Hill in 1862. Grant, Alumni 
Hist, of U. N. C, 422; Battle, Hisf. of U. N. C, I. 798. 

The Mangum Papers 17 

William Cain, III, to Willie P. Mangum. 

Marion [,Alabama,] 19th Jany 1844 — 

My dear Sir 

On the 17th Int. I started your negroes to North Carolina all 
except Willie whom I have resolved to sell he had been run 
away two months before I arrived & I see that he is unwilling 
to do only as he pleases and all his brothers seem in a great 
measure to act from the same spirit so far as I can see them they 
have no thought of being controlled farther than they think 
proper; a common overseer will find much difficulty in manage- 
ing them. My reasons for sending them in are first Willies 
rascality. Judy has a Child & if she is hired the Child will not 
be taken care of & the hire will be small and Hulda would hire 
for nothing as she is troubled with the complaint I told you 
about altho she looks well at other times it continues for about 
5 to 8 days in every month and I fear the others might be crip- 
pled or injured in some way or other. 

I have no Idea how long I shall remain here as I propose re- 
maining untill I can see my way clear in my business — 

I should be glad to hear from you and should you write di- 
rect to Macon Marengo County — 

I hope under all the circumstances, you will approve of my 
proceedings as I have done what I thought best — The negroes 
all wished to return to North Carolina The mails have not 
passed here in a week — 

Yours most sincerely 
Wm. Cain Senr 


To The 


Willie P. Mangum 

acting Vice-President U.S. 
Washington City, 

18 State Department of Archives and History 

Thos. Kirkpatrick^^ to Willie P. Mangum and Enclosure. 

New York Jany 19 1844 
Dear Sir 

You may think me presumptious in addressing myself to 
you on such a subject as I am about to Communicate but your 
kindness to me while in Washington together with my ardent 
desires for the success of our cause must be my apology, 

I have been in this City since I left Washington, and find a 
great feeling exists here in relation to the persons who either 
have been or will probably be shortly nominated to the Senate 
for the offices of Naval Officer and Appraisers in both of the 
offices named there has been good unexceptionable (and espe- 
cially the appraisers) and devoted Whigs removed and their 
places supplied by brawling Locofocos- Jeremiah Towle will 
undoubdedly be nominated for Naval officer: a man who has 
secured his situation by low intrigue and I doubt not bargain 
likewise, and his character can be tolerably Judged of, When 
he employs such men as Jonathan D. Stevenson to procure the 
vote of the Locofoco- Sneether-^^ for him, the man vv^ho palmed 
himself off upon Major Swift of Philadelphia as a Mr Jarvis, to 
to get information in Connection with Glentworth to ruin the 
Whig party in the fall of 1840, by their story of a Great elec- 
tion fraud, there is likewise supposed to be an interest in the 
proceeds of his (Towles) office agreed to be given to George 
D. Strong who paid the Editor of the Democratic Review $250 
to insert a Laudatory article (With an Engraved likeness) on 
the life and character of John Tyler, this was done the more 
effectively to Humbug Tyler as to their devotion to him- but 
they succeeded only in part, the arrangement was that Towle 
was to be appointed Collector of the Port in the place of Ed- 
ward Curtis, who was to be removed and Strong (who is I 
understand in Washington interceeding for Towles, Confirma- 
tion and that of his Brother in law McKibben^^ for Appraiser) 
was to be Naval officer. Vice, Towle Promoted, to Collector, 
but they were frustrated by a friend of the Presidents from this 

"Probably owner of Thomas Kirkpatrick & Co., jewelry store in New York City. Bonner, New 
York, 787. 

"Worthington G. Sneether. See above, III, 467n. 

2ojohn S. McKibben was appointed appraiser of New York. Longworth New York Directory, 
1847-1848, 266. 

The Mangum Papers 19 

city who hastened to Washington and broke up their arrange- 
ments.- Towle has always been one of the the Dirtiest and small- 
est of our opponents here, and has manifested, his friendship for 
Whigs by removing from office every Whig in his department 
but one who is only saved as being useful in carrying on the 
Business of the office, but who will undoubtedly be removed if 
he (Towle) should be Confirmed- our friends call loudly upon 
the Senate to reject him and the Whole Batch of Van Bur en 
nominations of the same character, especially as it is under- 
stood that in most cases Whigs would be nominated in their 
place Which would make a material differance to us here in the 
forthcoming Campaign- I am told by Mr. Kelly a Confidential 
friend of the President ( whom I believe you know something off 
from Major Morell that the President told him that the Senate 
would oblige him by rejecting some of the Persons who he would 
be obliged to nominate, and amongst the Rest was Towle for 
Naval officer- N. Y. McKibben for Appraiser, N. Y. Rantoul for 
Collector of Boston and James D. Watson for Postmaster at 
Albany, this latter personage I know well, and a more obse- 
quious fellow or tool of Van Buren does not exist. My name 
has been mentioned here since my arrival in Connection with 
the Albany Post office and I was informed by Mr. Curtis^^ that 
my name had been mentioned to the President by a Mr. Parmalli 
who had been authorized to give him the names of Three or 
four prominent persons for the office, whether this be so or not, 
I have no other means of knowing than his word, but I know 
that I have never made application to the President for that, or 
any other office, but I have no hesitation in saying that who 
ever his successor may be, he ought not to be confirmed, as the 
successor of Soloman Van Renssalaer, that he does not enjoy the 
Confidence of one fourth of the Citizens of Albany, and in a 
party view I would not trust Whig Documents in his hands- as 
in my opinion if it would subserve the Interests of his Master, 
they would be Accidently lost, therefore who ever gets the nom- 
ination it could not be Worse for us as a party.-You will per- 
ceive by the Enclosed slip that there is somewhat of a sketch of 
some of the persons named in my letter, the author of the Ar- 
ticle is the Mr. Kelly mentioned elsewhere- I pray you again 
to pardon the liberty I have taken, and if one as Humble as my- 

^^Edward Curtis. 

20 State Department of Archives and History 

self could occupy your attention for a few moments I should be 
truly happy to hear from you in this place where I shall remain 
for some length of time — 

I remain my dear Sir 
Your obliged friend 

Thos. Kirkpatrick. 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum ) 
Washington D. C. ) 

P.S. Since writing the above I have learned that Towle got his 
appointment by an act of servitude to Tyler- he if you Recol- 
lect was one of his Witnesses in relation to the veto, and to give 
the Letter which he Wrote and to show his perfect disinterest- 
ness indited [sici It to W. P. Hallet in this City wherein he stated 
that in the Summer of 1840 he (Towle) was traveling in the 
West and accidently met Tyler and during the Conversation he 
Tyler stated to Towle that he was opposed to a Bank of the U. 
States, for this degrading Service he expected and was not long 
in receiving office up to this time Towle had never known the 
President. Strong is advocating his claims as an importer, and 
has a Son in McKibben's office who I stated before is his Brother 
in Law and has another son in the office of Towle — so you can 
judge after enquiring into the Character of Strong how much 
safety there would be for the Revenue. I will on Monday send 
you more testimony in the shape of a report to the Legislature 
of this State, in Febuary showing their Transactions with the 
Commercial Bank in this city of which Strong was President. 

T. K. 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
President of Senate 
D. C. 

Enclosure — Newspaper Clipping 

Correspondence of the Suhterranean^^^ 

Washington, Jan. 10th, 1844. 
Friend Mike — I wrote you a letter some time ago, from this 
place, in which, among many other things, I took occasion to 

22The New York Subterranean was published from 1843 to 1847. Mike Walsh and George H. 
Evans edited it in its first two years. In 1845 L. N. Carr took it over and in 1847 Corbett and 
McNally. Fox, New York Newspapers 1820-1830, 97. 

The Mangum Papers 21 

speak of the position of the President, and the villainous man- 
ner in which he had been swindled by political sharks out of 
the favors which should have been dispensed only among his 
early and true friends. It was my intention at that time, and 
if I am not mistaken, I promised to analyze the characters of 
these most despicable rascals, and expose the means by which 
they wormed themselves into executive favor, and its conse- 
quent advantages. I propose to do so now, partially, and I do 
not know that I can commence better than by beginning with 
the clique that performs its scoundrelism, and enjoys its plunder 
in your city. I allude to the notorious firm of Strong, McKibbin, 
Towle, Graham, Redwood Fisher, and that last of all fag ends, 
Barnabas Bates. 

Take these fellows individually, without regard to their 
present accidental position, and it certainly appears reprehensi- 
ble in a writer, to treat them v/ith more gravity than would be 
bestowed upon so many rats! But when we consider them col- 
lectively, with reference to the influence which their accidental 
station gives them, and the mischief it enables them to perpe- 
trate, they are entitled to the dignity of a much more weighty 
opposition. If they remained in the position for which nature 
assigned them, I would puff them back to their original obscurity 
with contempt; but inasmuch as they are based upon a tempo- 
rary pedestal, they must be overturned with a lever, if nothing 
else will serve. In studying human nature with reference to 
such characters as these, it is amusing to see how easily man- 
kind will be deceived in their estimate of man, in measuring 
them by the position which chance or conspiracy has thrown 
them into. 

Here are six fellows that pass for great men, who could not 
arrive at mediocrity as chimney sweepers, or maintain a toler- 
able honesty in tending the door of a Punch and Judy show; 
and yet, one has been the bearer of Despatches to the British 
Government, another jeopardizes a portion of the Revenue, the 
third had the consummate impudence to ask for, and received 
the responsible Naval office, the fourth perverts our liberal in- 
stitutions as Post Master, the fifth, a tributary devil — a sort of 
jackal, helps him in the office, and the sixth and last, ( God help 
us,) also perils the Exchequer in one of the departments in the 
New York Custom House, as he did the orphans the widows 
mites when formerly in another branch of the public service. It 

22 State Department of Archives and History 

is excessively mortifying to men of integrity and ability, to see 
fellows like these, v^hom they could never meet, except as their 
inferiors, occupying stations which should only be the award of 
real merit. It appears singular that such creatures should be 
able to achieve distinction and success, with the tremendous 
drawbacks of stupidity, and more than questionable honesty 
against them; but when we consider what the plain devil and 
dissembling looks may do, joined to an immeasurable impu- 
dence, and a vehemence of hollow protestation, the mystery 
partially dissolves; and when we go a little beyond the deduc- 
tions of philosophy, and study facts, it vanishes altogether. 

Let us see how those libels upon humanity attained that 
prominence with the government which has apportioned spoils 
to all of them, and now induces Towle, McKibbin & Co. to expect 
a whig senate to confirm them in places which they occupy by 
the most gross deception and fraud, and of which they have about 
the same description of claim as Geo. Munday, the wandering 
preacher. Not long since they were all of them, needy, shiftless, 
desperate and unscrupulous political hlack-legs, eagerly engaged 
in studying the tracks and chances, and ready to pounce upon 
any scheme, however base and mean, that would afford them 
an opportunity to finger and financier with unascertained 
amounts. Geo. D. Strong had some special plans to carry out 
for some mercantile houses here, which dealt in the manufac- 
tures of Sheffield, Birmingham and Devonshire, had the inso- 
lence to ask to be bearer of Dispatches to England, and preferred 
as his claims to the appointment, the fact of having disgraced the 
literature of the country, by writing two or three execrable con- 
coctions of vapid trash, which he called novels, ("in one sense 
they richly deserve that title, for they were novel enough, God 
knows ["] ) — and the fact of his having been engaged in some 
mysterious land speculations in Williamsburg, with McKibbin 
and others, in which many unfortunates who were not acquainted 
with the intricate science of windmill lots and water privileges, 
suffered some. 

John Lorimer Graham founds his claims upon his fraternity 
with Tallmadge and other speculators, (of which I will speak 
more at length in my next,) and to the fact of his having fre- 
quently drawn resolutions at ward meetings, for the laudable 
object of giving himself notoriety, that would aid his meagre 
practice of the law. 

The Mangum Papers 23 

By the bye, just ask Jerry Towle whether Strong or Gra- 
ham wrote the article, about a year ago, for the Democratic 
Review. I think he knows how much money it cost for the in- 
sertion, and who engraved the frontispiece [.] Jerry and his 
coadjutors consider it well got up, and well they may, for it paid 
the much better than some opperations which they lately at- 
tempted — but the unfortunate result of the Tennessee election 
proved fatal to their scheme. Should there be any doubt upon 
this matter, I will refer you to Silas M. Stilwell, who is a man 
of most unbounded integrity, and of great knowledge of matters 
and things in general. Should Silas, however, refuse to divulge, 
let me know, and perhaps I can get N, P. Tallmadge, who is 
considered (especially at the White House) an honorable man, 
to give the requisite information. In my next letter I will give 
the particulars of a most wicked fraud which was contemplated 
upon this administration, it was stupendous in its character, and 
I think it will be interesting to your readers — exhibiting the 
rarest specimens of political jugulary. 

Redwood Fisher, the familiar devil, who fills the deputyship 
in the New York P. O., backs his modest pretensions with the 
proof that he has always been in place before, and like the 
prostitute who has braved the world for forty winters, offers 
us a reasoning that the public have tried and proved him to their 
hearts content. 

Yours, &c., 


David L. Swain to Willie P. Mangum. 

Chapel Hill 19, Jan, 1844. 
My dear Sir, 

Mr. R. H. Graves-^ who is I believe personally known to you, 
having made one unsuccessful application for the payment of 
two Treasury notes,^* the right hand halves of which have been 
lost under the circumstances disclosed by the accompanying 
Statement I take the liberty to request that the second attempt 
may be through your intervention. 

23Ralph H. Graves, 1817-1876, graduated from the state university in 1836. In 1844 he helped 
organize the alumni association of his alma mater, became a tutor, the treasurer and librarian. Later 
he taught mathematics at Caldwell Institute. His son became a famous professor of mathematics at 
the university. Battle, Hist, of U. N. C, I, 482, 486, 496, 795; Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 

"See below James W. McCulloh to Willie P. Mangum, February 23, 1844. 

24 State Department of Archives and History 

I have had some doubts under the instruction from the 
Treasury Department as to the proper place to make the news- 
paper advertisement required. The residence of R. S. Graves is 
unknown. The applicant R. H. Graves, and the individual Mrs. 
Thompson by whom the letter was placed in the Post-Office at 
Middleton Miss, both reside in this county, and the Hillsboro 
Recorder would therefore I presume be deemed the proper me- 
dium for advertising. 

Of the honesty of the transaction no one who knows the ap- 
plicant and reads his statement can doubt for a moment, — The 
Accompanying letter of your late colleague with respect to the 
character of Mr. R. H. Graves will probably be satisfactory to 
the Department. It contains no statement that I would hesitate 
to affirm by affidavit. 

Mr. Graves is in need of money, has for some months been 
hedged about by technicalities which though doubtless necessary 
and proper, to the correct administration of the Treasury De- 
partment, are nevertheless vexatious, and I hope that further 
difficulties will not be interposed. 

The University continues to prosper. The session opens with 
an aggregate number of 158- 47 of whom are Freshmen — Of the 
State of the Great World without our precincts I cannot claim to 
be either very minutely or accurately informed. Should your 
Session extend with [sic] the month of July, I may possibly be 
disposed to assume for a season the attitude of a Looker on in 

Yours very sincerely, 
D. L. Swain. 

Honble. W. P. Mangum. 

[Endorsed : ] 

Letter from 
Gov Swain 

President of University 
to Hon W. Mangum 

respecting Graves claim 
19th Jany 1844. 

The Mangum Papers 25 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 

Sunday 21st Jan. 1844 

My dear Love. 

I send this book on fruit & ornamental trees, that I have not 
had time to look into — keep it. It may be useful.— 

I have got well — at least, I have, I hope, entirely recovered 
from the cough & breast complaint that alarmed me. — 

I shall write tomorrow. I write now, because, my letters so 
often fail. — My Love to our dear Children, & a kiss to William, 
if he learns his book, if he does not, he is not to have my kiss. — 

W. R. Gales is here with his new wife,^^ & going home to- 
morrow. — How silly! I told him so. — 

Always my Love, remember me with affection. 

Yr. affectionate husband 
W. P. Mangum 
Mrs. C. A. Mangum 

George Constantine Collins^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Baltimore Jany. 22nd. 1844. 

Hon. Sir. 

I have arrived in this city, some days since and engaged 
John Murphy to print 50,000 copies of the "fifty reasons" in 
quantities of 5,000, at $150 per or $1500 the whole, in addition 
to this I am to pay $100 for stereotyping, &c. 

Since my arrival here I have spoken twice, in the Clay Clubs 
as you may see by referring to the Whig papers of this City. I 
have been invited to speak on tomorrow evening, as you will 
also see, and on Wednesday to a Mass Meeting. 

I have also the happiness to announce to you, that many of 
my countrymen have expressed themselves favorably of me 
and my principles, and also to report progress, in at least six 
hopeful and useful converts. 

25>j^eston R. Gales married Mary Spies, daughter of John J. Spies, January 8, 1844. Hills- 
borough Recorder, January 25, 1844. 

2^eorge Constantine Collins, a New York merchant who also studied law under Josiah Ran- 
dall, wrote several letters to Mangum in behalf of the Whig candidate. See below Collins to Man- 
gum March 20, 1844 and March 24, 1846. See also New York City Directory for 1843 and 1846. 
Published by Groot and Elston, 1845, p. 84. 

26 State Department of Archives and History 

It would be well if you should communicate by mail your 
sentiments to some of your friends here, on the mode of con- 
ducting a political campaign, as I find that they are rather too 
personal towards individuals who do not at all stand in our 
way, but in whom we may perhaps find future friends, and 
voters : in order we may recommend to them conciliation. ( Cal- 
houn and others) — I have every reason to hope that the Whigs 
will succeed in electing four Congressmen at least, the utmost 
enthusiasm prevails, and 1840 is again revived! I have spoken 
to Senator Choate, who remained a short time in the Hotel, and 
requested his name &c. He declined but informed me that he 
would see you and Sen. Morehead on the subject, and then 
would act favorably, &c. On account of the first expense in- 
curred, which will be the greatest, I sincerely request you to 
see a few of your friends, and use your influence in obtaining 
for me a few subscriptions towards the undertaking. Mr. Buff- 
ington-^ of Penn. treated me in an exceedingly kind manner, he 
gave me his name and subscription. Geo. R. Richardson^^ Esq. 
has examined the manuscript and it has pleased him so well 
that he will obtain for it the sanction of the State Committee, 
and introduce it into the Clubs of the City. If you could have 
a moment to spare, it would confer an honor on me, if you 
would examine a proof sheet; if you cannot, perhaps one of 
your friends could. 

Excuse my Irish frankness, I have used plain language, but 
I do not the less respect you on that acct however this is not 
the time for Compliments or eulogies I am now in a different 
business. I hope it will be crowned with the best fruits of the 
richest CLAY. Hoping to hear from you shortly, I have the 
honor to be Hon. Sir — 

Your Obt. Servt. & 

Most devoted and humble friend 

Geo. Constantine Collins. 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum, V.P. U.S. 

P.S. Dont be offended at my presumption. I have seen you and 
I shall ever admire you. The books will be ready in seven or 

^^Joseph Buffington, 1803-1872, of western Pennsylvania, was trained as a lawyer before he en- 
tered Congress in 1843. He served until 1847. He was state judge in 1849, but declined an ap- 
pointment by Fillmore in 1852 as chief justice of the Utah Territory. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 151. 

^George R. Richardson was the chairman of the Maryland Whig Committee. See above, III, 

The Mangum Papers 27 

eight days and will have nice covers — drop me a line in a few 
day — Barnums Hotel. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Vice President of the United States, 
and President of the Senate. 
Washington City, 
D. C. 

[Endorsed in pencil in autograph of W.P.M. :] 
To be answered. 

B. B, Blume^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Petersburg Jany 23d 1844. 
Honl. W. P. Mangum. 

Dear Sir. 

I regret that my situation makes it so expedient at least, 
to trespass on your time, which, no doubt, would otherv/ise be 
more profitably employed. But as my sickness of which I com- 
plained has already occupied three weeks of my time, I now 
feel it to be incumbent on me to make some arrangement for 
the support of my family — My design is to return to the prac- 
tice of the Law. I have Memphis Ten. Cincinnatti O. & St. Louis 
Mo. under consideration - with a preference for the first — I 
hope you v/ill add yet another favor to the many already ex- 
tended to me - Please let me know how & when I can be ad- 
mitted to practice in those states respectively - together with 
any suggestions you may be pleased to make — Also the resi- 
dence of the Hone. ( Judge ) Thomas Maney^^ of Tenne. formerly 
of Murfreesboro, N^C^. as I wish to address him - This much I 
can say for myself, in losing my property I have lost no charac- 
ter - & I am glad, yes happy, to add, my family are better con- 
tented than when they thought themselves at least independ- 
ent — Some of your many friends can, & no doubt, will, give the 
desired information — The mode of practice - & the time of pro- 
bation before license, are important with me now, without the 

29See above, I, 3 5 On. 
ioc/"T^^™^* Maney was judge of the Sixth Circuit Court in Nashville. Livingston, Law Register. 
io51, 560; American Almanac, 1844, 272. 

28 State Department of Archives and History 

means to sustain me during the time of anxiety. Trusting that 
you fully appreciate my feelings, & will pardon this liberty, I, 
am, dear Sir 

Your friend & S. 

B. B. Blume. 

[Addressed : ] 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 
Prest. U. S. Senate 
Washington City 
D. C. 

Willie P. Mangum to David L. Swain^^ 

Washington City 27*^. Jan: 1844 
My dear Sir. 

I received the enclosed^- this morning w^hich will be satis- 
factory. - I shall endeavor to get a draft for the amount on the 
Bank of the State of North Carolina, if I fail in that, I shall take 
one on New York, & enclose it to you, in a day or two. - A draft 
on N. York would be cashed at once, by any of the Banks. 

We have nothing of much interest here, beyond what you 
see in the public prints.- Gen Saunders it is believed, will be 
placed at the head of one of the Departments, probly the 
Navy.^^ - Porter^* will be rejected by the Senate, & it is said, 
that Anderson^^ from Tenn: [?] late a Senator, will have the 
other. - 

We regret the necessity of so many rejections, & avoid it in 
as many cases, as we can. - But how can we endorse plain cases 
of moral turpitude? All the indications seem favorable to the 
success of Mr. Clay - Indeed, no one seems to doubt his suc- 
cess. - In that confidence I fear, the greatest danger lies. - 

"^The original is in the David L. Swain Papers, University of North Carolina. 

3-Not found in the Mangum Papers. 

s^After the rejection of David Henshaw as Secretary of the Navy by the Senate, Tyler appointed 
Thomas W. Gilmer to that post. 

24John Madison Porter was appointed Secretary of War in March, 1843, in place of John C. 
Spencer who became Secretary of the Treasury. Porter had a good military record in the War of 
1812. He had practiced law and served as a judge in Pennsylvania. His brother was governor of the 
state and his family was politically important. This appointment, therefore, was considered a bid 
by Tyler for the support of the Pennsylvania Democrats. Nevertheless, the Senate rejected him by a 
vote of 38 to 3. Lambert, Presidential Politics in the U. S., 1841-1843, 87-88, 92. 

''^Alexander Outlaw Anderson, 1794-1869, fought under Jackson at New Orleans. He practiced 
law at Dandridge and Knoxville before he was appointed by Jackson as land officer in Alabama. He 
served in the Senate from February, 1840. to March 3, 1841. In 1849 he moved to California, 
vvhere he held several state offices until his return to Tennessee in 1853. In the Civil War he prac- 
ticed law in Alabama. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 640. 

The Mangum Papers 29 

We shall be very glad to see you here this summer - Our 
session will probably run into July. 

With great respect & regard 
I am, dear Sir. 
Very truly y''^ 
Willie P. Mangum 
'^'^ Gov. Swain. 

Spencer O'Brien^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Stewartsboro' (Ten) 27th Jany. '44 
My dear Sir; 

I have just written for a friend & neighbour of mine Genl. 
Russwarm who forwards by this mail, a petition for pay, as the 
legal representative of his Father who was an Officer of the rev- 
olution. The Genl. was principally raised & educated in the 
Shocco region Warren Co. N. C. 

If consistent with your other public duties & it should come 
in the way, any service you may be enabled to render him in 
the way of forwarding his claims, will be doing an essential serv- 
ice to one of the best of men, and most sterling of Whigs, besides 
obliging an old & 'consistent' friend who would ride out more 
than 28 miles to see Willie P Mangum Vice President of the U. S. 

There is much speculation here as to who will be the Nomi- 
nee of the Whig Convention for V. P.? The balance we all 
know. — Sir, I can assure you of one thing — There is no doubt 
of Tennessee giving to Mr Clay her support — and that too with a 
zeal she has never manifested for any other man — I mean that 
the Whig Party will make an effort for that great Patriot & 
Statesman, that will beggar all description - that in favor of 
Genl Harrison was feeble in Comparison. I heard a distinguished 
Democrat say today, that the nomination of Mr V. B. (now 
rendered certain ) was the most suicidal policy that ever a party 
was guilty of.- A large majority of the Democrats in this State, 
left to themselves, would have been for Cass. It is pretty well 
known here that Polk visited the Hermitage to give the old 
Genl. that piece of information, but got the 'cold shoulder' for 

88See above, I, 379n. 

30 State Department of Archives and History 

his pains. So as Judge Seawell used to say, they have to dance 
to music, not of their ov^^n selecting, without even seeing the 
fiddlers. 'Queen Deus^^'. [?] I v^onder if Democracy after 1844, 
v^ill not ''stink in the nostrils of even Warren men"* This is the 
prediction here. All the accounts I hear from the old 'North 
State' are cheering. 

By the w^ay I do not know that it would be unbecoming in 
you to say to me what are your chances for the nomination? 
Your name I venture to say to you without fear of the imputa- 
tion of flattery, is frequently mentioned most favorably in the 
connection — I say all this as a private individual having for- 
saken public life altogether with a determination not again to 
enter the Political arena. Yet, in my quiet pursuits I claim to 
think & feel as a man, who on all proper occasions should not 
shrink to vindicate the character of a much abased Country. 

We had Baer^^ the Buckeye Black Smith in Nashville on the 
8th. He is an original - perfectly so - and is calculated by his 
peculiar character to make himself felt wherever he goes. In 
an iminent degree he possesses the talent for swaying the multi- 
tude and they are sort of speakers now wanted. His effectiveness 
as such, more than atones for any violation of Academic taste. 
He told us he had enlisted for the War and intended to visit every 
State in the Union between this & the Presidential election. 

So soon as you have leisure I should be gratified to hear from 
you. In the mean time present me respectfully to David Dick- 
erson^^ Esqr. — whose neighbour I am & who can more parti- 
cularly inform you of my whereabouts & what about s. 

Very respectfully 
Your Friend 
Spencer O'Brien. 

* Extract from a Speech delivered by W. P. Mangum at Hender- 
son in 1840. 

W. P. Mangum Esqr. 

Washington, D. C. 

[Addressed:] Honble. Willie P. Mangum 

of the U. S. Senate 

Washington City 
Mail D. C. 

^^Unable to identify. 

38David W. Dickinson, 1808-1845, a native of Tennessee, graduated from the University of 
North Carolina Isefore he began praaicing law. He served in Congress as a Democrat from 1833 to 
1835 and as a Whig from 1843 to 1845. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 906. 

The Mangum Papers 31 

H. P. Hunt^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Troy [N.Y.J Jany 28th '/44. 
D. Sir 

I have presumed to trouble you with a suggestion in relation 
to the cause of Mr. J. C. Spencer, now before your body. Until 
today I have said nothing and so far as is in my power have in- 
duced our friends to say nothing, asswming as beyond question 
that the whigs of the U. States Senate would give an unanimous 
vote ag^ the Confirmation - A vote due alike to our principles, 
our party and the claims of a traitorous tool of a traitor. But 
rumors of bargaining and corruption have for several days been 
rife amongst us. Unconfirmed loco foco Office holders have been 
industrious in attempts to manufacture Opinions for a Whig 
Senate's Governance; And this induces me to speak to an un- 
purchased and unpurchaseable Whig on the subject. To you 
then my d. Sir I say unhesitatingly reject the foul offer. Take 
no counsel of expediency - expediency can never be taken into 
account at the sacrifice of principle — But, even as a matter of 
expediency there is in my humble judgment but one side to the 
question. Principle apart, every consideration demands his 
prompt rejection — What can John C. Spencer and all the rest 
of the Swiss Corps-who came amongst us for spoils and who by 
their stations & our Confidence sacrificed Mr. Clay in 739, do 
either for good or for evil, when once stript of the adventitious 
importance given them by Whig generosity? Literally nothing. 
Nothing my d. Sir — As a proof of this look at the result of our 
Legislative Caucus the last work in nominating a Candidate for 
the Vice-Presidency and selecting delegates at large for the 
Baltimore Convention. But I forbear enlarging, knowing as I 
think I do, your uncompromising views and having answered 
my purpose in assuring you that you will be sustained in carry- 
ing out those views by every true Whig in this section of this 
State — You are at liberty to show this to our friends Crittenden 
and Morehead, having occasion to write Mr White^^ of Indiana 

'5'^Hiram Paine Hunt. 1796-1865. moved to Troy in 1831. where he practiced law until he 
fo'?^ ^^^^"^'■^^^ ^°^ ^^^^^ ^is retirement from Congress. He was in Congress in 1835-1837 and 
1839-1843. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1350. 

*°Albert S. White, 1803-1864, a native of New York, moved to Indiana to practice law in 
1829. Before entering Congress in 1837 he held several state offices and was an elector on the 
Harrison-Granger ticket in 1836. He served in the House of Representatives in 1837-1839, 1861- 
1863 and in the Senate in 1839-1845. He was president of several railroads. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 
1 688. 

32 State Department of Archives and History 

on other matters today I have embraced the opportunity to ex- 
press substantially the view^s given in this on the subject of the 
nomination in question — 

It v^ill afford me great pleasure to hear from you on the 
above or any other matter as leisure may offer — 

I am now occupied in the Court of Chancery of my State, 
having gone back to my profession and quit politics, except so 
far as hard working in the ranks, for the maintenance of Whig 
principles and the elevation of Henry Clay is concerned — 

With great Respect 
Your friend 

H. P. Hunt. 
Honl. W. P. Mangum. 

John M. Clayton to Willie P. Mangum with Enclosure 

( Confidential ) 

New Castle— Del. 

Jany. 28. 1844. 

My dear Sir, 

The enclosed letter is sent to me by Mr Michael the High 
Sheriff of the city & County of Philad*^. who concurs with the 
writer Mr. Hamersley^^ that if Porter the Secretary of War is 
rejected by the Senate of the United States, it ought not to be 
by the vote of the Whigs. Hamersley is one of the strongest men 
in Pennsylvania, as I understand. From what I know of the 
State, I think it bad policy for the Whigs to reject Porter at 
this time.-*^ I go against Spencer, & I do not care if the Van 
Buren men reject Porter - but I hope the Whigs may not do it.- 
Mr Michael*^ who in my opinion knows the State of Penn^. bet- 

^^George W. Hamersley. See below Hamersly to Mangum, January 25, 1846. 

*2See above, 28n. 

^^Norton McMichael, 1807-1879, was a lawyer and journalist. He helped edit Godey's Lady's 
Book for many years. From 1843 to 1846 he was sheriflf and in 1866-1869 mayor of Philadelphia. 
D. A. B., XII, 142-143; A. H. A. Reports, 1901, II, 320-321. 

The Mangum Papers 33 

ter than any other Whig I am acquainted with, says Porter 
ought to he confirmed.- 

Faithfully your friend 

John M. Clayton 

Hon: W. B. [sic] Mangum ) 
U. S. Senate. ) 

P.S. Please show Hamersley's letter to our friends. — 

[Addressed : ] 


Hon: W. B. Mangum 

Prest. U. S. Senate, 
Washington. — 


Lancaster, [Pa.] Jany. 25, 1844. 

Dr Sir, 

I am sorry to learn from Washington that there is a disposi- 
tion amongst the Whig members of the Senate to reject the nom- 
ination of Mr. Porter as Secretary of War.^^ I think that it is de- 
cidedly the policy of the Whig party of this State to have him 
confirmed. We should thus secure the entire aid and patronage 
of that Department in the campaign of next fall; for Mr. Porter 
never will support Mr. Van Buren for the Presidency. In addi- 
tion to this, I have no doubt in my own mind that if this ques- 
tion and one or two others now pending at Harrisburg are man- 
aged with a reasonable share of tact, we shall have the influence 
of the State Administration with us also in favor of Mr. Clay. 
I think that these influences are strong enough to turn the ma- 
jority in this State to either side. They are therefore worth se- 
curing. On the other hand, I do not see where the Whigs are to 
profit by Mr. Porter's rejection. It will only be giving another 
victory to the Loco Foco radicals of the State, and be the means 
of providing a place for some bitter and malignant venter of our 
candidate and his friends. If you think with me in these things, 

**In 1843-1844 Van Buren and Clay forces combined to defeat many of Tyler's appointees. 
Van Buren leaders felt that Tyler was trying to build up a party of his own through the cooperation 
of many Democrats. If he were successful in this program. Van Buren leaders felt that his success 
would impair Van Buren's chances in 1844. The Clay forces had been hostile to Tyler since the 
bank vetoes. Lambert, Presidential Politics in U. S., 1841-1843, 94. 

34 State Department of Archives and History 

I wish you would try to bring some influence to bear in favor 
of his confirmation. The nomination will be acted on very soon, 
and it is important that it should be exerted at an early day. — 
Can you not silence the frequent and bitter attacks of the "Fo- 
rum" upon Mr. Porter? Did you receive the "Examiner" which 
I sent you, avowing its preference for Mr Clayton? 

Very sincerely Yrs. 

Geo. W. Hamersly. 

M. M^Michael, Esq. 


Morton McMichael, 
Sheriff's Office 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Washington City 29*^. January 1844. 

My dear Love. 

I sit down by candle light to write you a line.- I have waited 
until now, hoping to hear from home, as I did hope last night, but 
have received no letter.- I am well, and have been very well, 
for the last two or three weeks.- Before that, I was more un- 
well, and even alarmingly so, than I have ever been. — 

I hope My Love, you will write to me every week, or have 
Sally or Patty to do so. I am always anxious to hear from you, 
and when I fail, I feel most unhappy.- For, at last. My Love, 
whatever else may occupy me; I feel more interest in you & 
our dear Children, than all the world besides.- I am going out 
this evening to a party at Mrs. Seaton's, and write now a mere 
line, fearing that if I postpone until tomorrow, you may not re- 
ceive it next Saturday. 

Tomorrow, I will try to write to Patty, if I can get time.- 
Tell Sally, that I shall write to her not before I get a letter from 
her. — My mornings for the last week, have been occupied in 
sitting to have my portrait taken.- Gov. Morehead from Ken- 
tucky has engaged a painter to take me.-^^ I would have one 

^"^He probably refers to the Lampdin portrait which was included as the frontispiece of Volume 
II of these papers. See below, 72, 131. 

The Mangum Papers 35 

to carry home, if it were not, that I do not like to have mine 
taken, without yours.- 

Gov. Morehead, whom you may remember to have heard me 
often say, is one of the best & most amiable men in the Senate, 
lives with me, & we are alone.- 

Next week, I shall have to Stand to have a full length like- 
ness taken for some gentlemen in the City of New York.- It 
tries one's patience.- 

Give my Love to the Children- To Sally- Patty & Mary & 
William- & give William a kiss for Father, if he is a good boy.- 

Mr. Clay will be elected-& every thing in politics, goes on 
well & promisingly.- 

Always remember me. My dear Love, kindly & affectionate- 
ly; & believe me, whatever may happen. My Love, as your most 
affectionate husband, & one who would feel it a misfortune yes 
the deepest misfortune,-to survive my love for my dear wife — 

Willie P. Mangum 
To Mrs C. A. Mangum 

Thomas Kirkpatrick^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York Jany 29, 1844. 
Dear Sir 

In my last, I promised to send a report made to the Legisla- 
ture of this State on the affairs of the Commercial Bank of this 
City of which Bank Geo. D. Strong was President. Owing to my 
being confined to the House ever since I have not been able to 
procure one but I enclose a Courier & Enquirer of this date, 
which contains an advertisement of the Receiver appointed by 
the Chancelor wherein the the Debts, and Judgements due the 
Bank are offered for sale, amongst the names of those who have 
swindled the widows & orphans, you will perceive the names 
of Geo. D. Strong and his Brotherinlaw John S. McKibbins. 
Towles name does not appear in the report but there is no 
doubt they are all interested alike in the offices here, and I 
state now what I did in a former letter, that our people [want] 
the Senate to reject them promptly, if any other information is 

*9See above, T. Kirkpatrick to W. P. Mangum, January 19, 1844. 

36 State Department of Archives and History 

necessary in relation to them I have no doubt it can be furnished 
for your early action 

I have Dear Sir the Honour to remain your 
obliged Friend 

Thos. Kirkpatrick. 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Washington D. C 

[Postmarked:] Nev^ York Jan 30 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
President of Senate 
D. C 

Daniel Webster to Willie P. Mangum. 

Saturday Morng 

Feb. 3. '44 

My Dear Sir 

We very much w^anted two Law^ Books, in Court, v^hich 
v^ere not to be had this side of N. York, & could not be obtained 
in season, except thr^. the mail. I therefore took the liberty of 
having them sent, under cover to you. 

1 hope you w^ill excuse this freedom; & send the Books into 
the Court room, or give them to Mr. Choate. 

Yrs very truly 
Danl Webster 

Mr Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Wm. P. Mangum 
President of the 
Senate of U.S. 

The Mangum Papers 37 

Josiah RandalV^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Phila. 3 Feb 1844 
Dear Sir 

I think of visiting Raleigh when Mr Clay is there Can you 
drop me a line saying when the day of the celebration is, how 
long it will consume to go there from Washington and which 
is the best route. I hope every State in the Union will be repre- 

Yours &- 
J. Randall 

Hble W. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

The Hble. 

W. Mangum Esqr 
Prest. of the Senate 


Lewis Thompson^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

[4, Feb. 1844] 


You will premit me the liberty that i take of writing to you 
for as your servant i take it, the kindness that you have allways 
bestowed on me have caused an abiding gratitude from me to 
you and as such i write to you now to enquire after your health 
and i hope that this may find you well as it leaves me at present. 
We arrived hear from the Spanish main a bout 10 days a go We 
have had several accidents since we left ower last port which 
was Curicoa [sicl we was grounded twice or thrice shot one 
man to peaces quite over board 

Mr Mangum will do me the greatis kindness if he will send 
this letter for my wife, to miss Sarah Polk and she will send it 

*^See above, II, 236n. 

*^There are several letters in this coUeaion from Thompson who was once Mangum's servant. 
See below Thompson to Mangum, April 9, 1846. 

38 State Department of Archives and History 

to her for me i hope you will excuse this liberty that your hum- 
bel and obedient servant have taken 

i still remain forever your 
Servant Lev^is Thompson 
Pensacola Feb 4th 1844. 


i v^ill be in Washington in march 

[Addressed : ] 

To the Honbl. 
W. P. Mangum 

President of the Senate 
of the U. States 
D. C 

[Postmarked : ] Pensacola 
Feb 7 

Washington Hunt^^ to Willie P. Mangum with Enclosure. 

House of Representatives 
Feb 7. 1844 
Dear Sir, 

I consider it highly important that the information sought 
in the enclosed letter should be communicated, without reserve. 
If you will favor me with an answer you shall receive my pro- 
found acknowledgments. 

The request comes from a friend of mine who is very com- 
petent to appreciate the "Magic of a name". 

Hoping this fortunate child may be endowed with a goodly 

^"Washington Hunt, 1811-1867, a native of Greene County, New York, was admitted to the 
bar in 1834. Before entering Congress in 1843 he served as judge of the Niagara County Court of 
Common Pleas. He was in Congress as a Whig from 1843 to 1849. Then he served as comptroller 
and governor of New York. In 1860 he was offered the vice presidential post on the Democratic 
ticket but declined. He was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1864. Biog. Dir. 
of Cong., 1132. 

The Mangum Papers 39 

share of those personal and political virtues which have won 
the admiration of his father and of the country, 

I remain, 
With great regard. 
W. Hunt 
Honble. Willie P. Mangum. 

[Addressed:] To the Honble. 

Willie P. Mangum 

President of the Senate. 


Norwich, Chenango Co. Jany 29, '44 
Dear Sir. 

A friend of Henry Clay, and of all who are his friends, re- 
siding in this village, has named his boy after the President of 
the Senate the Hon. Willie P. Mangum - but does not know 
what the middle letter P is designed to represent. I presume you 
can, without trouble, ascertain; and I will be much obliged if 
you will, at your leisure, write me, what mystery that important 
letter conceals. It is quite desirable that the child, when grown 
up should be able to tell his name, even if he does not know 
his father. 

Your attention will much oblige 

Your Obt. Servant 

P. B. Prindle. 

Hon. W. Hunt 
House of Reps 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. Hunt, 
House of Reps — 

40 State Department of Archives and History 

Asa Pedington^'^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Maine Temperance Union, 
Augusta, February 9, 1844. 

At the Annual meeting of the Maine Temperance Union, held 
at Augusta, on the 7th and 8th insts. the resolution, a copy of 
which we have the honor to annex was unanimously adopted 
by that body. 

By an additional resolve, it became the duty of the under- 
signed to transmit the same to you, which we take pleasure in 

"Resolved, That the object of the Memorials on the spirit 
rations of the Navy, now in general circulation, which pray for 
the repeal of that law, and recommended that a substitute be 
furnished meets the hearty approbation of the Maine Temper- 
ance Union." 

Asa Pedington, Prest. M.T.U. 
E. F. D[uren] 

Recording Secretary. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Prest. Senate U.S. 

A true copy from the records, 
Attest : 


Rec. Secty. M.T.U. 

[Post marked:] Augusta Me. 
Feb 30 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum, 
President of the Senate 

D. C. 

^'^See above, 3n. 

The Mangum Papers 41 

Willie P. Mangum to Paul C. Cameron^^ 

Washington City. 10*^ Feby: 1844. 
My dear Sir: 

Yesterday in the chair, I added a Postcript, to a letter by 
Mr. Haywood to you.-^- His letter will give you all the informa- 
tion in regard to Col. Parrish's case.- It cannot for the present 
be changed, & the manifestation of any personal interest on my 
part would be decisive against him upon a renewed applica- 
tion.- Wickleffe^^ with good talents, & yet, more aptitude for 
business, is, in his nature & disposition, low, coarse, mercenary, 
in all things selfish, & extremely vindictive.- 

He feels that he has the general contempt of the public 
here, & he has had many occasions to learn that I hold him in 
detestation.- J. C. Spencer always excepted, I regard him as 
the meanest of the mean- & in his official acts, I learn on all 
hands, that his arrogance & proscriptive spirit are rapidly on 
the increase; as he learns, that his prospects for other & more 
lucrative office with the advice of the senate, are daily diminish- 

Spencer by the inattention of two or three men, had nearly 
stolen a successful march on us- Eight days before the vote, 
his strength was 13 votes.- By the application of the whole 
power of the admn reinforced by individuals in various quar- 
ters, he increased it to twenty one.- The whole operation was 
conducted in silence & secrecy by Spencer & his Minions- & the 
vote fell upon us with absolute surprise.- 

Spencer is a man of eminent intellectual ability — inferior to 
no man in New York.- In truth, he has the talent & cunning of 
the Devil himself.- Yet all fair minds must admit, that he is 
not as respectable a personage as his devilship — For the latter, 
after his first apostacy & fall, has at least, had the merit of con- 

°^The original is in the Cameron Papers, University of North Carolina. 

^'^In the Cameron Papers, University of North Carolina, is a letter from W. H. Haywood, Jr., 
to Paul C. Cameron, February 7, 1844, saying that he enclosed a letter (the letter was not found) 
from the Postmaster General declining Haywood and Cameron's recommendation that Col. Parrish's 
post office be continued. Cameron had written to Mangum and Mangum had turned over Cameron's 
letter to Haywood. On Haywood's letter to Cameron, Mangum added this postscript: "P.S. I hold no 
intercourse with the P. M. & therefore Mr. H. acted for me — ^Judging from what I hear of oiher 
cases, the decision is not likely to be reversed. Very truly Dr Sir, Yrs W. P. M." 

On February 19, 1844, the post office at Round Hill in Orange County was re-established, and 
Doctor C. Parrish was made postmaster. Note to Haywood from the Post Office Department, February 
19, 1844. Cameron Papers, University of North Carolina. 

^^Charles Anderson WicklifFe, 1788-1869, a former governor and Congressman from Kentucky, 
was Tyler's Postmaster General from October, 1841, to March 6, 1845. He was a Kentucky Whig 
who for many years had been an enemy of Clay. He was sometimes called the "Old Duke." Van 
Deusen. Life of Clay, 337; Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1697. 

42 State Department of Archives and History 

sistency; whereas Mr. S. undergoes a new apostacy with every 
moon, if his interest may require it.- 

Wise''^ has been permitted to pass — All willing that he might 
have the money, which it is said, he much needs, & go out of the 
country — Though a few of us, did not feel at liberty to endorse 
him in person. - 

Every thing here indicates the almost certain election of 
Mr. Clay.- If we cannot beat Mr. Van Buren, we can beat no 
one.- Every intelligent Whig here, desires the contest to be with 
him.- The Whigs, therefore, have avoided in all cases, during 
this session, & especially at the opening of it, to cooperate to 
any extent with his unfriendly allies, to weaken him.- At the 
meeting of Congress if the Whigs would have cooperated, he 
nor his could have succeeded in the appointment of any of their 
officers.- The Whigs- many of them- with that Bourbon 
spirit- "That forgets nothing, & learns nothing," were ready to 
do it, for the wise [sic] reason, that it would make temporary 
mischief, & produce animosities, in the ranks of their natural 
enemies.- That however, was prevented by the most decisive & 
even violent action.- The consequence is, that Mr. V. B. is fixed 
in the Loco-foco Saddle.- 

We shall unhorse him at the first encounter, without pre- 
senting even a "sharp point".- 

A compromize Candidate- Cass for instance, would have 
greatly endangered us in Penn: & Ohio.- Whereas, as against 
Mr V. B. these states are regarded as absolutely certain. - 

What think you of Mr Calhoun's chivalry ?^^ Has the world 
ever seen so much bluster & gasconade issue in such puny & 
pusillanimous results? 

If you see your Father, present him my best respects & most 
affectionate regards.- I will not revive painful recollections, by 
saying how deeply & painfully, I was grieved & afflicted, at the 
late deplorable & irreparable calamity that Heaven permitted 
to fall upon his house & his old age.-^^ I learned from Doct. 
Webb & others, that he bore himself up with remarkable for- 

fi^Henry A. Wise, who had great influence with Tyler, was appointed minister to Brazil. He 
had declined an appointment as Secretary of the Navy in 1841 and had been appointed minister to 
France in 1843. This nomination to France was not confirmed. He served as minister to Brazil from 
1844 to 1847. Btog. Dir. of Cong., 1720; Hillsborough Recorder, February 22. 1844. 

''^After being defeated in the state Democratic conventions in New York and Massachusetts in 
1843 and after being decisively defeated by the Van Buren forces in the organization of the House 
of Representatives, Olhoun, on December 21, 1843, announced that he would not be a candidate 
and would not have anything to do with the Democratic convention. As a result. South Carolina 
refused to select delegates to the National Convention. Wiltse, Calhoun: Sectionalist, 144-147. 

^^Rebecca (Bennehan) Cameron, the wife of Duncan Cameron, died in early November, 1843. 
John Struthers & Son to Duncan Cameron, Cameron Papers. 

The Mangum Papers 43 

titude- that rather indicates to my mind, the intensity of hid- 
den griefs — the more intense in proportion to the manly effort 
to repress their exhibtion. May God give strength, & sanctify 
the bereavement to the household. To Mr. Bennehan you will 
also, be pleased to present my respect & most kindly regards. - 
Will you all meet Mr Clay at Raleigh in April? I hear, that 
he designs to be in Raleigh on his birthday, the 12^^. of April.- 
I hope old Orange ''Will be there." Would it not be well for 
the patriotic ladies of Raleigh to be moved to offer a spendid 
banner to the county which shall send the largest delegation 
having regard to the population of the respective counties, & 
their distance from the seat of Govt? 

The ratio to be settled by a comm." of intelligent Gentle- 
men.- If you think there is anything in this thought, will you 
communicate with Mr Badger on the subject? 

I trust, indeed, I am sure, that the hospitalities & affectionate 
regards of the "old North" towards her illustrious guest will be 
neither sparingly nor grudgingly tendered.- 

With my best respects to Mrs. Cameron I beg you to accept 
the assurance of my respect & most 

friendly regards 
Willie P. Mangum 


Paul C. Cameron esq. 

Robert Ransom^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Warren County Feby 10th. 1844 
Dr. Sir 
& friend 

Suffer me again to call on you, to aid me, in procuring 
the situation at West Point, for my Son, Robert whose name 
has been enrolled in the proper department as an applicant for 
eighteen months or longer. He is a Boy of fine promise, and 
comes fully up in all particulars to the schedule sent me by the 
Secretary of War. (Spencer) I refer you to his preceptor Mr. 
Ezell of Warrenton, & my neighbours for his qualifications and 

5' See above. III, 84n. 

44 State Department of Archives and History 

moral character. I am as you are well apprised a very poor 
man, and a large family to support, or I v^ould seek some other 
mode to Educate my Son. This District has w^ith one or two ex- 
ceptions been represented with the Sons of one family for a 
long number of years not of the same name but of same blood 
at West Point. Hoping you will see the Secretary of War, and 
use your influence immediately, as I can hope nothing from 
our Representative Mr. DanieP^ to whom I wrote a month ago, 
& have not heard a word from. Hoping to hear from you soon 
I am as ever your friend respectfully and 


Robt. Ransom. 
Honl. W. P. Mangum 


The Honl. Willie P. Mangum 

D. C 

Walter Lenox & others to Willie P. Mangum.^^ 

Washington, February 14, 1844. 

To the Hon. Willie P. Mangum M.C. 

The undersigned, Executive Committee of the Clay Club of 
Washington City, take the liberty to inform you, that the Whigs 
of Washington, emulating the spirit which animates their patri- 
otic Whig brethren throughout the Union, have formed an Asso- 
ciation under the name of ''The Clay Club of Washington City," 
and are eager to lend all the aid that may be in their power to 
forward the good cause, and secure for it a glorious and en- 
during triumph by the election of HENRY CLAY to the Presi- 
dency. In their efforts for the advancement of the cause, they 
hope to have the co-operation of the Whig Members of Con- 
gress by their Executive Committee, and the object of this 
communication is respectfully to invite their co-operation. 

The undersigned propose taking a suite of rooms on Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue, south side, between 9th and 10th streets, one or 

Bsjohn R. J. Daniel. 
^'^This is a printed circular. 

The Mangum Papers 45 

two of which may be used by the Congressional Committee, if 
they should deem it advisable. 
We have the honor to be, 

With great respect, 

Your obedient servants, 
Walter Lenox, Geo. W. Harkness, 

John A. Blake, Leonard Harbaugh, 

Sylvanus Holmes, Isaac Beers, 

Rich'd C. Washington, R. H. Stewart, 

Seth Hyatt, Wm. Thompson, 

Samuel Bacon, Geo. Watterston, 

R. S. Patterson, J. I. Henshaw, 

Jos. Borrows, L. H. Hewitt. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Mrs. Scotts Ind. Avenue 
Opp. City Hall. 

Horace T. Royster^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Perry County Ala Feb'ry 15th. /'44 

Dear Sir 

When I last saw you in Granville on your way to Washing- 
ton you promised me if I had any business you would attend 
to it cheerfully. I believe I then suggested to you, that in all 
probability, I should send on a petition for the establishment of 
a post office. I have settled myself North from Marion six miles. 
And have a very extensive practice. My practice since June 
last being worth Two Thousand Dollars. I have enclosed^^ you 
a petition which you will understand by reference to it. I do 
not know but what I ought to have enclosed to post Master 
Genl. and requested your aid in the matter. Your attention to 
this matter will confer a great favour on me. We have invited 
Mr. Clay to visit us on his way to the Old North State I had the 
Honour of being one of the Committee I understood on yester- 

•'OA native of Granville County, North Carolina, Royster moved to Alabama where he practiced 
law near Marion. He sent his son to the University of North Carolina. Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. 
N. C, 539. 

^^This enclosure is not in the Mangum Papers. 

46 State Department of Archives and History 

day he would be in Mobile by 25th. Int. We have not received 
an answer from him yet. the friends of Mr. Clay are anxious 
that he should not only come here, but further north he is in- 
vited to Tuscaloosa. ^^ I feel more anxious to have the office 
established prayed for, on account of the approaching Presi- 
dential election. The people in this region will be dissatisfied 
with the nomination of Mr. V. I have an extensive intercourse 
with the people not only in this but adjacent vicinities, and so 
far as an investigation of their political feelings have been de- 
veloped to me they (the Democrats) say almost unanimously 
that if they cannot vote for Mr Calhoun, they undoubtably will 
go for Mr Clay in preference to Mr Van Buren. It is my opin- 
ion that a supineness in the whigs have produced the result of 
past defeat all that is necessary at present to produce among the 
Whigs here, the spirit of the whigs of N.C., and I venture the 
prediction that they will carry the state in the presidential elec- 
tion — Greater triumphs have been achieved in other states 
where the odds have been more decidedly against us. A plan 
that [has] system about it and carried on with determined energy 
& unfaltering steps will accomplish wonders in any undertaking. 
The region of Country expected to be benefitted by the office 
wished know nothing about Politics, but what they are told by 
Demagoges - they are mostly Loco's - but will vote for Mr 
Clay in preference for Van — I know of but few who take pa- 
pers, among them a Central Clay club has been determined on 
in Marion and auxilliaries throughout the county, (One in this 
region and will be at my office ) . I have nothing of news to write 
you, only the people are perfectly sick of specie, it is flowing 
into the Country by Thousands and Large planters are willing 
to give specie checks on Mobile for Ala. money. Has the Large 
influx of specie into this Country been the effect of the hereto- 
fore depreciated condition of our money or is it the effect of the 
Tariff or what - Many speculations here about it. The ignorant 
part of the community who are democrats, begin to say it is not 
what they expected it to be, they prefer paper — The Gold Hum- 
bug has at last exploded, and the Whig Doctrine with respect 
the currency, will be found to be the only safe and efficient one. 
I am of opinion the name of Henry Clay will aid much our cause 

^^Clay's itinerary included New Orleans, Mobile, Montgomery, Columbus, Macon, Savannah, 
Wilmington, Raleigh. On July 1, 1844, he wrote Stephen F. Miller, of Tuscaloosa, a letter explaining 
his stand on Texas. Niles' Register, LXV, 331; LXVI, 105, 106, 372. 

The Mangum Papers 47 

in this State Your attention to my request will be reciprocated 
by any favour in my power. I am Dr Sir 

With Sentiments of high regard 

Your friend & Obt Svt 
Horace T. Royster. 

Any Documents which you may think worth sending direct 
them to Marion or Perry C. H. 

[Addressed:] To, 

The Honbl. Wiley P. Mangum 
President of the Senate. 

D. C. 

Calvin Colton^^ to Willie P. Mangum, 

Carlton House, New York Feby 15 — /44 
My Dear Sir, 

I stopped a day in Philadelphia, & our man, Mr. Reynolds,^* 
talked very bravely in response to my suggestion of having some 
of my Tracts translated into German. — I am not sure whether it 
will be better to have it done here or there. If you will address 
me here on the subject, as proposed, it will doubtless facilitate 
the operation, if it can be started at all, as is quite probable. 

I hope to send you a copy of my Tract, Labor & Capital, next 

Allow me to say a word about putting Mr. True^^ to work — 
He will find enough to do at once, all or most of which would not 
otherwise be done. The importance of sowing seed early I need 
not speak of. — I am glad you are at the head of the Senate Com- 
mittee.^^ A joint meeting with the Finance Committee of the 

63See above. III, 23 5n. 

"^Possibly John Reynolds, a former editor of the Lancaster Weekly Journal. Philip Shriver Klein, 
Pennsylvania Politics 1817-1832: A Game Without Rule, Philadelphia, 1940, 221-222. 
^Possibly Lambert True who was a clerk in the Washington post office. 
^Mangum headed the Senate Whig Committee for the campaign of 1844. 

48 State Department of Archives and History 

House, (Mr. Winthrop, Chairman) might start the business, by 
the weight of your finger. — 

Very Respectfully Yours 


Hon. W. P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 

D. C— 

Thurlow Weed to Willie P. Mangum. 

Albany, Feb. 15, 1844 
Hon Willie Mangum, 

Dear Sir, 

I am informed that the Whig Members of our Legislature 
have addressed a Letter to you, expressive of the high sense 
they entertain of the firmness and patriotism of the Whig Mem- 
bers of the Body over which you preside, as manifested in the 
Rejection of the nomination of Mr. John Spencer for a Judge 
of the U. S. Supreme Court. 

The publication of that Letter in the National Intelligencer, 
and its re-publication throughout this State would do much 
good. Mr Spencer boa[s]ts that the Delegation in Congress 
from this State, were for him. The Whig Members of the Legis- 
lature and the Whig Press throughout the State, are with the 
Senate and against Mr Spencer. 

If in your judgment there is no impropriety in publishing 
that Letter, you will render good service to the cause by send- 
ing a copy of it to Messrs. Gales & Seaton. 

Very truly Yours, 
Thurlow Weed 

[Addressed : ] 

To the Honorable 
W. Mangum 

President of the Senate 

The Mangum Papers 49 

Will. A. Graham to Willie P. Mangum. 


Feby 17th 1844. 
My Dear Sir 

During the Canvass of 1840, I placed in your hands my 
Journals of the Genl. Assembly of 1834 & 1838, as also some 
other papers & documents - among the rest a Milton news- 
paper containing the speech of Mr. Brown on presenting the 
resolutions of the Legislature of 1838. I have never expected to 
have use for them again, but in the present canvass I find they 
may become necessary, and therefore I beg, if you can have 
them hunted up at home, that you will direct them to be sent 
to me — I have no plan of a campaign marked out as yet. I am 
invited to meet Mr Clay at Wilmington, and cant decline going 
tho' I presume but little can be effected in my line, on such an 
occasion. I had expected to be with him at Raleigh, & I suppose 
must be. When I was there at the Supreme Court, I attended 
a meeting of the Central Committee and suggested that they 
should invite Messrs Crittenden, Morehead, Foster & Jarnagan 
to meet with Mr Clay in Raleigh. For I very much fear that he 
will be so much taxed by calls on him to speak that he will be 
either exhausted, or compelled to give offence. I go tomorow 
to Guilford Co. Court, & after the Co. Court here the ensuing 
week will be at Granville. At each of which, if desired I will 
address the people. My impression is, that not much will be 
effected in Canvassing the Eastern Counties, and that the great 
contest must be in the middle & Western sections. As far as I 
can hear, our friends are sanguine and confident. The adversary 
doubting, but disposed to exertion. I think we have little to 
hope from division in their ranks. The friends of Mr Calhoun 
will hardly seperate, but will fall into the line of Van Buren 
upon his making some new promises or renewing old ones, that 
neither party will ever expect to be fulfilled. What say you? 

50 State Department of Archives and History 

We are hoping that Judge Nash^^ will be appointed to the 
vacancy on the Bench of the Supreme Court. I have not time 
to v^rite more at the moment, and remain 

With high regard 
Your Friend & Servt 
Will. A. Graham 

Hon W. P. Mangum Prest. Sen. U. S. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
President Senate U. S. 
Washington City. 

[Post marked:] Hillsboro N. C. 
Feb 20 


Henry W. Miller to Willie P. Mangum. 

Raleigh Feby: 22nd 1844 

My Dear Sir: 

It affords me much pleasure to inform you that at a recent 
meeting of the 'Wake Clay Club' you v^ere unanimously elected an 
honorary member thereof: - and I have been instructed to in- 
vite you to be present on the 12th April at which time we ex- 
pect Mr Clay — It is our desire to give him a cordial and en- 
thusiastic welcome. — Accept the best wishes of 

Very Truly & Resply 
H. W. Miller. 
Prdt: W. C. Club. 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 
Washington City 

^^William Gaston, who was one of the three justices of the state supreme court, died in 1844. 
Frederick Nash was elected to succeed him. The other two justices were chief justice Thomas Ruffin 
and associate justice Joseph J. Daniel. N. C. Manual, 446. 

The Mangum Papers 51 

Washington Hunt^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

House of Representatives 
Feb 22. 1844 
My dear Sir, 

I enclosed your letter to my friend Benjamin F. Rexford 
Esqr, who has made his son illustrious by conferring your name 
upon him. Perhaps I ought to add that Mr. R. is a member of the 
Bar of Chenango County in our State, of the highest worth 
and respectability. 

I have just received a reply from him, in which he desires 
me **to convey to Mr. Mangum his grateful acknowledgements 
for his note, so full of beauty, kindness and generosity." He 
adds **It will not be the fault of the parents if the child so felic- 
itously named shall fail to live and act in a manner becoming 
the name-sake, both of the chivalrous ante-Revolutionary Pa- 
triot of North Carolina, and the distinguished Statesman who 
presides over the councils of the national Senate" and "that he 
hopes to be able before Mr. Mangum leaves the Senate to have 
the pleasure of calling upon him personally, and assuring him 
of his high appreciation of this mark of favor, which is as 
gratifying as it was unexpected." 

Praying you to accept the expression of my high regard and 

I remain. Dear Sir, 

Yours truly, 

W. Hunt. 

Willie P. Mangum, 

President of the Senate &c. &c. 

James Wm. McCulloh to Willie P. Mangum.^^ 

Treasury Department 

Comptroller's Office. 

23.^ Feby 1844. 

When the Report that was made on the 26.*^ Ultimo by the 
First Auditor in favor of Ralph H. Graves, for the principal and 

^See above, 38n. 

e^See above, 23-24, and below, 227. 

52 State Department of Archives and History 

interest owing on two Treasury notes, of one hundred dollars 
each- the right hand half parts whereof have been lost; the 
said Ralph having delivered a bond of indemnity, in the form 
usually required, when payments are made on account of lost, 
or destroyed Treasury notes; I deemed it to be my duty, con- 
sidering the circumstances of the case, as set forth in the pa- 
pers delivered to prove the loss of the said half parts, and the 
relations of the parties who have been, are and might be im- 
mediately or remotely interested in the said notes and case- 
to suggest that evidence ought to be required, which would 
prove satisfactorily, that all who claim in the premises under 
Richard S. Graves, do so in good faith- because the said notes, 
with many others, were issued in his favor- and delivered to 
him, at this Department, as the Treasurer of the State of Missis- 

Since that suggestion was communicated to the claimant- 
an affidavit, made on the the 10th. Instant by Eliza J. Thomp- 
son, sister of Richard S. Graves, had been furnished- and I am 
satisfied by its averments, and the statements that were pre- 
viously made by her and R. H. Graves, of his and her good 
faith- but, I still deem it necessary, as the payment of said 
claim to him will be in effect a payment to Elijah Graves, that 
the said Elijah shall also state, under oath, all that he knew or 
believed concerning the appropriation and remittance of said 
two Treasury notes, or half parts thereof, at the date of said pro- 
ceedings - that his good faith, in the premises, may also be 
thereby made manifest: and of this, I most respectfully apprize 
you, as through your kindness, the claimant has hitherto com- 
municated with this Department. 

With great respect 

Your Obdt. Servt. 
James W^ McCulloh 
[Addressed : ] Comptroller. 

To the Honorable Willie P. Mangum 

President of U. S. Senate. 

It would seem that Elijah Graves must shew, that the Treas: 
Notes passed into his hands for valuable & bona fide considera- 

W. P. Mangum 

'^'^This note is in Mangum's handwriting. 

The Mangum Papers 53 

Septimus Tuston^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington D. C. 

February 24, 44. 
To the Hon — 

The President of the Senate, 

Dear Sir 

I deeply regret that the usual devotional exercises 
at the opening of the Senate should have been pretermitted 
in consequence of any apparent delinquency on my part. The 
"weekly interchange" required by the joint resolution will ex- 
plain my absence from the Senate during the present week and 
the "aequo pede" of the clocks in both ends of the Capitol will 
account for the apparent tardiness of my colleague on the two 
past mornings. Be pleased Sir to overlook the past and unless 
Providence interposes there will be no similar omission in fu- 
ture. I thank you for the kind & generous spirit in which Mr 
Dickens^^ at your request communicated your wishes on the 

Most cordially & gratefully 
Your friend & obt svt- 
Septimus Tuston 
To the Hon Mr Mangum 
President of the Senate 
Present — 

[Addressed : ] 

To the Hon Mr. Mangum 
President of the Senate 

Willie P. Mangum to W. A. Graham.^^ 

Washington City 26th Feby 1844 
My dear Sir: 

I shall write home immediately, & have a thorough search 
made for the documents you desire. '^^ Last summer I made a 

'^Chaplain of the Senate. 

''^He refers to Asbury Dickins, secretary of the Senate at this time. 

'"flhe original is in the William A. Graham Papers, Department of Archives and History, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

■^^See above, William A, Graham to W. P. Mangum, February 17, 1844. 

54 State Department of Archives and History 

partial search for them, for the use of Mr. Nash. — The whole 
of my papers, documents etc. were removed, during my absence 
from home, & placed, where they were almost inaccessible. I 
am sure, they are at home, & safe, & I fear too safely placed 
away to be found in my absence. 

We think here, that your success is entirely certain, & yet 
none of the usual exertions should be remitted. — I concur in the 
opinion, that not a great deal can be accomplished by your 
presence in the East, but notwithstanding, I think, you ought 
to make an effort to pass through the Eastern Counties this 
spring. By judicious arrangements, it may be accomplished in 
a forthnight [sic]. 

I think, you will do well to go to Wilmington. — Though 
much may not be done, yet you will have paid them the Com- 
pliment of a visit. You will then be enabled to go to Newbern, 
taking the principal points on your route to Newbern, & then 
sweep through northwardly, say, Washington, Plymouth, per- 
haps, Williamston, Windsor, Edenton, Hartford in Perquimans 
Elizabeth City — Hence to Gates, Winton — Jackson & Halifax 
& thence homeward — 

Afterwards, can't you set out at Fayetteville & pass through 
Deberry's district? The residue of the time should be given to 
the Midland Counties & the Mountains — The extreme West 
ought to be canvassed fully — If it shall be done, you will beat 
Hoke^^ there, farther than did Gov Morehead, his opponent — 
Hoke & his friends count largely upon breaking into the Whig 
ranks in the West. — I heard this while he was here on a visit — 
He did not come to see me. His time was busily applied to in- 
tercourse with the leading Loco-foco's, & I suppose, in garnering 
up, documentary matter for the Campaign. He however, said 
here that he must be beaten from 6 to 8,000 Votes. 

My Hon: Colleague''^'^ is understood to be very busily en- 
gaged in writing letters & sending matter into the State, & 
especially, in the Counties west of the Yadkin. How much my 
dear Sir, I am disappointed in regard to his force, the intent of 
his calibre, & general ability. — That disappointment reaches his 
political friends. — The most elegant & consummate dandy in our 
grave & plain body, he undoubtedly is, & industrious, looking 
into the papers minutely, but constantly missing the Senatorial 

'^Michael Hoke. The vote for the two candidates was: Graham 42, 586 and Hoke 39, 433. 
Norton, Democratic Party in N. C, 106, 149, 152. 
'«WiUiam H. Haywood, Jr. 

The Mangum Papers 55 

pitch, & taking the merest microscopical & technical views of 
everything — ^fertile in suggesting difficulties & adroit & un- 
surpassable in flushing ( as the sportsmen say. ) mere shadows. — 
He made his debut, upon a question of remitting a forfeiture of 
$50, incurred by the Capt or Master of a Vessel from Maine, for 
some irregularity in his registry discovered at New Orleans. — 
The whole learning of the Case had been minutely & accurately 
examined, & was exhibited to the Senate with striking ability — 
the debate between him & Fairfield^^ of Maine (a very dull 
man. ) ran through two or three days — that is, parts [of] 3 days. 
Huntington^^ assisting Fairfield in a short speech, designed to 
be exceedingly sarcastic & contemptuous — & the Vote was final- 
ly taken — though I could not vote with my colleague, yet I did 
feel for the North State, when "her Senator/' after brewing a 
storm in a teapot, got only 3, 4, or 5 votes to back the affluence 
& variety of his learning — ^The rest has been very much of a 
piece with the first exhibition "ex uno disce" etc. & yet he may 
be troublesome. — I stand upon terms of great civility with him, 
& unless he be disposed to strike in the dark, his dispositions 
seem well enough. — 

As all this is contrary to my wont, it is designed only for 
your eye. For, I shall make it a point to observe great delicacy 
towards him unless he shall violate the Courtesies of our rela- 

My Colleague was as well understood here in a fortnight, as 
he is in Raleigh. — He set out a very busy contriver — I think, he 
has remitted somewhat. The new Senator from Maryland, 
Pearce^^ after their first meeting in committee, asked me grave- 
ly, if my colleague was not educated at St. Omers College? 
Clingman, who obviously feels that he could not meet you with- 
out experiencing some unpleasant twinges, is very much dis- 
posed to make what reparation he may, by doing all he can for 
your election. — He has frequently urged me, to press upon you 
the expediency of going into every county in the Mountain 
Country. — He & Barringer will fill their districts with all the 
matter, that may be deemed useful. 

We are getting ready much matter for distribution between 

■^Uohn Fairfield, 1797-1847, was Senator from Maine from 1843 until his death in 1847. 
Biog. Dir. of Cong., 955. 

78Jabez Williams Huntington, 1788-1847, was Senator from Conneaicut from 1840 to 1847. 
Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1133. 

'^^James Alfred Pearce, 1804-1862, was Senator from Maryland from 1843 until his death in 
1862. A Whig in 1844, he later became a Democrat. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1394. Pearce here 
implies that Haywood was Jesuitical since St. Omer's was a Jesuit school. 

56 State Department of Archives and History 

$1600 & $1800 have been raised here to procure documents etc. 
rooms are engaged & the Clay Club have propose to furnish 
clerks to direct all the documents, that may be furnished & 
franked. In about a fortnight, the w^ork v^ill commence. Clay 
can't be arrested. Van Buren w^ill be the candidate, & is already 
beaten in the public mind. — That is much. We feared early in 
the winter, that he might be driven off — But Benton, you know, 
is worth his Weight in gold^^ — He beat V. B. in 1840, & his 
policy, only makes assurance doubly sure, that the party will be 
beaten in '44. 

The Whigs here, at the beginning of the session, declined all 
connexion that tended to weaken Mr. V. B. Everything turned 
out as they wished. The Calhoun men surrender with the most 
broken & pusillanimous spirit ever witnessed — They will general- 
ly fall in — not Calhoun himself but the paltrily ambitious men in 
his ranks, lest they may loose position. 

Cass' friends are moving in Penn: New Jersey, & New York. 
Last week they carried the State convention of N.J. over which 
Geo. [Gen.] Wall (V.B.) presided with an overwhelming ma- 
jority. That is working well. You will have seen that Capt 
Tyler's democratic Conventions^ will be held in Baltimore on 
the same day, that the general Loco or V.B. Convention is to 
be held. They will make terms, for an old coat with a twist of 
Tobacco thrown in; but if that cannot be done, (as I think, it 
cannot) his friends will set up for themselves, until the pieces 
of silver (not 30 an half dozen will suffice) are forth coming. 

Some yet entertain fears that V.B. may be given up, but you 
& I, who know the master spirit of the party, know better. — 
To withdraw V.B. is to disband & to surrender the Contest. — 

Gov. Morehead^- went to Connecticut — all well there — Our 
friends don't doubt. He will return today or tomorrow. — 

I hope Orange will send her full quota to Raleigh — I write, 
while Dayton^^ is speaking, & now must close. 

Most Truly yr friend etc 
Willie P. Mangum 

st^Benton, as a leader of the Van Buren forces, was very unpopular with Calhoun's supporters. 

^iJn April, 1844, " "a large number of republicans' " assembled in Washington to organize a 
movement for Tyler's nomination. The meeting recommended a convention in Baltimore of the 
" 'Democratic republicans.' " The convention was held May 27. According to Tyler, about 1000 
delegates from all parts of the Union were in the convention. In accepting the nomination, he re- 
ferred to the convention as a "Democratic" convention. Tyler's friends suggested that he seek the 
nomination of the regular Democratic convention, but he refused to make the effort. Chitwood, Life 
of Tyler, 515-ill. 

s^Gov. J. T. Morehead, Senator from Kentucky. 

ssWilliam L. Dayton, 1807-1864, was Senator from New Jersey from 1842 to 1851, Biog. 
Dir. of Cong., 891. 

The Mangum Papers 57 


Memucan Hunt^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

( Private ) 

Galveston, Texas, 27th February 1844 


Hon. W. P. Mangum, Pres't. U. S. S. 

My Dear Sir, 

I have the pleasure to introduce to your acquaintance, 
herewith, my esteemed friend W. D. Miller Esqr.,^^ Secretary of 
our secret embassy at Washington. Gen. J. Pinckney Hender- 
son,^^ formerly of North Carolina, is charged with that import- 
ant trust, which is for the purpose of accomplishing, if possible, 
the union of this country and the U. S. 

Mr. Miller is formerly of Alabama, and brought with him 
to this country letters from Judge Martin^^ of N. C. to me. - 
He has been a member of our congress and for more than the 
last two years private Secretary of President Houston. There is 
no gentleman in Texas who more fully possesses my confidence 
in all the relations of life than Mr. Miller does. You will find 
him very inteligent and discreet;- No one possesses a better 
knowledge of the affairs of Texas than he does. I therefore re- 
fer you to him for the state of our local and foreign affairs. 

Your respectful consideration to Mr. Miller during his resi- 
dence in Washington will be a kindness to your friend, 

Memucan Hunt 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon W. P. Mangum 
Pres.t U. S. S. 
Washington City 
Introducing ) 
Mr Miller ) 

^*See above, II, 226n. 

^^At this time William D. Miller was on his way to Washington to become Secretary of the 
Texan commissioners, Isaac Van Zandt and J. P. Henderson. In writing Jackson, February 16, 1844, 
Houston stated that he was directing his "Private Secretary and confidential friend, W. D. Miller, 
Esq., to convey my personal salutations and embraces to you, with authority to communicate everything 
upon every subject. Mr. Miller is a young gentleman who has been with me in my office since the 
commencement of my present administration. He knows all my actions and understands all my mo- 
tives. I have concealed nothing from him — nor will he conceal anything from you." Bassett (ed. ), 
Cor. of Jackson, VI, 263, 276-277. 

^James Pinckney Henderson, 1808-1858, a native of Lincoln County, North Carolina, studied 
and practiced law in Lincolnton until he moved to Mississippi in 1835. After recruiting troops and 
fighting for Texan independence, he was appointed attorney general of Texas in 1836 and secretary 
of state in 1837. He represented the Republic of Texas in Europe in 1838 and in the United 
States in 1844. He was the first governor of Texas after her admission to the Union. From 1857 
to 1858 he was United States Senator. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1086. 

^7He probably refers to James Martin, judge of the Superior Court of North Carolina from 1827 
to 1835 or Francois Xavier Martin formerly of North Carolina and in 1844 chief justice of Louisiana. 

58 State Department of Archives and History 


H. W. Miller to «« 

Raleigh Feby 27, 1844. 
Dear Sir: 

I have been instructed by the ''Wake Clay Club" at one of 
its recent meetings to give you an invitation to be present on 
the 12th of April next at v^^hich time v^e expect to welcome our 
distinguished Countryman Henry Clay. — 

I comply virith the wishes of the Club most cordially & trust 
you will find it convenient to attend on that occasion. — Let me 
hear from you. — 

I am Very Respectfully 
H. W. Miller 
Presdt: Wake C. Club 


George Wallace McGiffin & others to Willie P. ManguTn. 

Washington Hall, Feb. 27th/44 
To W. P. Mangum, 
Dear Sir, 

The undersigned, members of the Washington Litterary 
Society of Washington College, ^^ are constituted a committee, to 
inform you of your election as an honorary member of their 
body. Permit us to accompany with this intimation, the as- 
surance of our individual regard, and warmest wishes for your 
personal welfare and happiness. 

With the highest regard for you and 
yours we remain, your friends — 

Geo. Wallace McGriffin 
J. N. [torn] 
J. H. Oliver. 
Hon W. P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate, 

D. C. 

^^This was probably addressed to W. P. Mangum. 

^^he future Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia. 

The Mangum Papers 59 

Saml. S. Phelps^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington 2^ March 1844 
Hon W. P. Mangum, 

Sir — The bearer Mr. J. R. Lambdin^^ who has been intro- 
duced to me as a distinguished artist of Philadelphia, has ap- 
plied to me as Chairman of the Com^. on Patents, & also to Mr 
Dayton^2 ^h.^ of the Com^. on Pub Buildings, for the use of 
our Committee Room, as a Studio, when not wanted by us — I 
have consulted with the members of the Committees & find 
there is no objection as far as we are concerned to grant his ap- 

Very Respectfully 

Yr. Mo— obt. Sevt. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum ^^^l- S- Phelps 

Prest. of the Senate 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon Willie P. Mangum 
Senate U. S. 

Washington City 

O. H. Tiffany to Willie P. Mangum. 

Dickinson College, 
Carlisle Penna. 
March 4th, 44. 

It becomes my pleasing duty to inform you of your election 
as an Honorary Member of the Union Philosophical Society of 
Dickinson College. 

Yrs with much respect 
O. H. Tiffany, 

Corres. Sec. U.P.S. 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Pres. U. S. Senate 
Washington D. C. 

^Samuel S. Phelps, 1793-1855, a native of Connecticut and graduate of Yale University, settled 
in Middlebury, Vermont, to praaice law. After serving as paymaster in the War of 1812 and after 
holding several state offices, including judge of the Vermont Supreme Court, he entered the United 
States Senate in 1839 and served until 1851 and from 1853 to 1854. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1408. 

siLambdin, the famous portrait painter, painted one of the best portraits available of Mangum. 
This was included as frontispiece to volume II of these papers. 

^See above, 56n. 

60 State Department of Archives and History 

Isaac N. Jones^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington [Ark.] 6th. Mar: '44 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Dear Sir 

Permit me to intrude a request upon you which from 
its importance in a national point of view I hope you will ex- 

We live in a State which (from its representation in con- 
gress being entirely of Loco faith) is but poorly supplied with 
ought but 'Loco' speeches, documents &c. Now will you do us 
the favor to address us with whig documents of whatever kind 
you think will be advantageous. We have here a Clay Club 
which meets regularly the last Saturday of every month. In 
this town we have 40 Whigs to some 18 Locos. There is a fair 
prospect for the emancipation of this state at the next Election 
from Locoism. I reed, from our Col. Sevier^* (U. S. Senate) 
Mr McDuffie's speech in answer to Messrs: Evans & Hunting- 
ton upon the Tariff. But so far as I know no copy of those 
gentlemen's speeches has reached here except in a newspaper. 
Two or three dozn. of those speeches will be of great use to 
the cause here. 

I do not know whether you will recognize in my signature 
one of yr. old acquaintances of Oxford No. C; But be assured 
that (though I may have long since been forgotten by you) as 
a citizen of my native State you have not been unnoticed by me, 
to whom your elevation is a matter of no little gratification. 

Very truly yr friend &c 

Isaac N. Jones M.D. 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon: W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 
Mail. Washington City. 

"^Isaac N. Jones, a native of Granville County, was a student at the University of North Caro- 
lina in 1816. He became a physician in Caswell County before he moved to Arkansas and Texas. In 
Texas he was on the commission to survey the Texas boundary in 1839- Grant, Ahimni Hist, of 
U. N, C, 328; George P. Garrison, (ed. ), Diplomatic Correspondence of the Republic of Texas in 
A. H. A. Report of 1908, II, 53. 

^Ambrose Hundley Sevier, Senator from Arkansas, 1836-1848; George McDuflRe, Senator from 
South Carolina, 1842-1847; George Evans, Senator from Maine, 1841-1847; and Jabez Williams 
Huntington, Senator from Conneaicut, 1840-1847. 

The Mangum Papers 61 

J. Watson Wehh to Willie P. Mangum. 

[9 March 1844] 
My Dear Sir. 

Dr. Peachy^^ of Williamsburgh, Virginia, was yesterday nom- 
inated Consul at Amoy, China. Mr. Brothers who is a Brother- 
in-law of the Dr. informs me that this is an act of personal 
friendship to an old neighbor - Dr. P. being a Clay -Whig, & at 
this time laboring for Hill Carter in that District. 

I was writing to Mr. Webster on business last night, and took 
occasion to say that I had heard him spoken most kindly of by 
you & Gov. Morehead in the course of the Evening.^^ You may 
win him entirely to day, after you & the Governor have reached 
the third Bottle - a period when he & you, & all good fellows are 
in the melting mood. I feel quite sure that you can, if you will, 
Send him home an aroused & zealous Clay man. Believe me 

Very sincerely & Truly 
Your friend 
J. Watson Webb 
Saturday March 9/44 
Hon W. P. Mangum. 

P.S. I have arrived at the conclusion, much as I desire to see 
a modification of the tariff on every thing but Iron & WooZZen, 
that it is safest to leave things untouched. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

W. J. Bingham^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

HiLLSBORo' N. C. March 11th. 1844— 

Dear Sir; 

I addressed you a line a month or six weeks ago requesting 
of you the favour to send me a few grains of the 'Multicole rye', 

s^William S. Peachy was a lawyer of Williamsburg in 1851. Livingston, Law Register, 1851, 586. 
^^Webb was trying at this time to get the Whigs to select Webster as the Presidential candidate. 
See above, 9n, 14. 

^See above, W. J. Bingham to W. P. Mangum, December 28, 1843. 

62 State Department of Archives and History 

which I observe from the Agricultural papers, is at the Patent 
office for distribution. I have now to request a greater favour. — 
A gentleman residing in Pinckney, Missouri, has been owing 
me about a hundred dollars for some years, & is, I have every 
reason to believe, very good for the money. But I can't act on 
him except through an agent in his neighborhood. Will you be 
so good as to learn from some one of the Missouri members 
what trusty agent I can employ, and give me his address? 

I am happy to be able to inform you that Mr. Graham's 
health is steadily improving, and he is expected soon to be well 
enough to come home. I presume you are aware he has been 
confined at Greensboro' for more than a fortnight. — Things 
here as usual. — 

Very respectfully, 

Yr. obed't ser't 
W. J. Bingham, 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 

[Postmarked:] Hillsboro N. C. Mar 12 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Washington : 

D. C. 


J. Watson Wehh to Messrs. Willie P. Mangum 
and J. T. Morehead. 

[13 March, 1844] 
Messrs. Mangum & Morehead 


I greatly regret that my detention by my Loco Foco friend 
WilkinSj^^ who I beat at whist and who is about to send me a 
Barren of Monongahela promised ten years ago, prevented my 
meeting you on Saturday evening when I am well satisfied you 
were in "good order & well conditioned." I am consoled how- 
ever, with the reflection that you left W. "all right," & that I did 
not labour in vain in striving to have you understand each other 

s^He probably refers to William Wilkins, of Pennsylvania, who was Democratic Congressman at 
this time. 

The Mangum Papers 63 

more fully. He will now doubtless leave Washington with 
kindly feelings ;^^ & his language on his way north & east, & the 
impression he will everywhere leave that he is thoroughly with 
us & for Mr. Clay, will give increased confidence in Mr. C's suc- 
cess; - not because Mr. Webster is with him, but because his 
being with us will be attributed to his conviction of the certainty 
of our success. Thus while he will influence and give actively 
to the cause of his admirers, he will give additional confidence 
to those who do not care for him, because his language will be 
attributed to a conviction that Mr. Clay's election is inevitable. 
Here & through that State, his direct influence upon the action 
of those who admire him will be most salutary. In any event 
his friends are with us after what we accomplished last autumn; 
but they will now be actively instead of passively with us. 

The new tariff Bill has created a panic here, & the Loco 
Focos circulate every where that it meets Mr. Clay's views who 
is now said to be angling for the South. I enclose a few lines 
from the Herald, that most worthless of all prints, but which 
the Locos always use when they think it can be useful. The en- 
closed is precisely the language used by one of Mr. Van Buren's 
prominent friends yesterday and which you will find to be the 
case of the party at the north. Much as a low tariff is my in- 
terest or the assumed interest of the Commercial part of our 
community who are my chief support, I am now convinced that 
we had better let things remain as they are and not risk any 
change. This ground I shall assume broadly to-morrow, offend 
whom it may among our shipping friends, and I sincerely hope 
that if the House pass the bill reported, the Senate will reject 
it without amendment. Let us go into the election with our own 
issues as they are & then leave to Mr. Clay & his administration 
the work of alteration. Mr. Henry Grinnell, brother of Moses 
& one of the large Packet owners, said to me yesterday — *'I 
am opposed to the tariff, but I prefer it as it is, or even worse, 
to their constant attempt at change. — We want stability & can 
accomodate ourselves to any state of things if but assured that 
it will be permanent." 

I am so fearful of a radical alteration & of new issues for the 
coming contest, that I would not even touch Rail Road Iron, 
though it would save us $900,000 in the cost of on his Isic] Rail 

»9See above, 9n, 14. 

64 State Department of Archives and History 

My Brother whom you met at my room on Saturday night, 
is a thorough Clay man but was a neighbour of "his accidency" 
for fifteen years. He is now a resident of Troy, & is an applicant 
for the Post Office in that city. He told Tyler that there was not 
a Tyler man in that city - that all are for Clay or Van Buren - 
& that he is for Clay. The Captain did not like this, but for auld 
lang syne, half promised the office. Tayloe who is in all Tyler's 
secrets, said, that if Davis be rejected before the Baltimore Con- 
vention, a Loco will be appointed - if after, it will be given to 
my Brother. He like any body else takes it for granted that in 
no event can Davis be confirmed. I hope his nomination may 
sleep till after Van Buren is nominated. 

Very Truly Your friend 

J. Watson Webb. 

March 13 / 44 

M. H. GrinneWo ^^ j Watson Webb. 

Thursday noon 

14 March 1844. 

Dear Col. 

Your article of this morning, in regard to the Tariff, is in 
accordance with my views — I am truly glad that you have taken 
the ground of no change in the present Tariff, and I wish to 
God, our friends in Congress would stand upon the same plat- 
form. In my humble judgment its the only safe course for the 
Whig party to adopt at this time — My interests, you well know 
would be benefited if the Free Trade principles were fully car- 
ried out, but I cannot in my own conscience support that doc- 
trine — I have not a dollars interest, directly or indirectly, in 
any manufacturing, but my whole property is in Ships - con- 
nected with Commerce — 

My Motto is "let well alone" the Country is now prosperous, 
every branch of trade is improving, confidence being restored — 
and if Congress will only let the present Tariff alone, at least 

i-^^See above. III, 248-249. 490. 

The Mangum Papers 65 

long enough to give it a fair trial, I am sure that all will be 
well — 

Yours Truly 
M. H. Grinnell 

Jas Watson Webb Esq 

[Addressed : ] 

To Col. Webb. 


Joseph L. Tillinghast^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Provindence R. I. March 15 1844. 
Dear Sir, 

As chairman of the Corresponding Committee I have the 
honor of informing you that the Clay Club of the City of Provi- 
dence, at their late meeting, unanimously elected you an Hon- 
orary Member; and this Committee is charged with the pleasing 
duty of informing you of your election. 

I am. Sir, with the highest respect, 

Your Obt. Servt. 

Joseph L. Tillinghast 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Willie P. Mangum to John M. Clayton^^^^ 

Washington City 16th March 1844. 
My dear Sir, 

Yesterday, I wrote you a line and promised at length to 
day.-That, I cannot do, for want of time. 

I repeat, that you in my opinion, ought to Stand Still That is 
Morehead's opinion, nor does Simmons^^^ dissent from it- Sim- 
mons having been mentioned for the Vice Presidency, may have 
had some notions floating in his head on the Subject:- Yet I 
suppose, he does not think of it, seriously.- He did not know 
the contents of Mr. Sargent's^^^ letter.- 

I'-iSee above, III, 106n. 

i^^he original is in the John M. Clayton Papers, Library of Congress. 

losjames T. Morehead, Senator from Kentucky, and James Fowler Simmons, Senator from Rhode 

io4He probably refers to John Sergeant, who was recommended by some for the vice presidential 
candidate of the Whigs. 

66 State Department of Archives and History 

The contest, I think, is narrowed to you and Massa- 
chusetts.- Evans^^^ cannot go it.- The Webster interest prevented 
him, & enlisted on his side his New^ York influence, & Bates, 
Choate,^^^ & to my surprise, the member from Boston.- The 
whole thing was still-born. McLean undoubtedly desired it to 
the extent of giving some manifest "nibbles" at it, as has been 
his won't for the last ten years.- I don't think he was much en- 
couraged in any influential quarter.- The thorough Whigs of 
his own State, were opposed to it.- Schenck^^^ a fine spirited & 
highly gifted man, dryly said, ''I think, I shd. prefer a Whig for 
the V. P. "-Mr. Sergeant has never had a chance- and besides, 
it is an unlucky ticket, & Capt. Tyler believes in luck.- 

Dennig, as well our friend from Washn. Co. Penn. are out 
of the question. — Tallmadge^^^ has crippled himself, & his 
friends at home, are killing him outright. His course has been 
so objectionable, that it would have been fatal to his prospects, 
had his strength at home remained unimpaired.- Fillmore will 
be pressed with zeal & power.- Backed by the great State, it 
may render him formidable — 

Yet, so general is the sense of public men here, that he is not 
suitable. I cannot think it will require much effort to dispose of 

He has neither the talent, devotion or firmness & decision 
for so high a station- & besides, how many of my Constituents, 
& hundreds of thousands elsewhere, know, who Mr F is.- My 
old friend Gov Davis, ^^^ I fear, cannot make a good run.- He 
will fail in Virginia, Georgia, Tenessee, & I am very sure, his 
popularity has been much impaired at home : - In Penn : he can- 
not run as well, as several others. 

I cannot lift my finger against him, as I was act & part, and 
I believe the first to move (certainly here) his nomination with 
Clay at the Faneuil Hall Convention in Sept.^ 1842. It was 
known that Webster was to leave here on the 1st. of Sepr. 1842, 
for Massachusetts.- The Convention was to be held the 11th or 
13th of that month to nominate State officers.- Webster was in high 
feather, he had just concluded the treaty which had been ratified 
by a Whig Senate with an unanimous Vote of the Whigs, saving 
one,- He had made extraordinary efforts to restore cordial re- 

losQeorge Evans, Senator from Maine. 

loejsaac C. Bates and Rufus Choate, Senators from Massachusetts. 

lo^Ferdinand S. Schenck, Senator from New Jersey. 

108N. P. Tallmadge, of New York. 

loejohn Davis, of Massachusetts. 

The Mangum Papers 67 

lations with the Whigs of the Senate which was steadily re- 
pulsed in those quarters, where he seemed least to desire it.- 

Some of us thought, if, after having succeeded in the treaty, 
such relations should be restored, the knowledge of it should 
precede his return to Mass. that he would be armed with a 
formidable power, which I did not doubt wd. be used to crush 
or to disband the Clay Whigs. 

Gov. Davis was saved up, as an antagonist power in that 
State, - and every New England member who was regarded as 
true, (& in those days, every one's position was well defined) 
was engaged to urge Clay's nomination at that convention, & 
to give us Davis, or any other, whom they might deem prefer- 
able for V.P. & he should have our hearty support — At least, I 
engaged my own, & spoke with entire confidence for my State.- 
You know what followed- & after I say, I wrote several letters 
to Mass. you can understand my position.- Yet, I do hope, 
Davis will decline without discontent, & yield gracefully to the 
force of circumstances.- I think, Abbott Lawrence^^^ a prefer- 
able Candidate. He would run smoothly & by waving his Wand, 
the sinews of War, would spring from the bowels of the earth. 
Those sinews so indispensable in the north & east.- Whether, 
he is quite of the Calibre, I have my doubts.- Yet, in the event 
of the most disastrous contingency, I think the Country might 
expect from him a gentlemanly administration, surrounded by 
the talent and character of the Country- a thing so much needed, 
for the last 10 or 15 years.- 

Now as to your humble self- you can do much more service 
to the Country in the State Department, where you will be 
called, if not otherwise, disposed of .- 

I am for you, first, to avoid a bad nomination but if a good 
one can be had, I would prefer it. & leave you for other & higher 
service.- & yet I think, you can make a better run than any 
other- We however, are not so pressed, as to feel the necessity 
of determining the question upon our estimate of slight differ- 
ences on the strength of the respective Candidates. We must 
avoid, placing unnecessary weight upon Clay.- Here is the 
whole of it, written in a gallop.- Webster leaves here in reason- 
ably good temper, & will not make war on you, if you shall be 

^^"Abbott Lawrence, 1792-1855, a Boston merchant who served in Congress in 1835-1837 and 
1839-1840, was one of the commissioners that settled the northeastern boundary. He was a delegate 
to the Whig National Convention in 1844. He declined a post in Taylor's Cabinet but accepted the 
appointment of Minister to Great Britain, Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1208; D. A. B., XI, 44. 

68 State Department of Archives and History 

I put Col. Webb^^^ in possession of all our views- he in- 
stantly surrendered Evans, & is ready to go for you v^ith all 
his heart. 

In truth, you are his first Choice, & he says, you can get 
along through the abolition Mires of the North, better than any 
northern man. 

It ought to be Lawrence or you, if the thing can be managed 
without giving sectional offence.- 

Davis would surely occupy a distinguished position in the 
eye of a new admn. & perhaps, might feel satisfied, if well as- 
sured of it- 
After all, you must stand Still, or run the hazard of doing the 
party much damage, which I know you would not intentionally, 
for your right arm- 
Very truly 

yr friend 
Willie P. Mangum 
To Hon. I. M. Clayton 

I set out to write a page, & here you are on the fifth. 

William B. Reed^^^ to Willie P. ManguTu. 

and Enclosure 

[17 March, 1844] 
My Dear Sir, 

Not knowing Mr. Badger's precise address I take the liberty 
of asking you to direct and forward the enclosed. I leave it un- 
sealed, for you as a North Carolinian to read in the hope that 
you too may be able to aid me in the object I have in view. 
Excuse the liberty I take and believe me 

With sincere regard and respect 
faithfully yrs. 

William B. Reed. 
Philad. March 17 1844 
Hon. Mr. Mangum 

i^See above letters of J. Watson Webb to W. P. Mangum, March 9. 13. 1844. 

"^William B. Reed, 1806-1876, a native of Philadelphia and a graduate of the University of 
Pennsylvania, studied law under his uncle, John Sergeant, He went to Mexico and Panama as the 
private secretary of Sergeant in 1826. He held numerous state and local offices before he was ap- 
pointed by Buchanan as Minister to China, where he helped negotiate the Treaty of Tientsin. In 
politics he was anti-mason before he entered the Whig party. In 1856 he went over to the Democrats. 
An able lawyer who had intellectual interests, he taught, on a part-time basis, American history at 
the University of Pennsylvania and wrote numerous articles on history. D. A. B., XV, 461-462. 

The Mangum Papers 69 


Philada. March 16, 1844. 

My Dear Sir, 

I am induced, at the instance of our common friend, Mr. 
Sergeant,^^^ to revive a very slight personal acquaintance, and 
to ask a favour, which, I am very sure, if in your power, you 
will readily grant. I have consented, at the request of a very 
respectable literary Institution of this City, principally com- 
posed of Roman Catholic gentlemen, to prepare and deliver in 
the course of the next month or six weeks a Discourse or Eulogy 
on the Life and public services of Judge Gaston. Having under- 
taken the task, I wish to make the effort a creditable one, and 
to do full and minute justice to the subject. My principal dif- 
ficulty is in obtaining a knowledge of the details of Mr. Gaston's 
public life after he left Congress, and of his services at home 
before he went on the bench, as well as afterwards so far as they 
had public interest. — Can you advise me on the subject, or put 
me in the way of obtaining the information I desire? I wish to 
do full justice to the subject. More than a little practical good 
may result from it. Judge Gaston's political opinions were 
eminently conservative, and a fair eulogy on his character will 
invoke a very decided defence of those opinions which now are 
a little out of fashion. My audience must listen and may profit. 
Do me the favour to give me an early reference to any materials 
that will aid me - any new information respecting his private 
life will be acceptable. Was not Mr. Gaston a decided Whig in 
his politics. 

Apropos of politics, shall we not have the pleasure of meet- 
ing you in Baltimore in May? I am one of the senatorial Dele- 
gates from this State, and rely on meeting and conferring with 
many of our distant friends on the bright though somewhat 
perplexed prospect before us. I fear this detestable administra- 
tion will give us trouble yet with its Texas and Anti-Anglican 

"^John Sergeant was Reed's uncle. 

70 State Department of Archives and History 

I presume Mr Clay will soon be with you. Tell him his 
Pennsylvania friends are sanguine and active, well organized 
and perfectly united. 

Very truly & Resp 
William B. Reed. 
Hon. George. E. Badger. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. George. E. Badger 
N. Carolina. 


S. H. Harris^ ^'' to Willie P. Mangum. 

Clarksville [Va.] 

March 18th 1844 
Dear Sir, 

The late shocking accident on board the Steam Frigate 
Princeton^^^ resulted as you know in the death of one of my 
wifes uncles Commo. B. Kennon of the United States Navy. At 
the time of his death and for several years previous he had 
under his care and protection a young man by the name of 
William Kennon a nephew of his and a son of my late Father in 
law Col. E. Kennon whom you no doubt will remember. He is 
now and has been for several years the clerk of the commander 
of the Washington Navy Yard; which appointment he obtained 
and held no doubt thro the influence of his uncle. Having lost 
his protection and being still under age, his numerous connec- 
tions here and Mrs. Harris his sister among others, cannot but 
feel deeply interested about him. I am thus induced to ap- 
proach you on the subject and solicite for him your notice and 
kind offices. I am aware Sir that your present political attitude 
may disincline you to ask any boon of the present administra- 
tion; but I have thought it not unlikely that the exalted station 
which you now fill with so much distinction, might enable you 

i"See above, III, 43 n. 

i^On February 22, 1844, Optain Stockton of the U. S. S. Princeton, a warship with the most 
modern improvements designed by John Ericsson of Monitor fame, took many guests, including the 
President and members of his Cabinet, on a trip from Alexandria to Mount Vernon. After the party 
had had a pleasant outing and were on their way back, the large gun, the "Peacemaker," was fired at 
the request of Secretary of the Navy Gilmer. An explosion occurred, instantly killing Secretaries Gil- 
mer and Upshur, Commodore B. Kennon, and two other important guests. Chitwood, Life of Tyler, 

The Mangum Papers 71 

in many ways to forward the prospects of this young man. He 
is already favourably known to the President and I believe in 
the gay circles of Washington as a kinsman and protege of the 
late commodore. Should you therefore feel inclined to interest 
yourself in his favour it would not be difficult to obtain for him 
some permanent appointment under the government. I am not 
well informed as to his business qualifications, but infer from 
his letters and the very favourable opinions expressed by others, 
that he would fulfill the expectations of his friends in any sta- 
tion suited to his years. In stead of troubling you with this 
communication, I ought probably to have addressed myself to 
the Virginia Senators, but I am personally unknown to them. 
As to our representative Genl. Dromgoole^^^ it is hardly to be 
expected that he would interest himself in favour of a man how- 
ever meritorious who carries in his veins a mingled stream of 
Nelson and Kennon blood; two Whig families that have ever 
been, and always will be, I hope, opposed to him. 

The excitement here is up and daily increasing in favour of 
Mr Clay, and it is not the least gratifying sign of the times to 
witness the gradual decline and removal of the old fashioned 
deep rooted prejudices against that distinguished statesman. 
We are up and a doing and I will just remark in passant [sici 
that your name is frequently mentioned in connection with the 
vice Presidency. I may have been guilty myself of some indis- 
creetness, as the party leaders say, of thus expressing pre- 
maturely my preference. But who is to be the man? The old 
North State surely has claims, that must and will challenge the 
consideration of the national convention — 

With high respect 

I am Sir yours &c. 

S. H. Harris. 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
United States Senate 

D. C. 

ueGeorge Coke Dromgoole, 1797-1847, was Democratic Congressman from 1835 to 1841 and 
from 1843 to 1847. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 921. 

72 State Department of Archives and History 

Joseph Ridgway^'^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Columbus, O. March 18.^1^ 1844 

Honl. Willie P. Mangum 
Pres.t of the U. S. Senate 

Dr. Sir, 

I have taken the liberty of enclosing to your address 
a volume for the Hon. Dan.^ R. Tilden,^^* of the House. It con- 
tains matter that I think Mr. Tilden would prefer receiving 
through your hands than that of Genl. Jones-^^^ the Speaker of 
the House. Will you have the kindness w^hen the book comes to 
hand to drop a line to Mr. Tilden, or send it to him by one of 
your Pages. 

We are preparing for the coming campaign, and entertain 
no doubts that v^e shall carry the State for Mr Clay trium- 

With high respect 

I am, Your Obe^ Sev,* 


[Addressed : ] 

Honl. Willie P. Mangum 
Prest. of the U. S. Senate 
Washington City 
D. C. 

J. R. Lamhdin^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

[18 March, 1844] 
Dear Sir 

Will it be convenient for you to give me a sitting this morn- 

1" Joseph Ridgway, 1783-1861, was a plow manufacturer and a member of the Ohio legislature 
before he entered Congress in 1837. He served until 1843. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1462. 

i^^Daniel Rose Tilden, 1804-1890, was a Whig Congressman from Portage County, Ohio, from 
1843 to 1847. In 1848 and 1852 he was a delegate to the national Whig conventions. Biog. Dir. 
of Cong., 1618. 

li^'John Winton Jones, 1791-1848, of Virginia, was Speaker of the House of Representatives in 
the Twenty-eighth Congress, which was then in session. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1163. 

12'JSee above. 59. 

The Mangum Papers 73 

ing? - by so doing you will greatly facilitate my operations, and 
add another to the many favours allready conferred on 

Very truly your obed.* 

J R Lambdin 
Hon W P Mangum. 
Monday Mong Mar 18/44. 

[Addressed : ] 

Honble W P Mangum 

Mrs Cox's 

George Constantine Collins^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Baltimore March 20th 1844. 
Hon. Sir: 

I would again claim your attention, to the perusal of a few 
lines from my pen, hoping however that they will find you 
perfectly satisfied as regards my explanation respecting the 
draft. Since the publication of that anonymous letter in the 
Globe, my countrymen have treated me with marked distinc- 
tion, and it has contributed very much to the advancement of 
the ''cause." I have also the pleasure of announcing to you, that 
I have been enabled to pay the publisher $50 since I wrote you 
last, and I have the prospect of making further payments in a 
few days. Several letters have been reed from New York, re- 
questing my immediate presence there, owing to the peculiar 
state of feeling now existing amongst the old countrymen, par- 
ticularly the Irish, who very probably will act in concert with 
the "Great Whig Party/' at the approaching election. In order 
therefore, that I may leave here on Saturday I most respectfully 
request you to send me a little money, whereby I may be en- 
abled to pay my expenses, and the amt. can be deducted on ace/ 
of the books in the Club — Be so kind as to send me a letter by 
the return mail as I shall await it impatiently. 

I most humbly beg of you, not to lay any thing to my charge 
derogatory to my zeal in the promotion of the best interests of 
the Party, to which I have the honor to belong — When the first 
edition is payed for I will be able to get along without any as- 

^^See above, G. C. Collins to W. P. Mangum, January 22, 1844. 

74 State Department of Archives and History 

sistance - but owing to the great expense incurred by reason 
of eight weeks stay in Baltimore, the paying my family's ex- 
penses in Washington, and the stereotyping and composition — 
I have been and am embarrassed. Should you be able to ob- 
tain even $20, it would now be more serviceable than $100 at 
another time. Excuse my liberty I should not have addressed 
you on this, or any other subject, had I not known you to be 
possessed of every quality essential to the true gentleman and 
disinterested philanthropist. In the mean time, I have the Hon- 
or to be, Hon. Sir, 

Your most obt. Servt. 
and affectionate friend 

George Constantine Collins. 
Hon Willie P. Mangum 
Pres. Sen. U. S. & 
V.P. U.S. 

[Addressed:] Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Pres of the U. S. Senate & 
V. P. U. S. 
Washington D. C. 

Reverdy Johnson to Willie P. Mangum. 

Balt. 23 March /44 

My Dear Sir, 

The day I had the pleasure to dine with you at Mr. Coxe's, 
you mentioned Mr. Abbot Lawrence's name for the Vice Presi- 
dency, & I told you, I had thought of him before, & was greatly 
inclined to go for him - but you know what is the opinion of our 
friends upon the matter — If he is to be named, it is high time 
the public attention was called to such a situation. If it be 
deemed advisable, I will have it done here in our press — My 
personal preference is our friend Clayton, but I have all along 
supposed that the choice should be made from a non slave-hold- 
ing State. Such is the opinion of Mr. Leigh, of Va. who has 
written me on the matter — Govr. Davis is perhaps very ob- 
jectionable because of a correspondence which I am told he 
carried on with the Govr. of Va. relating to the Slave question. 
There is every reason for desiring a strong Southern vote — 

The Mangum Papers 75 

Independent of its importance in the Election itself, it is all 
important, even when we succeed, as we are sure to do, to the 
quiet [ing] & settlement of the anti slavery excitement. 

Write to me, as 

soon as you have leisure — 
Truly yr. friend, 

Reverdy Johnson — 
Mr. Mangum — 

[Addressed : ] 


Mr. Mangum 
In Senate 

Washington — 

Willie P. Mangum and James T. Morehead to John M. Clayton^'^^ 

Washington City, 25th March 1844. 
12 o'clock at night 
(all duly sober) 

My dear Sir. 

It is decreed that you must go to New York on the 12th of 
April, & make a speech.- 

It is Clay's birthday.- The gentleman is not of much worth; 
yet Morehead & I say, you must go.- Have you new clothes? if 
you have not, we will raise a ''pony" purse, & buy them-set me 
down for a round half dollar. Morehead will go a like sum.- 
If I had had a new suit^^^ Mr. Tyler; perhaps, had not been 
President.- He had them not,- but he is lucky- they were given 
to him. 

In a word- My dear sir- shake off the devil & his imps- shake 
them off, & go- You must go.- Public Servant as you are to be, 
you must obey instructions- the instructions of friends- They 
are imperative- Those from our enemies we may disobey & 
damn, without breach of any moral or religious obligation. 

My dear Sir. You will go, if you are wise- 

You will go, if you are patriotic- 

You will go, if a friend to the Whig cause- 

lisxhe original is in the John M. Clayton Papers, Library of Congress. This letter was written 
by Mangum. 

^^Mangum was considered for Vice President at the Harrisburg Convention in 1839. 

76 State Department of Archives and History 

You will go, if you are a friend of "H. Clay". 
You will go, above all, if you are a friend to J. M. Clayton 
You will go. above all the alls, if you are a friend to your 
very distinguished & most illustrious friends. 

Willie P. Mangum 


My name is forged to the close and I claim the privilege of 
signing it myself — 


Memucan Hunt to Willie P. Mangum. 

Galveston Texas 27th March 1844 
My Dear Sir; (Private) 

I took the liberty of transmitting, under cover to you, by the 
last mail which left for the U. S. a letter to our secret Minister 
at Washington, and had intended to have addressed you a 
note under the same envelop but for having been taken ill which 
prevented me from being enabled to do so before the departure 
of the mail. 

The question of annexation has been and is now looked to 
with the deepest interest in this country. Some of us are toler- 
ably well advised as to it[s] prospects, but for one I feel some- 
what distrustful of [a] favorable result. We have learned that 
all the Whig and democratic senators from the slave States will 
vote for its ratification. Mr Crittenden's vote as well as Mr 
McDuffie's was regarded here as doubtful until recently, but as- 
surances from Washington as late as the 7th instant affirm to 
me that Mr Crittenden will vote for the treaty.^^^ I learned 
recently that Mr McDuffie would also. In addition to this vote 
of the slave States we are assured that all the democratic sen- 
ators in the North and West, with perhaps one exception will 
likewise favor the treaty. If so it appears to me that there can 

i24Calhoun's treaty of annexation was signed April 12, 1844. Several weeks earlier, during 
Upshur's negotiation, the sentiment for approval of a treaty seemed favorable. As seaional and par- 
tisan feeling mounted, ratification became more uncertain. The North Carolina Whigs had taken no 
stand until Clay's Raleigh letter of April 27, 1844. After this, most North Carolina Whigs began 
asserting that annexation would mean war. In the legislature 60 Whigs voted against a resolution 
favoring annexation and only 7 voted for the resolution. Despite the advice of his Texan friends, 
Mangum did not come out for annexation. The vote on Calhoun's treaty was a partisan vote. Only 
one Whig, Henderson, of Missouri, voted for the treaty. All other Whigs, including Mangum, voted 
against it. Pegg, ""Whig Party in N. C," 234. 

The Mangum Papers 77 

be no doubt of its rattification, I ardently hope there will be 

The slave interest in the U. S. and Texas is too small, it ap- 
pears to me, to be seperated when we consider the prejudice 
and action which is constantly manifested and exerted against 
it by our northern neighbours and Great Britain. The govern- 
ment and certain politicians in the U. S. are doing much to in- 
crease the christian zeal and fanaticism in the non slave holding 
States of the U. S. and Great Britain against a continuance of 
the institution. I am satisfied that the slave interest is too small 
in Texas to be maintained, against the influence and money 
of England, for many years. 

I was very much surprised when informed of Mr. Clay's in- 
difference, not to say opposition, to a reannexation of Texas to 
the U. S. — The more so after an examination of the many rec- 
ords which are extant of his desire to re [ac] quire this territory 
for his country. I repeat that I am [ajstonished at Mr Clay's 
present attitude in reference to [the] question. What can he 
gain by it in respect to his popularity? His friends in the non 
slave holding States can answer best for him there. In the 
slave holding States I will use the presumption to assert, that 
if he continues to occupy the position he is now in that with the 
exception of Kentucky he will not get a majority in a single 
one of them for the Presidency. There is scarcely a county in 
the slave holding States, but from which, there are emigrants 
in this country. There kindred and friends in the U. S. simpa- 
thise in whatever concerns and effects them. If the annexation 
fail, it is a question of so much moment that the cause of the 
failure (after the alluring hopes which have been held out of 
its early consumation) will be inquired into by every one. My 
impression - the impression of every one with whom I have con- 
versed is that if the measure is defeated that defeat will be in 
consequence of Mr. Clay's opposition. And I have not conversed 
with a man in Texas on this subject, however much he may 
have admired Mr. Clay before, but who hopes for his defeat in 
the next Presidential election if he proves to be the cause of 
the failure of annexation. What is to be lost by Mr Clay in the 
present attitude of parties in the non slave holding States — 
(save a few abolitionists) — by his comeing forward as the ad- 
vocate of annexation? Mr Van Buren and all the other demo- 
cratic candidates for the the Presidency are understood to be 

78 State Department of Archives and History 

in favor of the measure and Mr. Clay's reavov^al of his former 
opinions w^ould leave the [posjition of the tv^o great parties the 
same on the [que]stion. 

Our Commissioners to Mexico w^ho have [been] engaged 
several months in negotiating an armistice, or peace, arrived 
here on yesterday. They bring assurances, I learn, that Mexico 
is now willing to recognize our independence or enter into a 
truce for five or ten years (which is the same thing) provided 
this government will stipulate to remain seperate and uncon- 
nected as an integral part of the U. S. If the present negotia- 
tions at Washington fail to result in a treaty of annexation, I 
have no doubt these terms will be acceded to by this Govern- 
ment, and the oportunity thereby will be forever lost of re- 
acquiring this valuable country by the U. S. - what a blunder 
it appears to me this would be in your Statesmen. If we are to 
become a part of the U. S. it must be very shortly. Twelve 
months delay, depend upon my assurance, will forever defeat 
the measure. 

I took the liberty of presenting Mr. W. D. Miller, official 
secretary of Genl Henderson with a letter of acquaintance to 
you. Should you have a friend making a visit to this country 
at any time I should be gratified to render him any service in 
my power and if I can serve you in any way please command 

I have the honor to be your friend 
and obedient servant 

Memucan Hunt 


Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Pres.* of the U. S. Senate 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Prest. U. S. Seante 
Washington City 
D. C. 

The Mangum Papers 79 

B. W, Leigh to Willie P. Mangum. 

Richmond, March 28. 1844. 
My dear Sir — 

I received your letter of the 25th, yesterday morning - and 
I thank you for it most heartily. 

As to the selection of our candidate for the vice presidency, 
there are two points upon which common prudence and com- 
mon sense must dictate to the Whigs an unanimous opinion - 
that the candidate to be run on the ticket with Mr Clay must be 
selected from a non-slave-holding State - and that the person 
must be such a one as in case of Mr Clay's death we may confide 
in for the administration of the government. This last con- 
sideration was wholly overlooked in the selection of Mr Tyler 
for the office at the Harrisburg convention in 1839 - and that 
was the capital error we committed - if the thought had occur- 
red to any body, he never would have been nominated. But, 
in truth, well as I thought I understood his character, I had no 
conception of it - I had no idea of the inordinary, the unscru- 
pulousness, the folly and knavery of his ambition, and I do not 
believe he had the least consciousness of it himself. I have al- 
ways suspected, and I have no doubt of it, that it was Wise who 
put the idea of the succession to the presidency, into his head, 
and thus acquired absolute dominion over and direction of his 
conduct - and this without any view to the elevation of Tyler, 
but to accomplish his own purposes - to cross the Whig party 
in Congress, who had mortally offended his vanity by refusing 
openly and formally to instal him in the office of manager of 
the house of representatives - and to thwart Mr Clay, who had 
(some how or other, I could never understand exactly how) 
mortified his self love, or rather self-conceit; for he is the most 
vainglorious and presumptious being I have ever known; tho' 
if his cousin Bailey ^^s shall be elected his successor in Congress, 
you will see his cousin german in vanity as well as in blood, 
without a tythe of his talent. The moment the presidency was 
held up to Tyler as possible to be attained, he went mad - stark 
mad. By the way, the ambition of the presidency seems to me 
a moral poison, of which it requires a very strong and firm 

"^Thomas Henry Bayly, 1810-1856, was eleaed as a State Rights Democrat to fill the vacancy 
caused by Wise's resignation. He served in Congress from 1846 to 1856. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 681. 

80 State Department of Archives and History 

mind, and an unusual depth and energy of moral principle, to 
resist the effect. Swift says (in the Tale of a Tub) that there is 
a certain ''serpent that wants teeth and consequently cannot 
bite; but if its vomit, to which it is much addicted, happens to 
fall upon anything, a certain rotteness or corruption ensues - 
these serpents are generally found among the mountains where 
jewels grow, and they frequently emit a poisonous juice, where- 
of whoever drinks, that person's brains fly out of his nostrils." 
That serpent is our selfish trading politician placed in con- 
spicuous station - his vomit, his flattery of those whom he 
wishes to mould to his own purposes - and the poisonous juice, 
the ambition of the presidency, whereof whoever drinks that 
person's brains fly out of his nostrils. Tyler swallowed a drop, 
a single drop, which Wise distilled for him, and from that 
moment lost his senses. Mr Calhoun has taken phials full since 
1824, and it is not wonderful that his brains are gone, and what 
is worse his heart too - you will soon see his capers in the office 
of secretary of state. That poor fellow Gilmer had taken a drop, 
and if he had had any brains (which he never had) you would 
have seen them spattered upon the walls of the capitol. Rives 
has taken a good large dose; and it gives me a higher opinion 
than I should otherwise have had of his understanding, to see 
how much discretion he retains. 

To return to the vice presidency - I wrote a letter to Reverdy 
Johnson sometime in February, in which I took occasion to 
mention the subject; well knowing, however, that it would be 
agitated at Washington, and that as our candidate for the presi- 
dency was conclusively fixed upon, the candidate for the other 
office would be fixed upon there. The first person that occurred 
to me was John Davis of Massachusetts^^^ - but his Latimer let- 
ter staggered me - not that that letter would have been sufficient 
to overcome my preference for him, but that, as I am particu- 
larly anxious to redeem Virginia from this Jeffersonian state- 
rights democracy, which has been an incubus on the mind of 
the state, and is the vilest system of Jesuitry that ever was con- 
ceived, and as that letter would probably be a stumbling block 
in our way at every step, I had per force given up my predilec- 
tion for him. I then thought of our friend Clayton; and if I was 

^^^Ex-governor John Davis, of Massachusetts, was seriously considered for Clay's running mate. 
He represented the high tariflF views and, therefore, satisfied many in the North. At the same time 
his tarifiF views hurt him in the South. His anti-slavery views, however, were the chief reasons for 
his not being seleaed. D. A. B., V, 133. 

The Mangum Papers 81 

at liberty to follow my personal wishes, I should give him the 
preference without hesitation - but Delaware is a slave-hold- 
ing state - and besides, a very small state, so that he can bring 
very little of local strength to the general cause; and tho' this 
last consideration would not influence me in the least, yet we 
know that it would have its influence in the election. Yielding 
thus my own preferences, I looked to the large states, and the 
large Atlantic states, to find a suitable person. You tell me, 
that John Sergeant will decline — which I am sorry to hear, and 
yet more sorry for the reason which enforces the propriety of 
his declining, namely, that he is unpopular in Pennsylvania. 
Is there any person in Pennsylvania whom it would be prudent 
to take up? If there is, I should be very much inclined to go - 
not for him - but for Pennsylvania; I have heard none sug- 
gested. Then as to New York - I was aware, that Talmadge 
had loosened his hold upon the affections of the Whig party 
generally - but I supposed that he was still the favorite, and 
therefore the strongest man, of the Whigs in New York, and 
was consequently very well content (the expunge to the con- 
trary notwithstanding) that he should be put in nomination, 
until the nomination of Filmore by the Whigs of New York, 
suggested a doubt of Talmadge's weight in the "Empire." Yet 
I do not hesitate to say, that I should prefer Talmadge to Fil- 
more. I have no personal knowledge of Filmore's character - 
from what I could gather from the National Intelligencer of his 
conduct in the house of representatives, I had not formed any 
very exalted opinion of his capacity - but he wrote a letter to 
his constituents, containing a very severe and a very just re- 
flection upon the conduct of Wise, without naming him indeed 
but the application of the censure was not to be mistaken; and 
then let Wise bully him into a false declaration that he had no 
particular allusion to him. From that moment (as Lord Nelson 
said of Gen. Mack) "my mind was made up as to the man" - and 
I was grievously afflicted to fiind, that if we looked to the "Em- 
pire" for our candidate for the vice president, we must take 
him - now, I will not, if it can be helped - which I am afraid it 
cannot be. I never heard Evans seriously talked of; I thought 
the demonstration which had been made in N. York to which 
you allude, and its failure to make the least impression on the 
public mind, had put an end to the movement. Among the 
Whigs of Virginia certainly, and I believe of all the Southern 

82 State Department of Archives and History 

States, Webster has been ''down among the dead men," ever 
since his Fanuil Hall speech ;^2^ and it will be enough to damn 
the hopes of any candidate that it should be known or suspected 
that he preferred him. By the way, I really grieve for Web- 
ster - I grieve to see of how little worth the very highest abil- 
ities with which God can endow mere mortal man may be, when 
perverted or blinded by his passions or his vices. I had, as you 
suppose, the greatest admiration of his talents, as indeed I still 
have - but I never thought him a wise man - to that character 
virtue is an essential ingredient, and I never could put con- 
fidence in his virtue; and besides he always appeared to me to be 
wanting in moral courage and energy, without which however 
great a statesman may appear in debate, or even in council, he 
is almost sure to fail in action, on all great occasions. If he had 
resigned his office of Secretary of State the day after the Ash- 
burton treaty was ratified, and come back into the Whig ranks 
openly and heartily, he would have stood instantly upon such 
high ground as he never before had attained to. How he should 
have wanted judgment to see the vantage ground, which it 
was open to him to occupy, and the vast and brilliant prospects 
from which seemed so obvious to every body else, seems to me 
quite unaccountable. I expected and predicted that he would 
occupy it - but "he missed the figure." I suppose he was blinded 
by his jealousy of Mr Clay, which is an old and ruling passion 
with him, as well as with Mr Calhoun. I have lately heard 
some stories impeaching his integrity and honor which have 
shocked me - I hope they are not true - if they are, "twere bet- 
ter that he had been born a dog. — " 

You see in this letter, how my mind has been speculating on 
the subject of the vice presidency. I had never heard any 
mention of Lawrence till I received your letter. I suppose you 
know that I was more intimate with him and old Mr. Silsbee,^28 
while I was in Congress, than with any persons north of the 
Potomac and the Ohio. And I have the utmost confidence in 
him, and will go for him with all my heart. But there are one 
or two considerations which must be weighed - considerations 
affecting the question of policy, in putting him in nomination. 
In the first place, may not the nomination produce disappoint- 

i27ln September, 1842, Webster's friends gave Webster a dinner at Faneuil Hall. In his speech 
which followed he explained his support of Tyler and his refusal to follow Clay's friends from the 
Cabinet. In a rather defiant attitude he blamed Clay for the failure to work with Tyler. Fuess, Life 
of Webster, II, 119; Lambert, Presidential Politics in U. S., 1841-1843, 104. 

i^See above, II, 20 In. 

The Mangum Papers 83 

ment, disgust, discontent and disaffection, in the minds of Davis 
and Evans as well as Webster; and if they all oppose, or even 
stand ojf, how can Lawrence stand up, in New England? In the 
next place, the recent elections in Massachusetts and Maine, 
especially the former state, have made the impression upon 
my mind, that the abolitionists hold the balance, ^^^ and by 
throwing their weight into either scale can give it preponder- 
ance; and if this be so, tho' Mr L's known opinions on this sub- 
ject will be a strong recommendation with us of the South, they 
may work against us with tremendous effect in New England. 
Is it possible to ascertain how old John Q. Adams would stand 
affected towards such a nomination? I suppose not, unless you 
can open some diplomatic communication with the devil. But if 
he is disaffected, he can do a world of mischief. That is another 
man of great talents without a particle of wisdom - talents 
effective for all sorts of mischief, but absolutely powerless for 
good. My serious apprenhension is, that he is for a dissolution 
of the Union. 

Let me hear from you again immediately, and send me the 
first of the Baltimore papers in which the nomination of 
Lawrence is opened - and if you can get it, that letter of his 
about abolition. 

Keep this letter to yourself - I cannot write a letter to you 
which is fit to be seen by any body else, except Archer* 

With old and constant regard, 

Yr: friend, 
B: W: Leigh 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

* I wish I could have a talk with him about Texas - I think I 
could shew him that present action is not adviseable 

^The Liberty Party had considerable support in Maine. In special eleaions in Maine and 
Massachusetts in January and February, 1844, the votes for minor candidates determined the outcome. 
N«/«' Register, LXVI. 23. 

84 State Department of Archives and History 

Robert B. Gilliam to Willie P. Mangum. 

Oxford N. C. March 29 1844. 
Hon W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir, 

I take the liberty of addressing you this letter, at the 
instance of Mr. Daniel R. Goodloe,^^^ who is now in Washing- 
ton City. Mr. Goodloe is anxious to procure some employment 
suited to his talents, and he very properly concludes, that a 
recommendation from a gentleman, with whose name the whole 
country is familiar would be of essential service to him. He has 
not yet, I presume, applied to you, owing as I have reason to 
believe, to very commendable motives of delicacy. He would 
be unwilling to make such an application to any one, who did 
not know him well, either personally or from reputation. 

I have known Mr Good[l]oe intimately more than ten years, 
and during a large portion of that time he has resided in this 
village. He is a gentleman of highly respectable literary attain- 
ments, of pure morals, and in the whole range of my acquaint- 
ance, I know of no man whose conduct is regulated by a higher 
sense of honor. Of good talents and studious habits, the chief 
and indeed the only obstacle to his success hitherto, has been 
a want of energy, or perhaps it would be juster to him to say, 
a want of that self-confidence, without which a high degree of 
success in any pursuit is very difficult, if not unattainable. He 
is a ready and able writer in every department to which he has 
ever turned his attention. 

I am thus particular in speaking of Mr Goodloe's character 
& attainments, that in the event of his applying to you, as he 
probably will, for a recommendation - you may be able to 
render him the service he desires. 

I do not understand that Mr Goodloe is in search of an of- 
fice under the government at Washington. I think it more likely 

i^Daniel Reaves Goodloe, 1814-1902, a native of Louisburg, North Carolina, was early appren- 
ticed to a printer in Oxford and remained close to a newspaper thereafter. After serving as editor of 
the Oxford Examiner for a short time, he moved to Tennessee and joined the forces which fought the 
Creeks and Seminoles. He returned to Oxford, studied law under Gilliam, but was unsuccessful in his 
practice. Already holding anti-slavery views, he moved to Washington, where Mangum obtained a 
place for him with the Whig Standard. After its failure in the latter part of 1844, he became editor 
of the Georgetown Advocate and then the Christian Statesman. In 1853 he joined the stafif of the 
anti-slavery National Era and edited it until the Civil War. In the war he held several posts in 
Washington and in 1865 returned to North Carolina, where he first supported Johnson's reconstruc- 
tion plan. All through his life he wrote articles, pamphlets, and essays on the issues of the day. 
Despite his anti-slavery views, he returned to Louisburg and resided there until his death in 1902. 
D. A. B., VII, 390-391; J. S. Bassett, "Anti-Slavery Leaders of North Carolina," Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity Studies in History and Political Science, ser. XVI, No. 6 ( 1898) . 

The Mangum Papers 85 

that he would desire employment as an assistant Editor of a 
newspaper, or as a teacher in a school. His services would be 
very valuable in either capacity. 

I beg you will not take it amiss, that I inclose for Mr Good- 
loe a recommendatory letter, which I will thank you to hand to 
him, with such an indorsement from yourself, as may make it 
of use to him. 

I am with high respect 
Rob. B. Gilliam 
Oxford, N. C. 3VK March 


Hon W. P. Mangum 
Washington City 

John M. Clayton to Willie P. Mangum. 

New Castle Del. March 30, 1844. 
My dear Mangum, 

As soon as Mr. AtwelP^^ of N. Y. delivered to me the letter 
of yourself & Mr. Morehead, I at once told him that whenever 
he should send me the letter of the Whigs of N. Y. inviting me 
to address them on the 12th, I would accept it.^^^ This letter he 
said should be forthcoming as soon as he could return home. 

On the next day after this, I was visited by a New York 
gentleman (a Fillmore man) who spent the day with me. He 
desired me not to go to New York till after the convention, 
alleging that it would infallibly be set down as an electioneer- 
ing tour, make what professions or excuses I might to the con- 
trary. I proposed to decline first and then go. He said that 

would play the d 1, as the New Yorkers meant to use me in 

case they could not get a man of their own.- on the 28th, a 
Pennsylvanian called, (a Sergeant Man) and told me the Penn- 
sylvanians would rally on me as soon as they could prove by 
their votes in convention what they now (as he said) all knew,- 
that they could not get a Pennsylvanian. "But," said he "do not 
now go to New York, for it will be thought you are courting 

i3iSee below R. H. Atwell to W. P. Mangum, April 2, 1844. 

i32See above W. P. Mangum and James T. Morehead to John M. Clayton, March 25, 1844. 

86 State Department of Archives and History 

the New Yorkers, and mean to sacrifice "the Keystone" to the 
'Empire State' and every body will say you are electioneering, 
while all the other nominees (as he called us) are staying at 
home, quietly awaiting the decision 'ex gratia modestia.' 'My 
God!' (thought I) I shall be murdered in a gentlemanly way by 
Morehead and Mangum if I don't go, and I am sure to be burnt 
alive or boiled in oil, if I do go. In this dilemma I called a 
council of war, consisting of three old Whig friends, and I re- 
solved myself into a committee of five to wait upon and consult 
them. They drank three bottles of old Hock, three of champaign 
[sic] and four of Madiera, (to say nothing of six bottles more 
which they carried off in a riotous way) and then decided off 
hand that I was a d - d fool and ought to stay at home lest 
other people should find it out! But they were all drunk, and 
I scorn their decision - though I respect the conclusion they ar- 
rived at after they got sober, which was that I should keep in 
my house and mind my own business for thirty days, wearing 
crape on my right arm till the 1st of May^^^ for the loss of the 
wines they had made way with - the toping varlets! — 

So I wrote today to Mr. Atwell declining the New York in- 
vitation for professional reasons. 

My dear Mangum, we are going to beat the Locos into bench 
holes, if we are prudent. My news from Connecticut is, that she 
will go whig in spite of the immense efforts on the other side, 
by 2000 at present and by 5000 in the Fall. New York will at 
the charter contest elect Harper ''Native" - better for us just 
at this time than any other result. All is safe if we are discreet. 
I mean to devote myself to the work, but N. Sargent can tell 
you how important it is now, that I should be scrupulously 
delicate towards certain Gentlemen in the North. I stand still 
as you directed, and whenever you or Morehead shall write me 
a word "decline" I will go overboard instantly. 

The Baltimore Young Whigs Conventions^* will be the most 
magnificent & interesting pageant the nation has ever exhibited. 
But tell Crittenden (God bless him!) I still think it ought not 

""This was the day that the National Whig Convention opened in Baltimore, 
i**The Young Whigs' ratification convention met in Baltimore on the day following Clay's nomi- 

The Mangum Papers 87 

to have come quite so soon on the heels of the first of May. — 

Ever faithfully yours 
Hon. W. P. Mangum J^^^ ^' Clayton. 

U. S. S. 

[Addressed:] Hon: Willie P. Mangum 

President of the United States Senate, 

Willie P. Mangum & others to Ashury Dickins^^^ 

[March-June, 1844]i36 
To Asbury Dickens Esq.^ 
Secretary of the Senate. 


Should a vacancy occur in the clerkships in your office, it 
would be very agreeable to us that the appointment should be 
given to M.'" Stansbury,^^^ whom we know to be qualified to dis- 
charge its duties and who, we do not doubt, would, if appointed, 
perform them to general satisfaction. 

Washington, March 1844) 

N. P. Tallmadge A. S. Porter 

Sam.i S. Phelps H. Johnson 

Albert S. White W."" D. Merrick 

T. Clayton Geo. Mc Duffie 

J. W. Miller Daniel E. Huger 

Rich<^ H. Bayard Ephriam H. Foster 

John Henderson Alexander Barrow 

Willie P. Mangum W. C. Rives 

Geo Evans J. F. Simmons 

I. C. Bates W"" Woodbridge 

R. Choate Wm. Upham 

W. S. Archer W. G. Fulton 

J. W. Huntington A. W. Lewis 

Jn: Macpherson Berrien J. A. Reeves 

W.°* L. Dayton Spencer Jarnagin 

J. J. Crittenden John Brown Francis 

^^The original is in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

^^Although this letter is not dated, it was written between March and June of 1844, because 
Henry Johnson, one of the signers, did not take his seat until March, 1844, and N. P. Tallmadge, 
another signer, resigned June 19, 1844. 

Improbably Arthur J. Stansberry, the reporter for Gales and Seaton in the Senate. J. Q. Adams, 
Memoirs, X, 32; XII, 237. 

88 State Department of Archives and History 

[Endorsed in Dickins handwriting:] Willie P. Mangum 

U. S. Senator from N. C, 1831-6, 
and 1840-53. President pro tern. 
U. S. Senate. 
See Appleton 

R. H. AtwelV^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York April 2d. 1844. 
My Dear Sir 

Do me the favour to accept from me a couple of cards of 
"Wright's" Steel pens. You found them in w^riting for the 
young men of New York to our friend Clayton - very good. 

Cannot you use one of these to induce Mr. C. to come 
amongst us on the 12th. he promised me when I saw him that 
on your & Gov Morehead's requisition he would come. I have 
just reed a letter from him saying that he will find it impossible 
to come, he has been ''gazetted" and must come. 

Very faithfully yours 
R. H. Atwell. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. S. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate. 

T. Ham^er^^^ to Willie P. Mangum,. 

Watsontown [Pa.] April 3, 1844. 
Hon. & Respected Sir 

In noticing the proceedings of Congress, on the subject of 
the Oregon Territory — I am at a loss to know how an American 

188A merchant in New York City. Longworth's New York Directory, 1841-1842, 68. 
"^Possibly Thomas Lyon Hamer, 1800-1847, who represented Ohio in Congress in 1822-1839- 
Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1256. 

The Mangum Papers 89 

Citizen who has the rights and the honor of our glorious re- 
public at heart can assume such a lukewarm timid and even 
cowardly position on this subject 

They urge in long and loud speeches the impropriety of any 
action upon this question by the Americans lest they should 
give offence to England - and then they would resort to Arms 
and attempt to wrest from us that territory - which they have 
no claim upon under heavens, and well they know it too - yet 
give them an inch and they will take a yard and so in propor- 
tion untill finely they want all. 

Had our forefathers asserted and maintained these rights in 
this way when oppressed by the Iron heel of tyranny at Boston 
where would American liberty have been - would it not have 
been cherished by her hired legon, the proud Eagle of Independ- 
ence would have crouched beneath the infernal grasp of the of 
the \_sic] the British Lyon — This Territory Sir is a part of the 
American continent and therefore it is a part of that soil for which 
our forefathers so nobly contended Now Sirs come out and take a 
decided stand & claim it at wonts [once] and you will be con- 
sidered Americans otherwise you are cowardly traitors 

T. Hamer. 
Watsonstown Pa March 4, 1844 

[Addressed:] Hon. Speaker of U. S. Senate 

Washington City 
D. C. 

G. C. Collins^^<^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York April 3"^ 1844. 
Hon. Sir: 

I arrived in this great Commercial Metropolis at 11 oC. last 
night, after a stay in Philadelphia of a few days, during which 
time, I had the honor of addressing the Whigs, and also of re- 
ceiving $100 from the Nat. Clay Club for 1000 copies of my 
pamphlet I paid the publisher $50 thereof and sent Mr. Bar- 
rumi^i $20- leaving me on hand, when I left P^— $30- Mr. 

"oSee above, 25 n. 

^*iHe probably refers to John M. Berrien. 

90 State Department of Archives and History 

Brady^^^ an intelligent Irishman, Clk. of the Dist. Com. received 
me cordially- He is a glorious Clay Whig and at the same 
time a Catholic and Repealer- He is a very influential man, and 
was pleased w^ith my position. I found there, the best feeling 
amongst the Whigs, and the most abject despondency amongst 
the other party. The Irish of Philadelphia in the event of the 
nomination of Mr. V. B. w^ill go for Clay, almost unanimously. 
The Citizens requested me to return immediately after the 
election here to address the voters of each w^ard. The papers 
there noticed my pamphlet very favorably, I am confident it 
was not the composition or the Author which contributed to 
this, but the Subject, and the distinguished Statesman of whom 
it treats. 

During my short stay here, I have had an interview with 
Horace Greely Esq. J. N. Reynolds & David Graham^^*^ Presi- 
dents of the most important committees of the city. During the 
conference, it was resolved that the Whigs should make a pro- 
position, to the other party to divide the Aldermen, and toss 
up for the Mayor in order to defeat the Native American 
Party, ^^* who have become quite formidable numerically, and 
who are I regret to say, actuated by the most bitter and malig- 
nant feelings, not only towards the civil but also the religious 
rights of the majority of the Adopted Citizens. The Pope is 
caricatured, and o Connell is made to kiss his toe &c. &c. Having 
had various confidential colloquies with several Whigs, they 
are becoming alive to the importance of shewing these men no 
confidence, I have no doubt, but, the Vans- started this matter, 
indeed, it is already a well authenticated fact, for political pur- 
poses in order that Many unwary Whigs might be caught in 
their traps. And as soon as they had them, leave them in the 
snares, and retire themselves. I have had an invitation to 
address a Mass meeting of the Adopted Citizens on next Satur- 
day Night and accepted, it takes place at the National Hall, and 

i*2Possibly Thomas Brady, a physician who died in 1850 at the age of 36. J. B. Nolan, History 
of Southwestern Pennsylvania, II, 1084. 

i*3J. N. Reynolds declined being a candidate for the New York legislature in 1840 in order that 
he might give full time to Harrison's election. He was president of the Harrison committee of New 
York City. In 1844 he worked as ardently for Clay. Hillsborough Recorder, Nov. 12, 1840. See 
also below David Lambert to W. P. Mangum Sept. 29, 1844. David Graham, 1808-1852, a native 
of England, moved to New York City, when a small boy. In New York he was admitted to the bar 
in 1829 and almost immediately became successful, particularly as a criminal lawyer. He wrote num- 
erous treaties on legal subjects and codified the state laws. In politics he aaively worked for Qay. 
D. A. B., VII, 471-472. 

"*By 1844 the Nativist movement had become strong in New York City. In their first election 
in 1842 the party received 9000 votes. In the mayor's race in the spring of 1844 the Whigs, in 
great numbers, deserted their party to vote for the Nativist candidate. The result was the election 
of a Nativist mayor and twelve aldermen. McMaster, History of the People of the U. S., VII, 374. 

The Mangum Papers 91 

already seven distinguished Irishmen are cooperating with me. 
Having had an interview today with the Very Rev. Dr. Powers 
he has most cordially approved. I hope that we shall yet suc- 
ceed, though the prospects are rather gloomy just now. The 
Con. Election has measurably assisted to this desirable end. 

You will please excuse me, if I make a suggestion, relative 
to the Naval Officers of this Port, Jer.^ Towle- A certain Gentle- 
man by the name of Kelly,^^^ born here, has told me, that should 
he be convinced that the Senate would reject him, he would 
cause 1000 men to vote for us now and Clay hereafter. This 
Towle is a bitter Loco- of the V. Buren School. I really believe 
Kelly is a very influential Man, and would fulfil his promise, 
but at the same time, I would consider it highly presumptuous 
in me to interfere with the action of your Hon. body- I would 
however remark, that Messrs Graham and Reynolds believe 
Kelly to be actuated with the best motives, as for me, I have 
only suggested and this too by request, not being otherwise 

Senator, will you have the goodness to request your Treas- 
urer to send my beloved Wife $10 or $20 on the Acct of those 
pamphlets, and should your opinions be already unfavorable to- 
wards Towle, if it would be within the Scope of your Senatorial 
character let me know- and I most conscientiouly believe, that 
good will result. No more from 

Your Obt. Servt. & 
humble friend 
Geo. Constantine Collins 
Hon, Willie P. Mangum 

P. S. I most respectfully request a line,- City Hotel 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Pres. of the Senate & 
Vice Pres of the U. S. 
Washington D. C. 

"^Unable to identify. 

92 State Department of Archives and History 

Reverdy Johnson to Willie P. Mangura, 

Balt. 5 April /44. 
My Dear Sir, 

Have your reed, an answer from Mr. Lawrence about the V. 
Presidency to your letter to him? Let me know, & what he 
says. I have delayed noticing him in the Press here, as I desire, 
until I know if he would consent to his names being used — 

The result in Connecticut shows,^*^ if there was any doubt 
before, that our success in Novr. is certain. It is still all import- 
ant that our selection of Vice President shall be a good one. 

Virginia comes off next, - what do our friends there think 
will be result? Write me, if you can, by return mail. 

Yr friend 
Reverdy Johnson. 
Mr. Mangum 
Some day next week I hope to be able to see you in Washing- 

[Addressed:] Honbl. 

Mr. Mangum 
In Senate 

William Hayden^^'^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Atlas Office, Boston, April 6th 1844. 
My dear sir — 

I can hardly express to you the degree of gratification and 
delight with which I received and read your letter of the first 
instant. It is so entirely satisfactory, in regard to the feelings and 

^*^In the Connecticut eleaion on April 1, the Whigs won a majority of 7 in the state senate 
and 24 in the state house. Niles' Register, LXVI, 146. 

i*^William Hayden was congressional correspondent of the National Intelligencer before he be- 
came editor of the Boston Atlas in 1841. At the time of this letter, he and Thomas M. Brewer were 
publishing the Daily Atlas. Ben Perley Poore. Reminiscences of Sixty Years in the National Metrop- 
olis, Philadelphia, 1886. I, 59; Fred A. Emory, "Washington Newspaper Correspondents," Records 
of the Columbia Historical Society of Washington. D. C, XXXV-XXVI, 248-288. 

Henry Clay 1777-1852. From the line engraving by Peter Maverick, published 1822. 
after the painting by Charles King. From the original print in the possession of Mangum 

Weeks of Alexandria, Virginia. 

The Mangum Papers 93 

intentions of our Southern & Western Whig friends in the Sen- 
ate - and, withal, so full of kind, conciliatory and patriotic feel- 
ing, that I must confess it relieved me of a heavy pressure of 
anxiety, and made me feel that things would go on right again. 
Not that J have ever doubted the honor or fidelity of our South- 
ern & Western friends in that body. I had carefully watched 
their course - and, from the past, was led to rely upon their 
future faithfulness. But I had no means at hand to satisfy those 
around me, upon that point. Great apprehensions were enter- 
tained here, that Tyler, and some of his coadjutors in the Cab- 
inet, had so contrived the annexation matter as to bring it sud- 
denly before the Senate, and to secure for it the support of the 
whole South. Startled as our community was with the sudden- 
ness of the development, the first impression was one of deep 
indignation. As soon, however, as time was allowed for reflec- 
tion, our people began to consider how unlikely it was that 
gentlemen, who had been so faithful to the principles of their 
Party, and the interests of the Country, should be induced to 
disregard high considerations, on the occurrence of so import- 
ant an emergency. 

Just as the current of popular feeling was beginning to 
change, your excellent letter came to me. I have shown it, or 
otherwise caused its important purport to be made known, in 
the principal circles of our political friends in this vicinity. It 
has been pronounced, by all, to be perfectly satisfactory - and 
it has gone far to calm the public mind, upon the Texas and 
Tariff questions. I have been eagerly urged to publish it - but 
have refrained, as it would be manifestly improper to do so. I 
have, however, ventured so far as to depart from your injunc- 
tion, as to publish an extract from it, in our leading article of 
this morning. 

For the kind and friendly tone of your letter - its deference 
to the feelings and views of the North, on these great ques- 
tions - for the true spirit of patriotism that pervades it - I most 
heartily thank you. Much of the acerbity that characterizes the 
discussion of most of the questions upon which local interests 
are supposed to be at variance, might be avoided, if leading 
men from the different sections would be governed by the 
same friendly, national feelings that are so well expressed in 
your letter. 

94 State Department of Archives and History 

All thoughts of [callinlg any Convention, so far as Massa- 
chusetts is concerned, have now^ been abandoned. The Whigs 
of our State are firmly attached to Mr Clay. We shall carry 
the State for him, as surely as the day of election arrives - and 
I most sincerely hope, and confidently believe, that his elec- 
tion, and administration, w^ill dispel many of these sectional 
controversies, restore the Country to its w^onted state of quiet 
and repose, and realize all the hopes which v^e so confidently 
repose in the full prevalence of Whig principles. 

If, at any time hereafter, any viev^s should occur to you, 
as likely to advance the cause of our Party, or promote the 
good of the Country and w^hich it may be beneficial to make 
know^n here, I pray you freely to command my services - and, 
in the mean time, to believe me, dear sir, 

Very faithfully & respectfully, 
Your obt: servant, 
William Hayden — 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 


The Hon. Willie P. Mangum, 
United States Senate, 

D. C. 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum. 


Saturday. [6 or 13 April, 1844] 
My dear Sir 

Accompanying this, you v^ill receive the "Atlas" for which 
I scribble. The hasty notice which I gave your speech is half 
your own fault, for you did not furnish me with a reference to 
the Tariff Resolutions, from which I might have made capital. 
However you must take it, as it is, considering, that it comes 
from the right spot. 

The Mangum Papers 95 

I am in position to touch very influential keys of this sort 
in New York, Philadelphia & Savannah & it will always afford 
me great & sincere pleasure to tune to your wishes, & in your 

Your friend 

James E. Harvey 

Judge Mangum. 

My connection with the "Atlas" must not be spoken above 
a whisper or the d-d Locofocos may raise a hornets nest about 
my ears, as I have the means of letting out their Secrets, every 
day too often. 

J. Watson Wehh to Willie P. Mangum. 

N. York April 11th. 1844 
My Dear Sir. 

Tyler is about removing Curtis. ^^^ Now for Curtis I care 
nothing; but I have it from my friend Col. Clinton,^"^^ that Boh^^^ 
when he offered him the office, asked as a condition that he 
would agree to remove all obnoxious to his father. Clinton re- 
fused; upon which he said that if he would remove only the 
Van Buren men, he would be satisfied. To this too, Mr. Clin- 
ton objected as a degrading condition. He then told Master Bob 
that although a Calhoun man, the moment Mr. Calhoun was 
out of the question, he is thoroughly for Mr. Clay. This was 
quite astounding to Bob, & he had the folly to say that Mr. Cal- 
houn **had disappointed his father & should be turned out in 
thirty days!" This last declaration you cannot use as from me, 
but it was made in presence of Duff Green. 

Now, under the circumstances, can you not reject any per- 
son nominated in Curtis' place? This will not save Curtis nor 
do I desire to save him particularly. Tyler will certainly thrust 
him out the day after you adjourn. In the mean time by reject- 

"SEdward Curtis. See above, III. 163n, 223, 416. 

"^He probably refers to James Graham Clinton, half brother of DeWitt Clinton and Democratic 
Congressman from 1841 to 1845. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 824. 
^"Robert Tyler, son of President Tyler. 

96 State Department of Archives and History 

ing any person nominated in his place, you put your finger on 
his profligacy and give power & strength, & tone to the Whig 
Party. Much is to be gained by thus rebuking corruption. 

In to-morrow's paper I shall call upon you to refuse to ad- 
minister the oath to Mr. Niles^^^ without first instituting an 
enquiry into his capacity to take & understand it. Quaere. Has 
a magistrate a right to administer an oath to a child of five 
years of age? & if not, has the presiding officer of a deliberative 
body a right to administer an oath to a Lunatic? Being advised 
of the fact, it is I think your duty to investigate the state of his 

Please make my kindest repects to Messrs Morehead & Sim- 
mons, & say to them that the defeat of the Locos here, will do 
us much good & that they may hail it as another Cenn. affair. 

Yours Very truly 
J. W. Webb 
[Addressed:] To the Hon. 
W. P. Mangum, 

Washington City, D. C. 

John B. Thompson^ ^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Fayette Hill, Simpson County, 

Mississippi 12th Aprl. 1844 
Honor'd Sir, 

My reason for thus adressing you on the present trivial oc- 
casion is, for the want of the knowledge of some known friend 
or acquaintance at the City of Washington, whome I could with 
propriety address, and I should not have taken this liberty 
with your honor had I not recollected to have seen you at my 
Fathers house (James Thompson's in the County of Onslow 
N. C.) some thirty years ago, I was then quite a Small lad, & 
as well as I recollect, you were quite young, probably not ex- 
ceeding 20 years old — Your business with my father was to 

^^He probably refers to John Milton Niles, Democratic Senator from Connecticut, whose illness 
raised doubt as to his sanity. 

^^The son of James Thompson, an active Whig in Onslow County, John B. Thompson repre- 
sented Onslow in the North Carolina legisalture in 1829 and 1831 before he moved to Alabama. 
Hillsborough Recorder, April 23, 1845, July 2. 1846; Raleigh Register, January 12, 1836; N. C. 
Manual, 734. 

The Mangum Papers 97 

get pay for a little Grey horse by the name of Brilliant, which 
some gentleman living up the Country had sold in Onslow with- 
out informing the purchaser of the fact that half of said horse 
belong'd to your Father &c. &c. 

In 1829 & 31, I had the honor to represent the County of 
Onslow in the General Assembly, each of those two years I 
had the pleasure of seeing the honorable J. C. Calhoun, at 
Raleigh, & the further gratification of an introduction, but have 
no doubt that I have escaped his recollection, probably in five 
minutes after being made known to him — 

My next and last probable reference is to Joseph D. Ward, 
I received a letter from him I think in 1839, I was then living 
in Sumter County Ala., and have not heard from him since, he 
was then at the City of Washington, acting I think, as one of 
the Auditors, we were rais'd in old Onslow and near the same 
age. I should like to hear from him — 

I have now done with flattery, and will tell you what I 
want; I now live in the State of Mississippi, Simpson County, 
and near the new post office, Call'd Fayette Hill, and a petition 
is getting up praying the department to move said office Eight 
miles So. Wt. from where it now is, to the inconvenience of 
your humble Servant and many other good Citizens. 

I must therefore ask the favor of yourself, Mr. Calhoun and 
Mr. Ward, to request the department not to move the office, for 
if moved, it will only be to accommodate the contracter of the 
rout, and the whims of a few others — If either of you will say 
a word, it will be esteem'd and regarded as a special favor not 
only by me but many others — 


Jno. B. Thompson. 

N. B. If either of you have any extra publick documents, I 
should be thankful to receive a few of them — J B T 

[Addressed : ] 

The Honourable, 
Wiley P. Mangum 
Federal City 


98 State Department of Archives and History 

John T. Towers^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington, April 12, 1844. 
Dr Sir: 

Believing that you desired the continuation of the publica- 
tion of at least one thorough Whig paper in this city, and that 
you deem it of importance to the party, I have thought proper 
to address you this note on the subject. In the first place it may 
be necessary to state the circumstances by which I find my- 
self in my present position. Some short time after the stoppage 
of the "Independent," I was one of the persons spoken to in 
reference to its revival; I thought then, with many others, that 
as much good would be accomplished by delaying the establish- 
ment of another Whig paper in this city until the eve of the 
meeting of the 28th Congress, as by the revival of the In- 
dependent then, and that a certain loss would be avoided by the 
postponement; even upon the liberal terms proposed by the 
gentlemen who had the matter in hand. The conversation that 
occurred on the subject made me acquainted with the import- 
ance which was attached to it by the leading men of the party. 
During the past summer many good Whigs of the city thought 
it imperatively necessary that some thing should be done at 
once to combat and answer the daily libels of the Globe upon 
our champion and his friends, as well as to advance his claims. 
Concurring fully with them in their views. I did not hesitate 
to do what I could to meet the emergency by the investment in 
the cause of what little means I had accumulated; believing 
that I would not be permitted to suffer any serious pecuniary 
loss; and supposing such might be the case, I should still have 
the satisfaction of having contributed something to sustain the 
cause. The Whigs of the city have accomplished all I expected 
of them, and by the daily evidences of their good will, in sub- 
scriptions and advertising, are contributing materially to its 
permanent establishment — but many complain of the entire de- 
votion of the whole paper to party - which prevents a larger 
increase of its circulation; besides the fact that a large portion 
of the reading population - clerks in offices — being on the same 
account, afraid to risk their places by subscribing. I presume 
you are aware of the heavy expense attendant on the establish- 
ment of a daily paper - and know also that time is as essential 

^''See above, III, 467n. 

The Mangum Papers 99 

to it, as money. I have invested about $3000 in printing ma- 
terials, and have expended about $800 more, above my receipts, 
besides somewhat involving myself. I knew what the under- 
taking would cost before I tried it, and am not disappointed at 
it. My expectation was to so far receive the patronage of our 
party in Congress by printing speeches and other matter during 
the canvass, as to make up my losses at least; but I had no idea 
that I should be apparently deserted by those whom I most de- 
sign to defend; but such appears to be the fact. I have never 
appealed to the party for pecuniary aid, nor do I now; all I ask 
is an opportunity to earn enough to meet my losses, provided it 
is in the power of the party to do so, without detriment to them- 
selves. If the '"Standard" is thought to be of no advantage to 
the party, an intimation to that effect will be suficient to induce 
me to fall back upon our own local matters, and look to our own 
people to sustain it as a local paper; if otherwise, it is necessary 
that something should be done; I presume, in that case, no one 
would expect me to involve myself in further embarrassment 
by going on. Should it be desirable, and it can be done at very 
little sacrifice, the paper can be enlarged to the size of the 
other dailies of the city, in order to meet more fully the wishes 
of the friends of the paper. Excuse me for the liberty I have 
taken, but I feel it my duty to make known my grievances be- 
fore I complain about them. 

Very respectfully 

Jno. T, Towers. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed:] Hon. Wm. P. Mangum. 

J. Watson Wehh to Willie P. Mangum,J^^ 

( Confidential. ) 

New York 
April 13 1844 
My Dear Sir: 

I intend sailing from this City in the Packet of the 21st of 
April for Liverpool, to be absent until about the 1st of July - 

^*I have been unable to locate the original of this letter. Fortunately, Dr. Stephen B. Weeks 
left a typed copy which he compared with the original. On the typed copy in Dr. Weeks' hand- 
writing is a note to the eflFea that the letter was unsigned and that it was in the autograph of James 
Watson Webb. See below. W. P. Mangum to J. W. Webb. April 20. 1844. in volume V. This 
letter was discovered too late to include in volume IV. 

100 State Department of Archives and History 

so that I will be here during the four last and most important 
months of the great contest. I have just written an article in 
favour of Mr. Clayton's nomination to the Vice Presidency, 
which will appear on Monday, to be followed up by my assist- 
ants during my absence. And having thus attended to my po- 
litical duties, I must be held excusable if I run away for ten 
weeks to attend to my private affairs. 

The object of my visit is to negotiate a loan for or make a 
sale of the stock of the Banellvill mining Company, chartered 
by the State of Maryland for the manufacture of Iron in the 
County of Alleghany. The sum I propose borrowing for them 
is $750,000; and there can be no doubt but who so ever suc- 
ceeds in bringing into the County foreign capital to develop & 
bring into market the inexhaustable wealth of Forests & Moun- 
tains, does an acceptable & patriotic service to the Country. 
Since I saw you, I have visited the property in question, in 
company with Professors Silliman, Schoolcraft, Renwick^^^ & 
others, who have made an official report upon its mineral re- 
sources which are really unexcelled. They report that Iron may 
be made at a price on this property in consequence of the con- 
tiguity of the Coal & Iron Ore which cannot fail to yield a 
large income to the manufacturers; & in consequence of the 
super-abundance of capital in England, it is only necessary to 
overcome the feeling against investments in the U. S. to win 
my success. To accomplish this, I intend to take letters which 
will insure a proper social position and satisfy capitalists that 
I am not an adventurer, & that whatever I state as facts, on my 
own knowledge, may be implicity relied upon. Mr. Webster, 
Govr. Cass, Judge Wilkins the Secy of War, Governor Seward 
& many private gentlemen, will & have written letters to our 
minister & consul, asking them to give me letters to any Banker 
I may designate, assuring him that he may rely implicitly up- 
on any statement I may make. It would undoubtedly have 
added to my strength & chance of success if I could have taken 
similar letters from Mr. Clay & some others of our prominent 
men; but I did not feel justified in troubling them. 

My object in thus occupying your time, is to ask you, in case 
you are of the same opinion with Mr. Crittenden, to address me 
a letter, stating that there is no danger of any alteration of the 
tarijf at this session; and also, if such is your opinion, that noth- 

^^He possibly refers to Edward S. Renwick, Henry R. Schoolcraft, and Benjamin Silliman. 

The Mangum Papers 101 

ing will be done in relation to Oregon or Texas. You will at 
once perceive that the prospects of a reduction of the duty on 
Iron will necessarily retard my negotiations; & consequently, if 
no such reduction is about to take place, I feel that there can 
be no impropriety in my request. At all events, if you should 
think otherwise, you will, I am sure, frankly say so, in the full 
conviction that I will appreciate your motives & take no ex- 
ception to your decision. If on the contrary, you can with per- 
fect propriety, write me such a letter as I desire, it will do me 
much good; & if our friend Morehead would join in it, I should 
not be unmindful of the kindness. If you should determine to 
write me a letter corroborating the declaration Mr. Crittenden 
on the floor of the Senate, you may further add to the kind- 
ness, by so wording the letter as to assume that my application 
will not & cannot be considered one from an adventurer or 
speculator, but when backed by my word will be entitled to 
consideration so far as facts & merit warrant it. My course 
too, in regard to the repudiating states & companies & com- 
panies Isic} might be referred to as evidence that I would not 
recommend any loan or investment which I did not feel would re- 
pay richly those who embark in it. Of one thing rest assured, 
I will not make any representation, for the truth of which I 
would not stake my life. 

I have thus written your fully and frankly as if to an old 
friend who is familiar with my every thought; & in the same 
frankness I assure you most truly, that if you should decline 
giving me the letter I solicit, it would 

[Rest of letter is missing] 

James Wehh to Willie P. Mangum. 

HiLLSBORO N. C. April 13 1844 
Dr Sir 

I Rec'd from our friend Mr Cain a check for $650 for you. 
Please to say how I am to appropriate it. 

Mr Cain does not know when he will return 

102 State Department of Archives and History 

Mr Graham is mending slowly We shall have a Blow up 
among the Whigs of Orange if the question of Division^^^ of the 
County is not settled 

Use your influence to bring about a compromise the Whigs 
about Hillsboro will not vote for Division Whigs over Haw 
River and they are determined on Division they have become 
rabid since the appropriation to build a New Court House 

I have not time to say more when you come home we will 
talk freely on the subject. Yours obt 


James Webb. 

[Postmarked:] Hillsboro N. C. Apr 14 

[Addressed : ] 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 


Henry Clay to Willie P. Mangum. 

Raleigh April 14th 1844. 

My Dear Sir, 

I received here your favor of the 9th inst. and I am greatly 
obliged by the views opinions and information which it con- 
tains. It relieved me from some solicitude which I had felt. I 
think you need entertain no fears that your own opinions will 
not be fully sustained and supported by your constituents. In- 
deed throughout the whole of that portion of the South, which 
I have traversed, I have found a degree of indifference or op- 
position to the measure of annexation which quite surprized me. 
I have forborne to make any exposition of the sentiments which 
I entertain upon the subject; but it is my intention after my 

loupor some years before 1844 the citizens west of the Haw River in Orange County had been 
trying to divide the county and create a new county in the region that is today Alamance County. In 
May the county commissioners let a contract to rebuild the old courthouse. To the people west of 
Haw River this meant that there would be no division. The controversy increased. On May 23, 1844, 
the editor of the Hillsborough Recorder refused to publish any more letters from the Haw River sec- 
tion unless the writers' names were signed or the attacks on personalities were discontinued. On 
August 1 the voters were permitted to express their wishes on division in a referendum. The result 
was 1364 for and 1656 against division. Hillsborough Recorder, April 4, May 2, 23, August 8, 1844. 
Finally in 1849 a division was realized by the creation of Alamance County. 

The Mangum Papers 103 

arrival at Washington to make such an exposition if I deem it 
necessary. I can easily avail myself for that purpose of any one 
of several letters of enquiry which have been addressed to 
me.^^^ I do not entertain the slightest apprehension of any in- 
jury to our cause from the publication of my opinions. On the 
contrary I believe it would be benefitted and strengthened. 

My reception at the Capital of your State has been cordial 
and enthusiastic, and attended by numbers, far surpassing my 
most sanquine anticipations. 

I am faithfully, your friend, 
and obednt. Servnt. 

H Clay. 

Honble. Mr Mangum 

[Addressed:] The Honble Willie P. Mangum 

&c &c &c 
City of 

[Postmarked:] Raleigh N. C. Apr 15 

B. W. Leigh to Willie P. Mangum, 

Richmond, April 17 1844 
My dear Sir 

I write merely to ask you, whether you received an answer 
I wrote you to your letter of the 25th March. The question is 
no otherwise important, than that I may be assured that you 
got it, instead of it's falling into the hands of other persons. 
There were somethings in it, on which I wished to hear further 
from you, tho' it was not very material that you should take 
the trouble of replying. 

^"Clay visited Raleigh on April 12-14 as a result of an earlier invitation from the Whigs of 
North Carolina. From April 11 through 13 a great celebration was held. From 3000 to 4000 
people attended the meetings on the twelfth and thirteenth. Several out of state visitors were there, 
including Benjamin Watkins Leigh, who, with three others, made two and three hour speeches each 
in one day. On April 13 Clay spoke for two hours. Six other speeches and fire works were part 
of the program for the same day. On April 17 after consulting with Governor John M. Morehead, 
George Badger, and other North Carolina Whigs, Clay wrote his famous Raleigh letter on annexation. 
He sent the letter to Crittenden and asked to have it published in the National Intelligencer. In the 
letter Clay reviewed the history of the Texas question. He said we once owned Texas but gave up 
our claim to it and, therefore, had no right to reclaim it. He opposed annexing Texas if a con- 
siderable portion of a section of the Union opposed it, for it would break the balance between the 
free and slave states. He was also opposed to assuming the Texas debt. If, however, a foreign power 
should try to colonize or subjugate Texas, the United States should oflFer opposition. Clay reached 
Washington on April 26 and this letter was published in the Intelligencer the next day. On the 
evening of the same day Van Buren's letter on annexation appeared in the Globe. McMaster, Hist, 
of the People of the U. S., VII, 327-328; Van Deusen, Life of Clay, 364-366. 

104 State Department of Archives and History 

The public mind here is very full of Texas. 

Your friend, 
B: W: Leigh 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Senator U. S. 

Richard H. AtweW^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York April 17 1844 

My Dear Sir 

When I was in Washington a few weeks since, you did me 
the honour to express your views somewhat freely, in relation 
to the candidate for the vice-presidency, and I take the liberty 
of saying a word or two to you, in order, in return, to state what 
my impressions are, in relation to the direction that will be 
given to the vote, of the State of New York, in the Balto Con- 
vention - after having taken a little time to look about, I be- 
lieve that out of the thirty six votes, of this State, thirty, or 
thirty-two, will be cast in good faith for Millard Fillmore, and 
it is quite possible that all may be on the first ballot. Two Dis- 
tricts in the City of New York, would by their representatives 
vote for some other one, but they will probably be instructed 
to vote for him, which I think would not take place, if Mr. Clay- 
ton had come amongst us. The people of this State so far as I 
can learn, entertain not that strong and ardent feeling for Mr. 
F. that Mr. Clay commands, but an esprit de corps, which will 
enable their representative to "back up" their choice with great 
effect. I do believe that Millard Fillmore would run well in this 
State, but I do not believe that the affections of the Whigs are 
so concentrated upon him as to render it dangerous, to leave 

if'^See above, 85, 

The Mangum Papers 105 

him off the ticket/^^ - except so far as the loss, (if any) of the 
additional votes he could bring in the Western part of the State, 
might be considered so. 

Almost, if not entirely, the Whig vote can be controlled by 
Mr. Clay, and it must be very strong man that can keep him, 
when I say almost I mean, abolitionists whigs, and anti masons, 
besides whigs regular, these irregulars, are the ones Mr. F. is 
said by some to control. 

You will meet with many ''lobby members" of the Conven- 
tions from N. Y. and some actual ones, who will talk large 
about our state, as to the necessity that their particular Candi- 
date should be nominated, in order to secure success here, that 
defeat will be more than probable without him, &c. &c. these 
statements must not be believed. I am but a very humble in- 
dividual myself, but I have the vanity to think that after a 
little "comparing of notes" with my fellows, and the masses, I 
can gather as good or better evidence of public opinion in the 
party, as the delegates and "maybe a little better," for they 
frequently are exposed [sicl more to be biased, than one who 
does not have a vote upon the matter, neither would you be 
justified in my opinion - as a member of the Convention, - in 
believing that Mr. F. would bring contempt, upon the ticket, 
he is respected in this State. 

But by no means my Dear Sir, must Mr. Talmadge be per- 
mitted to be nominated. I believe it would lose us the electoral 
vote of the State, such is the present feeling against him, as such 
nominee, I am constrained to say that Abbot Lawrence is ap- 
parently less appreciated here than Mr Fillmore is at the South 
and West, he is not enough known in New York State how- 
ever much he may be in the South though certainly there is a 
most powerful argument in his favour in the fact ( if it be such ) 
that the Mercantile and Commercial interests of the Country 
will be conciliated, and put in motion by the nomination of 
him. I belong to that class, and have reason to know, that they 
move with great power, when the mass of them can be put in 
motion, though it must be confessed, that as we say of G. and 
the old Webster Clique, where they are - as a general thing, 

^^''Fillmore wanted the vice presidential nomination, but Weed and others decided that he was 
needed more to head the state ticket for governor. On June 16, 1844, Weed wrote: " "I am ac- 
cused of all sorts of wicked designs in opposing Fillmore's nomination for Vice-President ... as I 
knew I should be, but I determined to do my duty to the Party and take the curses. I knew that 
if F. was nominated for V. P. we should have some unfit man for Governor.' " Fillmore was 
defeated for governor by Silas Wright by 10,033. Van Deusen, Thurlow Weed, 132-133, 136, 362n. 

106 State Department of Archives and History 

through the series of years that make up a generation, "The 
Masses" are not to he found. These things must not be disre- 
garded by those who have the laying out, a line of policy, on a 
large and prominent scale, for the whole Whig party, through 
the nation. 

Upon this point our "great Captains" opinion would be in 
our estimation of great value. Webb your protege is making a 
fool of himself again, he might as well expect to push the 
Pallisade into the north river, as to destroy the influence and 
power, in this State of "the Boys"^^^ see if we dont nominate 
our candidate for Governor, and elect him too. 

I have the honour to be very faithfully yours, 

RiCHD. H. Atwell. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

Memucan Hunt to Willie P. Mangum. 

Galveston, Texas, 

18th Apl. 1844 
My Dear Sir, 

As I have before done on two occasions, I again take the 
liberty to do, that of inclosing to your care a letter for my 
esteemed friend Gen'l. Henderson.^^^ 

The British and French Ministers have both conveyed to 
the government of Texas notes protesting against a treaty of 
annexation to the U. S. A.^^^ 

Captain Elliot^^^ the Charge d' Affaires of Great Britain left 
here a few days since for the U. S. He informed me that his 
family was at Natchez, where he expected to spend some weeks, 
or months. My impression is that the government of Great 
Britain, would be exceedingly gratifyed to witness a dissolu- 
tion of the U. S., and may think, that in connexion with this 
great question of reannexation, auspicious movements for that 
end can be made. May an allwise Providence prevent such a 

i""Webb did not go along with Weed and Seward. He advocated the nomination of Webster 
for Vice President. 

i^^He refers to James Pinckney Henderson, one of the commissioners from Texas to Washington. 

i"2For a fresh discussion of the influence of the action of England and France on annexation, see 
Wiltse, Calhoun: Sectionalist, 151-155, 170-171, 200-201, 209, 215. 

i03Captain Charles Elliott. 

The Mangum Papers 107 

calamity to my native land, and to mankind in general. The 
Government of the U. S. can not keep too scrutinising an eye 
on the movements of her great commercial rival Great Britain. 

The Count de Saligny, Charge d' Affaires of France is now 
in this City; he confident that Texas will never again be united 
to the U. S. 

Your Minister Gen'l. Murphy^^* is likewise here. 

Just before the departure of Captain Eliot the President, 
Genl. Houston, had a long private interview with him, and it 
is said wrote a despatch to our Minister at Washington instruct- 
ing him, if our negotiations had not gone too far, to withdraw 
and return home. This despatch was placed in the hands of 
Captain E., as I learn, with the desire that he would cause it to 
be transmited himself.^^^ I have no confidence in President 
Houston, and never make any lasting calculations on any thing 
that he may either write, or speak. I believe, however, that he 
is anxious to see Texas annexed to the U. S. 

I have the honor to remain with 
great respect your friend and obedient sv't 

Memucan Hunt 

To Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Prest. U. S. Senate 


Hon. W. P. Mangum 

President of the 

U. S. Senate 

James R. Wood^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New Yk. Apl. 19, 44 
Dear Sir 

By a vote of the Board of Management of the 7th Ward Dem- 
ocratic Clay club, you were unanimously invited to be present 

i6*W. S. Murphy. 

leesam Houston's motives are hard to evaluate. He may have desired to maintain permanent 
independence of Texas or he may have been playing England and France against the United States to 
force ratification. Wiltse, Calhoun: Sectionalist, 158-159; Justin H. Smith, The Annexation of Texas, 
New York, 1941, 160-169; Marquis James, The Raven: A Biography of Sam Houston, Indianapolis, 
1929, 349-351. 

iwjames R. Wood was a New York surgeon. Longworth's New York Directory, 1844-1845, 386. 

108 State Department of Archives and History 

and address the club on the occasion of the presentation of a 
Banner to the club by the Whigs of the Ward. 

By order of the Board 
Jas. R. Wood Pres 

Wm. R. Loudon sec 

To Honl. Willie P. Mangum. 

'Justice to Harry of the West."^ 


Seventh Ward Democratic Clay Club. 

New York, April 18, 1844. 

You are hereby notified that a Regular Meeting of the above 
Club v^ill be held at CROTON HALL, corner of Bowery and 
Division St., on the Evening of Wednesday, the 24th instant, at 
7 o'clock. 

By order of 
James R Wood, President. 

John Cromwell, ) Secretaries. 
William R. Loudon,) 

A magnificent Banner will be presented to the Club, on the 
above evening. 

Seats reserved for the Ladies. 

Edward S. Tod to Major W. B. Morris & othersJ^^ 

Memphis April 20th 1844 

I had the pleasure of receiving a communication from you 
containing certain interrogatories in relation to the location 

i^^This letter was printed on the same sheet with the preceding letter. 

i^^In 1842 Matthew F. Maury, an advocate of direa trade between the South and Europe, wrote 
an article for the National Intelligencer advocating a navy yard at Memphis. The Tennessee legislature, 
thereupon, petitioned Congress, and F. P. Stanton, a Tennessee congressman, made it his project. 
After two naval surveys. Congress appropriated the money to begin the construaion, which began in 
October, 1845. It proved a wasteful projea, and, despite pressure from Memphis, the project re- 
ceived smaller and smaller appropriations until it was finally discontinued. Only one ship was built 
at the navy yard. Gerald M. Capers. Jr., The Biography of a River Town Memphis: Its Heroic Age, 
Chapel Hill, 1939. 82-85. 

The Mangum Papers 109 

of the Naval depot & dock yard on the fourth Chickasaw Bluffs - 
to which I hasten to reply 

1st During the second visit of the Commissioners appointed 
to examine the harbor of Memphis I was requested by D. 
Morrison Esq to make an estimate of the number of cubic yards 
of embankment necessary to raise the Batture in front of 
Memphis to high water mark, which I did by accurate measure- 
ment - and found that about five hundred and fifty thousand 
cubic yards would be required I do not remember the precise 
number but it would not vary much from my statement - this 
estimate was handed by me to the commissioners & agreed to by 
Mr. Morrison - the lowest price at which in my opinion the em- 
bankment could be made is twenty cents per cubic yard as the 
hauling would be from three hundred to six hundred yards for a 
great portion of the work - the cost at this price would be one 
hundred & ten thousand dollars - the estimate handed to the com- 
missioners at their first visit was made, by Mr. Morrison himself 
and was published in their report 

2nd In answer to the second interrogatory I reply that from 
information which I have received from some of the oldest & 
most respectable citizens in Memphis the depth of water where 
the Batture now is was more than forty feet at low water be- 
fore the year 1828 at which time the formation began — 

3rd I should consider that for the location of a naval depot 
& dock yard the preference is decidedly to be given to Fort 
Pickering both on account of permanency & cost of forming the 
yard, as regards permanency I would state that I have seen 
rock formation at low water both a short distance above the 
proposed site & and at the lower part of it, the Table Bench at 
the Fort has remained unchanged since it has been known & be- 
fore it was cleared a few years ago it was covered with timber 
of a large size of at least 125 years standing which could be 
determined by counting the rings formed each year during the 
growth of the tree - the table bench is one hundred & ninety 
feet wide in the narrowest part of the proposed site extends 
about two thousand feet along its front & is up to high water 
mark — 

4th I have made an estimate of the number of cubic yards 
necessary to be removed from the Bluff in order to reduce the 
grade of that portion of it coloured pink on the plat herewith 
sent to five & one quarter degrees and find it amounts to two 

110 State Department of Archives and History 

hundred & sixty five thousand - the part proposed to be graded 
is five hundred feet v^ide at the edge of the Bluff & four hundred 
where the grade strikes the surface of the ground v^hich is six 
hundred feet from the edge of the Bluff the grade is proposed 
to be carried by embanking about two hundred feet across the 
table bench to the water's edge — 

Proposals have been made to do the grading required for 
ten cents per cubic yard by W. B. Morris & W. W. Hart Esqrs 
who are men of Judgement in such matters & who offer to give 
any security that may be required for the completion of the 
work - at the price proposed the grading could be completed 
for twenty six thousand five hundred dollars 

5th The title of the proposed site is beyond dispute there can 
be obtained for the purposes of government a tract containing 
a little more than one hundred acres on the following terms 
that portion marked 33 acres belonging to J. C. McLemore is 
proposed to be given unconditionally to the government, that 
part marked 28 V^ acres belonging to John Sugg he proposes to 
donate on condition of their purchasing from him a tract of 
forty acres lying immediately South of the 28 V^ acres tracts & 
adjoining thereto and comprised between the river bank and 
the eastern line of the proposed site extended south to the 
southern boundary line of his tract for one hundred & fifty dol- 
lars per acre or for the sum of six thousand dollars for the 
tract, which is deemed a fair price for land in that situation and 
is lower than lands have sold a mile from the river immediately 
back of it — 

This would make the total cost of the one hundred acres 
of land and the grading as proposed amount to thirty two thou- 
sand five hundred dollars 

6th I think that if the site proposed at Fort Pickering had 
been within the corporate limits of Memphis the commissioners 
would have undoubtedly chosen that place in preference to the 
one at the mouth of Wolf 

7th The distance from the mouth of Wolf River to the site 
proposed at Fort Pickering is about 2^/^ miles the town extends 
about one & one half miles below the mouth of that River, 
leaving a distance between the lower part of the town and the 
site proposed about one mile - the ground between the two 

The Mangum Papers 111 

places is a plain well adapted for building & without doubt will 
in a few years be covered with houses. 

Yours with Respect 

Edwd S. Tod 

Civil Engineer 

Messrs Gen. Eastim Morris 
W. W. Hart 
W Howard 
Major W. B. Morris. 


B. Mr. Tods Reply. 

A, W. Gay^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Knap of Reeds, Granville, April 20th — 1844 
Dear Sir. 

The Whigs of Granville have this day nominated me as one 
of their candidates for a seat in the next Legislature; and I 
suppose I shall feel it my duty, tho' with great reluctance, to 
accept the nomination. 

That I may be prepared to sustain the whig cause in the ap- 
proaching contest, I thought it not amiss to apply to you for 
such documents as you may judge best suited to the purpose. 
I shall specify a few of the points upon which I most desire in- 

1. The history of the late Bank of the United States - espe- 
cially its aid in conducting the fiscal operations of the govern- 
ment and its beneficial influence upon the currency and general 
business of the country. If the speeches delivered by Mr. Cal- 
houn in the Senate on Jackson's veto of the Bank and the re- 
moval of the Deposites can be readily procured, they would 
probably furnish all the information necessary. Calhoun would 
be an important witness in Granville. 

"^A physician who entered the race for the legislature. He was defeated. See A. W. Gay to 
W. P. Mangum, December 4, 1845. 

112 State Department of Archives and History 

In connexion with the above I should be glad to have a copy 
of the Sub-Treasury bill, approved July 4th. 1840: also Clay's 
Bank bill vetoed at the Extra Session. 

I think of making the bank question the special issue. I am 
confident that question is stronger by twenty per cent in Gran- 
ville than the whig cause. I have always been rather ultra 
bank - perhaps more so than Mr. Clay. 

2. The Tariff. I suppose I shall have little trouble on this 
question; because Van Buren is more of a Tariff man than Clay. 
But I should like to have some proof as to Van Buren's latest, 
views on the Tariff. 

3. The Bankrupt law. All the difficulty I anticipate on this 
question is the fact that Clay was instructed to vote for its re- 
peal and disobeyed. Was he instructed unconditionally? 

4. Annexation of Texas. On this question I am yet uncom- 
mitted. I presume it cannot be made a party question. I know 
nothing of the views of either Clay or Van Buren on this ques- 
tion. The ground which I think of taking in relation to the 
matter is this. 

Personally I am in favor of Annexation if it can be effected 
without too great a sacrifice. But, if it is to involve us in a war 
with Mexico and England and the Indians, and occasion a dis- 
solution of the Union, then I am apposed to it. 

5. Expenditures of the government for the last 15 or 20 
years, - especially the exact financial condition of the govern- 
ment on the 4th. of March 1841, and what it has been ever since. 
This you know is a matter of the first importance, and, on every 
point it is essential that I have the most indisputable documen- 
tary proof. 

6. Gerrymandering of the state^''^^ by the last Legislature. 
Would it be best, before the people, to take the ground that the 
next Legislature, if whig, should remodel the Congressional 
districts of the state? The excuse given by the other party for 
that act is that the same thing was done by a whig Legislature 

i™As a result of the census of 1840, North Carolina lost four seats in the national House of 
Representatives. The legislature which apportioned the seats was under the control of the Democrats, 
who proceeded to gerrymander the state to their advantage. Orange County, which usually cast ma- 
jority votes for the Whigs, was put with the Democratic counties of Franklin and Warren. Since the 
section around Greensboro usually voted for the Whigs, the counties near Greensboro were luniped 
together so that they would not help other divided districts to go Whig. In 1844 the Whigs gained 
control of the legislature and redistricted the state to their advantage. Under the 1844 plan. Orange, 
Guilford, Caswell, and Person composed the Seventh Distria, and Halifax, Warren, Franklin, Wake, 
and Granville were placed together. C. C. Norton, Democratic Party in N. C, 73, 145; Hillsborough 
Recorder, May 30, 1844. 

The Mangum Papers 113 

of Massachusetts in districting that state since 1840. Is this 
true? What are the real facts of the case? 

I hope, Sir, you will not regard me as being too troublesome 
in making these inquiries and requests. The approaching con- 
test is one of unequaled importance. Those who may be called 
upon to sustain the whig cause, ought to be thoroughly pre- 
pared. I have no means of obta[in]ing the requisite informa- 
tion except through you. Never having desired or expected to 
become a candidate, I have not preserved such Newspapers or 
documents as might have been useful at the present time. 

I shall be glad to hear from you soon. On the 7th of May, be- 
ing court week, the candidates for this county will have to ad- 
dress the people and declare themselves and avow their princi- 

I was in Raleigh last week when Mr. Clay was there. Such 
an assemblage I never saw. But Mr. Clay will tell you all about 
it. I understand that many of the other party came to him, 
told him they had seen their error, and should hereafter sup- 
port him. 

Direct to Knap-of-Reeds, P. O. 

Truly Yours &c. 

A. W. Gay. 

P.S. What apology or excuse can be given for the whigs in elect- 
ing John Tyler? We shall have that matter thrown at us contin- 

Oxford May 7th 1844. 

The within was written in anticipation of what I expected to 
occur on the 20th ult. but the day was so rainy, that nothing was 
done. The nomination was made today and, as I anticipated, I am 
one of the nominees. I hope you will send me such documents as 
you may think suited to the purpose. In relation to the Texas 
question, I suppose I shall need nothing but what I shall find in 

114 State Department of Archives and History 

the papers. I see no Washington paper, except the Congressional 

Yours &c. 
A. W. Gay. 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Washington City 

D. C. 

B. W. Leigh to Willie P. Mangum. 

Richmond, April 22, 1844 
My dear Sir — 

I have received your letter of the 18th. I was very much de- 
lighted v^ith my visit to Raleigh - for, as you may suppose, I 
w^as quite at home among the North Carolinians, and the North 
Carolina Whigs w^ere there in all their glory. The Whigs esti- 
mated that there v^ere about 8000 or 9000 w^higs present* — The 
democrats, I understood, struck off a nought, and said there 
could not be more than about 800: but having put forth their 
estimate on Saturday morning (the 13th), pains w^ere taken 
to ascertain the quantity of meat consum,ed at the barbecue 
that day, which was found to be above 7000 lbs averdupois; 
whereupon some wag among the whigs said, that if 800 whigs 
consumed at one dinner 7000 lbs of meat, Van Buren would not 
be a breakfast even for them. Clay was in fine spirits, and in the 
best humour - he made an excellent speech, but as he was not 
excited by the collision of debate, he did not rise to any of his 
high flights of eloquence; and I told our friends so, but they 
could not believe me - you, who know him will. There was not 
a single personal remark in the speech, and but only one per- 
sonal allusion, and that was to Tyler; so slight, however, that 
it did not strike even Duncan Cameron, acute as you know he 
is, until I called his attention to it. The very slightness of the 
allusion marked his contempt more strongly than the most 
laboured invective could have done. I don't know whether I 
shall be able to see you as I pass through Washington on my 

The Mangum Papers 115 

way to Baltimore. I will if I can — Meantime, if there is any 
thing I ought to be informed of on the subject of the Vice presi- 
dency, write to me, and send your letter to Baltimore by the 
mail of monday the 29th - I shall be in Baltimore the evening 
of that day. 

Yrs truly 

B: W: Leigh 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

* There were 600 from your county of Orange. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Senator U. S. 

C. F. Welles, Jr.''^' to Willie P. Mangum. 

Athens Bradford County Pa. 

April 23, 1844 
Honl W P Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Dear Sir 

Though personaly an entire Stranger to you I feel 
that you are not so to me from your long & brilliant career as 
a Member of the Senate which has given me strong confidence 
in your judgment & opinions in relation to Government matters. 
The object of this letter you will see is to get your opinion in 
relation to the probable result of the Orogan, Tarriff & Sub 
Treasury question, more especially the Orogan; Will the Mad 
Caps of the Country & Congress — belonging to Polks party over- 
throw the more Conservative portion of his friends & force the 
Government to Settle the Orogan question by War in claiming 
all & no compromise 

Will your honorable body pass the Sub Treasury bill as it 
came from the house? Will the party in power repeal the pres- 
ent excellent Tariff or Materially alter the Same. 

I'lUnabie to identify. 

116 State Department of Archives and History 

My object in making these enquiries are first I am now a 
partner in a mercantile house in this place doing a Somewhat 
extensive business in produce &c & if we are to have war, Sub 
Treasury & repeal of the present Tariff, I wish to Curtail very 
much or stop entirely. Again I am disposed to do a large lumber- 
ing business the ensuing year in which I should probable in- 
vest some 15 to $25,000 in Cash and this operation depends en- 
tirely upon the issue of the Orogan question if War is to come 
I should not invest one dollar in any article to be sold in 1847 

The business of the country is now healthy & good & the 
prospects for the ensuing year are very fair indeed unless the 
insane infatuation of the Locofoco party shall plunge the 
Country into war & inflict upon the same the Sub Treasury & 
repeal the Tariff. When I say the Country is almost unanimous 
against war for anything North of 49 parralel I say what nine- 
teen twentieths of the Sensible people will bear me out in. The 
war fever is raised by the paid agents of men who have or ex- 
pect to get office, men who have no business & never will have 
but to steal from the government. This 54.40 War Cry rises 
in the large cities & towns by office expecants & Country Editors 
who in fact know nothing of public opinion except the little 
cliques who rule every loco foco paper catch up the cry & echo 
it back & from the Editor the pot house politician catches the 
cry & reiterates it to his base associates & so goes the cry. What 
interest have these men in the welfare of the country? Their 
interest is in war that they may rob & plunder from others. 
What care they about oragon, nothing, all they want is to live 
on the spoils of war or office These are the men who back the 
Aliens Capes Hanegans and their Coworkers in crying out for 
54. 40.^^^ Shall we be ruled by such men - heaven forbid 

Sir by giving me your opinion in answer to the questions put 
in this letter you will confer a lasting favour on one who claims 

^■^^By July, 1843. the American settlers in Oregon had established a temporary governnaent to 
protect themselves. Petitions from various state legislatures began pouring into Congress asking for 
the establishment of a territorial government and for the acquisition of the territory up to 54° 40' N. 
By April, Senator Edward A. Hannegan. of Indiana, William Allen, of Ohio, and others were belli- 
gerent in their demand for all of Oregon. 

The Mangum Papers 117 

a close political relationship with you & the grand Whig Army 
of the Union 

Most Respectfully Your 
obt Servant 
C. F. Welles Jr 

Bradford Co 

[Postmarked:] Athens Pa. Apr 24 
[Addressed : ] 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Washington City 

D. C. 

Wesley Hollister^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Raleigh N Carolina Apl 23d 1844 
Dear Sir 

Enclosed are keys belonging to the Hon H Clay - they were 
drop^ by his Servant on his recent visit to this place & I was 
not able to learn to whom they belonged until it was too late 
for me to forward them direct to Mr Clay & as they may be of 
some importance to him — & not knowing of any more direct 
way to send I take the liberty of troubling you with them - be- 
lieving that you will [know] where to direct them that they 
may reach him most speedily. 

Very Respectfully 

Your obdt Servant 

Wesley Hollister 

Hon W P Mangum 

"^Wesley Hollister was president of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad. Moses N. Amis, His- 
torical Raleigh from its Foundation in 1792: Descriptive, Biographical, Educational Industrial, Re- 
ligious, Raleigh, 1902, 116. 

118 State Department of Archives and History 

B. L. White^'^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

WiLLiAMSTON Martin Co! April 23d 1844. 
My Dear Sir. 

I have taken this liberty to ask of you a piece of friendship 
if in your power. If my memory does not deceive me, my late 
deceased Brother (Willie N. White) often during his last days 
of affliction spoke of your tender friendship to him. 

In this case I have through my representative (Mr. K. Ray- 
ner) put a claim into his hands to see if there is not justly due 
me by government, for Military Services rendered by my 
Father — Mr. Rayner has v^ritten to me on the subject, he pro- 
poses some questions which I am not at this time able to answer 
satisfactorily — Will you if you can recollect that at any time 
you ever heard my Brother speak any thing on the matter pre- 
vious to his death, I believe you were with him during his last 
illness — 

The claim rests upon the following grounds, my father was 
commissioned Lieut. Col. in the late war by President Madison, 
he was stationed at Charleston S. C, and Genl. Pinckney was 
the commander, whether he served during all the war, I am as 
yet unable to say, - if therefore you can assist my Representa- 
tive in the establishing of this Claim, I will take it as one of the 
greatest favours. 

I have settled in old Martin, and happy to inform you that 
I am doing as well as the times will admit. 

We are preparing to try and do something for "Harry of the 
West." I would be glad to receive some speeches from you 
whenever it is convenient to send them. 

Resp your friend 
B. L. White. 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. 

i^*Brother of Willie N. White, who married Mary (Cain) Sutherland, Mangum's sister-in-law. 

The Mangum Papers 119 

John Walker to Willie P. Mangum. 

Brooksville April 24th 1844 
Hon Mr Mangum 

Dear Sir 

Pleas Confer a favour upown me. by sending me docu- 
ments or political papers, for election pourpose, for the Loco 
Focos ar Sending Kendals Lies into This town and we want 
truth to face them. The Whigs of this State are Waking up 
and Shall try hard to give the vote to Henry Clay That Noble 
Patriot, but we want truth to Circulate among the people, we 
have evrything To face all those miserable Abolitionist. They 
and the Loco Focos go Hand in Hand Circulating falsehoods 
and. Ministers Professing to preach the gospel Abusing Hon 
Henry Clay, but Clay must be Elected he will be and no mis- 
take, in my humble opinion he will Carry Maine. 

Verry Respectfully Yours 
John Walker 
Brooksville Me 
April 25*^ 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon Willie P Mangum 
Senator in Congress 

D. C. 


Lewis Eaton^'^^ to Willie P. Mangura 

New York Apl 27. 1844 
Hon W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

This will be handed by John G Brown Esq of Buffalo, he 
goes as delegate to the Baltimore Convention, he is a Zealous 

^■^^Probably Lewis Eaton, who was a member of Congress from New York from 1823 to 1825 
and the state senate from 1829 to 1832. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 932. 

120 State Department of Archives and History 

& an efficient politician and understands the state of parties 
well in our state any attention you may pay him will much 

Yr friend & obt Set. 
Lewis Eaton 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon W. P. Mangum 
Pres. U. S. S 

Washington D. C. 

Micajah Mangum to Willie P. Mangum. 

Richmond 29th. April 1844 
Dear Kinsman 

Through the politeness of my old friend Capt. Wm. Clai- 
bourn I address A few lines to you to let you know that I feel 
gld to hear I have one relation^^^ of the name of Mangum left 
to tell the history of my Ancestors as far as I am informed. 
My grand father's name was Micajah Mangum whos name I 
bear he came to this country before the revolutionary war was 
wounded at Yorktown and shortly arter the war died in Isle 
of Wight County Va leaving three daughters and one son my 
father Joseph Mangum who went up the country to Goochland 
County about 35 miles above Richmond on James River where 
he married Elizabeth Humber in the year 1796 where he lived 
till 1817 - when he left Virginia for Alabama (my mother died 
in 1807 - leaving 5 children 3 girls & 2 boys) he caried my 
brother with him & left me a prentice at the coach making 
business — I am now the only one of the name and family now 
in Virginia I have been married thirteen years and have had 
no children and I feel as tho I had found some lost treasure 
in hearing that you were of the old stock full of that warm 
feeling towards friends and relations that ever characterized 
my old father and familly - and if you should pass thro the 
city of Richmond I beg the favour of you to let me see you as 

i78>j^jllie p Mangum's ancestors came into North Carolina from Sussex County, Virginia. See 
Stephen B. Weeks. "W. P. M.," Biog. Hist, of N. C, V. 237-238. 

The Mangum Papers 121 

my heart would rejoice to see once more some relation of my 
father's. I am A humble Coachmaker and make A very com- 
fortable living clear of debt and many warm friend and I know 
of no enemy — I shall expect you to let me know when you pass 
thro Richmond that I may see you - and may the blesings of 
heaven be with you and familly is the f ervant wish of your in- 
truding relation — 

Mica J AH Mangum. 
[Addressed:] To 

The Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Washington City 
D. C 

By the politeness of Captn. 
Wm. Claibourn. 


William Kinney^'^'^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Staunton Monday Morng. 
29th Apr 1844. 
My dear Sir. 

Presuming that my friends Archer and Morehead are, or 
will be in Balto: when this would arrive at Washington, I ven- 
ture to address it to you, knowing it will give you pleasure. 

As Genl. Ritchie^^^ would say, the sky in Virginia, is bright 
and brightning. — 

So far as we have heard from our Gain is our loss. 

2 in Buckingham, and the Senator 1 King & Queen. 

2 Norfolk County 1 Southampton 

1 Caroline 1 Tyler 

1 Matthews of Middlesex 12 

1 Wythe accomac 1 

1 Montgomery Mecklenburg 1 

1 Floyd Rappahanock 1 

1 Pendleton Randolph 1 

1 Franklin Brook 1 

Wood & Ritchie 1 
1 Giles of Mercer, tho' returns not complete 

i"An attorney who by 1860 had retired. Livingston Law Register, 1851, 580; 1860, 920. 
"^Thomas Ritchie, editor of the Richmond Enquirer. 

122 State Department of Archives and History 

which makes a difference of 22 on joint ballot, last year the 
Loco's had 24 on joint ballot, we want but 1 more (and I have 
every reason to believe we shall get from 4 to 8 more) to pro- 
duce a tie, our gain in the popular vote has been great in every 
county heard from — The Whig in Bath came within one vote, 
and it is said he will contest the election - in Alleghany the 
Loco was only 10 votes ahead and one precint to hear from 

Goggin^^^ is certainly elected to Congress over Gordon by 
from 150 to 200 majority 

The prospect for redeeming the old Dominion is good, very 
good - nothing can defeat us but the Texas question, that I 
fear will be a fire brand among the Whigs. 

With all respect and esteem 

In haste Truly yours 
Wm. Kinney. 

[Addressed : ] 


Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Washington City. 

S. P. Walker'^'^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Tuesday Night. Apl. SO.^si [1844] 
Dear Sir 

I drop you a line, the crowd, the spirit, the enthusiasm of 40 
is nothing in comparison with the present, thousands are pour- 
ing in hourly: and at this moment while Graves of Ky^^^ is 
addressing some 10000 persons in front of Barnum's a delega- 
tion from New York City 2000 strong with banner & music are 
entering the square. The whole 27 congress appear to be pres- 

"ewilliam L. Goggin, Whig Congressman in 1839-1843, 1844-1845, and 1847-1849, and 
William F. Gordon, a Democratic Congressman in 1830-1835. Biog. Dir. of Cong.; 1018, 1024. 

180 See above. I, 428n. 

i*iThis letter should be dated 1844 because the contents show that it was written on the eve of 
the National Whig Convention which met in Baltimore on May 1, 1844. April 30 fell on a Tuesday 
in 1844. 

la^William Jordon Graves, of Kentucky, 1805-1848, was in Congress in 1835-1841. Biog. Dir. 
of Cong., 1029. 

The Mangum Papers 123 

The East, Ohio & Inda. stand firm for Davis.^^^ Fillmore 
gains, and so does Frelinghuysen. McKennan^^^ is brought out 
today, but nothing is known, more than you can conjecture 
about the matter of the V. P. at Washington. 

Mr. Clay is expected to come. I hope you can all get here. 

They say here, that Carter is elected. 

With respect & Esteem 
S. P. Walker 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
or Hon. John T. Morehead 

D. C. 

P. U. Murphey^^^ to Willie P. Mangum, 

U. S. Ship Ontario 

Norfolk May 2d 44 
Dear Sir 

I send you by the boat a box of fine terrapins, knowing that 
you will enjoy them. I was in hope, that I should of been able to 
of visited Washington before this! but my duties have prevented 
it, as I have not had a leave from the Dept for nearly seven 
years. I shall try and get off for a few days about the middle 
of this month, if I can get through with, the surveys I am now 

^^John Davis, of Massachusetts. 

i**Thomas M. T. McKennon, 1794-1852, of Pennsylvania, had been in Congress as a Whig in 
1831-1839 and 1842-1843. He was a presidential eleaor in 1840. Under Fillmore he served as 
Secretary of the Interior. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1267. 

isspeter Umstead Murphey, 1810-1876, the son of Archibald D. Murphey, attended Bingham 
School and the University of North Carolina before he became a midshipman in the United States 
Navy in 1831. He served until 1861, when he resigned to join the Confederate Navy. In the Civil 
War he served the Confederacy at Norfolk, in the North Carolina waters, and commanded the Selma 
at Mobile Bay. After the war he lived in Mobile. Hoyt (ed.). Papers of Murphey, I, 389n. 

124 State Department of Archives and History 

I should of sent you more oysters had the boat continued 
running a little longer, as they had just commenced geting 
good at the time she stoped her regular trips. 

Yours truly 


U. S. N 

Honble Judge Mangum 

D. C. 

N.B. Kindest regards to all of my friends 

[Addressed:] The Honble. Willie P. Mangum 
D. C. 

Isaac N. Jones to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington Arks, 

5th May, '44 


W. P. Mangum. 
U. S. Senate. 

Dear Sir. 

Permit me to acknowledge your kindness in 
having sent me the speeches of Messrs. Evans & Bates, of which 
I reed 3 or 4 copies each. They are eagerly sought after by the 
sober thinking democrats of our vicinity. I have less & less 
doubt of the vote of this State going for Mr. Clay. 

Mr. E's speech is gigantic, especially when contrasted with 
the effort of Mr. McDuffie.i^^ That of Mr. Bates is not less con- 
vincive, except from the fact that the grounds taken to debate 
upon ( or rather ) the heads of his remarks are fewer. His speech 
so far as it goes is admirable. 

^^For the speeches of George Evans, Isaac Bates, and George McDuifie on January 19, 29, 
February 21. and May 30. 31. 1844. see Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., 159-160; Appendix, 104- 
109, 141-144. 294-298, 353-363. 745-753. 

The Mangum Papers 125 

If I dare presume so far, I would ask you to present my un- 
feighed thanks to Mr. Evans; & say to him that his doctrines; 
so ably advocated as they have been by himself; need only to 
be known as he knows them, to be the sentiments of the ma- 
jority of the South, and also that he will much oblige me by 
sending to me as many of the copies of it, as he may find it 
convenient to put into the mail bags. And as one good turn de- 
serves another will you be kind enough to remember my ad- 
dress & send me such matter as will help the cause of the 
country & H.C. 

As the Post offices have not my most entire confidence as 
the means of conveyance of Whig documents; I will thank you 
to say to me what you send that I may know whether all is reed. 
R. River has been unusually high especially below the Mouth of 
Little R. Crops much damaged. We are planting our cotton 
again & may make 2/3 of a crop if the season is good. The 
worms too have done much damage. 

Excuse my tedious epistle and believe me to be 

Yr obt. St. & Frnd 

Isaac N. Jones 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon Willey P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 
Mail. Washington City. 

J. H. Haughton^^^ to Willie P. ManguTU. 

PiTTSBORo' 23 May 1844 
My Dear Sir, 

As I am soon to open the canvass for a seat in the Legisla- 
ture, I find myself in need of some Dockuments, & knowing 
your great zeal & efficiency in the cause of Clay & the Country, 
I take the liberty of requesting you to send me such papers & 
dockuments as you may deem important particularly on the 

^®^John Hooker Haughton, a native of Chatham County, after graduating from the University of 
North Carolina, became a lawyer at Pinsboro, He served in the legislature in 1844-1845, 1850-1851, 
and 1854-1855. N. C. Manual, 551-552; Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 265. 

126 State Department of Archives and History 

following subjects to wit: An official statement of the appropria- 
tions by the last & the present Congress & every thing con- 
nected with the subject of expenditures during the last & pres- 
ent administration. 

The speeches of Messrs Evans, & Simmons & Berrien on the 
Tariff if they can be had in pamphlet form or any others that 
you may think best on this important subject — 

Gov. Morehead of Ky speech on the Bank question & also 
the report of the Jackson Committees in 1825 & 1832 I think, 
setting forth the great advantages that have resulted to the 
Country from the U. S. Bank. 

Please present my respects to Messrs Clingman, Barringer 
& Rayner & say to them that I would thank them to cooperate 
with you in sending me such dockuments & speeches as they 
may think proper — 

We consider here the coming campaign as of peculiar im- 
portance in this Country, because by increasing our majority 
handsomely Chatham may hold the balance of power in this 
Congressional District. 

Whatever I can do towards the consummation of such an 
object shall be done. 

Mr Graham addressed our people last week (on Tuesday of 
Court) in a very able & masterly manner & with fine effect. 

From the signs of the times I should not be surprised if he 
were to beat Hoke 15,000 or 20,000 votes. 

Please excuse my troubling you, in asmuch as I have no 
representative in Congress — 

The nomination of Mr. Frelingheysen is received by the 
Whigs in this & all other parts of the State as far as I have 
heard from with general & entire approbation. 

With great respect. 

Your obt. servt. & friend 
J. H. Haughton. 

Hon: W P Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Wille P Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Washington City 
D. C. 

The Mangum Papers 127 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A, Mangum. 

Washington City 27th May 1844. 
My dear Love. 

I have time only to write you a line. - This is the day of the 
Van Bur en & Tyler Conventions. 

By the miraculous Telegraph, information of what they are 
doing at Baltimore, 40 miles off, is communicated in less than 
ten seconds. — 

I am well. — We shall adjourn on the 17th of June. I hope 
to be at home by the 22nd or 23rd of June. — The time of ad- 
journment is not fixed, but it will be, on friday next. 

I think we shall have a called session, but by postponing ten 
days longer, we should not. — Yet that day will be fixed, as I 
think, many desire a called session. 

My Love to the children, & a kiss to William, & believe me 
My Love, as I alway am 

Your affectionate husband 
Willie P. Mangum 

To Mrs. C. A. Mangum. 

Willie P. Mangum, to Priestley H. Mangum.^^^ 

Washington City 29th May 1844 
My dear Sir. 

I have time only to inform you that James K. Polk of Tenn. 
has received the unanimous nomination for the Presidency by 
the Demo. Convention now sitting at Baltimore. The Magnetic 
Telegraph brings the information here every instant. — It is a 
literal disbanding of the party for this Campaign. — The sole 
object is to keep the party in harness for '48. — I think it pro- 
bable Silas Wright of New York will be the nominee for Vice 
President. — He, Woodbury, & Gov. Morton of Mass. are now 
pushed. We know not the result. — No matter who may be 

^**^A part of this letter has been previously published in Charles Warren, Tbe Supreme Court 
in the United States, ( 1926) , II, 135. 

128 State Department of Archives and History 

nominated, We will literally crush the ticket. They feel it. They 
know it. — 

The Texas treaty will get 16, 17 or 18 Votes at the most.^^^ 
The party Count much on Texas & its excitements. — They will 
be mistaken I think. — We shall adjourn the 17th June too early 
by ten days. — For unless we vote upon the joint resolutions, 
which we shall hardly do, we shall be called back again if 
Tyler shall have vitality enough to hope. — The least can in- 
spire him & his Palinurus John Jones^^^ to hope strongly. — 

I have never Witnessed stronger excitement than here, for 
two days. — 

The Telegraph is in rooms on the North end of the Capitol, 
under my room. — Every new turn at Baltimore, comes here 
in less than the twentieth part of a second - absolutely a Mi- 
raculous triumph of Science. — 

Yesterday evening from 4 to 7 oclock, more than a thousand 
people were in attendance at the Window, at which placerds in 
large letters, were exhibited, upon the receipt of each item of 
news. — To day from 7 to 900 were attending, when the news 
came that Polk was unanimously nominated.— I was out of 
my seat, at a window above, observing, & ready to enquire. — 
Someone cried out "three Cheers for Clay." The air resounded 
with the outpourings of 500 pair of strong lungs — in three 
hearty cheers — A call was made for three cheers for Polk - 
& the feeblest wail of some twenty or thirty voices were heard, 
in modest, subdued & conquered strains - & they were in literal 
truth a majority of them - boys who had with equal zeal joined 
for Clay. — 

Poor Tyler is dead - He feels so. — They have stolen his 
theme. — It reminds me of a drunken story of the noted John 
Holmes of Maine, who with inimitable burlesque once told in 
the Senate, of a fight between two beggar boys, at the head of 
the avenue, whose strife grew out of one having stolen the 
pathetic tale of the other, to get coppers. — 

I was the first to tell Benton of the late Atto : Gen : Butler^^^ 
having withdrawn V. Buren & enquired if he had expected 
such a result. He answered no he had not supposed they were 

is'^On June 8 the Senate voted 16 to 35 against the treaty. Niles' Register, LXVI, 241. 

i^He probably refers to John W. Jones, Congressman from Virginia, who at this time was 
serving as Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

i^iln the Democratic Convention at Baltimore after Van Buren failed to obtain the two-thirds 
majority and it became evident that he could not win, Benjamin F. Butler, Van Buren's manager 
from New York, withdrew his candidate's name. This brought harmony to the convention and the 
nomination of Polk. Wiltse, Calhoun: Sectionalist, 180; Niles' Register, LVI, 218. 

The Mangum Papers 129 

so d - d fools as to have done so. With great excitement, he 
said, they had nothing to do, but to die for their principles & 
he repeated, with encreased & encreasing excitement. They 
are, as the printers say, all in pi. — I hope Graham goes on 
well — Haughton of Chatham writes me that he made a master- 
ly speech at Pittsboro & with fine effect, & expressed the opinion 
that he wd. have a majority of at least 15,000 Votes. — 

He must go to every County in the Mountain region. — 
I regretted to hear that Willie had the meazles — I hope you 
are all well — 

Affectionately Yrs. 
Willie P. Mangum 
To P. H. Mangum esqr. 

William S. Ransom^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Warrenton June 1st. 1844 
Dear Sir 

I understand that each State is entitled to two Cadets at 
West Point besides one from each District and that this is about 
the time their appointment is made and that the Senators are 
advised with in making the selection. If I have been correctly 
informed I must beg you to interfere in behalf of Robert Ran- 
som Jr.^^^ and endeavour to get Mr. Haywood to co-operate 
with you — he is well acquainted with my brother and his cir- 
cumstances — has always been friendly, though never intimate, 
with my family and I have no reason to believe he would not 
aid in placing a promising young man in a situation to become 
useful and honorable to himself - his family and Country — 
Mr. Geo. Hawkins's time will expire this month and my brother 
and self more than a year ago sought through Mr. DanieP^* 
and others to procure a Warrant from the War Department for 
Robert and were not much disappointed when D. recommended 
the son of a wealthy Loco, for both of us had openly opposed 
his election. Robert is now sixteen years old and as perfect in 
person as any one of his age I ever saw — He is prepared to join 
the Sophimore Class at Chapel Hill, but his father is unable 

i92See above, II, 394, 501; III, 241-244. 
^^^The future Confederate general. 
i»4John R. J. Daniel. 

130 State Department of Archives and History 

to send him there. His brother is there through the liberality of 
his Society and receives the first distinction separate — Robert 
is equally as smart & I doubt not w^ould be distinguished at any 
institution of the sort for good scholarship - application & 
gentlemanly demeanor. — If you should from this statement 
of facts find it convenient to your feelings to interest yourself 
in this matter you will greatly oblige Robert — ^brother and 
myself — If it v^ill not be imposing too much labor and trouble 
you will confer a favor by giving us some early information 
on this subject. 

You of course take great interest in our little political op- 
erations here and doubtless are desirous that that the Whig 
majority in N. C. should be larger than ever, therefore it is that 
I will inform you that in ten days Delegates from the Counties 
of this District meet in Louisburg to appoint an Elector — I 
shall go as one from this County and will be at a loss who to 
select — Manly - Moore & Joyner^^^ are all candidates in their 
respective counties, and no other political aspiration - no pro- 
fessional engagement should be an obstacle to our Elector — 
His time should be devoted to the acquisition of such knowledge 
as will be necessary to use not only in advocating our principles 
but in refuting such falsehoods as Kendall will be sure to scat- 
ter through the land — His principles must not only be ortho- 
dox but he must have ability to expound and zeal to enforce 
them — The loss of time nor of money should be of no considera- 
tion — Hence I have thought our Country-man Geo : E. SpruilP^^ 
not an unsuitable man. What think you of him? I trust we 
shall all be of one opinion when we meet. If the Whigs here will 
only hold together a little while longer we can carry the Dis- 
trict. Even in this County we are gaining slowly — Nash or 
any such man can defeat Daniel next year, but I fear his party 
will never run him again. 

With sentiments of unaltered friendship I remain 

Most Respectfully yrs &c 
Wm S Ransom 
[Addressed : ] To 

The Hon: Willie P Mangum 
Washington City 

"BHe possibly refers to Charles Manly, Bartholomew F. Moore, and Andrew J. Joyner. No one 
of these was selected. 

i9«See above, I, 217. 

The Mangum Papers 131 

J. R. Lamhdin to Willie P. Mangum. 

Phila June 6th 1844 
Dear Sir 

I have this day drawn on you in favr. of A. B. Enystron - [not 
legible] at 5 days sight for Sixty five dollars, the amount of 
balance due on a/c of the Portrait: -^^^ and hope that it may 
suit your convenience to meet the draft at maturity. I have 
written to Mr. Cranch ( artist )^^^ requesting that he will var- 
nish the portrait before it is sent to North Carolina; and enclose 
the letter with the request that you may give it the proper di- 
rection on its arrival in Washington. — 

Our Whig friends are in high spirits. - I have just heard 
from the western part of the State and they are there verry 
confident of carrying this State by 20,000 majority. — 

With sincere regard 

I am truly yours 
J R Lambdin 


Honble W P Mangum 

D. C. 


Honble W P Mangum 

D. C. 

i^This portrait is reproduced on the frontispiece of Volume II of this publication. 

losjie probably refers to Christopher P. Cranch, 1813-1892, son of the jurist William Cranch. 
Young Cranch attended Columbian College in Washington, entered the ministry, and became a suc- 
cessful Unitarian minister in Boston. Then he turned to art and lived in Washington until his mar- 
riage in 1843 when he moved to New York. On three separate occasions he studied in Europe. 
Although not a great artist, he became a person who mingled with the intellectuals at Harvard and 
who was constantly preaching the "gospel of beauty." D. A. B., IV, 501-502. 

132 State Department of Archives and History 

Willis HalV'^ to Willie P. Mangum^^'^ 

Albany June 7"^ 1844. 
My Dear Mangum 

As chairman of the executive committee of the Clay Club 
of this county I earnestly request your attendance at a meeting 
of that club to be held a week from next Thursday — You have 
numerous friends and admirers here to whom you are personal- 
ly unknown, and who will be delighted with an opportunity of 
meeting you face to face — 

I take for granted that Congress will adjourn on Monday the 
17*^' inst. which will give you an opportunity of reaching here 
by a regular conveyance by Thursday afternoon This meeting 
is intended to be the first of a series of meetings, which it is 
hoped will be continued weekly until the election- This is a 
very central point- a thorough fare where our rail road and 
canal terminates, and steam boats leave for New York two or 
three times a day and loco motives for Boston as often.- Many 
strangers are here constantly- A good fire kindled and kept up 
here will at least warm our own State- You will pardon me 
that I am thus importunate, with you not to refuse- when you 
consider the importance to us of having a full attendance at our 
first meeting- 

We shall certainly have a very hard fight in this State- But 
if our friends from abroad will lend us their helping hand we 
shall certainly beat them- 

I have the honor to be 

with the highest respect and regard 
Your friend & servant 
Willis Hall 

Hon. W. P. Mangum ) 

President of the Senate ) 

P. S. Should you find Thursday inconveniently early the meet- 
ing may be called for any later day that will suit your con- 

"9See above, III, 282n. 

^^^in the campaign of 1844, Mangum received many invitations to Whig rallies. These invitations 
are in the Mangum Papers, but to conserve space I am omitting most of them. I am making reference 
in the front of this volume to those omitted. I am, however, including enough to show the geo- 
graphical distribution of the invitations. 

The Mangum Papers 133 


Circular letter of Augustus Reese 
and others to Willie P. Mangum. 

Madison, [Ga.,] 7th June, 1844. 
Dear Sir: 

The Whigs of Georgia contemplate holding a STATE MASS 
CONVENTION at this place on Wednesday, the 21st day of July 
next, and have delegated to the undersigned Committee the 
pleasing duty of inviting some of the distinguished Whigs 
of the Union to meet and hold counsel with us upon that occa- 
sion. In the performance of this pleasing duty, the undersigned 
most respectfully solicit you to accept the invitation hereby ex- 
tended in behalf of the Whigs of Georgia, to be with them in 
their Convention. 

The restoration of our Government to the healthy and bene- 
ficient action in which it left the hands of its founders, is an 
object devoutly to be desired by every Patriot; and, as Georgia 
was one of the first States of the Union that checked the mis- 
chievous spirit which was defeating the hopes inspired by our 
triumph of 1840, she appeals to you, Sir, to aid her, by your 
presence and your counsel, to sustain her position in the com- 
ing contest. 

We have the honor to be. 

Very Respectfully, 

Your Obedient Servants, 

Augustus Reese, 
Elijah E. Jones, 
Charles Whiting, 
Ernest L. Wittich, 
C. R. Hauleiter, 

Hon. W. P. Mangum, 
N. C. 

[Addressed : ] Hon. Wiley P. Mangum 

Red Mountain, North- -Carolina. 



134 State Department of Archives and History 

Henry Clay to Willie P. Mangum,^^^ 

Ashland, June 7, 1844 
My Dear Sir, 

I take the liberty of troubling you herewith, with a pack- 
age containing my speech, delivered at Raleigh in April last. 
You will oblige me very much if you will have it put under 
another cover if necessary, give it your frank, and transmit it 
to its address without delay. 

Are our Democratic friends serious in the nominations 
which they have made at Baltimore of candidates for President, 
and Vice President ?2^2 I have supposed that their object was 
to get rid of the Convention, and ultimately to get rid of Mr. 
Polk, and bring out Mr. Van Buren, or retaining Mr. Polk as 
the candidate for the South West, to bring Mr. Van Buren out 
in some form, as the candidate for the North. In that way they 
might calculate to be able to throw upon Mr. Polk all the 
Democratic votes for Texas, and upon Mr. Van Buren all the 
Democratic votes against Texas. But nous verrons. It is of very 
little consequence to us what their real designs may be; for no 
matter how many candidates or who they bring out, we must 
beat them with ease if we do one half of our duty. 

Your friend truly and faithfully, 
(Signed) H. Clay 

The Hon^i^ W. P. Mangum 


Printed Circular from Vandalia Committee 
to Willie P. Mangum,. 

Vandalia, Illinois, June 8th. 1844. 
Hon Sir 

The Whigs of Illinois, having resolved to assemble en masse 
at this place, on the 17th proximo, we have the honor to solicit 
a visit from you, on that occasion. Your well known and pa- 

^^The original is in the possession of Miss Anne L. Turner and Mrs. John A. Livingston, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

^^At the time of Polk's nomination, many Whigs, including Clay and Mangum, underestimated 
Polk's popular appeal. Crittenden, however, appreciating the appeal of the Democratic platform, 
wrote Clay on June 17, " we have a great battle to fight. " Van Deusen, Life of Clay, ^61. 

The Mangum Papers 135 

triotic devotion to those cardinal principles, on which the fu- 
ture prosperity of our country, and the permanency of our in- 
stitutions depend, causes us to believe that your presence 
would cheer up the so "oft defeated but never conquered" 
Whigs of Illinois, and add even greater intensity to the en- 
thusiasm which now fires the bosom of every true friend of 
[the] Union and of the Great Statesman of the West - Henry 

We have the honor to be, 
Yours &c. 

Q. C. Alexander, 
F. Remann, 
Lemuel Lee, 
Wm. M. Black, 
C. H. Hodge, 

Committee of Invitation. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P Mangum M. C. 

D. C. 

William Stevens to Willie P, Mangum. 

Burnet, Vt. 

[June 10, 1844] 

Dear Sir In perusing different publications respecting the 
annexation of texas I have concluded to present for investiga- 
tion my views in some respects according to the information 
collected. Mexico it appears are the rightful owners of the ter- 
ritory of Texas except that part which has heretofore been dis- 
posed of by them, and much of it no doubt [under] orthority 
to obtain settlers to form a colony, the latter becoming dis- 
affected revolted and declared themselves independent and have 
thus far sustained it, but until reconciliation between the 
former and the latter should be concluded and ratified by the 

136 State Department of Archives and History 

former under an agreement in writing and ceded to the latter 
they have no just claim to the remainder of the territory, as all 
title comes from a v^ell organized and a regular instituted Gov- 
ernment, and it appears that the Texas territory has heretofore 
been ceded by such a Government, or Governments. There- 
fore the present system by Tyler cannot be recommended for 
reasons, first, it sets the example of force v^hich is not of a moral 
principle, Second, it leaves an open space for revolt and estab- 
lishes the principles of Aristocracy, Furthermore the Acknowl- 
edgement of Texas independence by the United States Govern- 
ment or any other power gives them no title. Accept by 
Mexico whome & reasonable compensation should be granted 
if required and paid by the Texas Government or the United 
States as the agreement may be at or after annexation. Such a 
system in my view would do honor to this Republic and set an 
example to posterity on whose heads may the honor and 
glory ever rest who follows its precepts. My request is after the 
above has been investigated by the Senate, the same may be 
done by the house of Representatives, and then to be left with 
the Secretary of State to remain in that department. 

Yours respectfully 

William Stevens 

[Addressed:] To the President of the Senate 

In Congress 

Washington City 

District of Columbia. 

James W. Pegram & others to Willie P. Mangum. 

Richmond June 12 1844 
Dear Sir 

In behalf of the Central Clay Club of this City we are 
charged with the agreeable duty of asking the favor of you to 
visit this city and to address our club, after the adjournment 
of Congress. 

In view of the interesting character of the political contest 
now at hand, we trust you will not allow any small amount of 

The Mangum Papers 137 

personal inconvenience to deprive the Whigs of this portion of 
Virginia of the benefit of your valuable co-operation, to the ex- 
tent now solicited. 

Hoping you will permit us to report to our associates your 
acceptance of our invitation, and the day on which we may ex- 
pect your arrival, we assure you of the high respect with which 
we are 

Your obt. Servants, 

James W. Pegram ) 

Th: Nelson ) Committee &c. &c. 

A. Moseley ) 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 


Honble. W. P. Mangum 
Senate U. S. 
Washington City. 

W. iS. Archer to Willie P. Mangum. 

[Possibly June 1844] 
Dear Mangum 

I am going to write to Gen. Pegram tonight, that I will ar- 
rive in Richmond to dine with him on tuesday before which 
day I cannot leave here. — 

Shall I say, that I may bring you with me? He will have 
Leigh and others of the best to meet us. 


W. S. Archer. 

Hon. Mr. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Mr. Mangum 
Ind. Avenue. 

138 State Department of Archives and History 

R. B. Gilliam to Willie P. Mangum. 

LouiSBURG, N. C. June 13. 1844 
Hon W. P. Mangum, 

Dear Sir, 

Our friends have most unexpectedly nominated me as 
presidential elector for this district. As reluctant as I am, on 
several accounts, to engage again in active politicks, yet having 
accepted the nomination I feel it to be my duty to prepare my- 
self for the Campaign. If it v^ill not impose too much trouble 
upon you, I will thank you to forward me a copious assortment 
of such Documents as throw most light upon all the subjects of 
difference between the two parties — The Speeches of Mr Phelps 
and of others on the Tariff — of Mr Benton, Mr Choate, and Mr 
Rives-^^ on the Texas treaty - and such others as you may rec- 
ommend on other subjects, would be desirable. 

Congressional documents in relation to these subjects, for 
the sake of reference might be of service. 

Any expense incurred will be promptly met by me upon 
your return, which I presume will be in a few days. 

Should I be in Oxford on your return it would give me very 
sincere pleasure to see you at my house. 

Mr Hoke has passed through this place, but has left no im- 

I am with high respect 

R. B. Gilliam 

Louisburg N C 
June 14 1844. Free 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Washington City. 

^o^He refers to the speeches of Samuel S. Phelps, of Vermont, T. H. Benton, of Missouri, Rufus 
Choate, of Massachusetts, and W. C. Rives, of Virginia. 

The Mangum Papers 139 

B. B. Blume^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Memphis Tenn. June 15th. 1844. 
Honl. W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir. 

I arrived here safely & in due time — I found the Bar 
greatly crowded - but think the number but a slight obstacle 
to final success — Many inexperienced professional men "wend 
their way to the western wilds" expecting a profession alone to 
place them in prosperity — Hence there are but few men of busi- 
ness - fewer perhaps than in the Courts in the "Old States" — 
Much of the population, in this section of the State, are among 
the finest specimens of the "American Planter" — The state of 
agriculture is improving fast, & I have recently met with many 
gentlemen who say that they are "settled for life" — 

Could you furnish me with any thing calculated to do good 
to the Whig cause, it might be well to send it to me — There is 
no waveing in the ranks - & the State is certain — But this is a 
great thorougfare & much good can be done here, which will 
tell in other States — Politics do not belong to my trade - but 
as I have leisure, I think it due to my country, to be doing a 
part of the work before the people — The great importance of 
this contest should awaken every friend to law & to the honor 
of his country, to the use of all his powers — I write this, be- 
cause the servant neglected, as I think, to place my former 
letter in the office — Your obliged friend 

B. B. Blume. 


Honl. W. P. Mangum 
Prest. U. S. Senate 
Red Mountain 
N. Ca. 

2«*See above. I, 350n. 

140 State Department of Archives and History 

iS. A. WaZes^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Eatonton Georgia 

29th June 1844 
Hon Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

Will you permit a Stranger to occupy your attention for 
a moment. 

I am very anxious to hear from No. Carolina - as to the 
probable vote of the State for President — 

Will you do me the kindness to give me your opinion in re- 
gard to it. 

In this State w^e have just had a Convention to nominate 
Electors — Delegates were in attendance from all parts of the 
State. The prevailing opinion at the Convention was, that the 
vote of Georgia would be given to Mr Clay, by a majority of 
from 3 to 5000. The only difficulty we have, is the Texas ques- 
tion — 

Your reply if you favor me with one shall not be published 

Very Resply Yr Obt Servt 

S. A. Wales 
[Addressed : ] 

Honl. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain P. O. 
Orange Co 
No. Carolina. 

George S. Yerhy^"^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Eastville Northampton County 

Virginia June 29th 1844. 
Dear Sir 

Although I am a stranger to you I know you very well po- 
litically- I have long known you as a distinguished leader of 

2"6Samuel A. Wales was the chairman of a general committee of Putnam County, in which 
Eatonton is located. He endorsed Calhoun's position on slavery. He was also chairman of his 
county's Whig Committee. Niles' Register, LXXII, 389; Boucher and Brooks (ed. ), "Correspondence 
of Calhoun," A. H. A. Report of 1929, I. 382-383. 

2<^Unable to identify. 

The Mangum Papers 141 

the Whig party & a zealous & able advocate of Whig principles 
& warm personal & political friend of Mr. Clay's. Therefore it 
is that I presume to write to you upon political Matters & I feel 
very sure that you will pardon me for so doing. When I inform 
you as I now do that I too am a Whig of many years growth & 
that my object is simply to gain information respecting the 
prospects of the Whig party & our distinguished candidate 
Henry Clay, in different parts of the union, but specially in the 
Old North State. For give me leave to tell you that the Locos 
rely with seeming confidence on old Rip Van's Electorial Vote 
for Polk & Dallas - but I fear every confidence that at this 
time — He is wide awake & will go for old Harry Clay. As 
Chairman of the committee of correspondence of our Clay 
Club I am very desireous to gain all the information I can 
from Various parts of the Union & I am quite sure that you can 
form as correct an opinion as to the probable result of the pend- 
ing contest as any other Gentleman of the Whig party 

Was any answer ever more unexpected or wonderful than 
the nomination of Polk & Dallas & to none I am sure, more so 
than to the Nominees. One is constrained to enquire- What 
Services has Mr. Polk at any time rendered the country to en- 
title him to the highest honours in the gift of a free people? Of 
what peculiar Qualifications & fitness for so responsible and so 
important a Station can He boast? None that ever I have heard 
of. I have never estimated the man any thing over & beyond 
a good County Court Lawyer and a pretty fair Stump Speaker- 
Be this just or otherwise- He cannot lay Claim to any thing 
like Statesmanship- 

I have also regard him as the tool & sycophant of Andrew 
Jackson & Martin Van Buren and ready at all times to do their 
bidding and I believe that he has justifyed every measure- 
every corrupt act & every outrage - that so peculiarly dis- 
tinguished & characterised Jackson & Van Burens administra- 
tions & their party in & out of Congress. What possible chance 
can such a man stand of being elected President of the U S - 
Whose qualifications & Claims are so small if not contemptable? 

Do you think it probable (I had like to have said possible) 
that Ja« K Polk Esqr.- Who is Anti Tariff- Anti distribution- 
Anti one term for the Presidency &.c. &c. Who is for Annexa- 
tion- right or wrong- just or faithless to Mexico- Union or Dis- 
solution of the States- War or no War- Who in fact seems to 

142 State Department of Archives and History 

be Anti every thing that will preserve the Honour of the Na- 
tion & promote the interest of the people, v^ill defeat the elec- 
tion of such-a man- such a Statesman & Patriot as Henry Clay- 
A man who from his youth up has kept the Republican faith & 
whose career has been Brilliant & Noble beyond any example 
in Modern times — A man who has served his country- Long- 
served it well & served it faithfully- Who has twice saved the 
Union (which union I regret to see the Calhounites endeavour- 
ing now destr[ucti]on) & if elected President will endeavour 
I doubt, not to established permanently, sound Republican & 
American principles & Measures. I think it is not probable from 
the very bottom of my Heart I say God forbid that he should. 
Although I fear he is a more formidable opponent than Mr. Van 
Buren-Cass or Johnson would have been. 

But to return to the object I had in writing this Letter which 
is to ascertain your opinion & connection as to the final result 
of this contest, & I will not trouble you farther with my own 
speculation & feelings. 

Will Polk & Dallas carry in November Next NORTH CARO- 
LINA? For the sake of the country-answer No. & answer correct- 
ly. Will they carry either- Georgia- Tennessee- Maryland- Indi- 
ana- Ohio- New York or Pennsylvania. To cut the matter short- 
What states will Polk & Dallas carry- What states will Clay & 
Frelinghauysen carry & which states are doubtful? I greatly 
fear we shall loose Virgina- in consequence of the Texas Ques- 
tion- which is seized upon to Humbug the people- But our 
Leading Whigs- Do not think so. 

What effect will the Texas Question have upon the Presi- 
dential election- in the South- North & West? But I have pun- 
ished you quite enough. In conclusion- Let me entreat you to 
exert all Your Great Powers & influence to secure Mr. Clay's 
Election. I am my Dear Sir 

Yr. Obt. Servt. 

George S. Yerby 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon.^ W. P. Mangum 
United States Senator 
Red Mountain 
North Carolina 

The Mangum Papers 143 



[July, 1844] 

of paramount importance at this time; we hereby call on the 
several candidates for Congress and the Legislature in this 
district to make known through the public prints, whether they 
are for or against immediate annexation, and whether they will 
support for the presidency, HENRY CLAY, MARTIN VAN 
BUREN, or any other man, opposed to the immediate annexa- 
tion of Texas. 

(We have not the resolutions passed at Pickens at hand, but 
they are of the same purport.) 

LATURE, through the Anderson Gazzette, by "Many Voters." 

Mr. Editor - To those candidates for the Legislature who 
have responded to certain inquiries heretofore addressed to 
them by a portion of their fellow citizens, and to others who 
may be disposed to answer, we beg leave to propound a few 
additional interrogatories, touching Federal and State policy. 

1st. Do you or not, concur in the resolution adopted at a 
public meeting of the citizens of Beaufort District, in this State, 
& openly approved of in other quarters declaring that they will 
"dissolve this Union sooner than abandon Texas?"^^^ 

2nd. Do you or not, approve of the proposition made at pub- 
lic meetings in several of the middle Districts of this State, to 
hold a State Convention in Columbia for the purpose of effect- 
ing an organized resistance to the laws of the United States 
or the proposition to hold a Southern Convention at Nashville, 
Tennessee, to devise means for the immediate annexation of 
Texas to the Union; or to dissolve the Union and annex it to 
the Southern States? 

^^This is a printed circular of the questions asked at Anderson, South Carolina. 

^^In South Carolina talk of secession grew after the tariff was raised in 1842. Cotton prices 
went down to 6.2 cents. An effort to lower the tariff in 1843-1844 failed. In June the Texas 
treaty was defeated. All of these events caused grave concern. Rhett, Hammond and Holmes began 
playing on the prejudices of their people. They called for a Southern Convention. George McDuffie, 
in a speech in Richmond, denied that his state had any intention to secede but opposed the tariff in 
such strong terms that many considered it a call for nullification. Calhoun was alarmed for fear that 
the hotheads would defeat Polk and annexation. He, therefore, got Polk's promise to lower the 
tariff and began undermining Rhett and his Bluffton movement. These questions and answers are 
a part of this secession fight in the summer of 1844. Wiltse, Calhoun: Sectionalist. 187-190. 

144 State Department of Archives and History 

3rd. Do you or not, concur with Mr. McDuffie in believing 
the State of South Carolina possesses the power, and should 
exercise it, of laying a Tariff on all domestic manufactured 
goods, imported into this State from our sister states? 

4th. Do you or not, approve of the course of the Democratic 
majority in Congress in admitting members to seats who were 
elected by general ticket, contrary to a law of the United States, 
remaining on the Statute Book, requiring them to be elected 
by Districts? 

5th. Are you or not, in favor of so altering the law so as to 
give the election of Presidential electors to the people? 

6th. Are you or not, in favor of increasing the jurisdiction 
of the Ordinary in matters of real estate. If yea, to what ex- 

7th. Are you or not, in favor of dividing the election Dis- 
trict of Pendleton, in whole if possible, and if not, as to Repre- 
sentatives only? 

8th Do you or not, approve of the amendment to the con- 
stitution passed by the last legislature and to be confirmed by 
the ensuing one limiting the term of the Judges to sixty-five 
years of age? 

9th. Are you or not, in favor of curtailing expenditures, by 
abolishing the offices of Superintendant of public works, and 
Ad j ut ant-General ? 

Believing it to be the duty of every aspirant to political pre- 
ferment to answer any question, touching public matters if 
asked byt single individual, a full and explicit answer to the 
above interrogatories is expected and requested from each candi- 
date for the legislature by 



Fellow-Citizens: - The Undersigned candidates for your suf- 
frages at the approaching election for the Legislature, having 
compared notes, and finding that they fully concur in opinion in 
order that their views may be more generally known, take this 
method of responding to certain inquiries addressed to them by 
meetings held at Anderson and Pickens, on sale day in June, 

The Mangum Papers 145 

and certain others asked by ''Many Voters," through the columns 
of the "Anderson Gazette," of the 28th ult.; copies of each of 
which are appended above. 

We answer, 1st. That we are in favor of the annexation 
of Texas to the American Union, as a matter of great national 
importance, as soon as it can possibly be done consistently with 
the honor and interest of the country. 

2d. Regarding all the candidates for the Presidency as in 
favor of annexation, and only differing as to the proper time 
and mode, we do not hestitate to say, that we will vote for no 
man for the Presidency who is opposed to the annexation of 
Texas to the Union; but it is due that we should say in this 
connection, that we will under no circumstances, vote for 
James K. Polk, having no confidence in him, and regarding him 
as wholly unworthy of the trust in every point of view. His 
name has hitherto remained unknown to fame - he has made no 
sacrifice - performed no service for his country, to entitle him 
to so distinguished a position. Most of the little character he 
acquired during his short career in Congress, was by his ad- 
vocacy of measures deadly hostile to South Carolina, and de- 
structive to the dearest interests of the Southern States. He has 
originated no great measures for the benefit of his country, nor 
has he evinced his adherence to any other political principles 
than his party leaders, for the time being, have seen fit to dic- 
tate to him. He is destitute of the commanding talent - the 
stern political integrity - the high moral firmness, and the broad 
and enlightened patriotism that it is absolutely essential the 
Chief Magistrate of the Union should possess at this crisis; and 
having been twice rejected for the office of Governor in his own 
State - having no hold upon the confidence or affections of his 
countrymen at home, and no talent to command respect for us 
abroad he is not the man for the times or for the Union, and we 
at least, are unwilling [to entrust] him with the chief command 
of our Army and Navy. 

If the Presidential election were to turn on the annexation 
of Texas, as an abstract proposition, losing sight of everything 
else, then should we be in favor of the election of John Tyler 
as the author of the present effort at annexation; but if it 
should turn (as it unquestionably will) upon other matters, 
in connection with the Texas question - if to select a man for 
President who has served his country long and faithfully - one 

146 State Department of Archives and History 

whose genius has entered into the very spirit of our institu- 
tions - whose great talents and commanding eloquence has 
eclipsed his contemporaries of the same time, and reflected 
honor upon his country for near half a century - one who en- 
joys the confidence and affections of his countrymen in an ex- 
traordinary degree - who, in the language of the Charleston 
Mercury, in 1837, "is a bold, brave, high-minded, honorable 
man." If to get a man for the times, and for the Union - one 
who would restore peace and good will at home, and command 
respect for us abroad - a republican of the old school, and a 
patriot and philanthropist in the broadest sense of the terms - 
one who has the nerve and ability to allay sectional prejudice 
and political strife, and preserve our glorious Union, with all 
its blessings of civil and religious liberty; and who, by noble 
deeds, has earned the Presidential office, (without approving 
all his political principles,) be objects worthy of our approba- 
tion, then we are in favor of HENRY CLAY, as possessing all 
these in an eminent degree. 

In answer to the inquiries propounded through the "Ander- 
son Gazette," by "Many Voters," we reply: 

1st. We do not concur in the resolution adopted at a meet- 
ing of the citizens, of Beaufort District, in this State, and ap- 
proved elsewhere. However we may be in favor of the annexa- 
tion of Texas, we are not willing to dissolve this Union to ob- 
tain it. 

The preservation of the Union of these States is an object 
near our hearts, believing that upon its perpetuity depends the 
last hope of freedom throughout the world. We would rather, 
in the language of the immortal Jefferson, in the Declaration 
of American Independence, " suffer whilst evils are sufferable," 
than dissolve the Union cemented by the blood of our fathers. 

2nd. We do not concur in the proposition to hold a State 
Convention in Columbia, for the purpose of resisting the laws 
of the United States; (or, as we understand it, to Nullify the 
Tariff;) nor in the proposition to hold a Southern Convention 
at Nashville, Tennesee, in reference to the annexation of Texas. 
We do not think our grievances sufficient to justify the one, 
or that the other would have the slightest influence in effecting 
the object desired - but would rather operate as a fire-brand 
whose ultimate effect would be to dissolve this Union. 

The Mangum Papers 147 

3d. We do not concur with McDuffie in believing that a 
State of this Union possesses the power to lay a Tariff on the 
importation of domestic manufactures, or that it would be ex- 
pedient to exercise it, if we did possess the constitutional power. 

4th. We do not approve of the course of the Democratic ma- 
jority in Congress in admitting members to seats who were 
elected by general ticket, in direct violation of the law of the 
land, nor do we approve of their course in expunging from the 
journals the patriotic protest of the Whigs made upon that oc- 
casion. We regard their conduct as in a high degree disor- 
ganizing and revolutionary - setting the laws of their country 
at defiance - trampling the Constitution under foot, and lead- 
ing directly to anarchy and despotism. 

5th. We are in favor of so altering the law as to give the 
election of Presidential electors to the people, as being decided- 
ly more democratic, and in accordance with the spirit of our 
institutions. In a Government like ours all power is vested in 
the people and should, in all cases, emanate directly from them. 

6th. We are in favor of increasing the jurisdiction of the 
Ordinary in matters of real estate, to any extent the representa- 
tives of the people may in their wisdom think proper, as being a 
great saving to every class of our citizens, and desirable in 
every point of view. We are in favor of dividing the [election distri]ct of 
Pendleton in whole, or as to representatives [only, for we] 
would rather have "half a loaf than no bread." 

8th. We do approve of the amendment to the Constitution 
limiting the tenure of the Judges to sixty-five years of age, as 
being a means of securing to us at all times more active and 
efficient officers. 

9th. We are in favor of abolishing the office of Superintend- 
ant of Public Works, and of retrenching public expenditures in 
every practical way. The office of Adjutant-General, we are dis- 
posed to think, might be dispensed with by requiring the more 
faithful discharge of their duties, and increasing those duties 
to some extent, of Division and Brigade field-officers. 

We have thus, fellow citizens, in the discharge of what we 
considered our bounden duty to you as candidates for your suf- 
frages, answered fully and frankly the various questions you 
have been pleased to propound to us, with others; and pledge 
ourselves, if honored by you with seats in the Legislature to 

148 State Department of Archives and History 

carry out, as far as may be in our power, the various reforms 
in the laws of the State suggested by your interrogatories, and 
approved by us; having an eye singly directed, at all times, to 
the honor and interest of our common country. 
We have the honor to remain, 

Most respectfully, your fellow-citizens, 

J. P. Reed, 
J. E. Calhoun, 
a. w. holcomb, 
Chester Kingsley, 
J. Overton Lewis, 
Samuel Milwee, 
W. G. Speed. 

July, 1844. 

Robert B. Gilliam to Willie P. Mangum. 

Oxford July 1st. 1844. 
My dear Sir, 

Your political frends are exceedingly anxious that you 
should attend a Barbecue to be given at Brassfield's in this 
County, on Saturday the 6th inst. — Permit me to say, that your 
presence on that occasion would exert a very decided influence 
upon publick opinion in that section. 

The democratick party have been making heavy demonstra- 
tions upon this County, with a view as well to carry the County 
election, as to operate upon the presidential contest. At a rec- 
ent meeting at Brassfields, they were represented by two ora- 
tors, one domestic, the other imported. I was not present, but 
I understand, one of them relied greatly upon your authority to 
prejudice the people against Whig measures, and the Whig 
Candidate for the Presidency. I shall attend myself and take 
such part in the discussions, as the State of my health will en- 
able me to bear without too much hazard; but my presence will 
be a matter of the least possible importance, if we shall be so 
fortunate to have your co-operation. Before making the re- 
quest I have well considered the distinguished position occupied 

The Mangum Papers 149 

by you in the councils of the Country, and I cannot perceive in 
that circumstance, any thing to prevent you from giving your 
influence and talents to the advancement of the great cause of 
which you are one of the acknowledged leaders. 

If it could be understood immediately that you will attend 
the barbecue, it would insure the attendance of an immense con- 
course of people. 

I am with high respect 
RoBT. B. Gilliam 

N. B. Brassfields is in the Southern part of the Country near 
Wilton (Carters). If you could be at Wilton the evening of the 
5th, I will endeavour to meet you there. R. B. G. 

We have understood that you will be expected to attend a 
meeting of the Clay Club at Forsyth's on the same day. 

If we had been aware of it, we could have made a different 
arrangement - but now it is too late. The Clay Club can very 
conveniently postpone its meeting to a subsequent day — The 
barbecue cannot be postponed. I would most earnestly request 
that you will not permit any consideration to interfere with 
your attendance at Brassfields. It is a matter of the last import- 


Yours truly 

R B G 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon: Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange Co. 
N. C. 

John Cameron to Willie P. Mangum. 

July 1st. 1844 
Hon. Wiley P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

I have been requested by Messrs Gilliam, Little John & 
others of our mutual friends in this place to earnestly request, 

150 State Department of Archives and History 

that you will consent to meet them at a Barbecue to be given at 
Brassfields on Saturday next. We are already aware that you 
have given your consent to attend on that day at Samuel For- 
syth's, but trust that the urgency of the case will be deemed a 
sufficient excuse for your altering that arrangement. At the 
Barbecue given by our opponents at Brassfields on thursday 
last, the time was entirely occupied by Messrs, McRea & Ven- 
able^"^ to the entire exclusion of the Whigs who v\^ere present 
as invited Guests. This course of the other party induced our 
friends here to make arrangements for a similar entertainment, 
to be free for all parties & numerous invitations have been sent 
out to their leading men requesting them to attend & take it 
turn & turn about. I am further requested to say that this is the 
only real debateahle ground in the County. What Gilliam calls 
the Flanders of Granville, that the other party will doubtless 
be there in force & that if you ever wished to strike a good blow 
for the Whig cause this now is the time, & this the place. Gil- 
liam says that if you will come to this place on Friday that he 
will take you over on Saturday morning in his carriage or that 
if you prefer he will meet you on Friday evening at Carters. 
With sentiments of the highest esteem & regard I remain 

Yrs. truly 

Jno. Cameron 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon: Wilie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange Co 
No. Ca. 

Richard Hines to [Willie P. Mangum] 

Raleigh 4th. July 1844 
My dear Sir, 

You will see from the last Whig papers in this place that we 
have appointed Whig mass meetings to be held at Wadesborough 
on Thursday the 18th. inst and at Statesville on the 25*^. both 

*°»He probably refers to Ehincan McRae, of Cumberland, and Abraham W. Venable, of Granville. 

The Mangum Papers 151 

of which we are extremely anxious you should attend. Here 
we have but one opinion that no other man in the State can 
produce the same effect by his presence and speech as yourself 
we are therefore the more anxious for you to attend the above 
meetings and as many others as your convienience will admit- 

Our friends here are all willing to do and doing all in their 
power except Mr. Badger who seams to take a very deep in- 
terest in the canvass but as far as I am informed has as yet 
contributed in no way to its success- Do you think it would be 
desirable for him to be active in the campaign except with his 
pen? We yesterday raised a subscription to have ten thousand 
copies of Mr. Clay's speech at this place published which we 
hope will have a beneficial effect. 

The Loco's are exerting themselves to the uttermost to carry 
this state if possible and seam certain of reducing Mr. Graham's 
majority to a very small one if he is elected. Whilst the Whigs 
in all parts of the State except Bertie and Beaufort are not as 
active as they ought to be- Mr. Barringer informs us there is 
much luke warmness in his neighbourhood but he promised to 
do his best to arouse them as does Mr. Clingman CaldwelP^*^ &c. 
Rely upon it if we are not up and adoing we shall be hard 
pressed both to elect the Gov: & Legislatures- 

Saunders was met by Stanly at Greenville as we are in- 
formed greatly to the advantage of the Whigs. He failed to 
meet his appointment at Beaufort and Williamston, Cherry and 
Stanly^^^ attending and addressing the different meetings. He 
attended at Windsor where we are informed he was trium- 
phantly met by Cherry who promised accompany him to the 
rest of his appointments. 

Rumour which we credit says that Henry Haywood and 
Saunders^^^ are to canvass the whole Western part of the State. 
They have all certainly promised to attend the mass meeting at 
Charlott as well as McDuffie and Calhoun- If you could hap- 
pen there at the time it would impose great restraint upon 

We find it impossable to arouse our papers here but Loring 
promises to run the whole set up Salt River and being very 
angry will no doubt do his best, Hale is also doing his best- 
By appointment all the candidates for this county were to 

^i^homas L. Clingman and Tod R. Caldwell. 

2iiEdward Stanly and W. W. Cherry. 

2iJ2Louis D. Henry, Will. H. Haywood, Jr., and R. M. Saunders. 

152 State Department of Archives and History 

meet here last Saturday and all attended except Thompson.^^'^ 
Manly made one of the most affective Electioneering speeches 
I ever heard both the matter and manner was first rate. Miller 
made a first rate speech in reply to Wilder^^* but a little too 
spicy he has fine abilities but is rather servere- We calculate 
with much confidence on electing part of our ticket, and hope 
to elect Manly Miller & Hinton^^^ but probably shall not get 
more than one or two. our prospects are certainly improving 
at present. 

The Whigs have given Hoke^^^ too much credit as a gentle- 
man of liberality entitled to all kindness &c. He is as great a 
demagogue as the state contains and has made the most of 
every kindness extended to him by the Whigs. As for instance 
when he has not been answered he and his friends say it was 
because he was an over match for the Whigs and they afraid 

He ought to be met at every cross roads and receive no quar- 
ters as he gives none — Rely upon it he is playing his cards great- 
ly to our injury at present, and some of our friends begin to des- 
pair of Graham's election but I can but think they are alarmed 
without cause. 

The declining health of eldest daughter compels me to leave 
in a few days for Old point Comfort to try the benefit of sea 
Bathing and I may be compelled to be absent much of the sum- 
mer- In my absence Gov: Morehead will act as Chairman of the 
central committee. How would it do for the Gov: to attend the 
mass meeting in the Western part of the State. I shall certainly 
return to the election. If you have any acquaintances at Old 
Point you would much oblige me by inclosing me a letter to 
them, as I have no acquaintance there nor none of my friends 

I have the Honor to be with 
sentiments of great Respect 
Very sincerely & truly yours 

Richd: Hines 

^"George W. Thompson was in the legislature in 1844-1849. N, C. Manual, 831. 
2i*Gaston H. Wilder was in the legislature from 1842 to 1847 and 1852 to 1857. N. C 
Manual, 831. 

2i6He refers to Charles Manly, Henry W. Miller, and C. L. Hinton. 

^"'Michael Hoke, the Democratic candidate for governor, was defeated by W. A. Graham. 

The Mangum Papers 153 

Jonathan Worth^^'^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

AsHEBORo' July 8th 1844 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Dr Sir 

We have learned within a day or two past that Judge 
Saunders is to address us on the 16th Inst, being Tuesday of an 
extra Term of the Supr. Court- No electoral Candidate has as 
yet been appointed in this district and in looking round for a 
proper person to reply to him, it turns out to be the universal 
wish of all us that you should be the man. As he is a member 
of Congress, well versed in the political questions of the day 
and has thought proper to publish appointments and travel out 
of his own County and district to make Texas speeches, we see 
no impropriety in your meeting him. Great apathy prevails 
among the Whigs of this County- and we are apprehensive that 
we shall not be able to get them to the polls in August- If you 
should see in it no impropriety and should find it convenient to 
reply to the general here, we think it would do much to re- 
animate our party There is no defection from the Whig ranks 
here- our danger is merely that Mr Graham will not get the 
full Whig vote, by a failure of the voters to go to the polls- 

A Clay Club was held here to-day and it is at the request 
of all the Whigs present that I make this invitation- It is not in 
consequence of any public resolve in the meeting but at the in- 
dividual request of the Whigs present — 

Yours with great respect 

Jonathan Worth. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Wile P. Mangum 
Red Mountain N. C. 

ai7For a sketch of Jonathan Worth see J. G. de R. Hamihon (ed.). The Correspondence of 
Jonathan Worth, Raleigh, 1909, I. v-xiii. and D. A. B., XX, 536. 

154 State Department of Archives and History 

S. Starkweather^ ^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

N. York 9 July 1844 
Dr Sir 

I have just completed my pressing business w^hich had ac- 
cumulated, in my absence, and gave w^ay last evening to the 
pressing invitation of my friends to appear before our citizens — 
It was hard work & I admit I came to scratch with reluctance 
But the worst is over and day after to morrow I leave for the 
interior. My work is laid out & I hope to perform it with success, 
no exertion shall be wanting on my part There is great excite- 
ment throughout the State. The Whig party were never so united. 
One heart seems to be with them all — The ability of the locos 
to lie is making Polk a harder candidate for us than Mr V B 
would have been They swear he is Tariff, to the huh, & every 
thing else which he is not but should be. I am anxious to hear 
from the south & see that you are moveing I think we shall lose 
Virginia but if it is by a small majority it will do no harm. 
But if contrary to expectation we carry it, and you carry the 
old north State likewise we may give her the next president 
But I have little or no hopes of your State, or that you will make 
a decent fight you know Senator some gentlemen are great on 
paper, some in the parlor but in the field, why they leave that 
to others. I do not intend to give up, however, but hope you 
may do better than my forebodings warrant. We shall carry 
this state hut have to fight every inch of the ground & intend to 
do so. I will write you from the interior by & by & tell you to a 
dot where we are. Wishing you all prosperity, 

I am truly yours 
S. Starkweather. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon Willie P Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange Co. 
N Carolina. 

2i8See above, III, 316-318, 479-481. 

Courtesy of Frick Art Reference Library 
Mordecai Manuel Noah, 1785-1851. From the oil portrait by J. W. Jarvis in the 
Shearith Isreal Synagogue Collection, New York City. 

The Mangum Papers 155 

John M. Morehead to Willie P. Mangum. 

Raleigh 10th July 1844. 

Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

A mass-meeting of the Whigs is appointed to take 
place on the 18th. Int. at Wadesboro — & another on the 25th at 
Statesville — 

It is very desirable that some speaker from a distance should 
attend these meetings to rouse up our friends — ^which I assure 
you, is very much needed. 

And no person of my acquaintance can do this more effec- 
tively than yourself. The week between the 18th & 25th you can 
visit Charlotte & be present at least, which I have no doubt will 
have some tendency to keep the Democracy who hold a mass- 
meeting on 23rd in check. It is probable there will be other 
meetings that you may attend. 

Most extraordinary efforts are making to carry the elections 
of this State - Haywood receives whole bags of documents by the 
mails & the press here is engaged striking off tracts, & they are 
sending them off by the small waggon loads - to different parts 
of the State — While the Whigs seem to think the opposition not 
very serious & are not so zealous as they should be. I know of 
no person likely to go to these meetings from this quarter, un- 
less you do so — 

I think a meeting would do much good about Pattersons 
Store in the neighborhood of John Long's about the 29th or 30th 
July — If you think so get it up- Randolph, Chatham & Guil- 
ford, would attend — Let me hear from you — 

Yrs. Sincerely 
J. M. Morehead 

[Addressed:] Honl Willie P. Mangum 

Red Mountain 
N. C. 

156 State Department of Archives and History 

John Kerr^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Raleigh July 12th 1844 
Dear Sir. 

A few days since I had a public political discussion with Genl 
R M Saunders, at Williamsboro' in Granville. — In the course of 
that discussion, Genl Saunders used substantially the following 
language in regard to yourself when speaking of the action of 
the Senate upon the treaty recently negotiated by Mr. Whea- 
ton. — 

"I affirm" said he, - "that in regard to this treaty, Wilie P 
Mangum betrayed the interest of North Carolina, and William H 
Haywood supported that interest, and if Wilie P Mangum has 
friends here I desire that they will inform him of what I now 
say. I expected when I came here to have met him — "^^^ 

I feel it my duty to make to you this Communication, that 
you may take such course in regard to the subject of it, as you 
deem best.- Allow me to add, that I think you owe it to your- 
self no less than to the Whig Party, to give us the benefit of your 
able service in public discussions during the pending presidential 
canvass — 

You may not be aware of what I know to be the fact - that 
you are the object of the bitter and unrelenting hostility, of the 
leaders of Loco focoism, in North Carolina and they let no op- 
portunity of inflicting an injury upon you pass without improve- 
ment — 

I trust you will not deem me officious in addressing you this 
letter,- The regard I entertain for you, both personally, and as 

2i9john Kerr, 1811-1879, the son of a Congressman by the same name, practiced law at Yancey- 
ville until he entered Congress in 1853. He was a Whig, a trustee of Wake Forest College and the 
state university. Later he was judge of the superior and supreme courts of North Carolina. Biog. 
Dir. of Cong., 1406. 

22oin the winter of 1843-1844, Henry Wheaton, American minister to Berlin, made a trade 
agreement with the German ZoUverein by which duties on tobacco and lard imported into Germany 
were reduced, raw cotton was put on the free list, and rice was admitted at a low rate. In return, 
the United States reduced its rates on goods imported from Germany. The treaty was presented to 
the Senate in April, 1844. It was contrary to the existing tariff law but Tyler proposed to have the 
Congress change the existing law if the Senate approved the treaty. Under these conditions the Senate 
Whigs laid the treaty on the table. Chitwood, Ltfe of Tyler, 332-333. 

The Mangum Papers 157 

one of the most distinguished & highly honored members of the 
party with which we both act- has prompted me to do so — 

Very Sincerely your 

friend & obt Svt 

John Kerr 

Hon W P Mangum 

[Addresed:] Hon. Wilie P Mangum 

Red Mountain 
Orange County 
N Carolina 


R. W. Lassiter^^^ et als. to Willie P. Mangum. 

Oxford, July 14th, 1844. 
Hon Willie P. Mangum, 

Dear Sir, 

At an informal meeting of some of your friends in this 
place, the undersigned were appointed a committee to invite 
you to a barbecue to be given at Oxford the last tuesday or 
Wednesday of the present month, both as a token of respect for 
your eminent services, and to give you an opportunity of aid- 
ing the Whig cause in this county, by addressing on that oc- 
casion as large a portion of our fellow-citizens as can be got 
together. We hope you will do us the honor to accept the in- 
vitation, and designate on which of the above mentioned days, 
or on what other day, it will be most convenient for you to at- 

We would be urgent in this matter, as we cannot but believe 
it is one of considerable importance. Democracy is making a 
desperate struggle in Old Granville, and without the most 
strenuous exertions on the part of the whigs, we fear, will be 
successful. Permit us, then, to add to the wishes of those whom 
we represent, our most earnest, individual solicitations that 

2^R. W. Lassiter was a representative of Granville County in the state Whig convention in 1846. 
He was a state senator in 1864 and 1868-1869. Greensboro Patriot, January 24, 1846; N. C. 
Manual, 624, 62^. Mangum attended this rally. 

158 State Department of Archives and History 

you will favour us vvrith your presence on the occasion alluded 

With sentiments of the highest 
consideration, v^e have the honor to be 
your obedient servants, 

R. W. Lassiter 
Jno. R. Herndon 
R. H. Kingsbury 
R B Gilliam 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon W. P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 

Chas. E. Russ et als. to Willie P. Mangum. 

Flat River July 15^^ 1844 
Dear Sir.- 

At a meeting of the Clay Club of Flat River, held on the 6*^. 
instant, it w^as unanimously resolved, that your name should be 
enrolled among the honorary members of our Association. A 
committee of three being appointed to notify you of the fact. 
We cherfully perform the task, feeling that we are honored in 
paying a tribute of respect to one who stands so high in the 
estimation of his countrymen one who, in the times that tried 
men's soles, stood side by side with Henry Clay in dispelling 
the cloud that overshadowed our beloved country, in preserv- 
ing the union and battling on the side of the people against the 
encroachments of executive power and usipations and we feel 
sure that you could not give your aid or countinance to any man 
or party that could conspire either against law or liberty- We 
salute you with great respect and would add our fervent wishes 
that many years be added to your honored age, and that you 
may survive not only to witness the elevation of your great 

The Mangum Papers 159 

compatriot Henry Clay to the presidency, but to see our beloved 
country once more free, prosperous, and happy.- 

We remain with perfect respect your Friends 
and fellow citizens 
To Hon Wilie P. Mangum 

Cha.s E. Russ ) 
Carter Waller) Committee 
Moses Roberts ) 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Wilie P. Mangum 
Orange N. C. 

James E. Harvey^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

July 23d. 1844 
Dear Sir 

I take the liberty to enclose to you a Circular which I have 
found it necessary to issue, in Consequence of a very uncere- 
monious removal from office ''ordered" by the acting President 
immediately after the adjournment of Congress — I am ignorant 
of any cause for this Summary proceeding, save, my refusal to 
subscribe to the flagitious schemes of one corrupt & ambitious 
and the fact of having published the result of my reflections up- 
on that vile iniquitous plot - the annexation of Texas. If any 
matters connected with the purposes of my "Circular" should 
fall under your view, I shall greatly esteem any consideration 
that may be bestowed in my behalf. 

At the suggestion of several friends, and with a sincere de- 
sire to be useful in the Campaign, I am now devoting my serv- 
ices to the congressional Committee here, in disseminating 
Whig Doctrines & Documents in all parts of the Country. Your 
State has been, so far liberally served with this matter, but if 
any section has been neglected or should you regard it as es- 
sential to provide those regions already partially supplied, with 
additional light, I shall feel particular pleasure in fulfilling 

^^See above, 94. Harvey, a journalist, was a close friend of Mangum and of other Whig 
leaders including Seward who in 1861 recommended him for minister to Portugal. In this collec- 
tion are several valuable letters from him to Mangum. For his connection with the Fort Sumter in- 
cident see J. G. Randall, Lincoln the President. I, 342-343; Bancroft, William H. Seward, II, 145. 

160 State Department of Archives and History 

your wishes in that respect and shall immediately devote my- 
self to its completion at your notification — I have volunteered 
for the purpose of being useful and it is a feeling of duty and 
desire that will prompt me to take any part however arduous, 
that will accomplish the most good to the cause. Mr. Willis 
Green^^^ has supervised us since the adjournment - He has been 
aided by Mr. Causin of Md. and occasionally by Mr. Merrick 
& Mr. Dillett.-^^ Mr. Garret Davis will join us about the mid- 
dle of next month, after the Elections, at which time Mr. Green 
will probably return to Kentucky. Our force consists of Eight 
or Ten and We act harmoniously & with proper energy and 
spirit. We have intelligence from all sections, exhibiting a de- 
gree of resolution and enthusiasm akin to that of 1840 and a 
power fully equal to a glorious triumph. Nothing has contri- 
buted to inspire courage and confidence, in a greater degree 
than the result in Louisiana.-^^^ Opening the canvass as she 
did, it was all-important that we should maintain a respectable 
party stand - at least, that we should not suffer a disastrous de- 
feat. More than this, the sanguine had not anticipated and the 
timid dreaded much worse — The result has proven the stability 
of Whig principles and has conferred the highest honor upon 
the integrity and firmness of the Senate- Of all states, Louisi- 
ana from her contiguity of Territory, familiarity of intercourse 
and that almost invincible argument of interest, which had cir- 
culated its influence, through the personal exertions of specu- 
lators & scrip holders, was the most liable to be approached & 
the most susceptible upon the issue of anexation and that she 
therefore should have repudiated the plot itself and disgraced 
its chief actors and friends, is a victory over which we may re- 
joice for its own intrinsic Consequence & more for the moral 
effect which it will spread in the Southern Country. 

Our accounts from western New York verify altogether the 
newspaper statements as to the extent of the feeling abroad 
and the numbers actually engaged in the canvass — there is 
every good reason to hope for a more decisive majority than 
was given to Genl. Harrison and with the exertions that are 

223WiUis Green, of Kentucky, was a member of Congress from 1839 to 1845. Biog. Dir. of 
Cong., 1032. 

224He refers to John M. S. Causin, a Whig member of Congress from Maryland in 1843-1845, 
William D. Merrick, Whig Senator from Maryland in 1838-1845, James Dellet, Whig congressman 
from Alabama in 1839-1841 and 1843-1845, and Garrett Davis, Whig congressman from Kentucky 
in 1839-1847 and Senator from 1867 to 1872. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 191, 884. 896, 1307. 

225In the election in Louisiana on July 1, the Whigs had candidates in only two congressional 
races, and they won in one of those. In the legislature the Whigs won 8 of the 17 senate seats and 
34 of the 60 seats in the lower house. Niles' Register, LXVI, 336. 352. 

The Mangum Papers 161 

employed in every corner of the state, it is impossible to fix 
upon a numerical result- The changes from Locofocoism are 
surprising and we gain hundreds of responsible & valuable 
men, without the loss of a single soldier. 

In Missouri, the efforts are directed to secure the Legisla- 
ture. It may be necessary, for the accomplishment of that ob- 
ject to yield the Governor & members of Congress, which are 
really unimportant when compared with the two Senators de- 
pending upon the Legislature- Those who are best informed, 
most active & therefore most competent to judge, give strong 
assurances, that we shall attain the great point - It is said Ben- 
ton's strength will not exceed 35 which is about a third of the 

An unfortunate local issue has arisen in Indiana which may 
cost the Whigs so dear a price as the Legislature, which elects a 
U. S. Senator - ^-^ but little question exists as to her final vote 
and nothing will be wanting to place her in position now. 

Alabama, will do much more than has been anticipated & 
it is not at all improbable that we shall be able to divide the 
Delegation in the House, which would be a great and an unex- 
pected accession — 

The Locofocos in Pennsylvania and the Tariff states are 
resorting to every species of falsehood to help their Candi- 
dates - Saltmarsh the Mail Contractor who has just passed 
through the Keystone region, says that at a Polk meeting he 
saw a banner streaming from a lofty pole, inscribed "Polk & 
Dallas - a High Tariff and Protection." It is a desperate chance 
& no means however disgraceful has any terror for men reckless 
in every state of society and utterly unprincipled in the game 
of politics — 

I shall be much pleased, if I can be of Service to you in any 
way and trusting that you will pardon this lengthy infliction. 

I remain 
Yr Fr & St 

James E. Harvey 
What will North Carolina do? 
Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

228In Indiana the state election in August resulted in the Whigs obtaining a majority of 10 in 
the lower house and the same number as the Democrats in the upper house of the legislature. Niles' 
Register. LXVI, 444. 

162 State Department of Archives and History 

J. M. Edwards^^'^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

N. York July 25, 1844— 
Dear Sir.- 

On my return from Washington I found that numerous ap- 
plications had been sent from different quarters - asking for 
copies of the likeness we made of Hon Henry Clay - when he 
was in Washington.* After a little reflection, and consultation, 
we concluded the best manner of complying with these requests 
would be to copy the original likeness and set them in gold 
pins, of a small and not very expensive size, and accordingly 
have made known to the public our intentions. As soon as the 
pins are finished I will send one for your disposal and shall feel 
honored if it meets your approbation. You will find that the 
copy diminutive as it is, is superior to the original in many re- 
spects. — I shall also send one to Mr Clay- which I hope will 
please him tho he told me, *'he did not think it a likeness at 
all-" Will you, sir, do me the favor to redirect a number of 
copies of the ''Express"^^^ containing the advertisements (which 
I send you under double envelopes ) to the principal Clay Clubs 
in N. C. — I am unable to obtain their address. 

Very Respectfully 

J. M. Edwards. 

Hon W. P Mangum 

* of which several letter writers made mention in their cor- 

John B. Bohbitt to Sally Mangum 

Louisburg, N. C. 27th. July, 1844. 
Miss Sally: 

We have heard frequently, during the last and present year, 
that you intended to visit this Village; but as yet your Friends 
and school mates here find themselves disappointed. They fre- 

227Probably a New York engraver. 

^^He probably refers to the New York Express, a Whig newspaper that ran from 1836 to 1850. 
Its editors and publishers were James and Erastus Brooks. Louis H. Fox, New York City Newspapers, 
1820-1830: a Bibliography, 42. 

The Mangum Papers 163 

quently ask: when is Sally Mangum coming? To this we reply: 

Now, to the end, that you may not make an indefinite post- 
ponement, I write you to come and stay with us one, two, or 
more months; and, moreover, if you will say when you can come, 
I will send for you at any moment. I will also, during your stay 
with us, send you to see your Friends in this section. 

In regard to our schools, we have more Boarders than we 
have had for several years; Say twenty five, half of them young 

Of Domestic news, I have not much to say. The Political 
Atmosphere in this neighborhood seems to be strongly impreg- 
nated with effluvia from the Ponds of Texas. Polk and Dallas 
also are much boasted of in this Demo. County: Clay too is 
much talked of by the minority here. 

In conclusion: give our respects to your Friends, and accept 
the same for yourself. 

Yrs. respectfully 

Jno. B. Bobbitt 

Miss Sally Mangum ) 

Louisburg N C July 9 1844 Paid J B B 10 

[Addressed : ] 

Miss Sally Mangum 
Red Mountain 

Orange County, N. C. 

Daniel R. Goodloe^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington July 27th 1844 
Dear Sir- 
Presuming that you are somewhat burdened with corres- 
pondence in these exciting times, I have hitherto abstained from 
writing you, in obedience to your kind request, until the pres- 
ent moment. You may remember, that before leaving here, you 
suggested that the Central Committee at Raleigh, and in the 

229See above, 84n. 

164 State Department of Archives and History 

different counties of the State, might perhaps be induced to sub- 
scribe for a number of copies of the Weekly Standard,^^^ and 
that you would write to them suggesting the utility of such a 
course. As I am aware, that in the multiplicity of your engage- 
ments, you would be likely to forget a matter of so little con- 
sequence I have taken the liberty, at the request of Mr. Towers 
to address you a line upon the subject, and to solicit the favor 
of you to write to Mr Badger or some other member of the 
Committee calling attention to the paper. I believe that they 
can no where purchase more reading matter (such as it is) at 
so cheap a rate. It is nov/ sent for seventy five cents until the 
first of December with such of the back numbers as are on hand. 
The editor can well afford the Weekly at the cheap rate at which 
it is now furnished, since it only requires an extra outlay for 
the paper. The same number of hands in all the departments 
are indispensible whether the weekly is printed or not; so that 
if the circulation of it could be extended it would become his 
principle source of profit. Subscriptions have very much in- 
creased recently, and a letter patronising (not patronage) by 
distinguished Whigs in different quarters would soon place it on 
a permanent basis, and enable the editor to issue a permanent 
country edition. The value of a whig paper here of a strong 
party cast is so much better understood by you than by my- 
self, that I will say nothing upon that head. 

Mr. Green of Kentucky^^^ remains here yet, and he with 
his documentary corps are busily at work. At your suggestion 
I have frequently called at the folding room to inquire about 
the documents sent to N. Carolina. I have also conferred with 
Mr Green as to the proper course to pursue in the editorial 
change of the paper. I fear that I have a proclivity to fall into 
the channel he points out, and that a good Christian would 
rather curb the indulgence of a censorious spirit, than yield to 
it. He advises me to make offensive war upon the locofocos, and 
to spare them upon no occasion. You will perhaps think, if you 
look into the standard, that I have acted upon his advice; but 
I have not. I resolve from day to day to be more guarded, and 
less harsh in my expressions, but reading the Globe and other 
unscrupulous locofoco sheets, provokes me into the use of lan- 
guage of which I feel ashamed in cooler moments. I by no 

230See above, III, 467n. 

23iWillis Green. See above, James E. Harvey to W. P. Mangum, July 23, 1844. 

The Mangum Papers 165 

means think, however, that truth or justice or propriety de- 
mand, that I should have a mantle of charity as large as the In- 
telligencer's. I think it well enough to call things by their right 
names, though I am conscious of exceeding the line of propriety 
every day. I have not felt entirely at ease for repeating the 
charge of Toryism against Mr Polk's Grandfather ;-32 though I 
have not a rational doubt of its truth, and think it an objection 
in some degree to him; but I have a repugnance to it. I wrote 
a long account of the whole affair which appeared in to-days 
Standard in which I think I have fixed it beyond controversy. 
I place the justice of the allegation upon the ground that the 
locofocos had boasted of Mr. Polk's revolutionary ancestry. 
Dwelling upon the subject so long yesterday afternoon, in writ- 
ing the article, has disgusted me with the subject, and it affords 
me no little relief to make this confession to you. And this 
confession, by the way, is my apology for talking so much about 

I have not taken lodgings at Mrs. Scott's as upon reflection, 
I thought the expense too great, and Mr. Towers is slow in 
paying me my stipend. I regret to have named it to her, but 
in other respects am doing very well. I trust you will give me 
credit for appreciating your unparalleled kindness and gener- 
osity to me- which lays me under an unredeemable load of obli- 
gation. I shall be very proud to receive a line from you, sir, 
should your leisure permit. Present my respects to your family 
and believe me to be with great respect your obliged and obedt 

Daniel R. Goodloe 

I presume you have heard that Bryant and others of New 
York have virtually broken off from the locofoco party. The 
New York papers are filled with the sparing between the Ple- 
beian and Post.^^^ I should think there was little chance of 
healing the breach. Great interest is felt here in regard to the 

232In the campaign of 1844 many Whigs, especially in Polk's native state. North Carolina, as- 
serted that Polk's grandfather, Ezekiel Polk, had been a traitor in the Revolution. Ezekiel Polk, 
according to this story, deserted the company of which he was captain and placed himself under the 
protection of Lord Cornwallis. Concerned with the charge, the North Carolina Democrats delegated 
W. W. Holden to write a refutation of the charge. Ezekiel Polk, therefore, became a significant 
issue in the campaign in North Carolina. Norton, Democratic Party in N. C, 141-142. 

233n^e New York Plebeian, a Democratic paper, was edited at this time by Levi D. Slamm, and 
William CuUen Bryant was editor of the New York Evening Post. Bryant opposed the Baltimore 
Democratic platform because of the annexation plank. He did support the ticket but with misgiving. 
The Plebeian's editor threatened to drive Bryant from the Democratic party because of his Federalism 
and opposition to Annexation. The Post replied that annexation might lose New York for Polk. 
Fox, New York City Newspapers: a Bibliography, 82; New York Evening Post, July 27, 1844. 

166 State Department of Archives and History 

N. C. elections. I think the signs are decidedly favorable at 
this time judging from the tone of the public press in every 
quarter. The Whigs seem to be losing nothing in any part of 
the South, while rapid accessions are made to the ranks in the 
North- particularly in New York and Pennsylvania. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange County 
N. Carolina 

Thos. K. Thomas^^'' to Willie P. Mangum. 

Louisburg Aug 4th 1844 
Hon W P Mangum 

My dear Sir 

A number of the leading and most distinguished Whigs of 
this county have urged me as the Secretary of the Louisburg 
Clay Club to write you and to request you if you could with 
any degree of convenience to yourself, to meet our political ad- 
versaries at Franklinton on the 13th instant. It is an important 
point; they expect to operate on the people of four counties; its 
geographical situation is not more favorable to their views 
than its political aspect. Parties in that region are unsettled; 
it is now loco foco but with proper exertion a great revolution 
might be wrought. Mr Gilliam, our elector will not be able to 
attend; The democrats will have a number of speakers there 
may be some distinguished Whigs there ;2^^ several have been 
invited, but it is universally wished here that you may be able 
to attend and stand up before the people at that populous region 
as the champion and advocate of the Whig party. 

Mr. Jeffreys^^^ the Senator elect from this county attack 
with some vehemance your course on the Tariff and Bank dur- 

234Thomas K. Thomas, a citizen of Franklin County, represented his county in the state Whig 
Convention in 1846. In 1833 he petitioned the legislature to support internal improvement and 
education for the purpose of decreasing the migration from North Carolina. Greensboro Patriot, 
January 24, 1846; Coon, (ed.) , Doc. Hist, of Educ. in N. C, II, 619-621. 

2^Abraham W. Venable was the chief spokesman for the Democrats and Henry W. Miller 
for the Whigs at the gathering. Raleigh Register, August 27, 1844. 

288William A. Jeffries was state senator in 1844-1845. N. C. Manual, 610. 

The Mangum Papers 167 

ing the late canvass in this county; the humblest member of 
the Whig party in Franklin would be able to vindicate you 
from the malignant shafts that this democratic pet might level 
at you; but the ju venal Senator will no doubt continue his de- 
traction until he receives such a castigating as you alone could 
give him. 

The returns from the election^^^ are coming on well; Frank- 
lin done all she could under the circumstances; we have fear- 
ful odds against us, at best and greatly to our discomfiture my 
brother John E Thomas the Whig candidate in the Commons 
was taken sick few days before the election and was not able 
to be out on the day. Had he been able to have canvassed the 
county and to have attended on the day at the usual place 
where candidates in this county go, I think Graham would have 
gotten 25 votes more in this county than he did. As it is we are 
beaten, but not conquered; we will give Clay 40 votes more in 
this county than we gave Graham- if you will come to Franklin- 
ton and make a speech. Is this sufficient inducement? Besides 
this you will effect much in an important part of Granville 

I am aware that others have written to you on this sub- 
ject and I have no doubt but that you will attend if you can 
with convenience. In conclusion of this allow me to express the 
great obligation I feel myself under to you for the trouble you 
have taken in conveying to me my Bee hive cuts. I regret that 
you should have been so troubled with them, and I must beg 
that you will receive my sincere gratitude for your condescen- 
tion and kindness Believe me dear Sir your obedient Servant 

Thos. K Thomas 
Louisburg Aug 5*^ 1844 Paid 10 


Hon Willie P Mangum 
Red Mountain 
No Ca 

2*^In the state as a whole, W. A. Graham, the Whig candidate, defeated Michael Hoke, the 
Democratic candidate for governor by a vote of 42,586 to 39,433 in the August eleaion. In the 
state senate the Whigs won 26 out of 50 seats and 71 out of 120 in the lower house, which gave 
the Whigs a majority of 24 in the two houses together. Hillsborough Recorder, August 22, Novem- 
ber 7. 1844. 

168 State Department of Archives and History 

S. H. Harris to Willie P. Mangum. 

Clarksville [Virginia] Augst. 5th. 1844 
Dear Sir 

Accompanying this is a letter from a scientific gentleman 
(probably not unknown to you) bearing testimony to the util- 
ity of my brothers invention, in the application of steam as a 
propelling pow^er. He w^ill if deemed necessary explain the na- 
ture of his engine and the principles upon v^hich it acts. Viewed 
in reference to its practical results I cannot but hope that he 
has made a discovery which may ultimately tend to modify, if 
not entirely change, the mode of applying steam to machinery. 

Robert will state to you the object of his visit and allow me 
to hope that you will give him your advice and influence in 
forwarding his schemes. 

The Whigs of this region are waiting anxiously to hear from 
you and much good to the cause is anticipated from your ex- 
pected visit. We are much cheered by the news from the old 
North State and with a little help from yourself and other dis- 
tinguished leaders, we will endeavour to follow the example of 
N Carolina in Novem'' next. We shall be much gratified to have 
the priviledge of extending to you our hospitality should you 
visit this part of Virginia again- And I am desired to say that a 
visit from Mrs. Mangum or the young ladies would be parti- 
cularly agreeable to Mrs Harris. 

With high respect 
I am yours &C 

S. H Harris 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Orange County 
N. C 

Robt. Harris 

The Mangum Papers 169 

P. C. Cameron to Willie P. Mangum. 

Orange Co. Aug 7th. [1844] 
Wed: afternoon 5 o'clock. 
My dear Sir/ 

As in a 1840, the old North stands first, foremost, and freest! 
I have just returned from Raleigh - leaving it after all the in- 
telligence for the day had been received. At the moment of my 
departure, according to the list kept by Mr. Loring^^^ the Whigs 
had a majority of 24 in the House, and of (2) two in the Senate! 
The Governors majority for the Whig ticket, is so far decreased 
cannot say how much. Hoke is doing better than any one of his 
party before him! The impression at Raleigh seemed to be, that 
Grahams majority would not exceed 4,000. The old Wheel 
Horse Dobson^^^ is defeated in Surry! Avery is defeated in 
Burke!^^^ he you know was a pet child of "Romeo's"! Mr. Au- 
gustus Moore is defeated as a candidate for the Edenton Sen- 
itorial District - a loss to us. I hope that Graham may make 
out his 5,000 & tho' I think our majority will be larger than 
reported above it is as large as we need. I send you the last 
Register. Gales makes a might to-do over "Nat Palmer! "^^^ 
Another such an issue from his press & he will defeat Clay in 


P. C. Cameron. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon W. P. Mangum. 
at Home. 
Orange Co. 

238Thomas Lonng, editor of the Raleigh Register. 

239William P. Dodson was in the state senate in 1827, 1830-1834, 1836-1837, and 1842-1843. 
N. C. Manual, 815-816. 

2*oisaac T. Avery. 

^^He probably refers to Nathaniel J. Palmer, the former editor of the Milton Spectator. He 
became a leader in education and in the Baptist denomination. Holden, Address on the History of 
Journalism in N. C., 16; George W. Paschal, History of Wake Forest College, I, 308-311. 

170 State Department of Archives and History 

Robert Ransom to Willie P. Mangum. 

Warren Co. August 8th. 1844 
Dr. Sir 

At the request of our friend Co^ Robt. W. Alston,^^^ I write 
to ascertain, when it will suit your entire convenience, to see 
us at your House he is particularly anxious to go and see you, 
the latter part of this Month if, you have no arrangement that 
calls you from home. You will therefore, please inform me by 
return mail, when it will best suit your convenience to see us. 

You will see that our little Band has done well we have 
gained fifteen whigs in Warren against the most oppressive and 
tyrancial opposition ever practised in any Country. The Loco.^ 
rallied every voter from Pedlars to Boys. Yes German pedlars 
that were not Citizens, & beardless boys. Still we gained fifteen 
votes, we have done well, considering there never was but two 
Whig speeches made in the County. 

With Great respect and high regard 
I am Yrs. 

Rob. Ransom 

Willie P Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Honl. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange County 
NO. CA. 

By way of Franklinton. 

2^Formerly from Warren County. North Carolina, Robert W. Alston, 1781-1859, was a 
planter in Florida at the time of this letter. See below R. W. Alston to W. P. Mangum, December 
26, 1844, and Groves, Tbe Alstons and Atlstons of North and South Carolina, 132. 

The Mangum Papers 171 

S. Starkweather^ ^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

N. York 9 Augt 44. 
Dr Sir 

A matter of business brought me home from the country, 
for a day. I leave again in the morning to resume my labors. 
You may have seen that I have been through the State on the 
^reat thoroughfare I am now to take the Southern tier of 
counties Every moment confirms the opinion that we are gain- 
ing ground daily. I think the State good for 25,000 as it now ap- 
pears. The vote must be a strong one past all doubt. I have 
seen veteren old democrats come entirely over while sitting 
under the truth. We have sufficient to show you are all right 
But how is this! You or rather the president of the Senate was 
boasting that the old North State would carry all before it and 
so I have very imprudently stated, now I see but a small gain 
in 18 counties of less than 400, from which I infer you will not 
carry the State by more than 1000 more than in 1840. When 
gentlemen talk of coats & suits despising Hats & small matters, 
we hold them to a strict accountability — Now I dont want to be 
too sure but I tell you to stand a little back and you will see the 
Empire State come in with about 30,000 if we have fair play 
you can have no idea of the ingagedness of our friends in the 
country One cannot stop at the corner of a street where they 
are wont to meet without being solicited to make a speech. 

The women come out and ask you to stop & talk to their 
husbands & sons. This is what makes us strong. The Whigs are 
indolent as a party in ordinary times, when they arouse all is 

Truly yours 

S. Starkweather. 

We are looking for you north soon. If you come drop a note into 
the post office with your frank on it & it will find me some- 
where Tell me in it how long you are to be with us and where 
you are going. 

S. S. 

[Addressed:] Hon W. P. Mangum 

Red Mountain, North Carolina. 

248See above, 154. 

172 State Department of Archives and History 

Henry E. Rochester^ ''^' to Willie P. Mangum. 

Rochester, New York, Augt. 15, 1844 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

Dear Sir — 

My Father Col. Nathaniel Roche ster,^"^^ an officer of the 
Revolutionary Army in North Carolina died in this City in 
1831 in the 80th. year of his age — In behalf of my aged mother, 
now 76 years old, I take the liberty to solicit the favor of your 
kind offices in procuring the necessary proofs of my father's 
services in the revolutionary war to entitle his widow to re- 
ceive a pension — Nathaniel Macon, Judge Cameron & other 
known intimate friends of my father are no more, so that I am 
under the necessity of troubling one, who though well known 
by reputation, is personally a Stranger to me. I am induced to 
beg the favor of you, from the circumstance of your residence 
in Orange Co., and having an impression that you was an ac- 
quaintance of my brother William B. Rochester, formerly a 
member of Congress from this State, & who was lost at sea off 
the coast of North — Carolina, while on his journey home from 
the South in the ill-fated Steamer Pulaski. 

It is possible the evidence of my father's services may be 
found in the public records of your State, but as such may not 
be the case, I furnish such particulars of my father's history, 
gathered from memoranda left by him, as will enable you to 
direct your inquiries to the proper sources for information. My 
Father was born in Westmoreland Co. Virga. Feb. 21. 1752 — 
His father John Rochester was born at the same place- In the 
autumn of 1768 ray father went to reside in Hillsborough, 
Orange Co. N. C. where he was engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness with James Monroe & Col. John Hamilton until the com- 
mencement of the Revolutionary War- In 1775 he was ap- 
pointed a member of ''the Committee of Safety" for Orange 

^^Colonel Nathaniel Rochester, the founder of Rochester in New York, left three sons. One 
of these was Henry E. Rochester, who was a business leader in Rochester. Harriet A. Weed ( ed. ) , 
Autobiography of Thurlow Weed, Boston, 1883, I, 346. 

^^Nathaniel Rochester was born in Virginia in 1752, moved to Granville County, North 
Carolina, and then to Hillsboro, where he engaged in mercantile business with several men, including 
Thomas Hart. A member of the Provincial Congress which met at Hillsboro in 1776, he was ap- 
pointed by that body as major of the Orange militia. He became the paymaster to a battalion of 
minute men in the Hillsboro district. In 1782 with Thomas Hart he moved to Maryland, where he 
set up a flour and rope factory. In 1808 he was a presidential elector and member of the Maryland 
assembly. In 1810 he moved to New York and established a flour mill at Fallstown, the future city 
of Rochester. Biog. Hist, of N. C, III. 341-343. 

The Mangum Papers 173 

County, whose business was to promote the revolutionary spirit 
among the people — to procure arms and ammunition - make 
collections for the people of Boston- and to prevent the sale & 
use of East India Teas- In August of the same year he attended, 
as a member, the first provincial convention in N. Carolina — 
This Convention ordered the raising of four Regiments of Con- 
tinential Troops - organized the minute men & militia System, 
& directed an election for another convention to meet in May 
1776 to adopt a constitution &c — At this first Convention my 
father was appointed a major of militia & Paymaster to the 
minute-men & militia- In Feb. 1776 he was dispatched by Col. 
Thackston, his commanding officer, with two companies of In- 
fantry & one of Cavalry in pursuit of Genl. McDonald who had 
collected a large body of Scotch (about 1000) in Cumberland 
Co. with the view of transporting them to join the British in 
New York, their destination was Wilmington- On reaching 
Devo's ferry, about 20 miles from headquarters, my father met 
about 500 of these Scotch, with McDonald, on their retreat, 
they having been met and defeated by Col. Caswell ( afterwards 
Gov. of your State) at Moore's bridge — My father took Mc- 
Donald & the 500 prisoners- Being a sparsely settled Country 
& unable to procure provisions for so many, he was obliged to 
discharge all but about 50 who were officers with whom he re- 
turned to head-quarters, where he found Col. Alexr. Martin — 
Marshall, in his life of Washington, mentions that Col. Martin 
took these prisoners — In May 1776 my Father attended, as a 
member, the Convention at Halifax, where a constitution was 
adopted- Six more Regiments of Continental Troops were or- 
dered to be raised & their officers appointed, among whom my 
father, was appointed Commissary General, with the rank & pay 
of a Colonel for the N. Carolina line, after the adjournment of 
of the Convention he went to Wilmington to attend to his duties, 
taking with him Abishai Thomas as his Deputy, who was after- 
wards employed in one of the Departments of the Genl. Govt.- 
In the fall of this year (1776) my father was elected a member 
of the Legislature, which he attended in the winter of 1777 — 
Nathaniel Macon was also a member. This Ligislature ap- 
pointed my Father a Commissioner to establish & superintend 
a manufactory of Arms at Hillsborough- In 1780 he was ap- 
pointed Colonel of Militia- 

174 State Department of Archives and History 

I am unable, from any minutes left by my father, to State 
the periods of his service, beyond what can be gathered from 
the incidents in his life above detailed. His father died in Vir- 
ginia in 1754- His mother married a second husband Thomas 
Critcher about the year 1756 who removed with his family in 
the year 1763 to Granville Co. N. C. — By the second marriage 
his mother had three sons, Thomas, Jam,es & John Critcher, and 
two daughters who married Elijah & Charles Mitchell. His sis- 
ter Philis Rochester, married a Mr. Saml. Morse & settled in 
Granville Co. N. C. — It is possible one or more of these brothers 
& Sisters may still be living, and if so will be able to give you 
information by which you can learn whether any of the revolu- 
tionary acquaintances of my father are living by whom his 
services may be proved- I will add another circumstance in my 
fathers history which may aid the object I have in view - In 
1778 he engaged in business with Col. Thomas Hart, Father-in- 
Law to Henry Clay, and James Brown. Col. Hart then resided 
two miles west of Hillsborough where he had a considerable 
estate in Lands, Mills &c. 

The inquiry may arise in your mind - "Why was not this 
Pension sought at an earlier day?" The only reply I can make 
is that it was owing to mere thoughtlessness. My Mother is 
comfortably provided for on the score of property but nothing 
beyond. If my fathers services in the Revolution really merit a 
pension, we think it alike due to his fame as a Soldier of the 
Revolution and as some recompense for the services rendered his 
country that his widow at least should enjoy the reward of those 
services- It is proper I should add also, that my Father was 
married in 1788 to Sophia Beatty of Fredericktown Maryland, 
his present widow who claims a Pension- 
Should you be so fortunate as to find proof of my father's 
services, you will much oblige my mother by having it taken 
in due form & forwarding it under cover to my brother Thomas 
H. Rochester of this City,- I request you to give it such direc- 
tion as my business calls me away from home a good deal- Any 
expense you may incur in the matter will be fully reimbursed, 
& I will avail myself of the opportunity to do so through the 
Hon. Thomas J. Patterson M. C. from this District — For your 
personal services in the business I will hold myself under great 

The Mangum Papers 175 

obligations to you, & will be most happy to fulfill in any way 
in which you may be pleased to command my humble Services — 

With Sentiments of high regard & respect 
I am your Obt. Servt. 
Henry E. Rochester 

Jesse P. Smith^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Chapel Hill Augt. 15" 1844 
Dear Sir. 

It is my very agreeable duty, as President of the Dialectic 
Society, to inform you that you have been selected by that body 
to deliver an oration before the two literary Societies at the 
ensuing annual commencement. Next commencement day is 
the fiftieth anniversary of the Institution and we feel assured 
that your acceptance would add dignity and importance to the 
occasion. The Dialectic Society cherishes the hope that you 
will comply, believing that an oration from you would confer 
honor upon her and gratify the wishes of your friends through- 
out the State. 

Very respectfully 

Jesse P. Smith 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon Willie P. Mangum, 
Red Mountain 
Orange Cy 
N. C. 

Henry E. Rochester to Willie P. Mangum. 

Rochester N. Y. Augt. 16. 1844 
Dear Sir. 

Allow me to presume so far upon the mutual interest which 
we feel in the approaching Presidential election, as to give you, 
on this envelope, a brief view of the aspect of political matters 
in this Section of the Union- 

*** After graduating from the University; in 1845, Jesse Potts Smith settled near Fayetteville and 
became a lawyer and planter. Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 575. 

176 State Department of Archives and History 

We have just learned the final result of the State election 
in Indiana, ^^" by which it seems the Whigs have a majority in 
both branches of the Legislature by v^hich we secure a U. S. 
Senator- We have not learned sufficient from Illinois^*^ to know 
the result - we have expected a defeat in that State, & if the re- 
sult should be favorable to the Whigs, (which we can hardly 
hope) it will add strength to our now confident hope of electing 
Mr. Clay- 
In this Section of New York the Whigs now & always have 
had a very large majority- In regard to the State at large I 
have no fears — With a full vote in this State the Whigs have 
always been in the majority - and from present indications we 
have reason to believe every Whig will vote this fall & secure 
a large majority- 

Our opponents are distracted, disheartened & I might almost 
say dispairing- The result in your noble State has done much 
to produce this feeling among them. 

There is great enthusiasm among the Whigs, quite as much 
as in 1840, & I see no reason why the result must not be as 
triumphant — 

The abolitionists as a political party at best are no very 
formidable body & in the present contest will be lost sight of. 
They are, as you are aware I presume, hostile to Mr. Clay- but 
the nomination of Mr. Polk leaves them in a dilemma — There 
is no considerable number of them ever seriously thought of 
voting for Mr. Burney-^*^ and it is now generally believed the 
most of them will take their places in the ranks of the two 
prominent parties — 

in haste 
yours &c. 
H. E. Rochester 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator 
Red Mountain 
Orange Co. 
N. Carolina. 

2^^In Indiana the Whigs and Democrats elected the same number of state senators, but the Whigs 
gained 55 out of the 100 in the lower house. Hillsborough Recorder, August 22, 29, 1844; Niles' 
Register, LXVI, 444. 

248In Illinois the Democrats gained a large majority in the legislature and six out of the seven 
Congressional seats. Niles' Register, LXVI, 428; Hillsborough Recorder, August 22, 29. 1844. 

^^ James G. Birney, the candidate of the Liberty Party. 

The Mangum Papers 177 

David L. Swain to Willie P. Mangum. 

Chapel Hill, 20. Aug. 1844. 
My dear Sir, 

I understand there are some vacancies in the Military- 
Academy at West Point, that will be filled from the States at 
large on the recommendation of our Senators. - If this be so, 
my nephew Newton Coleman^^^ at present a student of the Uni- 
versity wishes to be advised of the fact, that he may in due 
season obtain and submit testimonials of his qualifications. - 
I would not myself be willing to speak as confidently in his be- 
half, as if he were unconnected with me, and yet I should feel 
bound to testify strongly. 

Yours very sincerely, 
D. L. Swain 

[Addressed:] Honble. Willie P. Mangum, 

Red Mountain 
N. C. 

[Postmarked : ] 
Chapel Hill, N C 
Aug 21 

B. S. Gaither^^^ & others to Willie P. Mangum. 

MORGANTON 21st Augt 1844 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Sir. We the undersigned, have been appointed as a commit- 
tee to invite our Whig friends to attend a mass meeting to be 
held in Morganton on the 18th & 19th days of October next. 

We take great pleasure in expressing to you the general wish 
of the Whigs in this region of the State that you would hon- 
our us with your presence on the occasion referred to & indulge 
the hope that you will not permit any slight circumstance to 
prevent your attendance. 

You have no doubt observed the falling off in the Whig 
vote for Governor in this section of the State & will concur with 

^°A native of Buncombe County, Newton Coleman was a student at the University in 1844- 
1845. He became a lawyer and a member of the legislature as a representative of Buncombe in 
1848-1849 before he moved to Missouri, where he continued his practice of law. N. C. Manual, 
511 \ Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 125. 

^^This letter is written in Tod R. Caldwell's handwriting. The same is true of the following 
letter which he wrote on the same paper. 

178 State Department of Archives and History 

us in the belief that immediate & continued action should be 
had in every county in the State & particularly in the West 
where symptoms of disaffection have been shew^n. 

We have the honour to be 

With great respect, Yr. obt. Svt. 

B. S. Gaither & others, com. 

My Dear Sir. 

On the preceding page you vvrill receive an invitation from 
a committee to attend a mass meeting at this place on the 18th 
& 19th days of October next, to w^hich I hope you w^ill pardon 
me for adding my individual solicitation that you v^ill favour us 
with your presence on that occasion. Our people will enter in- 
to this p[torn]t with a great deal of spirit & enthusiasm. I haz- 
ard little in sa[ying] that if we [torn] a favourable response 
from you & others [whom] we intend [to] invite, a larger con- 
course of persons [will] be congregated here at that time than 
has ever been witnessed in Western North Carolina. And I 
farther believe that if we can have such a meeting as we de- 
sire this Congressional will give Mr. Clay at least 5,000 ma- 
jority. It will take very little I assure you to kindle such a fire 
of Excitement in Mr. Clay's behalf, in the bosom of our Moun- 
tain [torn] as never before burned in favour of any man either 
living or dead. The Polk men in this region are already dis- 
heartened and if we can only have such a gathering as we wish 
they will give up the contest without a "show of fight" and any 
man of them instead of electioneering for Polk, will be afraid 
on account of his own future personal popularity and ashamed 
to be seen with a Polk ticket in his hand - I feel assured, that 
when you recollect, in addition to what is above said the vote 
of No. Carolina for the last years has depended in a great 
measure upon us of the ''Western Reserve" & that in any emer- 
gency we have been looked to [torn] so that it is upon that now 
for us to do our very best [torn] our earnest solicitation. 

Minerva sends her love to you & all the family & joins me 
in the request, if you can make it convenient to [come] up, that 

The Mangum Papers 179 

you bring your family up with you [torn] will be a pleasant 
season to visit o[ur] mountains. 

With much respect 

I am Sir, Yr. obt. Svt. 

Tod. R. Caldwell 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

P.S. An early answered is requested. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator 
Red Mountain 
[Orange] County 
[N. C] 

Nathan Sargent to Willie P. Mangum. 

Phila. Augt. 21. 1844 
Hon Willie P. Mangum 

My dear Sir 

I received a few days ago, a letter from Mr Stanley^^^ in- 
forming me that in consequence of a recent accident which hap- 
pened to him, it would not be in his power to attend to the col- 
lecting of North Carolina's quota of the fund for the National 
Prize Banner- say $150- and he suggested the propriety of my 
writing to yourself upon the subject, believing that you could 
put to work the proper men in order to raise it. Mr. S. was, at 
the time he wrote, on the eve of departure for the sea shore. 
The accident he had met with, was being upset in a gig by 
which he had been much lamed. We have heard from nearly 
all the members of the Committee, from the different States, 
responding affirmatively to the call upon their respective States, 
for their contributions- all the Southern States save N. C. & La. 
I am getting up the banner, & intend it to be a very magnificent 
one- worthy of the State that shall win it. 

2B2Edward Stanly. 

180 State Department of Archives and History 

The campaign is being carried on in this section of the 
country with great vigor & labor. In this & some other northern 
States, the Locos, with an audacity unparalleled, claim Mr 
Polk as the friend of protection, & denounce Mr Clay as opposed 
to it! And they ding this into the ears of their ignorant men 
in so confident a manner, that thousands really believe it, & 
cannot be persuaded to the contrary even by Polk's own declara- 
tions! But, nevertheless, we are making converts rapidly- Many 
of their prominent men have avowed their determination to 
vote for Mr Clay who still act with the party. Among these is 
Geo. M Hollenbach, of Luzerne Co. who was the Van Buren 
elector in 1840, & who was chairman of a democratic meeting 
the other day- after he had declared his intention to vote for 
Mr Clay. 

If they unite, cordially on Shunk,-^^ as their candidate for 
Governor, they will elect him; if not- & Gov Porter manifests 
a disposition to oppose his nomination- we shall elect Markle. 
Since my return from Washington, I have been keeping up a 
steady fire of hot shot, grape, cannister & ball, through the 
U. S. Gazette, the political department of which is under my 
charge- I am also occasionally on the stump. 

We have been some what disappointed in Graham's vote, 
as well as at the result in Indiana. We looked for a larger ma- 

With the best wishes for your health, accept the assurance of 
the cordial respect of 

Your friend an 

Obdt Servant 
N. Sargent 

Nicholas CarroW^^* to Willie P. Mangum. 
180 Prince St- 

New York- Sunday 8*^ Sept. /44 
My dear Sir 

As a Lieutenant of the Great Captain I appeal to you. We 
are in danger - We see it undismayed. We thank God there is 
time to meet it- we believe, to ward it off. 

2-^^Thomas R. Shunk was the Democratic candidate. He won over James Markle, the Whig 
candidate, by a majority of 4,397. David R. Porter had been governor from 1838 to 1845. Niles' 
Register, LXVlI, 112, 117. 

25*See above, UI, 132n. 

The Mangum Papers 181 

Silas Wright is nominated for Governor. He is the strongest 
man the destructives can boast- he is the hardest man for us to 
beat. He gives them that which before they lacked- strength & 
union. With any other nomination our success was assured. The 
field was to us an easy one. Now that field is studded with their 
serried legions- and their consuls & proconsuls and all their sub- 
ordinate officers are at their head, disciplining & marshalling 
the banded forces- already flushed with anticipations of sure 
victory. Their insolent challenge - ringing in our ears- our 
blood boils to accept it & defy them. We approach the encounter 
calmly & sternly- and like Spartacus in the Roman Arena we 
cry out "Let them come- we are armed." 

In the dread pause before the battle- we survey the field- 
know every point of defence- and strengthen every breach or 
weakness in our entranchments. 

The 'Natives' reversed affairs in the Spring.^^^ I came home 
then from Washington- traveling without rest to be here & in 
season deposite my ballot among the '5000' who believed their in- 
dependent course due to their principles & their own self vindica- 
tion. The son of an Irishman- whose family at home even to 
martyrdom, & here in '76 & subsequently, had proved their de- 
votion to civil & religious liberty- could not- as a Catholic in be- 
lief & creed- he could not have done otherwise- I voted against 
a party mercilessly proscriptive against foreigners- and mali- 
ciously vindictive towards my faith & religion. But reflection 
& time- those "safe & sober moralists"- have thoroughly changed 
the action & the views of the successful party. It is but their 
due to declare that they have reformed our City Government 
and fully discharged all their honest pledges. Then it was a 
local matter- now it is changed- and such a change. Then it af- 
fected New York City only- now this Party are connected per- 
haps with the result of the Presidential election. 

Last spring the Whigs (proper) cast 5.000, Tammany 20.000 
& the Natives 24.000 votes- within 1000 of the other parties 
united vote. Now the Natives are in the field to nominate mem- 
bers of Congress- State Senator & Assembly Ticket- The City 

^^The Nativist party originated in New York City. In 1843 the Whigs were defeated because 
of the Irish and Germans. Many Democrats and Whigs, therefore, organized the Native American 
Party to keep the government out of the hands of aliens. This party elected the mayor in 1844. 
The same result was obtained in Philadelphia. In eastern cities the Nativist party almost absorbed 
the Whigs. Strong feeling resulted in a petition to Congress to deprive aliens of the privilege of 
voting until they had lived in this country twenty-five years. The fear in 1844 was that this party 
might be a deciding faaor in such states as New York and Pennsylvania. The Democrats accused 
the Whigs of voting Native in local elections to gain the Nativists' support for President. Lambert, 
Presidential Politics in U. S., 1841-1843, 180-197; McMaster, Hist, of People of U. S., VII. 380-385. 

182 State Department of Archives and History 

sends four delegates to Congress- 13 to the Assembly & with two 
other counties makes the State Senatorial District. In the 3*^ Dis- 
trict (Phoenix's) they have nominated John C. Hamilton (the 
worthiest son of the immortal Alexander) a thorough- staunch 
Whig- devotedly Clay- divested of herisies- uncontaminated by 
any 'isms' past or prospective- and in no manner allied to pipe- 
layerism, Scottism or Websterism. In the 4th (my residence) 
they propose to nominate Thos. M. Woodruff- an Independent 
Democrat- quasi Clay, in favor of the Tariff- against annexation 
& irreconcilable to Tammany. In the 5th the nomination will lay 
between a candidate of the same stamp or a Whig- In the 6*^. they 
have nominated Hamilton Fish, our present excellent member. 
This will give us 1600 majority in the 3,^ 300 in the 4**^. 300 in the 
5*^ & 500 in the 6*^. They propose to give us V2 the Assembly 
ticket the other V2 Independent Democratic and all pledged to 
vote for our U. S. S. The State Senator will be a mutual nomi- 
nee. With this Union we sweep everything- without it we may 
go out of New York in an overwhelming minority- say 10.000.* 
With this Union we will secure at least 12 to 1500 on our Elec- 
toral vote- without it we are whipped "horse- foot & dragoon.'* 
The course we propose (in favor of uniting) is to let them 
make the nominations, advising with us as they proceed- and 
then upon the eve of the election rally unanimously in their 
favor. The only objection to this course is presented by the 
ambitious who are desirous of Independent Nominations, that 
they may be conspicuous, and by those whose absorbing fore[?] 
thirst for Spirits- hankered after longed for as "Daphne by the 
eager Day God," whose selfishness & venality now present the 
only barrier to this arrangement. God of Heaven is it to be 
borne- at this time- when the state is no less than the salvation 
of the nation - is this to be endured for an instant? Before my 
love for Henry Clay, which has known no laggard's soul since 
my boyhood- should couple itself with one solitary selfishness 
to defile the sanctuary where I have nursed it in all trials, & 
kept it pure & holy under every ordeal, I would go dig paving 
stones to give bread to my family. 

If in Union with this Party there was even a temporary 
yielding of principle- the emergency & the occasion, would 
more than justify the momentary forgetfulness. What have 
they to suffer, in comparison with the sacrifice the Catholic 

The Mangum Papers 183 

Whigs offer as an oblation on this altar of "union for the sake of 
the Union." It is we, if any, who for the time being look the re- 
sult, rather than the principle, full in the face & to clutch that, 
will drive the dagger, if needed, into our own breasts. But there 
is no abandonment- no retreat from principle. It is Duty now to 
effect this Union- not grudgingly- reluctantly but cheerfully & 
earnestly- with a devotion & a love of our cause which will strew 
the thorny way- if it be so- with flowers- and render its perform- 
ance dear to us hereafter, as the memory of acts whereby we 
saved our country in an hour of peril. 
*not exaggerated. 

Elsewhere- everywhere the news is cheering- Vermont has 
proved true- of a verity she is "the star that never has set." 
Maine will do well- All the Eastern States- But here- & New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania- there is the danger. From this strait 
we must be suddenly relieved- Pause- there is no time for 
pause "the war has been declared" and the enemy, like dragon's 
teeth have sprung from the earth & like Pallas ready armed. - 
United- wary & untiring we can beat them 20.000 in this State- 
But we require all these qualities, acting in concert, to beat the 
foe. You are not needed now by the 'glorious old North.' You 
have taken care of her. Do- do come here- come among us & 
give us the benefit of your advice, counsel & direction- Look at 
the stake - The result here may be the election of Henry Clay- 
it might be his defeat- From a contemplation like the latter I 
shrink as from an accumulation of horrors that appals patriots 
& rejoices friends & traitors only. I would hear your trumpet 
tones peal out here to awe or to assure - whichever might in the 
exigency be most important. I remember, that you have told 
me that there have been times of trial since '41, [illegible] when 
your "coming — was more effectual even with Senators than 
reasoning." I have seen enough recently to convince me that 
with our *dogs in the manger' threats are more formidable 
weapons than argument or entreaty. It is usless to invoke pa- 
triotism in a heart that has no answering chord to any divinity 
but self- 

If you cannot come at once- please answer this by return 
mail- The time for action is narrowing down to days- The 
danger of defeat has been thrust upon us at the instant and 

184 State Department of Archives and History 

upon the echo we sound the alarm- Come- do come if you can- 
but write, if you cannot, by the return mail & believe me 

Faithfully- sincerely 

Yr friend & sert. 
N. Carroll 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Private and important 

Hamilton C. Jones to Willie P. Mangum. 

Lincolnton Sept 9 1844 
My Dear Sir 

I was once indebted to you for your good offices in electing 
me solicitor, and for that I have endeavoured to show my grati- 
tude in a substantial way. But my term is now out, and I shall 
be before the next legislature for a renewal of the lease. Mr 
Guion^^^ is my competitor and as Mr Waddell is his brother in- 
Law it is calculated that he will endeavor to take the whole 
Orange delegation with him for Mr. G. If there is any man in 
the west of North Carolina who has worked harder and sacri- 
ficed more than I have I do not know who he is. I laboured 
seven long years at the Watchman at a dead loss (knowing it 
too) for the consolidation of the Whig party in the west; and 
all know that I had a prime agency in effecting this purpose: 
besides that; I gave up one of the most lucrative practices as a 
Lawyer of any one in my circuit which I have totally lost and 
have only returned to the practice as a solicitor- I have many 
suits of consequence scattered along this circuit but they will 
not sustain me without my office. If I am ejected I shall there- 
fore have to begin anew in a new circut You can see how dis- 
astrous must be all my prospects in this view of the matter- 
Please lay these matters upon your members and let them 
understand why I do not think Whigs ought to proscribe me: 
If I have done any thing culpable or am incompetent- or negli- 
gent, and any respectable member of the profession will say so 
of me I will not complain: but I understand that it is put on 

258Haywood W. Guion, of Lincolnton, 1814-1876, after graduation from the University of 
North Carolina, became a lawyer and the author of a scientific treatise called The Comet. An aaive 
Whig, he was chairman of the committee which invited Mangum to the Whig rally in 1844 and 
a delegate to the State Whig Convention in 1846. Battle, Hist, of U. N. C, I, 422; Grant, Alumni 
Hist, of U. N. C, 241; Greensborough Patriot, January 24, 1846. 

The Mangum Papers 185 

no such ground but simply because Mr. Guion is a good whig 
and a gentleman and wants the office. I admit such to the fact 
but I submit to those who know me if they have any thing to 
complain of me in my conduct of the office: of a proper bearing 
in other respects. As to wanting the office I am ashamed to 
say that notwithstanding a good deal of good fortune and some 
very good strikes I am still much in debt and do not know what 
I shall do without it. Please talk to such of your delegation as 
you can approach on the subject and write to me whether I 
may expect anything from that quarter" — 

What do you think of my classmate Mr Polk for president- 
We never thought him any great things atho he got the first 
honor- the vote of the class would have put Hu Waddell ahead 
of him as a man of genius altho he did get the honor. He was 
certainly a very ignorant man of all the current knowledge of 
the world when he quit college and whether he has gathered 
as much as Old Hickory knew when he was made President I 
would not pretend to say. But some how or some other how 
in my ruminations on this matter I had supposed that it re- 
quired something like distinguished qualities to entitle a man 
to that office- Some one asked Wm. Cost Johnson if it was a fact 
that he was for James K Polk for President. He answered no 
sir: I cant go that *'for he is under the standard" on being asked 
to explain : he said there is an old statute still in force in Mary- 
land that any man may take up and cut any stallion under four- 
teen hands high running at large. He considered Mr P. under 
14.- I will vouch that Mr. Clay goes ahead of Mr. Graham in 
the west. Probably by a large difference. 

Very truly 
H. C. Jones 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon^i^ Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange County 
N. C. 

186 State Department of Archives and History 

Colin Mclver to Willie P. Mangum.^^^ 

Fayetteville, 10*^ Sept/ 1844. 
My dear Sir, 

Although, since the origin of our acquaintance, in this place, 
more than thirty years ago, I have, occasionally had the privilege 
of enjoying a few personal & private interviews with you, at 
Washington City and elsewhere; & those, all of a pleasant charac- 
ter; yet, I feel some regret, in not being able to say that I have 
ever been favoured, even to the amount of a single line, with any 
of the productions of your pen. An occasional note from you, I 
have, once & again, attempted to elicit; but, as yet, I have herein 
been unsuccessful. Will you pardon me, my dear Sir, for making 
one effort more;- ( if unsuccessful, probably the last, ) - not, I as- 
sure you, with the least desire to provoke you into that state of 
mind, in which a Judge, of a former age, yielded to the wishes 
of his petitioner, lest he should be wearied by continual im- 
portunity;- but, because it would be truly gratifying to me, to 
possess some evidence, in a tangible form, that, at least, so far 
as you are concerned, political preferment has not superinduced 
a foregetfulness of former days. It is true, indeed, that, in each 
of my former communications, I did solicit, from you, a par- 
ticular favour; & I suppose, that, for reasons perfectly satisfac- 
tory to yourself, you judged it best not to grant that favour: 
but, yet, there was no need, that you should, therefore, remain 
silent. I should be unworthy to be called a disciple of Christ, & 
still more unworthy of appearing, publicly, before men, as his 
Ambassador, were I incapable of bearing in such a matter, a re- 
fusal, without suffering my equanimity to be, in the least de- 
gree, disturbed. But, I will not ascribe your silence to any ap- 
prehensions of this kind. I will rather take it for granted, that 
my letters reached you at inconvenient junctures, when the 
public interest pre-occupied all your time, & absorbed all your 
attention; & that, when intervals of leisure afterwards occurred, 
if my letters met your eye, you had concluded, that the proper 
season of responding to them, had passed away. This probably 
was especially the case, in relation to my last communication. 
It was written about a week before the opening of the last Ses- 
sion of Congress, & the original, or first-written draught of it, 

*^Compare C. Mclver to W. P. Mangum, November 27. 1843. 

The Mangum Papers 187 

was forwarded to your residence, in Orange; & a duplicate copy 
of it, was sent to the City of Washington. 

Ever since I became capable of serious reflection, I have been 
in the habit of tracing the hand of Divine Providence, in refer- 
ence to all the occurrences of my life; &, in taking a retrospect 
of the last forty years, I do not recollect, that I have ever met 
with a disappointment, of any kind, which was not, afterwards, 
over-ruled, to my advantage. With truth & confidence, I can ap- 
ply this remark, to the failure of the object I had, in view, 
when I last wrote to you; &, should a similar disappointment 
again occur, I doubt not, but it will be speedily followed with 
a similar result. 

While I was employed, at & about home, in the exercise of 
various duties, I was happy to know, that you, & your fellow 
members of the Senate, were so faithfully & so ably served, in 
the office of Chaplain, by my very worthy & excellent Brother, 
The Rev.^ Septimus Tuston. I am sure, however, that he will 
not consider it incompatible with the highest fraternal regard 
for him, or be disposed to question the sincereity of that re- 
gard, should I venture to say that I think he has occupied the 
station here alluded to, sufficiently long; & that he might, now 
with propriety, at least for a season, yield the special field of 
labour, to some other brother- (or, shall I presume to say, to a 
Father in Christ?)- who might be desirous of promoting the 
spiritual welfare of his country, in the same sphere. 

From what I have herein said, you will, doubtless, naturally 
infer, that, while I am well pleased that I was disappointed, 
last winter, it would, nevertheless, be quite gratifying to me, 
if through your kind influence, I could, for the next session of 
Congress, be chosen chaplain to the Senate. It is ever so. Are 
you disposed to enquire. Why I wish the appointment, during 
the ensuing Session, rather than at another time? — I will tell 
you. — I have, now, & have had ever since the close of last 
winter, a little book ready for the press, which I am desirous to 
dedicate to a President of the United States. For reasons, which, 
I presume, need not be stated to a man of your discernment, I 
will not dedicate it to John Tyler, I wish, therefore, to be in 
Washington, when the expected inauguration of Mr. Clay shall 
take place, that I may have the pleasure of waiting on him, in 
person, to ask his permission to prefix his name to my forth- 
coming volume; &, in such an event, I think, there would be a 

188 State Department of Archives and History 

peculiar appropriateness in my waiting on him, for such a pur- 
pose, if, at the same time, I shall have received the appointment 
alluded to. 

Having said this much, it is proper, that I should here add 
a few words, as to the subject-matter of my book. It contains 
upwards of 500 sententious, aphoretical maxims, designed to 
guide the habitual course of action, of those, who, in conducting 
the affairs of State, would desire to regulate their practice by 
the principles revealed in the Bible. Such a work, you will 
readily say, - if well executed, - would be a very suitable pocket- 
companion for every member of Congress. That you may form 
some idea of the character of the work I here speak of, I will 
fill the next page of this sheet, with some of the maxims it con- 
tains by way of specimen. 

I hope this will reach you, at an interval of leisure; & find 
you free from other engagements, at least so far as to admit of 
your devoting a few moments to the gratification of an old 

Anxiously expecting the pleasure of an early communica- 
tion from you, I remain, with unfeigned esteem, — My dear 

Yours truly, 

Colin McIver 

A few political maxims 

1. Religion & piety are the best securities of a nation. 

2. Righteousness supports the government; & will never 
shake it. 

3. National repentance & reformation, bring national plenty, 
peace, & prosperity. 

4. Nothing contributes more to the making of a Nation con- 
siderable abroad, valuable to its friends, & formidable to 
its enemies, than religion reigning in it. For, who can be 
against those that have God for them? And He is certainly 
for those that are sincerely for [Him]. 

5. Government is a burthen:- It is a burthen of care & trou- 
ble to those who make cons[tant] duty of it; &, to those 
who do not, it will prove a heavier burthen, in the day of 
account, when they fall under the doom of the unprofitable 
servant, that buried his talent. 

The Mangum Papers 189 

6. They that humble themselves shall be exalted; & those are 
most fit for government, who are least ambitious of it. 

7. Those make out the best title to public honours, that lay 
out themselves the most for the public good, & obtain 
mercy of the Lord to be faithful & useful. 

8. Better to die in honour, than live in bondage. 

9. Those that are employed in public trusts, must not think 
to benefit themselves only by their toils & hazards, but 
must aim at the advantage of the community. 

10. An interest in the affections of the people, is a great ad- 
vantage; & a great encouragement to those that were 
called to public trusts, of what kind soever. 

11. Seest thou a man diligent in his business, & dutiful to his 
superiors, willing to stoop, & willing to take pains? He 
stands fair for preferment. 

12. Those are unfit & unworthy to rule over men, who are not 
willing that God should rule over them. 

13. Men's preferment, instead of discharging them from their 
obedience to God, obliges them so much the more to it. 

14. A good ruler cannot think himself happy, unless his 
country be so. 

15. Two things recommend a man to popular esteem, great- 
ness & goodness. 

16. We do not hinder our success by preparing for disappoint- 

17. Acts of sincerity are seldom acts of policy. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon*>^^ Wyllie P. Mangum Esq"-. M. C. 
Red Mountain P. O. 
Orange County 
North Carolina. 

Thomas Williams, Jr., and others to Willie P. Mangum. 


[Sept 11 44] 

The Whigs of Alabama having determined to hold a General 
Mass Convention of the State in this place, on Thursday the 

^^his is a printed circular. 

190 State Department of Archives and History 

24th of October next, to make one more struggle for the redemp- 
tion of our fair and beautiful state from the thraldom of Loco- 
focoism, - we, a committee appointed by the Clay club of this 
city, have the honor to invite your presence and aid on that 
occasion; believing as we do that the co-operation of our dis- 
tinguished fellow^ Whigs w^ill greatly assist us in effecting a 
consummation so devoutly to be wished. We shall wait with 
much anxiety for your reply. 

Very truly yours, &c. 


Thos. Williams Jr., Jesse P. Taylor, 

J. J. Hutchinson, B. S. Bibb, 

J. C. Bates, S. C. Oliver, 

S. D. Holt, M. Ashurst, 

R. C. CuMMiNGS, Wm. Rives, 

T. J. ViCKERS, R. J. Ware, 

George Rives, R. C. Bunting. 

Montgomery, Ala., Sept. 11th, 1844. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Raleigh, N. C 

If misdirected the P. M. will please forward. 

Henry Clay to Willie P. Mangum and Enclosure. 

Ashland [Ky.] 1V\ Sept. 1844. 
My Dear Sir, 

I was very happy to receive your favor of the 23^ of July. 
Your election did not turn out quite [as] well as you anticipated, 
and its result was the reverse of what was anticipated when I 
was at Raleigh, at which time no fears were entertained for the 
election of the Governor, but great apprehensions were enter- 
tained about the Legislature. What is the present state of your 
prospects? Our opponents are manifestly making great exer- 
tions every where, and affect if they do not feel great confidence 
in the issue of the contest. Their whole system now seems to be 

The Mangum Papers 191 

directed to the propogation of the most detestable libels and 
lies. Is it producing any effect in North Carolina? If I am 
to credit the enclosed letter it is doing us mischief there. Do 
you know the writers of it? The old story to which they allude 
I thought had been buried so low that it could never rise [to] 
the surface again. Our friends at Washington have been getting 
up an abridged history of all the facts, documents, and proofs 
respecting that old story, and if you think it worth while I wish 
you would write to Green and have some of them distributed 
in your State. The Blair letters to which the enclosed refers, or 
rather copies of them are in the possession of Benj. Watkins 
Leigh of Richmond with authority to show them to any gentle- 
man that may be desirous of perusing them. The truth is that 
so far as relates to the charge against me, they contain strong 
corroborative proof of its falsity: but they are sportive, play- 
ful, and written in all the familiarity of private correspondence, 
to the violation of which in any case I do not wish to give my 

I am greatly obliged to you for the friendly solicitude you 
entertain about my health, and I am happy to inform you that 
it is now very good. I hope this letter will find yours equally 
so. Owing to the great extent of my correspondence, I am 
obliged to obtain the assistance of one of my sons who writes 
this letter as my amanuensis upon my dictation. 

I am always, your friend 

And obedient servant- 
H. Clay. 

The Honble - Willie P. Mangum. 


The Honble - Willie P. Mangum 
President of the Senate 
Red Mountain 
Orange County 
North Carolina. 

192 State Department of Archives and History 


Halifax N. C. 27th. Augt. 1844 
Hon: H. Clay 

My dear Sir, 

As much has been said in relation to your letter ad- 
dressed to Mr. Blair many years ago, in regard to the election 
of the Hon: J. Q. Adams to the Presidency, when & where you 
were accused of bargain & corruption in that election ;-^^ We 
have thought proper to ask of you, if you ever in a solitary in- 
stance refused directly or indirectly to permit the letter to be 
published, if not, we respectfully ask will you now give your 
consent to publish it? 

Since the Hon: L. Boyds'-^^ expose of the matter in Con- 
gress, the Whigs have been losing ground in this State, and we 
have no doubt unless the letter is published Polk & Dallas will 
carry it in Nov'', next. 

An answer at your earliest convenience is requested — 

Yr. obt. Svts 

Major A. Willcox^^i 
W. H. Hardee 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon: H. Clay 

Robert Ransom to Willie P. Mangum. 

Sepf. 12t\ 1844 
D--. Sir 

& friend 

Your letter in answer to my two,-^^ was reed, and all ar- 
rangements made to start to see you this day. But our worthy 

^"At the time of the election of 1824 Clay and F. P. Blair were close friends. Clay wrote 
Blair several letters during the time that the election was in the hands of the members of the House 
of Representatives. Because of the constant reference by the Democrats in the campaign of 1844 to 
Clay's part in a "corrupt bargain" in 1823, the Whigs insisted that the correspondence with Blair 
be published. Finally on Oaober 7. 1844, Benjamin Watkins Leigh sent to the Richmond Whig 
for publication his letter and copies of two letters which Clay had written Blair in 1825. In 1827 
Clay had received certified copies of the Blair letters. He sent copies of these to Leigh in the summer 
of 1844. Niles' Register, LXVII, 84-85; Van Deusen, Life of Clay, 180-184. 

280Linn Boyd, of Tennessee, was a member of Congress as a Democrat in 1835-1837 and 1839- 
1855. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 729. 

^^Major A. Willcox was a member of the North Carolina legislature in 1825 and 1838. N. C. 
Manual, 641, 717. 

2«2See above, Robert Ransom to W. P. Mangum, August 8, 1844. 

The Mangum Papers 193 

and venerable friend Col. Alston, begs me to say to you, that 
he is compelled to defer the Visit, until the first week in Ocf. 
He finds that he must go to Petersburg on business that cant be 
delayed, and hopes he will not incommode your arrangements, 
if he does, he wishes you to inform him. He says he will cer- 
tainly be at your House by the 7th. or 8th. of Ocf. 

I have no news from this county of Dogmatical arristocracy, 
we gained 22 votes for Graham, and will add as many more for 
Clay. Our Watering places are full to overflowing, a large ma- 
jority for Clay. 

Hoping this may find you rapidly recovering, & able to do 
battle in our Heavenly Cause, I am, as ever your devoted 
friend. With Great respect. 

RoBT. Ransom. 

Willie P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

Honl. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 

Orrange County N. C. 

Circular of Maine Whig State Central Committee 


Maine, September 16, 1844. 

The State Committee of the Whigs of Maine, deem it their 
duty to address this brief note to their friends in other States, 
in relation to the result of our recent State Election. We do 
this not for the purpose of extenuating our defeat,^^^ or of prom- 
ising to remedy the effect, by the next Election in November. 
We presume that no one seriously believed that we should suc- 
ceed over both the other parties, although some indulged the 
hope that we might defeat the choice of Governor by a majority 

2«3This is a printed circular. 
^^The results in Maine were: 

Whig candidate for Governor 24,777 

Democratic candidate for Governor 28,863 

Anti-Slavery candidate for Governor 3,689 

Naturally the Democrats rejoiced that they carried the state over the combined votes of the two op- 
ponents. The Whigs, on the other hand, tried to explain away the defeat. National Intelligencer, 
September 14. 1844. 

194 State Department of Archives and History 

of the people, but probably some may be disappointed by the 
amount of the majority against us. We confess we have been 
somewhat disappointed in the result, so far as the relative votes 
of the parties are concerned, - But we beg leave to observe, 

1. That we are much more disappointed by the decrease in 
the Whig vote, than by the increase of the other party. The 
whole vote of the State will about equal the vote of 1840. The 
natural increase of population would give our opponents all the 
increase which they show by their recent vote. It is quite clear 
that many thousand Whigs have not voted, for the sum total of 
the whole vote of all parties against the "Democratic," is less 
than the Whig vote of 1840. 

2. We feel bound to say that this failure to bring out the full 
vote was unexpected, and it is the principal object of this letter 
to give you this information, in order to enable you to take such 
measures as may be necessary to prevent a like result in your 
State. The preparation on the part of the Whigs generally, was, 
as we believed before the Election, ample and thorough. We had 
many public meetings in every County, which were well attend- 
ed hy the Whigs, and the great doctrines of the party fully ex- 
plained and defended by able, eloquent and untiring advocates. 
We have had more and better speaking than ever before. Our 
meetings have been full and enthusiastic. We have no doubt that 
among thinking men, we had many changes in our favor. The 
arguments presented to the people, were clear, calm, cogent, un- 
answerable and unanswered. 

3. Since the Election we are satisfied that we had not a thor- 
ough, perfect and effective detailed organization. We had Com- 
mittees enough appointed, but our efforts and our zeal were ex- 
pended too much in public gatherings and Club room discussions. 
We needed more of the school-district organization, and that ac- 
curate and effective arrangement, by which every individual in 
every neighborhood is brought out to the polls. We are satisfied 
that nothing short of this kind of organization, under the charge 
of active, discreet and perservering men, will secure a full 
vote of the Whig party anywhere. We have relied too much 
upon public gatherings and able arguments. The Whigs have 
been there in great numbers, but our opponents have taken 
great pains, and generally with success, to keep their party 
away from Whig meetings 

The Mangum Papers 195 

4. Our opponents commenced and carried out a system 
based upon misrepresentation and calumny - denouncing Mr. 
Clay especially. They appealed constantly to the lowest and 
vilest passions and prejudices, and particularly relied upon ex- 
citing the hatred of the poor against the rich - the employed 
against the employer, the laborer against the man who fur- 
nished capital. They represented in every place, and to every 
person whom they could reach, publicly or privately, that the 
protective system of the Whigs was a scheme devised to in- 
crease the profits of Capital, and to depress and injure the 
working man - a tax on the farmer for the benefit solely of the 
rich manufacturer. They repudiated the principle of protection 
as an element in the formation of a tariff, and advocated the reve- 
nue principle as the only allowable mode, viz: - such a duty 
on every article as will produce the most revenue, irrespective 
of the effect on the industry of the Country. They particularly 
denounced the duty on iron and sugar, and represented Maine 
as suffering grievously for the benefit of Pennsylvania and 
Louisianna. We think our friends in those States ought to under- 
stand these facts. It is only since the day of the Election, that 
we have learned the extent of the influence brought to bear, 
to poison the minds of the laborers against the tariff doctrines 
of the Whigs. The same influence will be noiselessly, but un- 
less met and counteracted, effectively used in other States. 

5. Our opponents were furnished from some source, with 
a plentiful supply of money - whether it came from English 
Manufacturers or Texas bond holders, or office holders or 
seekers, or from all, we know not. The fact is certain. And 
doubtless the same fund will supply in the same manner, all 
the money which can be used advantageously in every other 

We have felt it to be our duty to make this communication 
to you in a spirit of frankness, to put you into possession of the 
facts recited, and in the hope and belief that you may from 
these facts and suggestions, derive some hints which may be 
of advantage in preparing for the coming contest in your State. 
If in any degree the result of our Election has disappointed any 
of our friends abroad, we can only hope that our experience 
and observation of the mode and manner of conducting the 
campaign by our opponents, may enable them to avoid our er- 
rors, and to redouble their diligence, to secure the great - the 

196 State Department of Archives and History 

vital point, a perfect, systematic and detail organization, by 
v^hich it shall be beforehand rendered certain that every voter 
v^^ill be at the polls. We w^ould especially hope that the business 
men, who are most directly and deeply interested in the success 
and permancy of Whig principles, v^ill in each State enter into 
the contest with the spirit, activity and personal effort, for 
which they were distinguished in 1840. 

JosiAH S. Little, 
Gideon Tucker, 
J. WiNGATE Carr, 
William C. Hammatt, 
Moses L. Appleton, 
Richard F. Perkins, 
Aaron Hayden, 
E. Wilder Farley. 

Whig State 


Nathaniel J. Palmer^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

RosEBOROUGH, Sept. 17th 1844 
Dear Sir. 

We are about to establish a Female Institute of high char- 
acter in Milton^^^ to be under the Patronage of the Baptists or 
friends of the Baptist cause in four different Associations. 
Twelve of the Trustees to reside in the bounds of the Beulah 
Association and Six in each of the other Associations. This is to 
request that you will permit us to use your name as one of the 
Trustees in the Flat River Association. We do not ask you to 
assume any responsibility, but simply to give us the influence 
of your name and countenance in the promotion of the interests 
of the Institution. The Baptists, are the most numerous and 
in the aggregate the most wealthy denomination in the State 
and I rejoice to see that they are about to take that stand in 

2«5See above, I, 414n. 

^^Four Baptist associations obtained from the legislature, December 24, 1844, a charter for 
the Milton Female Institute. In the charter W. A. Graham, Calvin Graves, and Willie P. Mangum 
were among those designated as members of the board of trustees. The school was opened January 
1, 1845. In 1849 the charter was amended to permit the same trustees to operate the Beulah Male 
Academy. G. W. Paschal, "Baptist Academies in North Carolina," N. C. Hist. Review, XXVIII, 51; 
N. C. Laws, 1844-1845. 148-150. 

The Mangum Papers 197 

the promotion of education which will elevate their character 
and extend their influence. Judge Settle, Mr. Kerr and other 
gentlemen of high standing will be numbered with the Trus- 

I should be pleased if you could visit Milton or Yanceyville 
before the Presidential Election. Our County Court meets the 
30th of this month. Can you not be there then. The Baptist 
State Convention which will probably be the largest Religious 
Assembly ever convened in the State will meet in Raleigh on 
the Friday preceding the 3rd Sabbath in October. Please write 
to me on the receipt of this 

Yours truly, 
Nathaniel J. Palmer. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum, 
Red Mountain, 
Orange County, 
N. C. 

Politeness of 

G. W. Jomes Esqr. 

John Sergeant and others to Willie P. Mangum. 

Philada Septr 17, 1844 
Dear Sir, 

It has been determined to hold a Grand Convention of the 
Whigs of the Eastern Counties of Penna in the City of Philada 
on Tuesday the 1st. day of October. — The importance of the 
State Election which takes place in the following week autho- 
rizes this appeal to the patriotism of our Whig brethren through- 
out the State and the Union. — We invite you earnestly & spe- 
cially to come amongst us on this occasion.- It is an invitation 
not tendered as a matter of form. — We sincerely desire the op- 
portunity at our own home to testify anew our high sense of 
your public services and to have the opportunity of exhibiting 
to you the enthusiasm of the Whigs of Pennsylvania. 

198 State Department of Archives and History 

We are, very respectfully 
Your friends, 

John Sergeant Charles Gibbons 

JosiAH Randall Sam W. Weer 

William B. Reed Jas. Txaguain[?] [Brynais] 

Henry White Jacob Strattan 

Jos R Chandler Alexander H Freeman 

Melor Mowboyd [illegible] John H Withers 

Hon : W. P Mangum 
North Carolina — 


J. R. Ingersoll 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange Co. 

North Carolina 

R. J. MitcheW^'^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

[Sept. 27, 1844] 
1842. Hon. W. P. Mangum, 

July 22. To R. J. Mitchell Dr. 

To Subscription to the Oxford Mercury 

from 29th Dec. '41. to Sept. 8th. 1843.— $5.00 

Oxford, N. C. Sept. 27, '44. 

Dear Sir: - Enclosed I send you your account up to the end of 
the time I was publisher of the Mercury. You will confer a 

2«7The Oxford Mercury and Dtstrtct Telegram was published by John Cameron 1841-1843. 
C. H. Wiley was the editor. Check List of U. S. Newspapers in Duke General Library, IV, 590. 

The Mangum Papers 199 

favor by forwarding it as early as convenient. If you wish to 
pay for the present year, I am authorized to receipt for the 

Yours very respectfully, 
R. J. Mitchell 
Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange Co. 
N. C. 

David Lambert to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York, Sept. 29th. 1844 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum, 

Dear Sir, 

You will probably be somewhat surprised at receiving a 
letter from me dated at this City, and perhaps still more when 
I inform you that I have taken up my residence here- I effected 
the exchange into the Custom House here through Gov. Van 
Ess^^^ which I had expected to effect thro' Mr. Ferris had the 
latter been confirmed as Collector- My family have not yet 
joined me but I expect Fredrica and our oldest boy early next 
month- I presume you have heard that we have had the mis- 
fortune of losing the infant- 
New York is in a state of great excitement now in reference 
to politics- Meetings of both parties are held almost every 
night- The Whig meeting of Thursday night was really a great 
affair- The papers have doubtless given you some account of 
it and also of the outrageous assault made on a portion of the 
Whig procession by the infamous wretches of the Empire Cluh - 
Cassius M[arcellus] Clay of Ky. is here, and with Mr. Webster 

ae8Q)rnelius Peter Van Ness 1782-1852, a former governor of New York and minister to 
Spain in 1829-1837. Tyler appointed him CoUeaor of Customs at New York in 1844. Polk at 
first retained him in this office, but Van Buren soon had him removed. M. M. Quaife ( ed, ) , The 
Diary of James K. Polk During His Presidency, 1845-1849. 1910, I, 95; F. J. Jameson (ed.). 
Correspondence of John C. Calhoun, A. H. A. Annual Report for 1899, H. 532, 1004. 1038, 1039. 

200 State Department of Archives and History 

will address a meeting at Syracuse this week- Leslie Combs-*^^ 
has been here and is doing his best. J. N. Reynolds-'^^ is making 
a great noise, and our good friend Jos. Hoxie continues to sing 
Whig songs and make speeches. 

Meanwhile the Democrats are not idle- They are exerting 
themselves to the uttermost, and have certainly made a great 
hit in the nomination of Silas Wright, while our friends picked 
out one of their feeblest men in Fillmore, -^^ who has no personal 
popularity and labors under the disadvantage of not being 
generally known- 

I confess I am by no means sanguine that the Whigs will 
carry the State- The leaders certainly are indefatigable, but 
there is nothing like the enthusiasm that was displayed here 
in 1840. The event however must soon be known- 

Capt. Tyler made an excellent appointment in the case of 
Gov. Van Ess-He is an excellent officer, and gives his time ex- 
clusively to the legitimate business of his office- I know not 
when so large a proportion of the public revenues could be de- 
posited in safer or more competent hands 

Should any thing occur here of a political character likely 
to be interesting I will take the pleasure of addressing you 
again soon 

Meanwhile believe me 

Respectfully & truly yours 

David Lambert- 

We are in the midst of a violent equinoctial gale which will 
probably do serious damage to the shipping- I am residing close 
to the Battery and it is a beautiful sight to look out at the bay, 
covered with shipping, dashed in every direction by the waves. 
I never saw so rough a Sea in the Bay as at this moment- 

2<50Leslie Combs was a Kentucky Whig who served as a member of the Kentucky legislature and 
who wrote pamphlets and made speeches against Jackson. He was an ardent supporter of Clay. 
Bassett (ed.). Cor. of Jackson, III, 379, 380, 439, 440; D. A. B., IV, 328. 

^^^J. N. Reynolds had been very active in the campaign of 1840. He declined being a candidate 
for the New York legislature in that year in order that he might give more time to the election of 
Harrison. He was president of the Central Democartic Republican Committee of Tippecanoe and 
other Harrison associations in New York City. In 1844 he supported Clay with the same enthu- 
siasm. Hillsborough Recorder, November 12, 1840. 

^^^Seward had selected Millard Fillmore to be the Whig candidate for governor. Wright won 
by a majority of 10,030, and Polk carried the state by a 5010 majority. Niles' Register, LXVII, 208. 

The Mangum Papers 201 

jS. Starkweather^'^ ^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Sunday 30 Sept 1844 
My Dear Friend, 

As I told you some time since we have been much distressed 
by Mr. Clay's letter relative to Cassius M Clay ,2^^ but are par- 
tially recovering from it- I have just met and old most intelli- 
gent friend from michigan who says the state was safe before 
but that now he thinks we have little or no chance - Yet I hope 
our friends will rally again. The great meeting here last thurs- 
day has been powerful in its effects and an entirely new feel- 
ing is among us It was most unfortunate that Van Buren was 
withdrawn Polk is a much harder candidate for us — 

The contest with us will be hard & close. If N. Jersey & 
Pennsylvania go against us by small votes & we carry Ohio N 
York is safe- But if we lose all these States & by a discouraging 
vote next month all is lost. 

Yours truly 

S. Starkweather 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon W. P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange Co 
N Carolina 

John H. Pleasants and others to Willie P. Mangum, 


Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Richmond, October 1, 1844. 

The undersigned have been designated as a Committee of 
Invitation by the Central State Whig Committee, to act in con- 

^^See above, 154. 

^^In the course of the campaign of 1844 many attributed Henry Qay's opposition to annexa- 
tion to abolitionism. Clay's cousin, Cassius M. Clay, gave grounds for this accusation. In traveling 
in the anti-slavery regions and speaking for his kinsman, Cassius Clay encouraged the anti-slavery 
people to believe that Henry Clay was opposed to slave expansion. The South, as a result, became 
less enthusiastic about Clay's candidacy. Henry Clay, therefore, repudiated his cousin. Van Deusen, 
Life of Clay, 371-372; Poage, Henry Clay and the Whig Party, 140. 

^*This is a printed circular. 

202 State Department of Archives and History 

junction with the Williamsburg Committee, in inviting guests 
to the York Town Convention, on the 18th and 19th of October, 
in pursuance of the request of the latter; and in discharge of 
that duty, have the honor of requesting your presence on the 

We beg leave to say that we regard the York Town Conven- 
tion as of very great, and perhaps decisive importance. We 
feel persuaded, from the most authentic intelligence, that it is 
quite within the power of strenuous exertion to retrive that 
Congressional District to the Whigs, and to replace it where it 
stood in 1840. To succeed in this effort, is almost certainly to 
succeed in securing the vote of Virginia to her native son, Henry 
Clay - an object, next to that of his election, not only of high 
political importance, but of the greatest personal solicitude to 
every Whig. We therefore emphatically ask your cooperation. 

We have the honor to be &c. 

John H. Pleasants, 
Saml. F. Adie, 
Jas. W. Pegram, 
John A. Meredith, 
R. T. Daniel, 
Thos. Nelson, M. D. 
A. L. Warner, M. D. 


Richmond (alias Great coon Den) Oct. Ist^^^ 

Little Coon Den 1. P M 
My Dear Judge 

In haste I drop you a few lines & to forward you an invita- 
tion by the request of the Committee — Come my good Friend, 
come! Come do, and you shall be protected from all Edmond's 
& such trash — 

I shall write today to friends Crittenden, (slim Jim) More- 
head, Garret Davis, Genl. Combs, Foster and Jarnagan, also 
Schanks of Ohio, ( I don't know that I have spelt his name right ) 

''^This letter is written on the same sheet as the preceding printed invitation. 

The Mangum Papers 203 

consequently have but little time to say much to you — I have a 
long message from Jno. H. Pleasants to you which you shall have 
at another time — Suffice for the present, he desires his best re- 
spects to you — I have sent to you occasionally the Enquirer, 
Time & Compiler & Whig Standard, and to day send you the En- 
quirer, Compiler & Standard — We are all well — My old Gourd, 
& Alexander desire their best wishes & respects to you — May 
this find you & family well 

Yr Friend 

W. Claiborne 

To Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 


Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
N. C. 

A. M. Burton^'^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Beatysford 2^^. October 1844 
My dear Sir 

Having just emerged from an attack of fever it might be 
supposed that the politics of the country occupied but a small 
portion of my time or thoughts; The approaching Presidential 
election is a subject of too much importance to every American 
to be disregarded. 

You will I am certain acting upon the principle pardon the 
liberty I take in making a suggestion to you; the great Western 
reserve as it is properly called will have a meeting at Morgan- 
ton on the 17. 18 & 19^^ of this month they are very desirous 
that you attend it, Allow me then my dear Sir to ask and en- 
treat you in my own name and that of the whigs of No. Ca that 
you make this small sacrafice to the great cause in which we 
all feel so deep an interest. 

27^Alfred M. Burton, the son of Continental Congressman, Robert Burton of Granville County, 
graduated from the University. He married Elizabeth FuUenwider and moved to Beatty's Ford, where 
he praaiced law most of his life. Tyler's Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine, II, 274- 
277; Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 87. 

204 State Department of Archives and History 

The impression I am fearful is gaining ground in the West- 
ern part of the State, that the Whigs in the Middle and Eastern 
part of the State do not care for the West except on the day of 
Election; this may produce a paralysis which would be danger- 
ous to our cause. 

I do not know any gentleman in the state who has it in his 
power to render as great service in counteracting this dangerous 
state of feeling as yourself. Let me therefore beg of you to 

Spend if you can some time amongst us, and if convenient 
make my house your head quarters; you are hereby invited and 
solicited to spend as much time with me as convenient- there 
is yet much to be done in this month; if we can prevent any 
sectional jealousy, or allay the excitement which I am fearfull 
may arise all will he well and safe. 

You will please to understand me as writing without author- 
ity or consultation with any one; it, my letter is the offspring of 
my own judgement, and observation; if ever it is in the cause 
of freedom as I verily believe, I may have too much feeling but 
it is in a noble cause- 
Since I have become a farmer by profession I never hear 
from you; yet I examine and approve your course; God grant 
you success 

Accept assurances of my high regard 
I have the honour to be very truly your friend 
and Obt Sevt 

A. M. Burton 

[Addressed : ] 

The Hon^^^ Willie P. Mangum Esqr. 
Red Mountain 
No. Ca 

Mail) The post master at Hills^^. will please 

forward as soon as possible and oblige a friend. 

The Mangum Papers 205 

Nicholos Carroll to Willie P. Mangum. 

180 Prince St 

New York Oct. 7th 1844 
My dear Sir 

I am grieved to learn of your illness. -^^ I hope it will not tye 
you to your bed & room when your spirit is thirsty with the 
great excitement. 

I am very sure I can beat your doctor this morning in the 
remedy I shall minister to your ailment. 

We are sure of the vote of New York - of the State of New 
York. The very best feeling prevails throughout and we were 
never so united as at this moment. Reconcilement has been the 
order of the day, and those who have been alienated within all 
the past four years now centre like brothers to a common stand- 
ard. In the City we will do the best we can and as the avowed 
& open design, of those who have hitherto been straight laced 
& puritanical in their creed, to yield up all prejudices and go 
in the brodest & strongest sense for Union, is now manifest, why 
may we not hope for success even in the City? When we can be 
strengthened by so doing v/e coalesce with others - and stand on 
our own ground only where we cannot gain by alliances. The City 
has been canvassed even to the obscurest alley & lowest den 
and the inmates, floating & resident, polled to a man. Of this 
we are assured, if the vote is honestly cast we have the City by 
2,000 — The great importance which attaches to the election in 
this City is that 13 members of Assembly will probably de- 
termine at all events 1 and perhaps 2 U. S. Senators. That is the 
state here. But the State - the 36 Electoral votes are sure for 
Henry Clay - It has been good for us that Mr Wright was nomi- 
nated — Every nerve of the Whig Party has been called forth 
and they are in the field night & day with all their energy and in 
the majesty of that might which can insure the best half of 
520.000 votes- 
New Jersey is not in Capt Stockton's breeches pocket. We 
only fear colonizing — Preparations to effect this have been 

^■"During the summer of 1844 Mangum attended a great many mass meetings and became the 
leader of the Whig program in North Carolina. As a result, he was exhausted and became seriously 
ill in August. His recuperation was slow, for his lungs were aflfeaed. His illness prevented his par- 
ticipation in the rallies until near the end of the campaign. Hillsborough Recorder, September 5. 
24, 1844; Raleigh Register, October 1, 1844. 

206 State Department of Archives and History 

made to a very great extent but it w^ill be met by an over- 
whelming effort by the Jersey Blue, now thoroughly roused & 
incensed and they will defend their ballot boxes with their lives. 

It is a deep matter of regret that already a determined spirit 
of violence has been apparent. The Whigs have determined to 
carry out the adage "forewarned - forearmed." 

Pennsylvania we hope the best - Appearances are in our 
favor — If we are beat there it will be because it has been made 
apparent to the people that James K. Polk is a protective Tariff 
man & Henry Clay a Free Trade disorganizer. Delaware has 
filled her cup of glory full for treason was rife there - oh Judge 
beware Bayard, nor has Maryland been wanting — 

The East and North are all right. We will have Vert. Mass. 
R. I. Connt. N. Y. & N. J. - then Del. Md. will Virginia join the 
Line? then N. Ca. Geo. La. Tenne. Ina. Ky. & Ohio- This is our 

I wish your complaint had been more civil & given us the 
pleasure of your society for a while — My dear Judge there is 
no heart beats for Henry Clay in this quarter, that warms to him 
i6nselfishly that does not include you in the same warm home 

The news of your convalescence will be as agreeable to them 
as the tidings of a State in doubt voting Whig. 

I wonder if your physician wont order you North to recruit 
so as to be here on the 23d of this month. We are to have a sort 
of National Convention & Festival then and from appearances it 
will be enormous & will give an impetus that will carry us 
gloriously into & past the Ides of November. Why can't you 

At all events dear sir regard your health first & foremost- A 
good many of us feel as if we would like to nurse you if we 
could help you along - but any way we want to hear that you 
are better - that you are well 

With earnest & respectful esteem & regard 


Yr friend & sert. 
NiCHS. Carroll 

Hon Willie P Mangum 

The Young News State Convention at Rochester on the 2^ 
numbered 60,000 & upwards — It was very - very enthusiastic. 
There were thousands there, speaking almost literally who had 

The Mangum Papers 207 

voted for Van Buren in 1840- This is a pregnant fact. Mr 
Clay's last letter ( I am glad it is his last) will put us on the 
highest ground in these quarters & its effect is already telling 
for us everywhere. 

I enclose a table of Maryland's vote - 1500 non residents 
voted in Bait. City. The fact is pregnant. By fraud and vio- 
lence, the party leaders have maped out their operations. The 
result in Maryland is most happy considering the unhallowed 
means used by the Locos. A Maryland friend assures me that 
$200,000 & upwards were used by the Locos in that State. They 
will make us no fight there in November- If New Jersey & 
Pennsylvania do their duty tomorrow the game is played. Mr 
Clay will sweep everything like Prarie fire. 22 States then 
would be a small count- I shall watch & pray & enclose you the 
earliest returns 

Walter A. Mangum to Priestley H. Mangum, 

[Oakland Mississippi] 
October 9th 1844— 
Dear Sir, 

This is to inform you that we are yet in the land of the 
living, but I dont know how soon it may be some of us next. 
The people are dropping off every day around us like the leaves 
from the trees- This morning Mrs. William M. Sneed departed 
this life at 7 oclock, & her husband has been very low. Albert 
Sneed, his wife & 2 of his children are very sick & I have but 
little hopes of him, - We have had more sickness this season 
than we have had in 5 years past all together & more fatal, 
nearly all the sickness is disposed to Congestion, it is not un- 
comon for a man to be in good health & die in 3 hours. There 
has dyed about 100 persons within 10 miles of me since the 1st 
of last June- We are looking forward to frost for releaf , it would 
be useless in me to attempt to describe the distress on the Miss- 
issippi river anywhere within 50 miles- There is no doubt our 
sickness is produced by the great overflow- You know Alex- 
ander Murphy who married Womacks daughter he was living 
in my County & he, & 3 of his children is dead - his wife & their 

208 State Department of Archives and History 

2 other children came near to dying — She is now with her 
mother some 70 miles north of me — I have had some little 
sickness but of the common order both in my White & Black 
family- Our crops are good particular cotton my crop will make 
400 lbs picked Cotton to the acre — I have delayed mailing this 
letter till today the 17th - inconsequence of the illness of my 
wife- She is at the point of death of Congestive fever, I think 
there is a great probabilty the next time you hear from her, it 
will be of her death- Capt Sneed & his wife is thought to be 
some better this morning - but very ill - Thos. Gooch is quite 
sick - I am determined to leave the Mississippi vally - do write 
me the health of your country this season & particularly the 
health of yours & Willie's family- 

We have no frost yet & our sickness still rages with vio- 
lence — 

Yours with respect &c. 
W. A. Mangum 
To P. H Mangum 

[Postmarked:] Oakland Mi Oct 2 1«* 

[Addressed : ] 

Priestley H. Mangum Esqr. 

Orange County 
[North] Carolina 

William ChurchilP^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York Octr 11 1844 
My Dear Sir. 

I have been pained to see in the Newspapers notices that 
you had been seriously ill, but without mentioning in what 
manner you were afflicted, or its extent. This causes me great 
anxiety, which is shared by all the members of my family, and 
I hear frequent expressions of interest from those who have 
not, like us, had the pleasure of social intercourse with you. — 
With them, this may be mainly induced by their estimate of the 

^^He was a manufacturer of bird cages in New York City. New York City Directory for 1843 
and 1846, p. 75. 

The Mangum Papers 209 

important services you would continue to render the great in- 
terests of our country at this interesting period. — 

Will it, - my Dear Judge - be trespasing to ask you to let 
me know how your health is: if you are able to write without 

The Whigs here are in high spirits and I think are better 
organized and quite as earnest as in 1840. — 

Being just recovering from severe illness, - I have not been 
able to work for the good cause so much as I wished to do, in a 
humble way, nor to attain full data upon which to form a posi- 
tive judgement of the vote of this state. But from all I can learn 
of intelligent individuals from the interior and in the City, 
I have strong hopes that New York will go for Mr. Clay - not- 
withstanding the strength of the Loco foco candidates for Gov. 
and Lieut Govr. — 

My family are in usual health and unite in earnest wishes 
for your speedy restoration to health with. 

My Dear Sir 

Yours Faithfully 
& Respy 

Wm. Churchill 

To Hon W. P. Mangum [Addressed:] 

Red Mountain, „ tttiv -d -mt ^ 

^ p Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Red Mountain 

North Carolina 

)S. Starkweather to Willie P. Mangum. 

N. York. 13. Oct 44. 
Hon W P Mangum 

Dear Sir 

If you accost the Whig watchman here, "with what of 
the night?" he responds be of good cheer, all is well, the day is 
beginning to dawn. The late election in Cont. has put that State 
beyond doubt, we have carried N Jersey, Del. Maryland, are 
carrying Ohio, & proved our powers to carry Penn. — 

These results have rendered N. York unqualifiedly safe. 
Ohio will give us a good vote probably 7000. At least so it looks 

210 State Department of Archives and History 

this morning- I write you to say N. York is safe. Your friend 
N P Tallmadge & his brother L. B. the judge, have gone fully 
over to John Tyler & so I knew they intended last winter but 
you would not believe it - we have had some fears of Georgia, 
but this mornings mail has relieved us though the vote will be 
close. Can you not give your neighbor a little aid. Gen. Clinch 
went from these a little discouraged about three weeks since 
But like a noble Roman as he is went home to share in the con- 
flict. The Whigs are in high spirits and full of exultation but 
be assured they will not relax in their exertions until the clos- 
ing of the balot Box 

You may say to all friends N. York is safe. Mr. Clays last 
letter was called for & has saved us. 

In haste truly Yours 
S. Starkweather. 


Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain. 
Orange Co 
N Carolina 

James C. Mangham^''^ to Willie P. Mangum. 


Glynn County Georgia 13th October, 1844 

Honerable W. P. Mangum 

Dr Sir I am well & a bold plebian & truly hope this may find- 
you & your sweat family in the same good health - please excuse 
my Boldness in atempting to trouble you with reading my im- 
perfect Letter the time has been when I felt proud to heare of 
your High Station in Life, but now feel mortifyed to find you 
side with Mr. Clay - you as a southern Man 2d in command. In 
administering the general government, & could turn the tables 
in my oald beloved state are you to yield to the will of the self 
styled whigs of the grate Union - may God for Bid it, you have 
been chided By Mr Clay on the Senate floor, you in the Last 

^^See above, I, 84. 

The Mangum Papers 211 

Whig Convention have been over Lookt by that party an or- 
dinary man taken in your stead, for your Honours sake your 
countrys sake come and go with us we will Doo the Good -, can 
you Indorse the public conduct of Mr Clay & vote for him for 
president Oh that your God may Guide you Right, it is a Last- 
ing Lorel on the Braw of him that will leave the wrong & cleve 
to the right way It was a Democratic government Delivered to 
us by the Blood washt Band, and for the sake of your free 
Blood that follows after you, I would not try to have you change 
policy as knowing you have Sterling worth, but the wisest man 
may be Deceived - the south would a have been pleased to a 
have made you president some years ago - and would yet if you 
would take the right side- My heart feels what I write if you 
help Clay to the presidency. Dont, pray dont fasten on us a 

Institution for a [illegible] may endanger the Union, not alter 
our glorious Constitution, that has been the first step taken 
always, to overthrow all republics. Doo examine both sides of 
policy - and chuse impartially for your God & your country 
there will be more rejoicing over the return of one Neglected 
sinner than over 99 just pursons- I Battled with you in your 
virgin policy for our Crawford in vain - for Jackson Twice - 
for Vanburen Twice, the 2d time in vain, and Now for my 
Country - and think with success-, T. B. King - put me Down, 
and there I am Content to stay - I have Laboured 40 years for 
the public in Glynn County, Ga — have never changed my pol- 
icy for the sake of office Neither do I wish you to Doo it but I 
can tell you that the flatterey of J. M. Berrien, will never bene- 
fit you, Neither will the Clay party - his ambition is known - 
the former - Deceipt is known Clays changes & British Guilt is 
known - Mr. Berriens federalism is known - his changes is 
known - he was opposed to the last war - would Brook the Brit- 
ish insults - and oppression - the Decendence of Britons & 
France, here - is whigs - the first from hatred to Jackson the 
2d from Hatred to Jackson & Vanburen, from giving payment 
by the french of the 25 millions of Francks - the 3d party is 
under T. B. Ks ControU, same stripe yankeys. - Soft sawder 
& Ham oriaturecrates (these 3 partys rules the County - and 
trys to rule the whole seaboard of Georgia - but cant Cum it - I 
wish you to answer this Letter - or the Next will be but short - 
as I will [illegible] then write and to the purpose — I Love you 

212 State Department of Archives and History 

and all that has my Blood in there vains- Both the Carringtons 
& Mangums — our worthy old Gramp is for us 

I am your obt Sevt 

Jas. C. Mangham 

Jackson do-Benton do- [several lines are badly torn] 

Colquet Cooper Black 

Gilmer - Seborn Jones 

Black, Cheves Chappel 

Oald - Virginia 

Honest John Tyler and 

his friends - all the South, 

that has rightly Judged - is for us 

the northern Whigs [illegible] against us 

then Let us be unitted at the South for 

the sake of our Dearest rights 

and not promote the v^higs for the sake of office 

Nor suffer Adams & Clay to Dictate save the republic 

for Gods sake & your Country sake 

Adams calls on 3/5 Negroes - Clay says one 
thing yonder yesterday - says another thing here to Day, 
Oh our Best Blood is in Texas holding out thare 
Hands to us as Drov^nding men for help — 
Doo grant it.- 

[Addressed : ] 


the Honble W. P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange Co. North Caro. 


I Nurst you on my knees many be the times I have w^orkt 
for your father under the v^hip as a poor orphan. I have been 
abused by your uncle Nathaniel Carrington many years - I 
pray for you all in Common w^ith the rest of my Countrymen. I 
must quit - though have not said half anough if I am Drunk 
you must Excuse it, for it is v^ith Ignorance and not w^ith spirits 
for I have not taken a Drink for the sake of Drink in 73 years. 
During w^hich time I have w^atcht every public man in the union 
Even the old Roman Jackson - watcht Clays Disobedience to 
his State and you to yours - both w^as wrong. 

The Mangum Papers 213 

Jas. Auchincloss^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York, Octr. 15. 1844. 
Dear Sir, 

Not knowing a solitary individual on whom I can bestow it 
more worthily than your good self, I have placed in the hands of 
Mr. Phenix^^^ a walking stick cut from off the broad acres of 
the noble old "Farmer of Ashland." Your acceptance of which 
I have to request. It will go to Washington when Phenix starts 
for his Congressional labors, and, doubtless, if he is chary of his 
eloquence ordinarily, he will be unusally impressive when he 
presents it to you in propria persona. 

In offering you this souvenir I wish, my respected Sir, that 
I had something more worthy of your acceptance, as I am 
sincerely desirous of testifying my respect for you as a man and 
as a Statesman of unfaltering integrity: When others have 
wavered you have stood by your "gun." Would, alas, my dear 
Sir, that I could say as much of some who were in times of yore 
the very "embodiment" of Conservatism if not "of Whiggery." 

With true regard 
and unqualified rspect, 
I am Dear Sir, 
Yours always, 
Jas: Auchincloss. 

P. S. I trust that you have entirely recovered from your indis- 
position, and that you will be found at your post by and by 
completely restored in health.- We are extremely anxious rela- 
tive to this State for Mr. Clay, but have strong hopes of carrying 
it. Joshua A. Spencer told me a few days ago that it would go 
by 20.000 for Clay. If the Locos do not cheat too much we shall 
carry it- but still we are exceedingly anxious, as you may sup- 

J. A. 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum, 
Red Mountain, 
Orange Co. 
No. Ca. 

280See above. III, 216n. 
28iSee above. III, 135n. 

214 State Department of Archives and History 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum. 

180 Prince St— [New York City,] 
Tuesday Oct 15th/44 
My dear Sir. 

The elections of the past week have assured us that the old 
Whig States are true but we gain nothing — 

While there is nothing to dishearten there is proof positive 
that we want the whip & spur unceasing- There is no time for 
laying on our oars. At the utmost we foot up 133 votes as sure. 
Mr Clay's election I consider certain That is not enough. When 
the Sun went down on Wednesday night he was President elect- 
But this is not enough- We owe to him - to the country that he 
should not be bolstered but magnificently supported- We have 
lost 15 members of the 29th Congress, outrageously lost them. 
We have Vert. Mass. R. I. Connt. N. J. Del. Md. N. Ca. Geo. La. 
Tenn. Ind. Ky. & Ohio- We have for the next congress In Maine 
2 members in Vert. 3. in R. I. 2 in Geo. 5 in Pa 10 in Ala 2 in 
La. 1. 111. 1 in Ohio 9-35 members. We expect 10 in Mass. 4 in 
Connt. 18 in N. Y. 3 in N. J. 5 in Md. 7 in Va. 5 in N. Ca. 1 in 
S. Ca. 4 in Miss. 7 in Ind. 7 in Tenn. 7 in Ky 2 in Michigan - 80 
members - making 115 members- 112 in a majority- There will 
be 5 'Natives'- The impression is that in effect they will be 
Whigs - but we must not count on this - we must have 115 
straight out reliable Whigs- 

Upon N. Y. Pa. or Va. will probably depend the bestowal of 
'the purple.' We believe New York under all contingencies will 
vote for Mr Clay by at least 10,000. Indeed that is the worst 
aspect the case presents. This estimate is predicated on a Loco 
majority of 2,000 in this City. The events of the past week has 
determined that, Mr Clay will go out of this City & County by 
2 to 4,000— How so? Why I can't tell except that the Native 
Ticket will elect their Assembly ticket — a State Senator & 2 
members of Congress We will elect 2. There will be no Union yet 
somehow this result is now generally understood. Tammany is 
great on cheating & fraud- But they took their lessons from the 
the men who are now the wire pullers for the Natives. 

We can say earnestly & truthfully that we are full of hope- 
We cannot be sure because the trial must be made first. Since 

The Mangum Papers 215 

Wright was nominated - the first blush of his giant like strength 
has been succeeded by a determination to beat him. His actual 
& life-long consistency in opposing Internal Improvement State 
or Federal will cost him thousands of votes. The Total Abstin- 
ence men will 5 out of 6 of those associated as sons of Temper- 
ance vote against him on that ground alone. This is a queer 
fact - but nevertheless true. You may judge of their importance 
from the fact that only a portion of them were out in procession 
yesterday and they numbered some 4,000. I think if you were 
here & could understand all the moves of the chess board you 
would het on our winning. 

But we can't afford to lose an electoral vote- We must not 
do it- It is not too late to save the 29th Congress. If a true can- 
vass of the chances for carrying a majority of the whole has 
been made out- our friends should be informed when there is 
a chance of making a fight & by united effort to carry disputed 

Many stories are told of Pennsylvania: that we lost one 
Whig County, Bucks, by the lie that Markle could not read or 
write; 2^2 another by representing him as the avowed advocate 
of destroying, root & branch, the Catholic Church; they say 
too *'Shunk will vote for Clay" - this was one mode of attack - 
while he lent himself to the story by stumping for the Tarijf as 
it is without amendment, modification, or repeal. It is feared 
that 3000 Natives voted for Shunk. It is feared that in 7 counties 
the abolition vote is 3,300. It is proved that some 6 to 7000 
whigs voted for Shunk- Now we dont say that Mr Clay will 
carry Pa - but we do say that Henry Clay's vote will be more 
than 10,000 over Shunk's vote. My advices from Va. carefully 
collected assures us of that State. The evidences of this result 
are quite strong. I don't know what your information as re- 
gards Va. is - but I know that we feel surer of the vote of New 
York than of Virginia. 

I mean to betray no fear - but I want no stone left un- 
turned - for we cannot spare the vote of a man. Victory at all 
cost & every hazard, would be meet - but to triumph even to 
the extinction of Loco-ism is the aim of New York. 

We want to see you very much- We want to hear of your 
health & well being- We want to know that you are better - 
convalescent - well- It is a real disappointment that we are de- 

a82See above, 161, 179-180. 

216 State Department of Archives and History 

nied the pleasure of welcoming you here but we will be cheered 
to know that your health is surely & rapidly mending- With 
sentiments of respectful affection & esteem 

Yr friend & Sert. 

N. Carroll 
Judge Mangum 

J. Watson Wehh to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York 
October 18 1844 
My Dear Sir. 

On my return from Europe six weeks since, I found here 
your kind letter of the 20th April last, which arrived after I 
sailed, & which should have been forwarded to me. I ought to 
have acknowledged the rect. of it sooner; but my return was 
the signal for a general furlough to my assistants, & I have 
consequently been alone with the work of three persons on my 
shoulders. I now however, am compelled to write you on a 
matter of business. 

In March last, Alexander PowelP^^ of no inconsiderable 
notoriety, commenced an action against me for Libel laying his 
damage at $10,000! — now the scamp is bringing the matter to 
trial. Of his worthlessness there can be no doubt; & it is equally 
true that we published no more than what his conduct justified. 
But I am without proof. You kindly gave most of the facts in 
his case to my worthless compatriot who so timely went to 
Wisconsin ;^^'^ and to you therefore, I apply in my difficulties, 
satisfied that you will do all in your power to get me out of 
them. Will you at your earliest convenience let me hear from 
you on this subject? 

Politically things look as well to me as I could desire; but 
then I am more sanguine than my friends & not easily driven 
from a position which my judgment tells me is right. Acting 

ss^See above. III, 467n. 

2^He probably refers to David Lambert, who formerly was a correspondent of Webb's paper 
and in 1844 became the editor of a Wisconsin newspaper 

Courtesy of Prick Art Reference Library 

James Watson Webb, 1802-1884. From the oil portrait by Henry Inman in the pos- 
session of Vanderbilt Webb of New York City. 

The Mangum Papers 217 

on my own judgment & in opposition to the opinions of my 
friends, I assure you that this State will give more than 15.000 
for Clay. How much more I will not say lest you should think 
me demented. I am almost as confident of Penn. & Virginia; 
though the latter is somewhat doubtful by all accounts. The 
truth is, Clay will have many if not quite Harrison's majority 
in the Electoral College. Our Native Americans in this City & 
PhiP. will generally act with us. 

Truly your friend 
J. Watson Webb 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

Willie P. Mangum to Albert B. Dodd.^^' 

/North Carolina/ 
Red Mountain, 18*^. Octo: 1844. 
My dear Sir. 

Will you pardon the liberty of one - an entire stranger to 
you, personally - who begs to introduce to you, the son of one of 
his best friends? 

M"". Sterling R. Cain,^^^ who will hand you this, was arrested 
some two years ago, at one of our Colleges, in his Course, by 
bad health. - He is the son of my brother-in-law, & in whose 
well doing, I feel a deep interest. - Since he left school, he has 
been engaged in agricultural labors, & seems to be well, & ro- 
bust. - He desires to finish his Collegiate Course at Princeton, 
The "Alma Mater" of some of the most distinguished names 
that ever graced the public history of N^. Ca: - Indeed, one of 
his uncles - the brother of his mother - who is now the Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of N^. Ca : is a graduate of Prince- 
ton College. - 

He may have to devote some months, in a private Course, 
to enable him to join one of the classes in College. - 

Will you be so obliging, as to aid his inexperience by your 
valuable advice & Counsels? - 

2^The original is in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Albert B. Dod was a Presbyterian 
preacher and professor of mathematics at Princeton University. In 1844 the University of North 
Carolina conferred the D.D. degree upon him. Battle, Hist, of U. N. C, I, 485; D. A. B., V, 

28«Sterling Ruffin Cain was the son of William Cain, Jr. and Mary (Ruffin) Cain. He died in 
1853. Hillsborough Recorder, October 12, 1853; Groves, The Alstons and Allstons of North and 
South Carolina, 423-424. 

218 State Department of Archives and History 

He has talent & decision of Character, & is Capable under 
favorable circumstances, of reflecting honor on himself & his 
family. - 

I am sensible of the great liberty, I have taken in v^rriting 
thus freely to one knov^n to me only by reputation, & so freely 
making requests - But to that distinguished reputation, I trust, 
you w^ill ascribe quite as much of this burthen, as to my bold- 
ness. - 

May I further ask, that your Counsels & friendly guidance 
may be given to him freely, as far as may be compatible w^ith 
your public duties, & personal convenience? 

With profound respect 
I am My dear Sir 

Your Mo. ob*. Ser^ 

Willie P. Mangum 
To Professor 

Albert B. Dodd 


[^Endorsed:] Hon: W. P. Mangum 

Willie P. Mangum 

Pres. pro tem. U. S. Senate, and 

Acting Vice-President during 

part of the Presidency of John 


Dennis Heartt to Willie P. Mangum. 

Hillsborough, Nov. 11 1844- 

Dear Sir:- According to promise I send you all the returns I am 
in possession of; but the complexion of them is not so favorable 
as w^e could w^ish. 

Our own state has done very v^ell. In 52 counties Clay has 
gained upon the Whig vote for Governor some eight or nine hun- 
dred. Twenty-tw^o counties remain to be heard from. Clay's ma- 
jority w^ill doubtless be over 4000.- 

The returns from the state of New York are somewhat dis- 
couraging. Forty counties heard from give to Clay (of major- 

The Mangum Papers 219 

ities) 7,029 - to Polk 15,850; carrying Polk 8821 ahead; neerly 
all of which, the Nat: Intel: says, is a gain upon the vote of 1840. 
The 18 counties that remain to be heard from gave to Gen. Har- 
rison a nett majority of 11,490; but as so large a Whig majority 
is not now expected in those counties, the result is uncertain; it 
is to be feared the state has gone for Polk. The Whigs thus far, it 
is said, have gained four members of Congress. 

Maryland - all the counties heard from - gives Clay a major- 
ity of 3283. 

Virginia - Eighty-five counties heard from give majorities 
for Clay 12421 - for Polk, 15232. Same counties in 1840, gave 
Harrison 29,274 - Van Buren 29912. From this it appears that 
Virginia has gone for Polk.- 

Georgia - 16 counties give Clay a majority of 1904 - being a 
gain of 527 on the October election - not enough I fear to redeem 
the state. 

Connecticut. The Intelligencer says that returns from all ex- 
cept five towns have been received, and Clay's majority so far 
is 3,066. 

New Jersey- all the counties having been heard from - has 
given her vote for Clay by more then 1000 majority; and has al- 
so, it is believed, elected four Whig members to Congress. 

Rhode Island has gone for Clay of course- Clay 7279 - Polk 

The above hasty sketch comprises all the intelligence of the 
elections I now have - I regret that it contains so little to en- 
courage our hope of success. 

Yours, respectfully, 
Dennis, Heartt. 


Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 
Red Mountain. 

All gone hell-ward 

220 State Department of Archives and History 

Thomas L. Ragsdale^^^ to Willie P. Mangum, 

Washington City. 

12th. Novr. 1844. 

My Dear friend, 

Had Mr. Clay been elected I know that you would have pro- 
cured me justice. I had an abiding confidence in his generous 
noble spirit; and I am aware that I was under your protection. 
I am not under the less obligation to you, and my confidence 
in his magnanimity is not diminished by the result. No man 
in America suffered more than I did under the v/rong use of 
Whig power: but notwithstanding this, I can do Mr. Clay jus- 
tice even now when thousands of Whigs are damning him as 
the destroyer of their Party. 

If Mr. Polk turns out any whig on account of his honest ex- 
pression of his opinions- democrat as I am - I say he ought to be 
damned for it. If he can be persuaded whipped kicked into it 
by some of the demented Loco focos, then I shall despair of the 
Republic. Res nolunt male administrari; and if he administers 
them male, the vis medicatrix rerum will must react - for it is the 
law of nature. It is not whig principles that destroyed the 
Whig Party-: it was the bad administration of them. — At 
a glance you will see the whole of my private position. I can 
now tell what I have suffered. I have been forced to sell even 
my clothing piece by piece. I have been compelled to suffer 
for want of even a meal of victuals- yet under all this I have 
still sustained the bearing of a gentleman. I knew well that your 
purse the purse any noble Whig or democrat was open to me - 
but to receive their money would have choked me. I can now 
speak out trumpet tongued without degradation. I now return 
any money I may borrow. 

I must now stand up as a No. Carolina southern gentleman 
Even Southern Whigs would resent my conduct if I appeared 
otherwise. I want decent clothes, I want to pay my way in a 
decent boarding house. Send me two or three hundred dollars. - 
Some of my loco foco friends, who a week or two ago passed me 
without a nod are now bowing and scraping to me, damn them. 
I want your friendship. As for Mr. Tyler he would reinstate me 

2»7See above. Ill, 305 n. 

The Mangum Papers 221 

now; but I would not touch him or his Secy, of War with a 40 
foot pole. 

Wm A. Bradley told me to go to Piney Point the past sum- 
mer and pay him when I could and when convenient and that 
too when I told him I did not see that I could ever pay- I 
went, he treated me like a Prince. Politics cant separate me from 
such a man-. I cant utter all I feel. I am interrupted- Yours ever 

Thos. L. Ragsdale. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 
Red Mountain. 
N. Ca. 

Walter R. Johnson^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Phila. Nov. 12 1844. 
Hon. & dear Sir 

The report on American coals of which 11000 extra copies 
were ordered to be printed by the Senate at the last session is 
nearly through the press. Many applications for it have been 
made to me by parties furnishing the coal, by scientific & prac- 
tical men, & by those interested in mining operations, - to none 
of whom have I been able to give more than a conditional prom- 
ise to comply with their wishes in case the kindness of gentle- 
men of the Senate should dispose them to afford me the use of 
any surplus copies for that purpose. Should this be your case, 
I should esteem it a great favour, as I have at present none to 
offer to the hundred or two of applicants, who have asked to be 
supplied. Will you do me the kindness to state what number 

2880n June 11, 1844, the Senate Committee on Naval Affairs first ordered the printing of 1000 
copies of Johnson's report and six days later increased the order to 10,000. The title of the report 
is: "'A Report to the Navy Department of the United States on American Coals Applicable to Steam 
Navigation, and to other purposes," by Walter R. Johnson. Senate Doc, 28 Cong. I sess.. Doc. No. 
386. 607 pp. 

222 State Department of Archives and History 

of copies, if any, you can probably spare, without in any de- 
gree interfering with your own distributions? 

I am with high respect 

Your obedient Servant 

Walter R. Johnson. 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

[Addressed:] Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

U. S. Senator. 
Red Mountain 
Orange Co 
N. C. 

J. C. BarreW^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

North Mt. Pleasant Miss. Nov. 29th 1844 
Hon. W. P. Mangum; 

My Dear Sir; 

Although I have not the pleasure of a personal acquaint- 
ance with you; yet I hope you will not think it presumption in 
me in requesting you to forward to me such papers documents 
to me during the approaching session of congress that you may 
deem interesting. 

The representatives from this state as you know are all 
Locos and consequently the whigs hardly ever receive any 
thing. I am a whig of the hard cast and am very desirous of 
such documents and such others as you may think profitable. 
In complying with the above you will confer a favor on me 
that will be greatfuUy received. 

Most respectfully 
Your obedient servant 
J. C. Barrett 

^^Unable to identify. 

The Mangum Papers 223 

P S. My address is North. Mt. Pleasant. Miss. Set me down as 
one of you constituents. J. C . B. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. M. C. 
Washington City 
D. C. 

Charles Gibhons^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Philadelphia Dec. 2 1844 
Dear Sir 

A number of applications have been made to the National 
Clay Club from various sources, urging them to adopt some 
means of carrying into effect the proposition of a suitable testi- 
monial of Whig gratitude to Henry Clay. We have declined to 
act in the matter, on the ground that it will probably be con- 
sidered by the Whig members of Congress. 

I have been directed by the Club to confer with you on the 
subject and to ascertain if the members of Congress who repre- 
sent the Whigs of the Union, will not, at an early day take the 
subject in hand. We all feel that something is due to Mr. Clay, 
whose private character has been so fiercely, and it may be said 
hereafter, so successfully assailed. He received a majority of 
the legal votes of Penna. and we can prove it. But the law gives 
us no remedy. I am sir Very Respectfully 

Yr ob st 

Ch: Gibbons 
Presdt. Natl. Clay Club. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

Will. H. Haywood, Jr., to Willie P. Mangum. 

[2 Dec. 1844] 
Hon Willie P Mangum 

My Dear Sir 

My family are going to Newbern to spend the winter and 
I shall be obliged to accompany them thither before I start for 

2»oCharles Gibbons was a Clay supporter who praaiced law in Philadelphia. Livingston's Law 
Register. 1851, 548. 

224 State Department of Archives and History 

Washington. It is therefore probable that you will appoint the 
Committees of the Senate before I reach my post and as you 
kindly intimated to me during the last Session that my position 
might be changed this Session if it were personally desirable to 
me I seize upon a moment of leisure to say that I would prefer 
to be removed from Navy Committee and put upon the Judi- 
ciary Committee in place of it.-^^ If thought to be well suited to 
Claim,s I have no objection to remaining there and performing 
the labors of that station: The Jud^ Com: occurs to my mind, 
as I think you will probably allow the Democrats two Members 
on it and we had but one last Session So there appeared to be 
more room for a change therein than upon others. If you should 
not feel at liberty in the discharge of your duties as Prest of 
Senate to do this, may I solicit Mr Wrights place on Com: of 
Commerce for though not so well qualified for it as I am for 
the other (Jud'y) I can perhaps make myself reasonably so by 
study & c. You will understand me however as not wishing to 
have this indulgent recollection of my personal preference for 
a station on or off of any Committee to interfere in the slightest 
manner with your duty to others or your deliberate & impartial 
judgment in executing your own office. 

The hope of seeing you here on your way to Washington de- 
layed this note until today- I hope to reach W. City by Monday 
next or the day after it - There is nothing of particular interest 
going forward here that I know of. I have the honour to be your 

Obt Serv*. 

Will. H. Haywood Jr 
Raleigh 2 Dec 1844. 

Edward Stanly to Willie P. Mangum. 

Term will expire 10 January, 1845 
[Inserted by Stanly] 
Raleigh Dec: 2°^ 1844 
My Dear Sir, 

I hope you would pass through Raleigh on your way to 
Washington City - but I know you would have been pained to 

2oiHaywood was appointed on the commerce and claims committees of the Senate. He was not 
made a member of either the naval or judicial committees. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 1 sess., 12. 

The Mangum Papers 225 

meet your friends in these gloomy times without the ability of 
giving any consolation. 

I have no time to write on politics & though I hold up my 
head amidst Locos, I have no heart to write at present.- 

But while the power is probably in our hands I wish you 
to aid in giving a rebuke to a malignant, vile Loco-foco.^^^ The 
Collector at Ocracoke will be nominated to the Senate this Ses- 
sion I think. Sylvester Brown is his name. He had a Tyler meet- 
ing in April & sent his son a delegate to the Tyler Bait : conven- 
tion. The whigs,- I among them,- suffered him to remain in office 
& he was very active & influential for Mr Arrington in my con- 
test. Let the Senate remember him — not only for this, but for 
official misconduct which can be proved on investigation. — 

I write to request you to learn as soon as you can, & before 
you are engaged in the business of the Session, when Brown's 
time expires- an inquiry from some officer at the Treasury De- 
partment will bring the information. — 

Nothing new.- the Whigs are still unconquered & feel un- 
conquerable: though heart stricken for our country & our glor- 
ious ''old chief" - dearer to us now than if he had been success- 

We shall have a meeting & pass some resolutions in testi- 
mony of our high regard & for Mr Clay. 

Remember me kindly to Messrs Crittenden, Morehead & & 

Let me hear from you of the matter referred to above. — 
& believe me 

Yours as ever 
Edw. Stanly 

Hon: W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Washington City 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon: W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Washington City 

2»2See below Stanly to Mangum, December 10, 1844. 

226 State Department of Archives and History 

C. L. Hinton to Willie P. Mangum. 

Raleigh Dec 2^^^ 1844 
D"- Sir 

Some weeks since I wrote you respecting the appointment 
of Thomas Loring as post master at Busbee's store, I feel some 
interest in it as we are loosing ground in that precinct and I 
think that Loring settlement there would have a good effect- I 
learned that Busbee had resigned his commission as P. M. and 
the Office is not kept up — 

Nothing of importance before our Legislature, the Whigs are 
firm, and I believe determined to try & keep the party to- 
gether — A vote for circuit & supreme court Judge will take 
place to day. 

Very respectfully 

C. L. Hinton 

Nash & Caldwell are elected Judge of the Superior & circuit 


Hon. Willie P Mangum 
Washington City 
D. C. 

Daniel R. Goodloe to Willie P. Mangum.^^^ 

December 3 [,1844] 

Dear Sir: I negelected to ascertain from you when I might ex- 
pect to know the result of your friendly efforts to obtain me a 
place as clerk to one of the Committees, or assistant to Mr. 
Dickens the Secretary to the Senate. Fearing that you would 
be at a loss to find me out in the event of success, I address you 
this note to say that a line or verbal massage sent to the ''Stand- 
ard Office" which stands within a few rods of Colemans upon 
sixth street, will be duly received.- I feel reluctant to trouble 

203Coinpare this letter with the one of Goodloe to Mangum, June 11, 1845. 

The Mangum Papers 227 

you with a call as I presume you are much occupied with busi- 
ness or company at this time. 
I have the honor to be 

With great respect 

Your obliged and obdt. servt. 

Daniel R. Goodloe. 

The Standard office is south of the Avenue upon the east side 
of sixth street. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
National Hotel. 

D. L. Swain to Willie P. Mangum and Enclosure, 

Raleigh, 3, Dec. 1844. 
My dear Sir, 

I would have transmitted the enclosed papers at an earlier 
day, if I had not indulged the hope of meeting you on your way 
to Washington. 

If the affidavit of the Rev*^. E. Graves, supplies the only de- 
ficient link in the chain of testimony required by the accompany- 
ing letter of the 23''*^ Feb. last, from Comptroller of the Treasury 
Department, I presume no further delay will occur in the pay- 
ment of a claim so obviously fair.^^^ 

R. H. Graves the applicant is at present Prof, of Mathematics 
in the Caldwell Institute at Greensboro; and the remittance may 
be made either directly to him, or under cover to me.- I suppose 
it is scarcely necessary to remark, that my agency in this busi- 
ness has been prompted by no motive, but regard for Mr. G. 
than whom I do not know, in my opinion a purer man. 

Your very sincerely 
D. L. Swain. 
Honble W. P. Mangum. 


Honble, Willie P. Mangum, 
Pre's. of the Senate, 
Washington City 

2»*See above. 23-24, 51-52. 

228 State Department of Archives and History 

7 Oct., 1844. 


The State of Mississippi Carroll County SS 

This day personally appeared before the undersigned, Judge 
of the Second Judicial District of the State of Mississippi, 
Elijah Graves v^ho being first duly sworn deposeth and 
saith that some time in the month of February of the year 
1843, according to the best of affiants recollection, affiant 
sold to Richard S. Graves a negro w^oman named Phebe, 
and her three children for about the sum of twelve hundred 
dollars: that affiant at that time was indebted to Ralph H. 
Graves in and about the sum of six hundred dollars, two 
hundred dollars of which debt due to R. H. Graves, the said 
Rich^ S. Graves agreed to pay for affiant as part of the 
price of said negroes. In compliance with said agreement, 
said R. S. Graves informed affiant that he had forward two 
halfs of two $100 United States Treasurer notes, left hand 
halves, N^^ 26 & 27 letters B. & C. which were received by 
R. H. Graves and the right hand halves of same were for- 
warded by Mrs. Elizah J Thompson about the same time at 
the request of Rich'^. S. Graves, which your affiant is inform- 
ed have not been received but are lost. Said halves sent by 
R. S. Graves were mailed at Jackson Miss, & those by Mrs 
Thompson at Middleton Miss. That said agreement be- 
tween affiants & R. S. Graves was entered into in good faith 
by the parties, said that the payment made by said Rich^ 
S. Graves to said Ralph H. Graves was upon good and bona 
fide consideration and on behalf of said affiant as before 
stated - 

Sworn to & subscribed before 
me this 7th of October 1844 

E. Graves 

Witness my hand & seal 

Benj. F. Caruthers (Seal) 
Judge of the 2d Judicial 
District of the State of Miss. 

The Mangum Papers 229 

Edward Stanly to Willie P. Mangum 

Raleigh Dec: 10<^*^. 1844 
My Dear Sir, 

I received your favor in reply to mine, & thank you for your 
prompt attention. Pray hear in mind, what I suggested to you. 

Our friends here & in the country so far from being disposed 
to despair, are more resolved than ever to fight on - Clay's de- 
feat will but add fuel to the flame of their hate of Loco-focoism.- 

I only write at present, to thank you for attending to my 
request^^^ & to suggest to you to send some docs: or speech to 
the Whigs of the Legislature, if you have a chance before they 
adjourn. - I think we shall adjourn early in Jany: there is a 
disinclination on the part of our friends to pass political resolu- 
tions, because we have not a majority in both branches - my 
own opinion is otherwise: we ought to give "line upon line & 
precept upon precept:" to let the people understand that Whig 
principles still exist. We shall at all events make a move relative 
to the 4th instalment^^^ - at this time a most important matter 
for us - I hope before you adjourn, you will try Billy Haywood 
on that point, by resolutions in the Senate- 

And now I wish to trouble you to deliver a message for me. 
I have seen to day, a paper informing me that Col : Benton was 
re-elected to the Senate. & I really felt happy at hearing the 
intelligence. I wish you, to say to Col: B. that his manly con- 
duct in the Texas matter,^^^ has raised him high in the estima- 
tion of every patriot Whig in the land, & I think the country 
ought gratefully to remember his services. — I differ widely with 
him, in political matters, I think upon some subjects we can 
never agree & I never expect to ask any political or other favor 
at his hands; I have often in public speeches spoken well of his 
conduct, & he will not I hope, with entire indifference under- 
stand, that hundreds of Whigs, in this State, admire & thank 
him for his eminent services, in exposing the Texas conspiracy. — 

^^See above Stanly to Mangum, December 2, 1844. 

286ln the House of Representatives Garrett Davis, of Kentucky, introduced a resolution direaing 
the Secretary of Treasury to pay to the several states $9,367,614.99 — the fourth installment of 
money in the treasury, for deposit with the several states. The Democrats moved to lay this motion 
on the table. Raleigh Register, December 10, 1844. 

^^Benton held that the consent of Mexico should be secured before annexation. In the campaign 
of 1844 he said the Texas question was brought up to defeat Van Buren. He accused the specu- 
lators and stock jobbers of purchasing Texas script at the rate of two to seven cents on the dollar 
and of urging annexation to make their investments pay oflF. His speech was widely circulated in the 
campaign. Lambert, Presidential Politics in the U. S., 1841-1844, 173, 179. 

230 State Department of Archives and History 

Besides, his treatment of Tyler, has shown he not only spoke 
like a prophet, but evinced a noble contempt, for treachery.- I 
know you entertain as high an estimate of Col: B, as I do. 

I will write to you again soon — Mrs S. desires to be kindly 
remembered to you.- best regards to Messrs Crittenden, Green, 

As ever very truly your's 

Edw. Stanly 
Hon: W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 
W. City 


William Prescott to Willie P. Mangum. 

Lynn (Mass.) Dec. 14th. 1844. 
Dear Sir, 

Believing that a discrepancy and a misunderstanding exists 
among the people relative to the import of the terms Tarijf, 
Revenue, Fee Trade, Protection &c. as used by our statesmen; 
also as to what constitutes the true policy of the country relative 
to the duties on imports, the various interests connected there- 
with, and the numerous questions growing out of the same; And, 
believing also, that a definite understanding in relation to these 
intricate subjects would conduce to the harmony and welfare 
of the people of this country, as well as be gratifying to all 
concerned; I have drawn up a series of questions for the purpose 
of submitting them to several distinguished statesmen and poli- 
ticians of the different and opposing political parties in the 
United States for their examination and decision. 

I therefore take the liberty to transmit a copy of them to 
you, and hope to receive your views upon the same at an early 

Question 1st What do you understand by the term Free 
Trade, as used by the statesmen of this country & Europe? 

Question 2nd What do you understand by the term Protec- 
tive Tariff, as used by the statesmen of this country & Europe? 

Quest. 3rd Are you in favour of abolishing all duties on im- 
ports, or do you know of any statesman that is? and if so, who? 

The Mangum Papers 231 

Quest 4th If you answer the third question in the affirmative, 
what method would you recommend to raise money to defray 
the current expenses of the government? 

Question 5th Are you in favour of a horizontal tariff, (so 
called) or are you in favour of discriminating duties with inci- 
dental protection? 

Quest. 6th Are you in favour of a protective tariff, and if 
so, what great interests require most protection, if any? or do 
you prefer a tariff which will raise the necessary revenue only? 

Quest. 7th Do you believe the present tariff, (that of 1842) 
to be just and equal, bearing alike on all the great interests of 
the country? if not, wherein is its operation unequal, and in 
what particular should it be altered or amended? Are you in 
favour of a large surplus revenue, and what would you do with 

By communicating to me your views upon & answers to 
these several questions at your earliest convenience, and also 
any additional suggestions in relation to revenue, finance, pro- 
tection &c. &c. you may think the importance of these subjects 
demands, you will very much oblige an inquiring public and 
especially. Dear Sir, 

Your Friend and 

Fellow Citizen, 

William Prescott. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum U.S.S. 
Washington City 
D. C. 

Charity A. Mangum to Willie P, MangumP^ 

December 14, 1844. 
My dear Husband 

I received your letter on last Saturday and was so much re- 
lieved by the getting of it. I had hoped that the weather being 

*^'The original is in the possession of Mangum Turner, Winston-Salem, N. C. 

232 State Department of Archives and History 

so much better than was expected that you would arrive safe 
at Washington but could not help being uneasy. 

I had as well acknowledge my weakness if it has to be called 
so. After you left home no person but my Family saw me. I had 
born so much better than I thought I would that when you left 
home I could hold out no longer and had such a violent headache 
and had to keep my room until next morning. P. Nash sent his 
young man hoping to see you and tune Sallys Piano before you 
left home. I could not see him but had the Piano tuned. He has 
improved it greatly. I was very glad to learn that I had not 
humbled the young gentleman that tuned. Cousin Abner had 
not touched mine- 
Cousin Abner Parkers Family has been in great distress for 
a week looking every day for Mary's death. Dr. Smith attend- 
ing her constantly. She would not let any person see her ex- 
cept two or three of her own family. The sight of more com- 
pany than usual would throw her into violent storms- Her 
mother stayed a day and a night from her when she was so bad 
looking for her death any moment. For a day or two she has 
appeared to mend and they have hopes of her recovery. I heard 
several persons say that saw Cousin Abner that they had never 
seen a man so disturbed before that he walked constantly day 
and night. I have not been to see them as I understood I could 
not see Cn'y, but sent every day for three or four days until 
I found she was better if she continues to mend I hope to see 
her in a few days. 

William came very soon to Mother to get your kiss when he 
saw your letter he ran to me to get Father's kiss. 

You must be certain to let me know by your next letter if I 
am to let Mr. Crabtree have five hundred weight of pork and 
what Mr. Riley is to have and if I am to keep it. I know you 
ought to keep part of it if you wish him to work well. We have 
killed the hogs over the river. They were not as heavy as ex- 
pected. I do not think you can spare Mr. Crabtree as much as 
five hundred. He says you promised it. I desire to know. I let 
Augustine Mangum have something more than two hundred. 
He wants one more hundred. 

You must certainly know what you desire so I can do what 
you desire. William has gone to live with Jesse Parker. The 
very place he ought to be- 1 do not know what to do about sleep- 
ing. I cannot sleep upstairs. I have slept but very little since 

The Mangum Papers 233 

you left home. I do not think I can get along through the win- 
ter upon so little sleep. I have a strong notion of moving in the 
new house. You must write before Christmas if you wish another 
chimney built quickly. I know it would be best to build one 
chimney near the barn to the lower house. Jesse Parker was to 
see him the other day to get him to build him two chimneys. 
If you wish yours done you can merely write soon- 

Our children are all well as usual and send their love to 
Father. Farewell my dear husband and know I cannot be con- 
tent while I am so much far from you- 

Your devoted wife, 

C. A. Mangum, 
W. P. Mangum 

E. D. Bullock^^' to Willie P. Mangum. 

Mobile Dec^ 17*^. 1844. 
My dear Judge. 

I should have written you on my return to my friends but I 
left a few days after on my country Circuit and only returned 
a few days since. Shortly after my arrival here I received a 
letter from Walter advising me that you were perfectly re- 
stored to health. This I assure you gave me great pleasure as 
I feared that your lungs were seriously effected. I am happy to 
tell you that I found my family quite well all indeed having 
escaped the diseases of our fated climate. Mr. Gaines^^^ is still 
absent in Missi : attending to the Court of Commissioners, which 
will expire by Law on the 19" of this month. The commissioners 
will be here in a few days on their way to Washington City to 
pass upon such claims as they have examined. 

Our community has quieted down since the defeat of our 
noble chieftain. I have never in all my life witnessed such sore 
disappointment as has been manifested among the true friends 
of Mr Clay. I do not believe that any community has in its 
bosome more devoted friends of Mr Clay than ours & hence the 

298See above. III, 27n. 
aooSee above, III, 27n. 

234 State Department of Archives and History 

sore disappointment that many feel. But fraud and practise'd 
villany have turned the tide against us and we must await 
some other time to buckle on our armour in the defence of 
those principles which alone can perpetuate our system of 
Government. I am at a loss to conjecture what will be the final 
result of the Locofoco rule in our land. The prospects in our 
community were cheering at the certainty of the election of 
Mr. Clay, all men seem to place implicit reliance upon the up- 
right and glorious policy that would have propounded to the 
country in the event of his election but now all capitalists hug 
their money closer than at any other previous time and trade the 
life and soul of our Country has been fearfully shocked at the 
result of the Presidential contest. I hope that you and your 
noble peers that stood by the law and constitution in 1832 3- & 
4 will again be and remain at your post to check the mad & 
merciless career of locofoco misrule. I should be most happy 
to hear your views about the coming administration and do not 
forget to place me upon your list. No one feels more delighted 
than I do to hear at all times of your good health & happiness. 
Be pleased to send me such documents as you may have of 

My Partner & myself have written a long letter to Thos. H. 
Blake Conn: of the General land office at Washington City in 
behalf of a client of ours, Mr. James T. Vivian of Washington 
County Alabama, who has employed us to procure for him a 
Patent to a certain piece of land lying upon the waters of the 
Tombigbee River in Washington Co. It is a matter of great im- 
portance to us and I must beg your influence in our behalf. You 
will see by reference to the letter now sent on to Mr Blake 
that we have furnished all the evidence that was demanded in a 
letter written by Mr Blake to the Hon. B. G. Shields a copy of 
which is annexed to our letter, before alluded to. We are un- 
known at the land office and you will confer a great favor if 
you will at some leisure moment as early as may suit your con- 
venience, call at the land office and interpose your influence in 
our behalf. If you should not on the reception of this letter find 
it convenient to call on Mr Blake, will you address him a note 
upon the subject. 

I had the pleasure to hear from Missi: on yesterday and am 
happy to say that all are well. 

I hope my dear Judge that the ladies of your household are 

The Mangum Papers 235 

all well and be pleased when you write to bear to them our 
sincere and devoted wishes for their health and happiness. 

I am Yours most truly, 

E. D. Bullock. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Vice Pres* — 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon Willie P. Mangum 
Vice Pres*. 

U States Senate 
Washington City 
D. C. 


B. HI. KosciiLszko^^^ to Willie P. Mangum, 

[19 December 1844] 
To the Hon. 

P. M. [sic'\ Magnum 
President of the Senate. 


I beg You thousand & thousands pardon that having not 
the honor to be known to You, I permitted myself to trespass 
on Your valuable time with my correspondence; but being in- 
formed by Public voice ( and it is saying "Vox Populi vox Dei") 
of your high character, I hope that when You will peruse my 
Epistle, You will excuse not only my boldness, but You will 
sympathize with my unhappy state — 

I am unhappy nephew to Gen^ Kosciu^zko. and it is now 
Seven Years I am in this my adopted Country in the City of 
Washington and I am a Citizen- I am known in the Senate to 
the Hon Senator Crittenden as well to the Hon. Henry Clay, 
to whom on my first arrival at America I remitted a letter of 
Introduction from a distinguished Gentleman, and I was re- 
ceived by Mr Clay very kindly, from him I learned in what 
consist the welfare of this Country, & that only Whigs party 
could produce it- I hoped to see Mr Clay to be Our President, 

^^He was a nephew of the American Revolutionary hero. General Thaddeus Kosciuszko. In 
1838 his request for a grant of public land was referred to the House Committee of Public Lands. 
Adams, Memoirs, IX, 469. 

236 State Department of Archives and History 

& certainly if he was I would be very happy in all my circum- 
stances- but I am deprived together with many & many good 
citizens of that happiness — 

1840 I enjoyed when our beloved Gen^ Harrison was elected 
President- but how long that happiness- One month & all gone- 
President died Cabinet scattered, & my mind was so troubled 
that I got mental sickness and almost four Years I was deprived 
of all my senses- It is some more than four months I am re- 
covered entirely from that unhappy sickness which sickness 
not only exhausted my resources I only have, but delayed my 
case in the Court of the D. C. for the amount of $5,000 left by 
my Uncle Kosciuszko which amount belongs to me as I am sole 
Survivor. Altho' I was out of means but I rejoiced to be well, 
because I hoped that wile my case will be decided I will be 
able to get by my industry & work the Sustenance for my little 
family as well I will pursue my case, and then I will be inde- 
pendent- but unhappy I am I got the unhappy sickness Con- 
sumption & it is three months I cannot leave my bed- & so at 
once deprived of my health I have lost the dearest gift independ- 

In such my unhappy state I address myself to Your noble 
feelings to help me with some Dollars, & be assured not only 
my everlasting gratitude but that such Your noble deed shall 
have the reward of Almighty- Noble Senater Crittenden helped 
me with little amount on the 7th of the instant — 

With high respect 

Your most obedience Servant 

B. H. [?] Kosciuszko 
Lieut Col. of the late Revolutionary 

Polish Army. 
19 December 1844. 
The Crown is my Star. 

[Addressed : ] 

To the Hon. 
P. M. Magnum 

President of the Senate 

The Mangum Papers 237 

J. Watson Wehh to Willie P. Mangum. 

Dec. 20th 1844 
My Dear Sir. 

My friend Theodore E. Tomlinson,^^^ well known & appre- 
ciated by all our Whig friends in New York, has just taken to 
himself a partner for life, & visits Washington on a Wedding 
excursion. Of course he desires to know you, & it affords me 
great pleasure to present him to your favorable acquaintance. 

Very truly your friend 
J. Watson Webb 

P. S. I shall be with you next week. For God's sake reject At- 

Hon W. P. Mangum 

[Addressed:] National Hotel 

To the Hon: 
W. P. Mangum 
Mr. Tomlinson. 

Robert W. Alston^<^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Tallahassee Middle Fla. 26th. Deer 1844 
Honble Wiley P. Mangum 

Dr Sir 

You will recollect when I had the pleasure of meeting, 
you last summer, & before I left N. Carolina I promised to write 
you on my return home - which I should have done at an earlier 
period, but for having business in the Southern part of the 
Territory from which I only returned a few days since — 

^^A New York attorney. Longworth's New York Directory, 1844-1845, 345. 

8031-jgnjy Q Atwood was notainated by Tyler for surveyor of revenue for the port of New York 
in December, 1844. He was not confirmed. Executive Journal of Senate, VI, 381. 

®^Robert W. Alston became colleaor of customs at St. Marks, Florida, in 1849. American 
Almanac, 1850, 106. 

238 State Department of Archives and History 

My intention of Visiting Washington is defeated by the defeat 
of our favourite, for the Presidency, v^hich you are aware is the 
result from the most conclusive evidence, that much corruption 
was practiced at the Ballot Box, by the admission of Thousands, 
and Tens of thousands of Illegal Votes, smuggled in by the im- 
proper, interfearance of the friends of aur opponents, as well as 
a misrepresentation of principal, to suite the climate in which 
the Votes were located, which were wanted by the opposition 
to Elect their President. But I cannot believe any party, or 
set of men can remain united under an organization of such con- 
tradictory opinions as those advanced by the Loco Foco party 
are, and Judging from the expression of the news paper press 
up to this this [sic] time, we may well immagine that their 
troubles have already commenced and I am of opinion, that the 
sooner their plans are disconcerted the better for the country. 
It appears to be matter of doubt with many, who is to be the 
Ruling Spirit with the ensuing administration, whether it is to 
be Genl Jackson, Mr. Polk, or Mr Calhoun. I would like very 
much to have a hint from you, of your opinion of the matter. 
At any rate I immagine the friends of Mr Clay will not be very 
highly favoured. Save and except, what may be slightly cared 
for, by Mr. Tyler, who it is thought will still retain some in- 
fluence with the new Kitchen cabinet — But in this crush, of the 
anticipated success of the Whig party, it becomes our duty to 
do the best we can, under the circumstances for our Whig 
friends, & our country, and as I have but little chance of doing 
much good for either especially out of Florida. I am perfectly 
willing to leave all important public matters, to you and our 
Whig friends who fill the more exalted stations of public con- 
fidence, and to request you to do as much as you can to obtain 
for us immediate admission into the Union of the States, and 
especially to obtain for us the appointment of officers of the 
Territory, who are citizens of the country, for the reasons, as 
given when in conversation with you last Summer. It is at all 
times unpleasant to complain of public men, and especially of 
officers of the Judiciary. But it is nevertheless some times 
our duty to do so, and I am sorry to say that those among us, 
are charged with incapacity and a palpable abuse of the priv- 
iledges confered, I therefore hope they will be Removed, and 
some of our own citizens appointed, and for the office of marshal 
I understand Capt. Daniel Byrd of Jefferson County will be 

The Mangum Papers 239 

urged by the Democrats who I have no doubt is competent 
consequently if his name should be sent up to the Senate I 
hope it will be your pleasure to urge upon your Whig friends 
the importance of his confirmation, as he meets my own views 
better than any one of that party I have any knowledge of. I 
donot know who will be urged for Judge. I understand how- 
ever, Thos. Baltzell is spoken of by the Branch Clicke, we do- 
not want him. Col. T. H. Butler is also spoken of, who was 
formaly a member of congress from S Carolina, he I think would 
give satisfaction. Branch as Governor is not a favourite with 
either party, and if we can git a sutable Gentleman who is a 
citizen of Florida we would gratly prefer him. 

I regret exceedingly being placed in a position which I pre- 
sume will preclude me from getting the office of collector of the 
port of St. Marks- but presume it would be perfect Vanity to 
ask a favour of the approaching administration - however if 
you find an opportunity of obtaining for me the appointment, I 
would be Very willing to accept of it — 

I Remain Very Respectfully Your Friend 

Rbt. W. Alston. 

N. B. You will please regard this as confidential 

R. W. A. 
[Addressed : ] 

Honble Wiley P. Mangum 
President of Senate 
Washington City 
D. C. 

Willie P. Mangum to Sally, Patty and Mary Mangum.^^^ 

Monday 30th-Dec. 1844 
My dear Daughters 

I send you a copy of Graham's Magazine-^^^ I have not had 
time to read it. The engravings are fine- 

^o^The original is in the possession of Mangum Turner, Winston-Salem, N. C. 

*^Graham's magazine was established by George R. Graham, who bought out Samuel C. At- 
kinson's Casket in 1839. About the same time, he bought Wm. E. Burton's Gentleman's Magazine. 
The combined magazines bore the title Graham's Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine. The titles varied 
slightly thereafter. A typical number in the forties "contained three or four short stories, a light 
essay on manners, a biographical sketch, a literary article, a considerable amount of poetry ... an 
out-door sketch of Frank Forester, a travel article, fine arts and book-review departments, and a 
chat with the editor; besides the color fashion plates, and one or two art plates by well-known 
engravers." Its writers were among the most popular of the day, Poe, Hawthorne, William Gilmore 
Simms, and Bayard Taylor. Its circulation was one of the largest in the country. Mott, History of 
American Magazines, I, 544-555. 

240 State Department of Archives and History 

I am well- My love to Mother and all 

Yrs affectionately 
W. P. Mangum 

To Misses 

Sally, Patty and Mary Mangum 
My love to Billy- 

Willie P. Mangum to David Lowrie Swain^^'^ and Enclosure. 

Washington 31st. Deer. 1844. 
My dear Sir. 

I transmit herewith, a letter from the Hon : Joel Crawf ord.^^^ 
of Geo. to Gen: Clinch,^^^ & Gen: C's note to me, & beg that 
you will give such information touching expense &c. as the 
nature of the enquiries may seem to require. 

I have in general terms, strongly advised the sending of Mr. 
Crawford's sons to North Carolina, but have said that I will 
give in a few days, more specific information. As to the pre- 
paratory school- Is not that, at Hillsboro good & efficient? What 
might be the probable expense? Is Mr. Bingham's school full? 
If not, is not the latter prefereable? I think, his charge pr. 
annum is $150, if more please advise me. 

I reed, last fall, while confined by illness to my bed, a note 
from you requesting the appointment to West point a young 
friend of yours which has not been acknowledged. I trans- 
mitted to the Department the name of the young gentleman 
with the usual request &c. &c. What has been the fate of it I 
know not as yet. 

Be pleased to send a Catalogue of Students & the Course of 
of Studies in the University, if you have a spare copy. 

With great respect & regard 

I am, My Dear Sir. 
Yr. friend & Obt. St. 

Willie P. Mangum. 

3o~The original is in the David L. Swain Papers, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

^yoel Crawford, 1783-1858. a lawyer and soldier, served in Congress as a Democrat from 
Georgia in 1817-1821. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 859. 

*^^General Duncan L. Clinch, who served in the War of 1812 and the war against the Seminoles, 
was a Whig Congressman from Georgia in 1844-1845. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 991. 

The Mangum Papers 241 


Early County Nov 17th 1844 
Dear General, 

I have often wished to have with you, a conversation at 
length, on the merits of Chapel Hill the University of N. Caro- 
lina. You have had at least one son at the Institution, since its 
administration has been placed under the presidency of Gov. 
Swain. — Permit me in the form of a letter (since we may not 
soon meet ) to have what you may choose to say of Chappel Hill. 

I have three Sons aged 12, 14 & 16 — all pretty sprightly boys, 
of sound constitutions, but none of them likely to attain gigantic 
size of body — acircumstance, all things considered, which I have 
no cause to regret. If properly trained they will, I think, make 
effective men in any honorable and useful walk of life. 

I am in persuasion at least, "a utilitarian" — I have a thorough 
contempt for all unnecessary embellishments of either mind or 
body — Sooner than see a son of mine raised up to manhood, frib- 
ble in manners & a pedant in mind, I would consign him to the 
toils, the humblest toils of a workshop. 

This remark will give you a hint of my purpose in educating 
sons & I hope you will do me the favor to write how far Chappel 
Hill is likely to advance the end I have in view. 

My oldest son now at Montpelier, reads the Common Latin 
& Greek Classics with fluency, & has made some attainments in 
elementary Mathematics — My second & third, have commenced 
the study of latin. 

Please let me know whether there is a good grammar or pre- 
paratory school at Chappel Hill — and what are the usual ex- 
penses of Boad, Clothing & tuition pr ann. not omitting to state 
whether there are instances at that place of wild Boy's spending 
their fathers money foolishly, & making boobus of themselves. 

So it seems we have Mr Polk for our next president!! What 
think you of our American Democracy now? What incentive 
have the best or the worst educated men in the U. States (from 
the example of Clay's life) to take an eminently useful & dis- 
tinguished part in the public service? No man among us can 
hope, by the most exalted & brilliant careers, for any other re- 
ward than a conscious satisfaction at having done his duty — 
and that, unless he has been particularly cautious or lucky, 
contervailed by condemnation of our insane public opinion. — 

242 State Department of Archives and History 

As early as 1820 I understand and expressed the belief that I 
should never see a really great man in the presidency of the 
U. States. But my hopes revived, on the subject, when Mr. Clay 
was brought forward last May under auspices apparently so 
favorable. But Sir, such is the condition on which Our Re- 
public must exist. — if indeed it shall continue to exist. — I am 
mortified at the pitiful gullibility of the people; but we who are 
beaten must submit with as good grace as may be. 

Be assured dear Sir, of the continued esteem & friendship of 

Yr. mo obt. 

Joel Crawford 
Genl D. L. Clinch 

N. B. Please address me at Blakely, Early County: Ga. 

[Addressed:] Genl D. L. Clinch 
Jefferson County 

Sketch of Willie P. Mangum, 


In the Senate, the Honorable WILLIE P. MANGUM presides. 
John Tyler, the Vice President, on the death of General Harrison 
became President of the United States. The Senate thereafter 
elected Samuel Southard, their presiding officer, he dying, they 
elected Judge Mangum their president. He lives, when at home, 
in Orange county. North Carolina. From his name, I should 
suppose that his ancestors were from Wales. However that may 
be. Judged Mangum's family is an ancient one in North Caro- 
lina, the name being found among the earliest settlers of that 
colony. He presides in the Senate and occupies the Vice Presi- 
dent's room in the capitol. He is a man above the common 
size, of fair complexion and commanding air, rather grave in 
in his manners, but very agreeable and appears to be kind 
hearted. His voice is clear, sufficiently loud and distinct to be 
heard all over the Senate chamber and its gallery. On the 
whole, he is, taking him all and all, the best presiding officer, 
that I ever saw in any legislative assembly. He is always at 

^^his sketch is taken from Mysteries of Washington City, during Several Months of the Session 
of the 28th Congress, by a Citizen of Ohio [Caleb Atwater]. Washington, D. C. printed by G. A. 
Sage. 1844. 130-133. 

The Mangum Papers 243 

his ease, always dignified and always agreeable. His appear- 
ance is that of a man about forty years old. He is a whig, un- 
wavering and unflinching, yet like the Kentucky Senators, not 
a persecuting whig, often voting to confirm men in offices, who 
are not whigs, nor any thing else — long. He appears to look 
more to the interests of his country than his party. When I say 
this, I mean to draw no invidious distinction between Judge 
Mangum and others in the Senate. The feelings of senators must 
have been often severly tried by having to them the names of 
very incompetent men. Where the man is not decidedly a bad 
one though wanting decision of character, without which no 
man can be relied on, in any pressing emergency, the Senate let 
him pass as Hobson's choice, because they expect nothing bet- 
ter. In this way they have confirmed many nominations which 
I should have rejected at once, as destitute of a qualification, 
without possessing which, no man is fit for any office or any 
calling. So far as Ohio is concerned, not even one appointment 
of a citizen of that State, has been a good one, nor such an one 
as I would have made, during the last two years. I feel no 
hostility to any one of these weak men, but wish they had be- 
longed to some other State, not to ours. Where the imbecility 
of a country is placed in the offices, it shows the strength of 
our institutions and the virtue of our people, which can get along 
tolerably well, though such weak men are appointed to offices. 
To have found so much imbecility, so carefully selected from 
the very surface of society, must have cost those a vast deal of 
labor, care and diligence, who have succeeded so well, so per- 
fectly in hunting it up, and bringing it forward to the President 
and his secretaries for their acceptance and gratification! It is 
a strong argument in favor of the permanency of our institu- 
tions, which can bear such appointments. The Senate appear to 
be as hungry for the nomination of men well qualified for the 
offices to which they are nominated, as any trout ever was for 
a well baited hook — they jump at them in a moment and unan- 
imously confirm them. The confirmation of CALHOUN'S ap- 
pointment as Secretary of State is a case in point. The news 
spread like wildfire, and fell upon the ear like the roar of a 
water fall in the ear of a thirsty traveller, in the desert of Sa- 

Several Months of the Session of the 28th Congress. By a Citizen 

244 State Department of Archives and History 

of Ohio. [Caleb Atiwater] Washington, D. C. Printed by G. A. 
Sage, E Street, Near Ninth. 


Willie P. Mangum to D. Francis BaconJ 

Washington City 2"'^. January 1845. 
My dear Sir 

I have rec'^. your favors, the first of 25*^. & the second of the 
31^*. Ult. for both of v^hich pleased to accept my thanks. I have 
been waiting a letter from M^ Pettis, giving in a more detailed 
form than did your first, the particulars, to enable us to see 
clearly our course.- 

He has not yet written. 

I conferred with M''. Crittenden fully, upon the receipt of 
your first, showing your letter to him, feeling that it would not 
be in conflict with the cautionary reserve fit to be maintained. - 
I have opened the subject to no other person, feeling pretty 
sure that anything we may determine upon, will probably have 
the countenance of our friends. - 

We both feel the weight, magnitude & real importance of the 

We are both decidedly in favor of movement provided we 
can see that it will not deeply implicate any of our friends, and 
that the result we seek, is to any important extent certainly 
attainable. — 

The enquiry as incidental to other legitimate enquiries with 
a view to further legislation is clearly within the Constitutional 
Competency & proper functions of the Senate. - 

The Committee or Commission to take testimony would 
not "eo Nomine" be secret - but as the Committee, or the Com- 
mission may determine whatever is Convenient, or calculated 
to accelerate their enquiries, the object in that form is attain- 
able. - 

^The original is in the Yale University Library, New Haven, Conn. In 1848-1849 D. Francis 
Bacon edited the New York Daybook, a Whig newspaper. Louis H. Fox, New York City Newspapers, 
1820-1830: a Bibliography, 34. See also below Mangum to Bacon, January 11, 1845 and Bacon 
to Mangum, January 16, 1845. 

^Charges of fraud in the presidential eleaion of 1844 were made by both the Clay and Polk 
forces. Webster attributed the loss of Pennsylvania and New York to the fraudulent voting of for- 
eigners. Calvin Colton maintained that there was fraud in New York, Pennsylvania, Georgia, and 
Louisiana. Justin H. Smith, The Annexation of Texas, 316-317. 

The Mangum Papers 245 

As you spoke of coming to Washington, Crittenden & I both 
thought it expedient, as in oral communications we could more 
clearly see all the ground, and adapt our measures to the actual 
or probable state of the facts. 

Will you come on immediately? 

If we can make a strong & clear case, it will be of incalculable 

We doubt not that the Senate will cordially come up to any 
work, that may be deemed necessary to eviscerate these por- 
tentous frauds. - 

We feel, that we & the Country owe you much for your 
indefatigable effort in this thankless, but patriotic & honest 

Your enclosures rec^. this morning exhibit pretty clearly the 
field of operations - Yet it would be satisfactory to have some- 
what more detailed information. - Again, Will you come to 

With great respect 
I am dear Sir 
Very truly y." 
Willie P. Mangum 


D. Francis Bacon 
New York. 

J. Watson Wehh to Willie P. Mangum. 


Janry 5th. 1845 
My Dear Sir, 

I am here in connexion with the Powell Libel suit,^ which 
I hope to have postponed until Spring. If I succeed, I shall leave 
here on Wednesday for Washington. 

I am writing in Randall's office^ & at his request, merely to 
say that the Whigs here with one accord, beg that you will act 
upon the nomination of & J [torn] at once, as every day's de- 

sSee above, J. W. Webb to W. P. Mangum, Oaober 18. 1844. 
^Josiah Randall. See above, II, 23 6n. 

246 State Department of Archives and History 

lay is making for the benefit of Buchanan and the Loco Foco 
Party. Our friends think it all important to have King's v^eapon. 

Your friend 

J. Watson Webb. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

To the Hon. 
W. P. Mangum 
Washington City, 
D. (C.) 


William S. Mullens^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Fayetteville, No: Ca. 

9th of Jan, 1845 
Hon Willie P. Mangum, 

Dear Sir, 

As Chairman of the Managing Committee of the "Fayette- 
ville Library Institute",^ & under the instructions of the Com- 
mittee, I take the liberty, which I trust you w^ill excuse, of ad- 
dressing you w^ithout the honor of a personal acquaintance v^ith 
you. The Institute has been founded by the young men of this 
place with the design of gradually building up a Public Library 
& thus securing to all in the community the means of intellectual 
improvement. As a great assistance in the effort, I take the 
liberty of requesting you to forward to the Institute copies of 
such public documents as may be printed by the order of the 

^William Sidney Mullens, of Fayetteville, graduated from the University in 1842. Later he 
rnoved to South Carolina and became a "brilliant speaker at the bar," the president of a South Caro- 
lina railroad, and a member of the South Carolina legislature. Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 447; 
Battle, Hist, of U. N. C, 1, 478. 

^The Fayetteville Library Institute was incorporated in 1844. Johnson, Ante Bellum N. C, 166. 

The Mangum Papers 247 

Senate, if it shall be convenient to you to do so. Such a favour 
would very greatly oblige & aid us. 

I have the honour to be with the highest respect 

Your most obt. servant 

Will: S. Mullens. 

Hon Willie P. Mangum. 


Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Washington Cty. 

Edmund Pendleton Gaines"^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Hd qr^. Western Division 
New Orleans, January 10*^. 1845 

My dear Sir: 

I do myself the honor to introduce to your acquaintance and 
recommend to your attention Mrs Putnam, an amiable Tennes- 
sean, the widow of D'*. James R. Putnam^ late of this city; with 
whom Mrs Gaines and myself have been acquainted for several 

Mrs Putnam has been advised by several of her much re- 
spected friends of Tennessee and of this place in whose judg- 
ment she has confidence, to visit the city of Washington during 
the present session of Congress, with the view of making some 
such disposition of the Patent right granted to D"" Putnam on 
the 6*^ of May 1841 for new and useful improvements in Ma- 
chinery for removing Bars, and other obstructions from the 
U. S. inlets, harbours and river, as will at once test the utility 
and establish the value of the discovery, and render the same 
serviceable to our Naval, Military and commercial interests, 
and available to the widow and young family of the projector 
in a pecuniary point of view as the principal fortune left to them 
for their support. 

'At this time Gaines was a major general commanding the western division of the United States 
Army. D. A. B., VII, 92. This letter was not signed by General Gaines himself. 

^He was living at 118 Canal Street in 1842. He was listed as a dentist. Gibson's Guide and 
Directory of the State of La. and the Cities of New Orleans and Lafayette, New Orleans, 1835, p. 171. 

248 State Department of Archives and History 

Knowing as I do the deep interest which you take in what- 
ever discoveries, and improvements tend to lessen the expense 
of our commercial intercourse whether foreign or domestic, and 
being convinced that the proposed improved means of deepen- 
ing our ship channels and inlets by Steam power will contribute 
much to the attainment of the all important objects of Defence 
and commericial prosperity- objects not less dear to our agricul- 
tural and manufacturing friends of the central and Western 
States and interior districts of the Union than to the shipping 
and other merchants and traders of our large Sea Port towns, 
I think it my duty to desire your attention to D^ Putnam's plan. 

Not a ship nor a steam boat can be lost or damaged by a Snag 
or a shoal- or other obstruction, without affecting more or less 
the interests of the farmers and planters or mechanics of the 
interior. And in war such obstructions might even in the 
presence of the invading foe cost us more vessels and more men, 
than the foe could, in the absence of such obstructions, take or 
destroy in Battle. 

I respectfully suggest the propriety of granting to the widow 
and family of Dr Putnam, a specific sum of money for her Patent 
right. And then authorise the construction of a Steam Boat up- 
on a larger scale than that proposed by Dr Putnam, to be built 
of the best Oak and Iron- principally Iron- upon the principles 
of the British Mail Boats convertible into Steam Ships of War 
with a view on the approach of War instantly to exchange her 
ploughs and scrapers with her machinery to break up and re- 
move obstructions from our Inlets, Harbours and rivers, for a 
complete armament, for driving into the vitals of an invading 
Fleet, an ample supply of Red hot shot and Paixhan shells. 

Every Fort upon the sea board ought to be supplied with a 
Floating Battery of the above description, to be manned with 
U. S. troops and volunteers and employed in Peace on every 
description of service necessary and proper to deepen our in- 
lets and ship channels and extend other facilities to commerce- 
in a word- in peace to prepare for war- and in war to cooperate 
with our Forts in repelling invasion. 

Although I have not advised Mrs. Putnam to visit Washing- 
ton, I am convinced that the efforts of her husband to establish 
an improved system of deepening our shoal waters of the 
South and East have so far succeeded as to entitle his widow 
and orphan children to a respectable compensation. 

The Mangum Papers 249 

And as the whole subject of navigation and commerce, as 
well as of National defense embracing the improvements to set 
forth in the claim belong exclusively to the Federal Govern- 
ment, I hope you will concur with me in the opinion that an 
act or Resolution should be proposed for giving to Mrs Putnam 
and her children a specific compensation for her claim. 

But should there be any doubts as to the utility of Dr. 
Putnam's plan for deepening our inlets and rivers by steam 
power, let measures be taken at once to test its utility and as- 
certain its value so that his widow & orphans may not suffer 
the affliction of that ''hope deferred which mdketh the heart 

For myself I have not a doubt that the proposed plan of 
deepening our ship channels, inlets and rivers is worth ten 
thousand times as much as any Dredging vessel or Dredging 
machine ever invented or ever known in the United States; as 
with it we can speedily deepen the inlets at the mouth of the 
Mississippi river and all other inlets now navigable for small 
coasting vessels in this State and in most of our other Southern 
States and Territories to any extent the Government may de- 
sire; and that we shall accomplish this all-important work 
without any expense to the United States beyond the original 
cost and repairs of the Steam boats or floating Batteries of Oak 
and Iron- principally of Iron- here recommended, as the work 
will be done by the United States Troops, and volunteers in 
actual service in their daily exercises and drills with the few 
Guns that should be placed on each vessel- Drills which will be 
enjoyed by officers and men, and which will contribute more 
to their health and comfort, and vastly more to their efflciancy 
and fitness for Battle than any recreations which our fashionable 
Watering places afford to the votaries of amusement and pleasure; 
as every vessel will have as many State rooms and as many 
sources of comfort as the largest and best of Passenger Steamers. 
But the transcendent utility of the system here proposed will 
be seen in the fact that our steam Boats or floating Batteries em- 
ployed in giving action to our machinery for deepening our 
inlets and cleaning out our rivers in Peace- will upon the first 
suspicion of an approaching foe, lay aside all such machinery, 
and in place of Ploughs, Log chains and Scrapers and other im- 
plements propelled by Steam power in Peace, instantly take on 
board their Paixhan Guns and all other implements of War 

250 State Department of Archives and History 

held in deposite at the Forts to which the Boats or Batteries be- 
long, and by co-operating with such Forts or Martello towers, 
will triumphantly defend the ship channels which they shall 
have been deepening. 

This is a plain matter of fact view of the subject suggested 
by no French or English Book of the last century, but by the 
mighty change which steam power applied to Ships of War, 
rail roads and Snag Boats has produced in the art of War. I 
thank my God that the subject of steam power to Harbour im- 
provements and Harbour defence is no longer enveloped in 
mystery, nor liable to be thrust aside by any miserable or mag- 
nificent humbug such as that of the the submarine explosions, 
by which the weak are made to believe, and the wicked affect 
to believe that our inlets & Harbours are to be defended by 
magnetic wire workers. 

Give us the proposed plan for deepening our inlets in Peace, 
by means necessary to their defense in War- preparatory to 
War- and moreover give us rail roads with Dr Morse's Magnetic 
Telegraph, and my life for it we shall soon prove to an admir- 
ing World that we know how to defend as well as how to Govern 
ourselves and our country, and by means applicable alike to 
the successful work of making our beloved Republic prosperous 
and happy in Peace and impregnable in War. 

With very great respect, I am, Dear Sir, 
Your friend 
Edmund Pendleton Gaines 
Major General U. S. Army 

commanding the Western Division 

The Hon^i^ W. P. Mangum 
President of the Senate 
Washington City D. C. 

Willie P. Mangum to D. Francis Bacon.^ 

Washington 11*^. January 1845. 
My dear Sir 

I received this morning a letter from I. H. Pettis, stating 
that on the 22'''*. Dec^ he mailed a letter at N. Y. to my address - 

^The original is in the Manuscript Collection, Yale University. See above Willie P. Mangum 
to D. Francis Bacon, January 2, 1845, and Bacon to Mangum, January 16, 1845. 

The Mangum Papers 251 

None such has been received by me. - He further, states that 
upon my advising you of the fact he will transmit through you 
a copy. I shall be glad to receive it. 

M*". P. likewise says that I may expect to see you in Washing- 
ton in a few days, at which I shall be gratified 

If the revelations can be made, that you so confidently be- 
lieve within reach, & so as not to exculpate our friends as a 
party, they cannot but be of very great importance. - They will 
brace the Whigs to renewed & more desperately energetic efforts. 

With great respect 
Yrs Very truly 

Willie P. Mangum 

I have rec^. three letters from you, & written but once hither- 
to, which I trust, you received. The miscarriage of M'. P's letter, 
leads to this statement 

W. P. M. 


D. Francis Bacon 
N. Y. 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Washington City 14th. January 1845. 
My dear Love: 

It has been too long, since I have written to you, but writing 
to the children, I have sent home every week, except one. — 
My health has been perfectly good since I left home, except for 
two or three days past. I have had some cold, which however, 
has not annoyed me much. — 

I reed, your letters in regard to Eliza Moore. I should have 
had great pleasure in aiding her in the manner desired, if my 
own affairs would have admitted of it. — The[y] did not, how- 

The times are such, & prices of every kind of produce, is so 
low, that everybody almost, needs every thing due them. I 
hope, My Love, that you are well & in good spirits. — I desire 

252 State Department of Archives and History 

extremely to see you & the children. — If I were at perfect ease, 
I should enjoy more of real life & happiness to be at home with 
you & our dear children, than I could possibly enjoy here in ten 
times the length of time. I hope everything is going on well 
under the management of Cousin Meekins. — I have great con- 
fidence in his judgment, industry & good management. 

The Winter here has been usually agreeable, & the Weather 
the finest I ever saw in Washington in the Winter. — Our Whig 
friends are sombre & melancholy, but in no wise, dispirited in 
regard to the future. — Mr. Clay writes me that he and his family 
are well, & that he bears with quiet & resignation the unex- 
pected result. 

Yesterday, we had a duel in the neighbourhood between 
Mr. Clingman of No. Carolina & a Mr. Yancey, a member from 
Alabama. — ^^ Clingman challenged him for offensive language 
used in debate in the Ho. of Reps. — They exchanged shots with- 
out injury. Yancy then made suitable explanations & the mat- 
ter was settled. 

Clingman bore himself with great calmness & resolution, 
& went through whole affair in a manner most honorable to 
him. — 

I hope, my boy William attends to his book a good deal. — 
He can do that & catch birds also. — Tell Patty I hope, she will 
not let him be neglected. — 

Give my Love to Sally, & tell her that I cannot yet fix the 
day that I will meet her in Petersburg to attend the inaugura- 

Give my Love to Patty & Mary - & also to my boy, if he has 
been good. — 

For yourself, My Love, always feel & know that you are 
dearer to my heart than all the world, our dear children not ex- 
cepted, and I regard it the greatest misfortune of my life, that 
my vexed circumstances through life, always affecting or sour- 
ing the temper, have not suffered me always to manifest the 
full extent of my confidence in you & My Love & affection for 

i"Jln the course of the debate in early January, 1845, on annexation, Thomas L. Clingman ac- 
cused the Democrats of unfair tactics in the presidential campaign of 1844. W. L. Yancey replied 
with a personal attack on Clingman accusing him of being deficient in honor. Clingman challenged 
Yancey. The duel was fought near Bladensburg, Maryland. After the first shots the difficulties were 
settled by consultation of the seconds. Memorandum of the Late Affair of Honor between Hon. T. L. 
Clingman, of North Carolina, and Hon William L. Yancey, of Alabama. Printed by Yancey Feb. 
13, 1848, for private circulation. 8 pp. See also Stephen B. Weeks, "The Duello in North Carolina 
and among North Carolinians." Charlotte Democrat, December 23, 1887, in Stephen B, Weeks, 
Miscellaneous Studies in Southern History, 1886-1897. 

The Mangum Papers 253 

you. — May God bless you My dear Love & our dear children - 
& Spare us many years for love, quiet & affection — 

Your affectionate husband 
Willie P. Mangum 

To Mrs. Charity A. Mangum 

I have sent home a good many seeds. — The names & places 
ought to be entered in a book when they are planted. 

Give my thanks to Patty for her pretty & agreeable letter 
to me, & say to Sally, I should like to have an opportunity of 
sending my thanks to her. 

W. P. Mangum 

Reverdy Johnson to Willie P. Mangum. 

Annapolis 15 Jany [1845] 
/45 - 12 P.M. 
My Dear Judge 

I know you will be delighted to hear, that in the Whig caucus 
tonight, I was selected as Senator of Md., on the first ballot, 
having reed, a majority of all the votes — Make it known to our 
mutual friends — 

Yrs most sincerely 
Reverdy Johnson. 

[Addressed : ] 


Judge Mangum 
In Senate 

Washington [Postmarked:] Annapolis Md. 

Jan 15 

254 State Department of Archives and History 

D. Francis Bacon to Willie P. Mangum.^^ 

New York, Thursday night, 

January 16, 1845. 

I regret to be compelled to withdraw for a day or two my 
promise to meet you in Washington. I have been pushing the 
investigation and have made much progress since I wrote to 
you. I am backed and supported by some of the best, ablest 
and richest men in New York. I have obtained some important 
specifications against certain individuals as having planned, di- 
rected and suborned. But I wish especially to obtain a list of 
the names of the actual performers, with the details of their 
operations, specifying the places where the plurality of ballots 
were deposited. This I hope soon to obtain. No pains - no 
means will be spared to secure this. We deal with the highest 
order of our foes. The inducements which we offer are pro- 
portional. Tens of thousands are within our scope. 

I have many important facts which you ought to know; 
but I can not do any justice to them by any other than an oral 
statement which I trust soon to give you, - on Sunday or Mon- 

Excuse this hasty scrawl, and believe me 

With great respect, 
yours faithfully, 

D. FRANCIS Bacon. 
Hon. President of the Senate. 

William H. Battle^ ^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Chapel Hill Jan'y 18th 1845 

The Executive Committee of the Alumni Association of the 
University of North Carolina have, in pursuance of the duty 

i^See above, Mangum to Bacon, January 2, 11, 1845. 

^Aiter graduating from the Universiry in 1820, William Horn Battle, 1802-1879, became an 
attorney, state supreme court reporter, judge of the superior and supreme courts of North Carolina 
and professor of law at his alma mater. Twice he revised the statutes of the state. D. A. B., IV, 58; 
Ashe, Biog. Hist, of N. C, VI, 20-25. 

The Mangum Papers 255 

assigned them for that purpose, appointed you to deliver an 
address before the Association on the day preceding the next 
annual commencement of the University, and have instructed 
me to inform you of the appointment and to request your ac- 
ceptance of it-^^ 

The Association has been but recently organised and you 
are the first person appointed to deliver an address before it. 
In making the appointment the committee have adopted a rule 
to select a member of the class which was graduated thirty 
years before the address is to be delivered, and to invite specially 
all the other members who are living to attend.- We trust that 
you will assist in promoting the objects of the Association and 
gratify your numerous friends by accepting the appointment. 
Be pleased to let us hear from you at an early day. 

With great regard 
I am your's &C. 
Will: H. Battle 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Washington City 


Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
President of the Senate 
Washington, City 

C. L. Hinton to Willie P. Mangum 

Raleigh Jany 19*^ 1845 

I dislike very much to trouble you with a third letter^* about 
reestablishing the Post office at Busbees Store, but the solicitude 
of Mr Loring must be my apology for asking your attention to 
the subject at this time.- The particulars I presume you have 
not forgotten, Busbee has removed from his former residence 

i^Although Mangum did not attend this commencement, the LL.D. degrees were conferred upon 
him, James K. Polk, and James Y. Mason. William H. Battle reported that he was unable to obtain 
a speaker. In place of an address he and others read brief sketches of the lives of ten of the alumni 
who died during the year.. Battle, Hist, of U. N. C, I, 496. 

^*See above, 226. 

256 State Department of Archives and History 

and the Post Office discontinued. Loring has purchased it and 
wishes to print his paper there, the situation is ten miles from 
this place- no other office nearer than this, it had been keep up 
I suppose for twenty year, Loring wishes to be Post master and 
I have no doubt is desired by the neighbours — I should have 
written to Judge Sanders about it, but I fear his strong prej- 
udices to Loring would induce him to oppose it — Be pleased to 
write me on the subject- 
Very Sincerely 
Yr friend 



Hon. Willie P Mangum, M. C. 
Washington City 
D. C. 

Geo. E. Badger to Willie P. Mangum 

Raleigh Jany. 21st. 1845 
My dear Sir. 

The letter for Judge Wayne^^ enclosed in the same envelope 
with this, relating to a question in our Circuit Court here, and 
therefore partaking of a public character, may properly be 
embraced by the equity of the Statute conferring the franking 
privilege on Senators and other dignitaries- I send it therefore 
under the protection of your name and beg you will cause it to 
be delivered to the Judge. 

I suppose you sometimes see Crittenden- If so make my re- 
spects to him- and say for me that I should like to learn upon 
what terms he now is with his old master Capt. Tyler- I fear he 
cannot communicate the information as fully as I should desire 
to have it, except in a personal interview- and for this purpose, 
to say nothing of others of inferior importance, I beg he will 
come and see me- If he knew how much pleasure such a visit 

^Judge James M. Wayne, of Georgia, 1790-1867, was appointed as justice of the United States 
Supreme Court by Jackson in 1835. He served until his death in 1867. Biog. Dir. of Cong,, \615- 
1676; D. A. B., XIX, 565. The enclosure is not in the Mangum Papers. 

X c 

n • — 


o -a 

&£ i-r< 


















o ^ 

qj -C 

00 a 

c ;i: 

s •-» 

.2, ^ 


^ 2 

The Mangum Papers 257 

would give Mrs. B. and myself, I think he would give us a call 
at the end of the session- Tell him to be a clever fellow and do 

I beg you to excuse me for the trouble I give you and believe 

most truly & respectfully 
your friend & Servt. 

Geo. E. Badger 
Hon. Mr. Mangum. 
[Addressed : ] 

The Honorable 
W. P. Mangum 

Prest. of the Senate 

Willie P. Mangum to Patty Mangum^^ 

Washington 21st. Jan. 1845 
My dear Patty, 

I have but a moment before going into the chair today. I send 
herewith two books for beginners in the French language- the 
smaller one in six lessons. I wish you to begin and study it 
closely, accurately and with care- You can learn enough to 
translate French papers that may occur in your reading- I shall 
send you a grammar and dictionary- You will not need them at 

I am well- I reed your mother's letter and was glad to hear 
that all are well- 

My love to Mother, your sisters, Sally and Mary and your 
brother William. 

Yrs affectionately, 
W. P. Mangum 

i^The original is in the possession of Mangum Turner, Winston-Salem. N. C. 

258 State Department of Archives and History 

Redwood Fisher^'^ to Willie P. Mangum 

New York Jany. 30. 1845. 
The Hble 

Willie P Mangum 

My Dear Sir 

I beg leave to call myself to your friendly recollection, 
and to believe my solemn assurances that I have no earthly ob- 
jects in writing you at this time, but to save our friends who 
are trembling for their fate in case Mr Atwood^^ should be re- 
jected by the Senate. 

I am almost daily called upon by them and urged to write 
to some friend in the Senate. Accordingly I have written to 
Mr Huntingdon^^ assuring him, that Mr Atwood is a faithful 
public officer, that our friends will be safe if he is confirmed, 
and that should he be rejected no one can answer for the con- 
sequences, as in that case the whole torrent of Tammany Hall, 
will in all probability find a passage into our Custom House, 
and not only every Whig, but every moderate man be sacrificed. 
I now my dear Sir repeat this to you, and you may rely upon 
my knowledge in this matter. 

Although I am sure you will believe me without my stating 
to you my own Situation and views yet it may not be amiss for 
me to say, that I shall be a private citizen in a few weeks. My 
open vote, and known attachment for Mr Clay it is alike my 
pride, and duty every where to avow, and of course I cannot 
hold office under the new dynasty, having no spark of locofoco- 
ism in my composition. To our good friends Mess^ Phillips 
Phoenix & H Fish^^ my feelings and conduct are well known 
and I can with great confidence refer you to them, for the con- 
firmation of what I write, as well as regards Mr Atwood as my- 

Repeating therefore that I have no earthly motive but the 
one stated in urging the confirmation of Mr Atwood I conclude 

"Redwood Fisher was a former editor of the Mercantile Advertiser and New York Advocate in 
1838. In 1845 he edited the National Magazine and Industrial Record. William and Mary Quarterly, 
Ser. 2, Vol. IV, pp. 155-156; Fox, New York City Newspapers, 1820-1830, 65. 

isSee above, J. Watson Webb to W. P. Mangum, December 20, 1844. 

i^Jabez Williams Huntington, 1788-1847, was Senator from Connecticut from 1840 to 1847. 
Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1133. 

2ojonas Phillips Phoenix, Congressman from New York in 1843-1845, and Hamilton Fish, 
Congressman from New York and future Secretary of State. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 967-968, 1410. 

The Mangum Papers 259 

fully confiding that you will place this letter to the true motive 
which has dictated it and subscribe myself with the greatest re- 

Your obt St- 

Redwood Fisher 

Samuel B. Williams^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

United States Hotel 

New York Feby 5th. 1845 

To the 

Honl. Willie P Mangum 

President of the Senate. &c. &c. 


I most respectfully enclose to your address the 
petition of Sundry Gentlemen in favor of a reduction of postage 
throughout the United States, and request that the same may 
be laid before your honourable body — 

deeming a few remarks not illy appropriate on a subject 
of this nature, I would observe that I am personally in favor of 
a credit system, as I conceive it is the only protection the edu- 
cated part of the community, under our form of Government 
have over the uneducated, and in order to sustain that System, 
I am in favor of a tariff to prevent foreign merchandise coming 
into the country to an extent as to deprive our Banks of their 
special basis and so far to protect our manufacturers. 

I am opposed to a distribution of the general revenue for 
State purposes- but would favor an appropriation of four or 
more Millions of dollars of surplus revenue for the expenses of 
the Post Office department, in order that Newspapers and pam- 
phlets may be conveyed free of postage, and letter postage a 
mere charge of record — and charge the franking privilege now 
enjoyed to the general expenses. — 

2iPossibly a commission merchant in New York City. Longworth's New York Directory, 1847- 
1848, 443. 

260 State Department of Archives and History 

I trust you will deem the enclosed petition and remarks 
worthy your immediate action — and remain 

Most Respectfully 
Your obt Servt 

Sam. B. Williams 
[Endorsed in hand of W.P.M.:] 

This accompanied a petition I presented this morning 

William G. Cochran^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Philadelphia Feby 8*^ 1845 
Hon: W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate. 

Washington City. 

My Dear Sir, 

I See from the morning papers that the President 
has nominated Mr. John M Read^^ of this City as Judge of the 
Supreme court of the United States in place of Judge Baldwin 

This is certainly one of the Very best appointments Mr 
Tyler ever made, and I hope the whig Senators will go for him 
unanimously, of course you cannot expect Mr. Polk to nominate 
any other than a Loco. 

I have been a very active whig here, and I have not seen 
any of our friends, that are not in favour of Mr Reads Confirma- 
tion, I know him personally, and a more correct gentlemanly 
man I never knew- 

This is the first of Mr. Tyler appointment I ever wished par- 
ticularly, to see confirmed, and as a rebuke to him (Tyler) I 
should like to see it unanimous, to shew him that the Whigs were 
always ready to go for Gentlemen & competent men when nom- 

^William G. Cochran was a wine merchant in Philadelphia. McElroy's Philadelphia Directory, 
1852, 78. 

23John Meredith Read, 1792-1874, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, was city solici- 
tor of Philadelphia, a member of the legisalture, and United States District Attorney before Tyler 
in 1845 nominated him for associate justice of the United States Supreme Court. Because of his 
anti-slavery views, the Senate rejected the nomination. After that he was attorney general of Pennsyl- 
vania and justice of the Pennsylvania supreme court. D. A. B., IX, 427-428. 

The Mangum Papers 261 

I shall take it as a personal favour if you will use your in- 
fluence for him, and believe me Very Truly 

Your old friend and obt servant 
Wm G Cochran. 

P. S. let me know what you think of it. 

Edward Stanly to Willie P. Mangum 

Washington Feby 10th 1845 
My Dear Sir, 

My young friend & connection Benjamin T. [sic'\ Guion,^* is 
an applicant for admission as a Cadet at West Point. I fear it 
is not in your power to assist him, but he earnestly requests 
me to write to you in his behalf — 

He is a fine, manly fellow, of good education, the Grandson 
of a Revolutionary soldier, and the son of a widowed mother, 
who has a large family in narrow circumstances. From the 
first district,- Clingman's there is no applicant. Probably you 
might have Guion appointed to fill that vacancy, if Clingman has 
no constituent who desires the place. 

Genl Scott, as he has I think according to usage, the right of 
nominating a few, would take pleasure in pleasing you.- If you 
can see Scott, & it is not too late, say a word, on my part, & from 
yourself for young Guion. Arrington of course, will do nothing 
for any Whig family. — 

Nothing new with us — We ardently hope the Senate will 
save us from the Annexation-with Texas. — 

In haste 
Your's truly 
Edw. Stanly 
Hon : W. P. Mangum 
W. City 

Don't forget Brown's case:-^^ one of the Vice Presidents of 
Tyler's convention went to the Capt: & he in his presence sent 

^Benjamin Simmon Guion, of New Bern, 1826-1893, graduated at the University of North 
Carolina in 1848. He became the superintendent of the Western North Carolina Railroad and a 
major in the Confederatee army. Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 241. 

25See above Edward Stanly to W. P. Mangum, December 2, 1844, and February 15, 1845. 

262 State Department of Archives and History 

his nomination to the Senate! i know this.- It is already divid- 
ing them & the Locos:- let a Loco have it, he cannot help this, 
but not a Tyler man & a corrupt man (of course) at that.- 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon: Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Washington City 

Louisa S. Childs^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Rochester Feb. 10th 1845 
Dear Sir 

When I recall to your memory the name of Mrs. Childs a 
member of the little Mess at Miss Tolson's two winters ago, I 
trust that I need not apologize for the liberty I take in request- 
ing your frank for two Carolina friends. 

Our little company has been scattered far and wide, and 
you, I believe, are the only one remaining in Washington. — Of 
Mr. Shepherd^^ I have heard nothing, of Mr. & Mrs Williams 
very little, since we parted. Of poor Miss Gamble I heard that 
she had sought refuge in the West-Indies against consumption, 
but nothing more. — 

The late Election closed the door against many anticipated 
reunions of Whig friends.- Except myself, all were gay and 
sanguine here untill the very last day of the campaign.- For 
more than a year I felt a painful presentiment of our defeat, 
and frequently urged upon Mr. Childs the possibility of a dis- 
appointment, but he laughed at my presages, and when I did 
come it struck to his very heart. — It was a terrible blow to all, 
but of all the causes that conspired to inflict it the Liberty party 
was the most treacherous and detestable. Compared with them 
the herd of foreign convicts and Paupers who were bribed to 
roll the car of Loco-Focoism over the laws and liberties of the 

^Probably the wife of Timothy Childs, who was a Whig Congressman from Rochester, New 
York in 1841-1843. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 807. 

2^She probably refers to A. H. Shepperd, Whig Congressman from North Carolina in 1841- 
1843; Christopher Harris Williams, Whig Congressman from Tennessee, 1837-1843; and the daugh- 
ter of Roger Lawson Gamble, Whig Congressman from Georgia in 1841-1843. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 
998. 1517. 1703. 

The Mangum Papers 263 

nation are pure. But I did not intend to trespass on your time 
by useless political regrets or party phillipics, for without re- 
curing to causes it is quite enough for us that the victory we so 
justly deserve was wrested from us. — Mr C sends his best re- 
spects. — 

You will oblige me much by sending Mr Clingman's 
speech.-^^ I do not know him, but I am deeply interested in any 
one whose talents reflects honor upon my native state. — 

Who will be our next candidate for President. I wish you 
would make us a visit and talk it over before you return to 
Carolina. We should be truly happy to see you. Yours, very 

Louisa S. Childs. 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Washington, D. C. 

W. A, Graham to Willie P. Mangum and Enclosure. 

[13 February, 1845] 

RESOLUTION Relative to the Re-Building of the Branch Mint 
at Charlotte.29 

Resloved, That out Senators and Representatives in Con- 
gress be respectfully requested to urge upon their respective 
bodies the expediency and necessity of making a sufficient ap- 
propriation for re-building the Branch Mint at Charlotte, in 
this State. 

Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be construed 
as sanctioning the former extravagant expenditures of the 
Branch Mint, or of recommending the Edifice to be furnished 
for the personal comfort of the officers, but that it shall be de- 
signed and constructed solely for the purpose of coining money 
for the public advantage. 

28In early January Thomas L. Clingman made a strong attack on annexation and on Calhoun. 
Yancey replied and the duel followed. See above, 25 2n. 

2«On July 27, 1844, a fire almost totally destroyed the building and machinery of the mint. 
In 1846 it was rebuilt but because of competition with California gold and the decline in output 
in North Carolina gold mines, the Charlotte mint soon became of little importance. Robert L. 
Cherry. "The Charlotte Mint." The Tarheel Banker, XVI. No. 9 (March, 1939). pp. 21-23. 

264 State Department of Archives and History 

Resolved, That his Excellency, the Governor, be respectfully- 
requested to transmit to our Senators and Representatives in 
Congress, a copy of the foregoing Resolution. 

Read three times in General Assembly, and ratified the 8th 
January, 1845. 

Edw. Stanly, 
Speaker of the House of Commons. 

Burgess S. Gaither. 
Speaker of the Senate. 

Office Of Secretary Of State. J 

I, William Hill, Secretary of State, in and for the State of 
North Carolina, do hereby certify, that the above is a true copy 
of resolutions passed at the last General Assembly of this State. 

Given under my hand, this 13th. day of February, 1845. 

Wm. Hill 

Executive Department 
Raleigh, Feby 13/45. 


By the request of our last Legislature, I have the honor to 
transmit the foreging Resolutions- 
Very respectfully 
Will. A. Graham 

Edward Stanly to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington [North Carolina,] Feby: 15th 1845 

My Dear Sir, 

The worst part of the correspondence with friends is, that 
it imposes on us the duty of answering their letters. I know the 
nature of your engagements & do not expect or request an an- 
swer. — 

The Mangum Papers 265 

I wish you to have, if you can speedy action on Brown's 
case. — ^^ There will be probably in a few days, several applica- 
tions from this district for his place & some from decent, honest 
men. — Arrington's favorite, is a Mr. Cananay, a trifling, bloated 
drunkard & gambler - some other decent nomination will be 
made should Brown be rejected: no matter whom - let him be 

Jesse Speight was his patron & friend, in 1833 or 34, when a 
nullifier was turned out & he put in - this may do to whisper in 
the ears of Huger, McDuffie & Lewis^^ & will have its influence.- 
& I am afraid Jesse will exert himself with Polk & have him 
retained. He married in Greene Co., where Jesse formerly 
lived.- Early action is very necessary, for after rejection Polk 
will be excusable for preferring some Democrat, to a Tyler man, 
accused also of malpractice in office, as Brown is. — 

Col: Tayloe formerly a member of the State Convention, 
one of the Com: who received Mr Clay in Raleigh & recently a 
Senator from Beaufort & Hyde, was the States rights man, 
turned out by Jackson for Brown. — 

Do quickly, whatever is to he done with this case, & let me 
have a single line informing me of the result. — Call the atten- 
tion of Messrs. Huntington, Baerrien & others to this case. — 

Mrs. S. sends her kind regards. — 
Very truly your's 

Edw. Stanly 

Hon: W. P. Mangum 
W. City 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon: Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Washington City 

[Postmarked:] Washington N. C. Feb 16 

^'See above, Edward Stanly to W. P. Mangum, December 2, 1844 and February 10, 1845. 

3iDaniel E. Huger, a states' rights Democrat in the Senate from 1843 to 1845; George Mc- 
Duffie, a Calhoun supporter in the Senate, 1843-1846; and Dixon Hall Lewis, a states* rights Demo- 
crat from Alabama in the Senate, 1844-1848. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1126, 1222-1223. 1261. 

266 State Department of Archives and History 

Quinhy Williams'^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Baltimore Feby 19th. 1845 

Honored Sir 

It becomes my duty in my official capacity to inform you of 
your Election as an Honorary Member of the 

Ogden Institute 
Very Respectfully 

QuiNBY Williams, 
Cor Sec. 

Hon W. P Mangum 


Hon. W. P. Mangum 

D. C. 

Tod R. Caldwell to Willie P. ManguTn 

MoRGANTON 19*^. Febry 1845 
Honl. W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir. I rec*^. a day or two ago a letter from an uncle of 
mine in the State of Alabama, Cornelius Robinson Esqr.^^ in- 
forming me that he is an applicant for the office of Marshall for 
the Southern District of Alabama, and requesting me if I had 
any friends in Congress, to write to them and ask their influence 
in his favour. I do not suppose the President will be apt to con- 
sult the Whigs in regard to his appointments, but perhaps 
something might be done by a Whig thro' some democrat who 
is a personal friend-. If you can use any influence in behalf of 
Mr. Robinson you will confer a favour on me by doing so, he 
will not be objectionable to the President on account of his 

32Unable to identify. 

23From Nortli Carolina, Robinson moved to Georgia where he married Kezziah Hardwick in 
1816 and then moved to Alabama. William and Mary Quarterly, Ser. 2, Vol. Ill, p. 157. 

The Mangum Papers 267 

politics, for he is a good democrat, and I think a gentleman well 
qualified for the discharge of all the duties of the office for 
which he is an applicant-. 

We have no news of interest in our Mountain country, every- 
thing seems to be moving on smoothly in the political world 
and the people are beginning to get over their disappointment 
in the result of the Presidential election and I am happy to say 
are Whigs as firm and as true as they were the day they voted 
for Clay & Frelinghuysen, they have no variableness or shadow 
of turning,- We are anxiously awaiting every day the news of 
the defeat of the Texas resolution by your honourable body.- 
Minerva desires me to send her love to you.- 

I am, dear Sir, Your 
Obt. Svt. 
Tod R. Caldwell 

[Addressed : ] 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 

Senate U. States 


D. C. 

Willie P. Mangum to Tod R. Caldwell 

Washington City 20*^. Feby 1845. 
My dear Sir. 

As events at Washington are rapidly Verging to a point of 
high & fearful interest I avail myself of a leisure moment to 
write to you a few lines. 

I think now, & to day for the first time, that the joint resolu- 
tions for the Annexation of Texas will pass the Senate.- It will 
not pass without amendment, but so amended as to Meet with 

268 State Department of Archives and History 

favor from the democracy of the House.-^* Benton's proposition 
with probably some amendment, will most likely be added to 
the joint reso: offering to Texas the alternative of accepting 
the terms of the Resolution : or in the case of her refusal to open 
negotiation with Commissioners & the stipulations to be sub- 
mitted to both Governments for acceptance or rejection.- 

The annexation in this form will excite deep feeling in the 
North, North east & East. It will stir to its foundation the aboli- 
tion & antislavery feeling, & lead not remotely I fear, to a state 
of things to be deplored by every friend of the Country.- The 
arrival of the President elect has given a powerful impulse to 
party action on this subject.- He is for Texas, Texas, Texas; & 
talks of but little else, as I learn.- He says that the Democrat 
who shall falter, will have thrown upon him a fearful responsi- 
bility.- You cannot easily estimate the Weight of influence that 
a New President backed by his party, can exercise, upon the 
Weak the doubting, the Mercenary & the paltrily & measly am- 
bition.- Benton, the manliest among them, will be compelled to 
Compromise, or succumb, or be crushed.- The tone of the English 
press- recking the most offensive & worst possible spirit, in 
connection with her undoubted diplomatic movements & in- 
trigues, to Combine Europe against our further aggrandizement, 
& her efforts to poison the public mind of Mexico ag* us, as well 
as the heads of as many in Texas, as her policy or money can 
reach, give a vast momentum to the other popular & party con- 
siderations, in favor of annexation.- Though our Gov^ has done 
much to disgrace itself in this matter, & ought to be held by our 
countrymen to the strictest responsibility yet I will never rec- 
ognize the rightful interposition of any European Power in a 
matter of this sort.- I would repel it, as far as I might, with 
the whole resources of our Gov*. & people. It is obvious that 
the whole diplomatic Corps here, are adverse to the Course of 
the party in power- that gives strength to it.- The foreign War 

340n January 25, 1845, the House, by a vote of 120 to 98, approved the joint resolution. The 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations reported unfavorably on the resolution February 4. There- 
upon, Benton proposed a substitute bill which would have left to the negotiation of the United States 
and Texas the boundaries and the terms of cession. All of this delayed matters until only two weeks 
were left before the adjournment of Congress. By Benton's action the Democrats were split and the 
Whigs hoped to use this division for their political advantage. Annexation seemed certain. The only 
question was its foim. February 13 Polk arrived in Washington and things began changing. He ap- 
parently used patronage to mfluence Senators. Houston had already announced that if annexation was 
not passed by March 4 he would take the stump against any other effort to join the United States. 
Reports from France and Great Britain also influenced some to vote for the measure. Robert J. 
Walker solved the problem by proposing that Benton's bill be added as an alternative choice either 
of which the President was left free to adopt under the joint resolution. The amended resolution 
passed the Senate 27 to 25 and the House 132 to 76. Wiltse, Calhoun: Sectionalist, 212-214; Chit- 
wood, John Tyler, 359; Eugene I. McCormac, James K. Polk: A Political Biography, Berkeley, 1922, 

The Mangum Papers 269 

can grow out of this rapacious act- Mexico cannot, & England 
will not fight for Texas, but she will for Oregon. 

The War Spirit is high with the democracy, especially the 
Western Section of it.- As War with G. Britain would bring 
to them more prosperity & money, than would Six inches of 
the richest Compost bring to the barren fields of Carolina, were 
it to descend from the Clouds!- Our Whole Atlantic board would 
be swept for the first year, as with a Sirocco of fire- & the float- 
interest w**. sink into the earth with the oppressive Weight .- 

I hope nothing, Committing us to War, Will be done on the 
Oregon question.- If we w*^. but be quiet, that Country would 
fall into our possession without an effort, as soon, at least, as 
We shall need it.- 

Polk Keeps Close on his Cabinet, & holds up the matter, with 
a high demo: policy, until the Texas question shall be settled- 
He desires to avoid the responsibility of his Adm'^ for that 
policy & the form of urging it for war, & yet indirectly, does 
all he can to push it through at this Session.- His great men 
obviously are- Walker, Buchanan, Cave Johnson & I think 
Saunders- Calhoun must walk the plank-^^ Every thing is yet 
uncertain, & famished Wolves would not work with more eager 
& greedy effort than do the different Sections of the democracy. 

The Whigs are at ease, they are quiet, cherishing no ex- 
cessive feeling, but as a mass devoted to the principles of their 
Cause- Three Will Vote for Texas- Foster^^ as sound a Whig as 
any, in other respects.- Henderson & Merrick always a little 
fishy, & possibly Johnson of Louisiana, who has not yet given 
sufficient evidence of his power to resist very strong action up- 
on him.- 

The old North has stood firmly.- How does Clingman get on 
among your religionists & churchmen ?^^ He is a fine, bold, de- 
cided & talented fellow- of great use to us here.- 

It was to be regretted that he had to fight, but it was un- 
avoidable, & to have declined would have disgraced him here & 
destroyed his just Weight & influence.- Whereas now, even the 
upturned White eyes of the puritan of New England, look up- 

^Calhoun's friends brought much pressure on Polk to have Calhoun appointed. On February 26 
Polk finally told Calhoun that there was to be an entirely new Cabinet. According to some. Senator 
John A. Dix, a Barnburner from New York, agreed to vote for the annexation of Texas if Polk 
would agree not to bring Calhoun into his Cabinet, McCormac, James K. Polk, 289-290; Wiltse, 
Calhoun: Sectionalist, 213-214. 

*He refers to Ephraim H. Foster, Senator from Tennessee, John Henderson, Senator from Mis- 
sissippi, William D. Merrick, Senator from Maryland, and Henry Johnson, Senator from Louisiana. 
Foster voted against the resolution of annexation. The others voted for it. N ties' Register, LXVII, 401. 

®^He refers to T. L. Clingman's duel with W. L. Yancey. 

270 State Department of Archives and History 

on him with Confidence & respect.- I trust, no Court in No. Ca. 
(however muc[h] in the abstract, I abhor duelling, & abhor & 
scorn & detest the Wanton seeker of duels) will require a son 
of No. Ca to sacrifice his honor & public usefulness rather than 
resent an indignity & gross outrag[e] 

Present my Love & most affectionate regards to your dear 
Wife, & accept for yourself the assurance 

my high respect & friendship 

Willie P Mangum 


Tod Caldwell esq^ 

J. Watson Wehh to Willie P. Mangum 

New^ York 
February 21. 1845 
My Dear Sir. 

William Paxton Hallett, who has been nominated as Consul 
to Liverpool, is a gentleman of character & intelligence; and 
although a Loco Foco, by far the most unexceptional appoint- 
ment Mr. Tyler has made from the ranks of our opponents. I 
sincerely hope he may be confirmed, as Polk will certainly give 
us a Van man.- I hope to be with you next week. 

Yours very truly 

J. Watson Webb 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
[Addressed : ] 

To the Hon 

W. P. Mangum 
Washington City 
D. C. 

The Mangum Papers 271 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham^^ 

Washington City 21«*. Feby: 1845. 
My dear Sir. 

I have not written to you, because we have had nothing of 
interest, that did not mostly appear in the public prints. - Events 
are rapidly verging here to a point of great & startling interest. - 
I now believe, & yesterday for the first time, that the Resolu- 
tion from the House annexing Texas, will pass the Senate, pro- 
bably with amendment that will be agreed to in the House. - 

It will produce deep & dangerous excitement in portions of 
the North & East. Besides the outrage upon the Constitution & 
past precedents, it will stir deeply the anti Slavery feeling, & 
shake profoundly the confidence of higher & better men in the 
perpetuity of our system. - This feeling will be confined for the 
most part to the North, North east & the East. 

I think it likely the resolution will pass, to be submitted to 
Texas - if declined by her - then an alternative proposition to 
be submitted to her through commissioners - This alternative 
proposition will most probably be Benton's^^ - recently sub- 
mitted - with an amendment requiring the Missouri Com- 
promise to be recognized as the basis of any Convention or other 
arrangement - In this form three Whigs will vote for it - Foster. 
Merrick & Henderson. - 

There is some difficulty in the Demo: ranks, but all will go 
it, in my opinion, except Tappan^^ - With him they have much 
difficulty - They will overcome it. - With two Presidents Polk 
& Tyler upon him, & the whole party, he will either Vote with 
them or decline to Vote - In either case, the measure will pass. 
Polk has given a strong impulse to party action on this subject 
since his arrival. 

It is understood that he constantly says, that the Democrat 
who shall stand out, will have thrown upon him a fearful re- 

Nothing is known certainly as to the new Cabinet.*^ There 
has been & still is raging the fiercest party strife between the 
different sections. - Calhoun I think, will go out - Prodigious 

s^The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

89See above, 229n, 268n. 

**'Benjamin Tappan, Senator from Ohio from 1839 to 1845, had anti-slavery leaning. Never- 
theless, he voted for the annexation of Texas even though Thomas Corwin, a Whig, had just been 
elected to succeed him. Garrison, Westward Extension, 152; Niles' Register, LXVII, 401. 

*^For a good discussion of the problems involved in the selection of Polk's Cabinet see McCormac, 
^ames K. Polk, 287-299. 

272 State Department of Archives and History 

efforts have been made in his favor & against Buchanan. - It is 
understood that the Vice President elect, v^ithout exactly co 
operating with Calhoun, is operating as far as he decently can 
ag^ Buch : - Mason may remain. - The great men here, & certainly 
the most busy in Consultation. & the most imposing by a Certain 
knowing & mysterious look full of portents - are Senator Walker - 
Cave Johnson - Buchanan & Saunders. Three of the four, if not 
all, may be in the Cabinet. Col. Butler was brought on for the 
War department - It is less likely, than it seemed to be a week 
ago, that he will get it. 

Polk is in great difficulty, & tho, coming here with as he 
thought fixed resolves, he by this time, I apprehend, finds it 
impossible, to resolve upon anything. - 

It is very sure the Cabinet will have but little force of 
talent. - It ought to be so. - Who would not regret to see the 
choice of this great & free people thrown into Shadow by over 
topping talent. - 

If Polk shall not be firmer & more conservative than I fear, 
& will prove to be, we may not unreasonably indulge appre- 
hension in regard to a war with England. - 

She will fight for Oregon - not for Texas, or put herself to 
any trouble beyond diplomatic intrigues to counteract the rank 
& rapacious movement of this Country. 

I write during the sitting of the Senate & with great haste, 
supposing these hints & scraps of intelligence may not be un- 
interesting to you - 

With great respect Yr 

friend & ob*. Serv*. 

To Gov. Graham - Willie P. Mangum 
[Endorsed on back:] 1845 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

The Mangum Papers 273 

C. iV. B. Evans^^ to Willie P. Mangum, 

Milton, N. C. Feb. 24, 1845 
Hon. W. P. Mangum — 

Dear Sir: As my subscription to the National Intelligencer 
expired on the 7th. inst., you will do me a kind favor to call on 
the Editors and have it renewed by paying the difference be- 
tween our respective papers, which, I believe is $3, and for 
which I will account to you satisfactorily. I don't think the 
Editors ought to charge me any difference — I am sure if they 
knew how much I had the Whig cause at heart, what sacrifices 
I have made for it, and am still making, they would not charge 
me, provided they be Whigs of ''the true grit," of which I do 
not doubt. 

The democrats are making great efforts to put me down 
here in Caswell. They find I am not to be driven or run off, 
and now they seek to starve me to death. For this purpose, a 
"joint stock office" is to be established here, and Gen. Baz. 
Graves^^ is to edit and publish and [sic] democratic paper - 
* 'Milton Banner."^* I will battle as long as I can stand, and if 
fall I must my expiring breath will be spent strugling to strike 
another blow. 

I think Mr. Rives, of Va., has delivered the ablest speech on 
the Texas question,^^ ever delivered in the Senate - perhaps I 
should accept [sic] Col. Th. H. Benton. Will you be so good as 
to send me a pamphlet copy of Mr. Rives' speech? 

Your humble servt, I 

C. N. B. Evans. 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Washington City 
D. C. 

^^Charles N. B. Evans was a native of Virginia who did journalistic work in Columbia, Raleigh, 
Richmond, Hilisboro, Greensboro, and Milton. From 1836 to 1839 he was part owner of the 
Greens borough Patriot. In 1841 he bought the Milton Spectator and changed its name to the Milton 
Chronicle, which he published until 1861. From 1870 to 1872 he published the Hillsborough Re- 
corder. In 1873 he returned to Milton and again published the Milton Chronicle. A Checklist of 
U. S. Newspapers in Duke Univ. Library, IV, 543, 556, 574-575; Johnson, AnteBellum N. C, 769. 

*2For a brief sketch of Barzilla Graves see above I, 62n. 

^The Union List of Newspapers and the Checklist of U. S. Newspapers in Duke University Li- 
brary do not indicate that this newspaper was ever published. 

*fOn February 15, 1845, W. C. Rives spoke in the Senate on the joint resolution of annexation. 
He said that he did not oppose annexation if it could be accomplished without violating the consti- 
tution and without disturbing the peace with other nations. Most of his speech was an attack on the 
unconstitutionality of acquiring territory by joint resolution instead of treaty. Cong. Globe, 28 Cong., 
2 sess.. appendix. 378-382. 

274 State Department of Archives and History 

Calvin Colton to Willie P. Mangum. 

Philadelphia, Feby 25. 1845 
My Dear Sir, 

Your first impressions of Mr. Clay*^ are very much coveted 
by me, & are v^anted now, if you can find time to sit down a few 
minutes, & give me a sketch of them, & address them to me at 
Philadelphia. You will great oblige me by so doing, & I fancy 
there will be a charm in it — 

Very respectfully Yours, 

C. Colton. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Prest. U. S. Senate 

D. C. 

Thomas Ruffin^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Raleigh, February 28th 1845. 
My dear Sir./ 

Although reluctant to trouble you on such a subject at this 
juncture of political turmoil at Washington, I find myself un- 
der some sort of necessity to do so, for the better discharge of 
a public duty; and therefore I am sure you will excuse the li- 
berty I take. — 

You will remember that the Bankrupt Act of August 1841 
provides, that as to debts "created in consequence of a defalca- 
tion as a public officer, or as executor, administrator, guardian, 
or trustee, or while acting in any other fiduciary capacity," no 
person shall become a voluntary bankrupt.*^ A question is de- 
pending in the Supreme Court here, as to the proper construc- 
tion of the clause in respect to debts created in any other fidu- 

*^At this time Calvin Colton was writing his life of Clay which appeared in 1846. 
*^Thomas Ruffin was at this time chief justice of the North Carohna Supreme Court. 
<8See above, III. 266a. 

The Mangum Papers 275 

ciary capacity than one of those expressly mentioned, namely, 
as a public offer, executor &c.- Of course, it will be the duty 
of the Judges to put on the act the construction that to them 
may seem proper; but in doing so, it would be satisfactory to 
them to have the aid of previous adjudications by other respect- 
able Courts & especially of those of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, if any such have been made. Mr. Badger tells 
me, that he thinks that tribunal a year or two [ago] held, in an 
opinion delivered by Ch: J. Taney, that "fiduciary capacity" 
did not include the relation of principal & agent between private 
persons sui juris; for example, where the debt arises by a col- 
lection of money by one as the agent of another. Now the Re- 
ports by Mr Howard for the last year are not to be had here; 
and it is to ask the favour of you to make the requisite enquiry 
upon the point, that I now trouble you. 

You will oblige me very much by asking the Chief -Justice or 
some gentleman of the bar or Mr. Howard, what adjudications, 
if any, have been made on the point; and, if so, by being good 
enough to send me the substance of the opinion. Badger says 
he has an impression, that what he saw on the subject was in 
a newspaper; and it has occurred to me that possibly, if that be 
true, the adjudication might not have been in the Supreme Co 
but was made by the Ch. Justice in one of his Circuit Courts. 
Presuming that he will take pleasure in stating how the fact is, 
I trust I do not impose on you an unpleasant task in requesting 
you to ask the information from him, if you should find any 
difficulty in finding the case in the Reports, that are accessible 
to you. 

You will be pleased to hear, that our friends Mr. Cain & Mr 
P. C. Cameron reached us night before last on their return 
from their long tour to the South : both in good health. 

With much respect & esteem, 
Dear Sir, 
Your friend & Obdt. Svt. 

Thomas Ruffin. 

[Addressed : ] 

Honble. Wilie P. Mangum 
Of the Senate 
Washington City. 

276 State Department of Archives and History 

James Cass Williams^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York March 1 1845 
Wm P Mangum Esq 


I feel it my duty to state to you, the position R. C. Wet- 
more and M. O. Robert,^^ took immediately after the treachery 
of John Tyler to the Whig party disclosed itself. 

The Tyler party was anxious to obtain an organ her[e] and 
the choice lay between two papers, the Aurora, and the New 
York Arena published by T. L Nicholls. 

R. C. Wetmore, the man whom the Whig party had favored 
with an office, but four months before, was the agent to do the 
corrupt deed and he paid Mr Nicholls Two hundred dollars in 
cash for the good his paper had done, as the choice for the Gov- 
ernment fell on the Aurora. 

And now the same set, through the same influence ask the 
Whig Senate to confirm the appointment of P M Wetmore,^^ 
brother to R C Wetmore for the same office, all to aid Mr Roberts 
and Mr Benson men who by their connexion with Tylerism did 
more to injure the Whig Party than all others combined- 

I hope Justice will be done these men by the immediate re- 
jection of Wetmore 

Yours Truly 

James Cass Williams 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon^ W. P. Mangum 
In Senate 
D. C 

*^Possibly a carriage trimmer in New York City. Longworth's New York Directory, 1844-1845, 

soSee above, III, 161. 

^iProsper M. Wetmore was appointed by Polk to be navy agent at New York. Niles' Register, 
LXVII, 34; Exec. Journal of Senate, VI, 394. 

The Mangum Papers 277 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 

Washington 3rd. March 1845. 
My dear Love, 

This is the last day of the session, & tonight I suppose we 
shall sit up all night. I have left the chair for a moment, sim- 
ply to say to you, that I am not quite well- I have been too 
much confined to the Chair of late- 
Tomorrow is the inauguaration of Mr Polk. & then my duties 
in the chair cease, or rather they will cease, when I swear in 
the Vice President tomorrow. — 

We shall be kept here 7. or 8. or 10 days perhaps in Ex- 
ecutive session, & perhaps longer.- I donot expect to get home 
before the 17th. or 18th. of the month & perhaps even later. I 
may write again next week if we are likely to be detained longer. 
I wish very much to get home & see you & our children. I 
hope you are well. I have not time to say more.- 

My Love to all the Children, 
& believe me as ever, 
your most affectionate husband 

W. P. Mangum 

J. Whitehorne^^ to Willie P. Mangum,. 

[7 March, 1845] 

Will you oblige me by Sitting for your portrait once or twice 
at your earliest convenience. From 10 o'clock until 11 ^/^ or 
from 2 until 5 o'clock or any time between those hours would 
suit me perfectly well 

Very respectfully 

J. Whitehorne. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum. 
March 7th 1845. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 
Present — 

^James Whitehorne was a portrait painter in New York City. I have been unable to ascertain 
if the portrait was painted. Wilson's Business Directory of New York City, 1848, 185. 

278 State Department of Archives and History 

Stephen Moore ^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

HiLLSBORo': Mar. 11, 1845. 

My dear Sir. 

I am just requested by my friend Jno. Stafford Esq.^^ to call 
your attention [to] a Letter he wrote you some time in Decem. 
requesting you to call at the Patent office and procure for him 
the specifications of a Patetents for a Th[r]eshing machine ob- 
tained by a man by the name of Parsons. The machine on which 
Louis H. Morse made the improvement, and also the time the 
Patent was granted. I will pay you at sight whatever expense 
attends it — Direct to John Stafford, Snow Camp Post office, 

I must [ask you] if you will permit, that you call at the office 
of the National Intelligencer and Settle my subscription to that 
Paper up to this time and stop the paper. I regret the necessity 
that impels me to do so, but I am not able to take it any longer. 

Your daughter Sally came to town yesterday, left your 
family pretty well. She has come up to attend a Wedding that 
comes off tomorrow night at Gov. Grahams - between Miss 
Mary Washington^^ and a Mr. Graham, son I understand of Mr. 
Jno. Graham. 

Very respectfully 

Step. Moore. 

[Addressed : ] 

Honbl. W. P. Mangum 
Washington City 
D. C. 

^^A relative of Mangum. 

"See above. III, 16n. 

^Joseph Montrose Graham, the son of John Graham and nephew of Governor William A. 
Graham. Joseph Montrose Graham married Mary Washington, daughter of John Washington, of 
New Bern, March 12, 1845, at Governor Graham's residence in Hillsboro. Hillsborough Recorder, 
March 20. 1845. 

The Mangum Papers 279 

Thos. L. Ragsdale^^ to Willie P. Mangum 


13th. March 1845. 

My Dear Sir, 

Mrs. Weed, widow of Maj. Weed late of the M. Corps, has 
prevailed on me- much against my sense of propriety- to state 
to you that she has no doubt the death of her father R. M. 
Whitney ^^ will be hastened if his nomniation be rejected. She 
heard of your kind feeling for the distressed; and she relies up- 
on that to conciliate you and consequently your friends in his 
favor. I took the liberty to promise for you; that if you had 
no insuperable objections, you would be gratified to obey her 

Having myself received so many unmerited acts of kindness 
from you, it is presumptuous for me to mention it to you. But 
Mrs. W. declares, that these numerous obligations already con- 
ferred, ought to prevent you from denying me on on [sic] the 
present occasion. I feel that I may be wrong in this; but it is 
impossible for me to say no to the request of a lady. 

I am yr. obliged friend 

Thos. L. Ragsdale. 


W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 
U. S. Senator 

58See above, III, 305n. 
s'See above, II. 430n. 

280 State Department of Archives and History 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Washington City, 16th. March 1845. 
Sunday evening, at 7 o'clock, P.M. 

My dear Love. 

I had supposed that the Senate would adjourn tomorrow, 
and in that event, I should have left here on Thursday morning, 
& stopt one day in Petersburg & got home on Saturday or Sun- 
day evening next. I shall be compelled to stay at least two 
days; & most probably, three days after the adjournment — 

Ten minutes ago, I heard, that Mr. Bates a Senator from 
Massachusetts, who has been sick for a fortnight, died this even- 
ing at 20 minutes after six oclock, this evening, - that is - forty 
minutes ago.- This sad event will keep us here until (probably) 
thursday or friday next, and in that case, I may not be ex- 
pected at home before the Week of this coming in. — I shall be 
at home, as soon as I can get there. — I have never more de- 
sired to see you My Love, and our dear children. — My health 
is now good. — I have had a very bad cold, but am getting well. 
I went to Baltimore on friday evening to buy some articles of 
furniture, & returned last night. 

I hoped by going, to get home, a day sooner. I trust my dear 
Love, you are all well. — I anticipate with much happiness, the 
long recess, that we shall be together, if our lives be spared.- 
At no period of our lives, My Love, have I felt that you were 
more necessary to my happiness. — That you know My Love, & 
that you must never doubt. 

We are too old, & we have lived together too long, to think 
of any thing but ourselves our dear children, & our duties to 
ourselves our Connexions & the world - & the world to come — 

Give my Love to our dear Children, & believe, me as ever. 

Most truly & affectionately 
Your husband 

Willie P. Mangum 


Mrs. Charity A. Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 281 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum 


Monday March 19th 1845 
My dear Sir 

I leave Washington this evening and there were many mat- 
ters I wished to talk to you about before I left. I feared that I 
had already monopolized more than my fair proportion and I 
believe an poor man if he is proud grows more fastidious every 
day as his case becomes the harder. 

You will recollect that in a conversation we had together on 
Tuesday last you mentioned that you should call on Mr Polk 
before you left and it would depend upon the look of things 
whether, if he gave you the opportunity you would ask him a 
favor— You were kind enough to say also that if he did give 
you the chance you would submit my name to him. 

Judge I am brief for I wish to be earnest. I leave that to 
your own judgement & kindness. If you think it right to ad- 
dress Mr Polk, upon the subject, I shall abide the result. I do 
not wish to press the matter in any way — because if no other 
reason operated upon my mind than the Whig faith, which God 
Almighty has stamped upon my soul — I would in deep & earnest 
gratitude & love towards you & for you — leave in your hands 
without reserve — my own fate. 

My dear sir you will appreciate the agony of my mind, so to 
speak, when I tell you that the sun never shone on one of my 
years, when fortunes were so fair as mine last October. View- 
ing the election of Mr Clay as almost assured, I wanted no office 
that he or any power could bestow. One short month brought 
with his defeat reverses that overwhelmed me — My own dis- 
aster was nothing — but my family's was intensively [?] severe. 

I bent under it but did not break. You may judge how much 
I embarked in the hope of that charge' ship when I tell you it 
was my last plank. Pending my labors to obtain it my wife 
gave birth to another daughter, making four in all that call 
me father. I would have been where my duty called me. I was 
mistaken about the periods when its coming should be expected 
& my dear lady forbore to inform me of its birth, until she was 

282 State Department of Archives and History 

hapily out of danger — the while she hoped & believed I would 
succeed. It was not my own fault that I did not. Now my dear 
sir I have given you a painful recital. It is so for me to make 
& I am very sure, from the knowledge I have of you — not un 
so far for you to hear. I would not lift the veil further. I cannot 
stand still I must move on. How? 

If there is an opening in any leading paper in our State I 
would much rather throw myself in the way of so earning a 
livlihood than by adopting any other plan. Here in me is not 
a matter that exists today & expires tomorrow. The devotion 
of my heart, toward Henry Clay & those whom I recognize as 
coordinate Gods of my idolatry, has become in me a fixed & 
changeless principle. I would most fervently pray for full, free 
opportunity to prove to them, that I value their friendship & 
regard by a standard that circumstances cannot control. Now 
if I see such an opportunity and endeavour to reach it, pVd 
that my friends must say that it is desirable, will they take the 
trouble to say so? If there is no such opportunity, then I must 
turn, amid the hord, to [illegible] and right cheerfully will I 
embrace any recourse for better men than myself are prostrate. 
If it occurs that I can establish myself with some leading press 
I shall then be in a condition to prove what Byron denies — that 
there is no being besides *a woman and a dog' that is grateful — 
ay that a true man is grateful also. 

If our friends in New York move at all with the set that 
are arranging for the next canvass, I deem it of the utmost im- 
portance to let the McLean & Scott folks move as much as they 
please, so we hold the check rein. Indeed I think the purpose 
I have nearest my heart will be best answered by suggesting 
now your name as second on the ticket that may be formed, un- 
til we force 'the obsolete idea' & the other candidates- to abide 
by the expressed will of a National Convention, and then we 
have them. They dare not assail you as second now- and then 
if, as I religiously believe, from long experience of Scott & Mc- 
Lean men, they should quarrel among themselves- we can 
then step in as mediators and heal the breach by naming our 
second as the general first. Indeed this seems so perfectly adapted 
to succeed that I shall, if not overruled, move in it very shortly. 
I can see already that the elements of intrigue are at work, and 
the best way to defeat them effectually is to appear to fall in 

The Mangum Papers 283 

with them readily. Our friends are not always safe. It would 
have been better this Spring where success was problematical 
to have permitted the nomination of a Federalist or Bluelight 
and let him try his chance to be soundly thrashed. Now we 
have put up, I fear, one of our kindred, to be sadly beaten- This 
gives an unnecessary advantage to the 'obsoletes' and permits 
them to claim places in the Lexicon from which they would be 
otherwise excluded. 

I shall be able, soon after my return to New York, to give 
you a list of reliable & faithful Mangum men. Perhaps, so little 
do I believe you have ever thought of such a contingency, you 
will be somewhat astonished to learn their number and effi- 
ciency. We are bound if we strike at all to war for success. I 
think the probabilities are in favor of such a glorious result. 
For two years your own name as first shall be or should be 
locked up in the breasts of your friends — the while they moved 
on steadily in view of the ultimate result [.] To me it is very 
plain and I believe you will think it practicable within a year. 
I believe you to be perfectly unambitious as regards this high 
position. You will therefore be the least likely of any one, to 
be able to judge of your own prospects of success. A far off 
great men have, like the distant mountain, grown magnificent 
from the distance. Few have stood the test of close and daily 
observation. Mr. Clay, Mr Calhoun & yourself I put among 
those few. I only hope now that you will place no bar in the 
way of your friends- If they move they would not thank you if 
you flung a wet blanket over them. Possibly they may ask to 
extend your confidence to them- so far as to place implicit reli- 
ance upon their ability, integrity & zeal. That you will do so I 
shall, except otherwise directed, so state to them. Whatever is 
done will be faithfully related to you, in the order of its hap- 

My dear Sir I am & always have been ardent in any cause 
in which I once engage. The suggestions I made to you in re- 
lation to your own probable position in the next contest, were 
the result of cool reflections and conclusions that have been 
arrived at, in full view of the past- the present- and the look 
the future now means to my mind. I pledge myself without 
reserve, that if the blood hounds do not force Henry Clay's 
nomination again- by their incessant persecutions & slanders 

284 State Department of Archives and History 

(not yet an 'obsolete idea')- I throw myself without reserve into 
the next contest for you, as His Executor 

Should however you & other of our friends force upon us 
the selection of a Coxcomb or a Hunker for a candidate, we 
will hold you & them responsible and then you must excuse 
us if we should see fit to vote for Bill Allen of Ohio, or Tom 
Benton in preference to the Federal Whig nominee. Indeed I 
would think the Iron Despotism of their Jacobinism vastly pre- 
ferable to the old grannyism of the other set. For one I must 
own a man for my leader, and not the shadow of a man- one 
whom I could bear with reviling him if he was angered, sooner 
than I would tolerate the mock dignity and pompous inanity of 
a vain glorious Executive. 

I will hope however that we can have things arranged to 
suit the truly Democratic impulses of our Party. Not that 
Democracy which professes so much to liberality, and yet prac- 
tices the most odious species of aristocracy- but which, like 
the pure well of truth, rises in every place when the Whig 
doctrines are received in moderation, & yet cherished with that 
affection, that would make martyrs of their disciples- if but a 
shadow of despotism crossed their paths. 

I believe we have the power, and most fervently do I pray 
for its righteous exercise- Once unleashed, we can know no 
stopping place short of revolution, & the entire overthrow of the 
'spoils Conspirators.' I believe their doom is written. They have 
taught us their plan of playing brag & poker We will, having 
been learning while we lost, profit by our bitter experience. 

May I hope that you will give this matter your attention & 
I would solicit before you leave Washington a rejoinder, ad- 
dressed to me at New York? 

It is a pleasing duty in a heart sensitively alive to acts or 
expressions of kindness, to utter thanks for benefits received. 
But sometimes words are inadequate- to express the deepest 
feelings Towards you, dear sir, there will ever be in my heart 
the sincerest affection for you & the profoundest gratitude for 
your many kindnesses. The latter might well overwhelm me- 
for in nothing have I merited them- save in your good opinion 
of my fidelity & faithfulness to a common cause- which I am 
proud to say, my heart declares, has only awarded me ample 
justice. I only wish my roof tree was neighbor to your own, and 

The Mangum Papers 285 

that I could find work for a willing head & energetic hands in 
the old North State 

Your friend & serv* 

Nicholas Carroll 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon: Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator 

William S. G. Brown^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Erie Pennsylvania 

March 19, 1845 

Hon Sir 

I trust you will pardon the liberty I have taken in addressing 
you, not having the pleasure of a personal acquaintance- 

"The annexation of Texas at this time to the Union is of 
interest to all true and Enlightened friends of this goverment, 
and should it be (As It will be beyond doubt) finally annexed 
by an further action of the President and congress and the 
Consent of Texas to admission, I cannot but regard it as disas- 
trous to this Union, but time must and will show the result of 
annexation, at this time — I am at a loss to know whether Texas 
will be in one State with the same name or of more than one, 
and at what time she will receive her first representation in 

ssUnable to identify. 

286 State Department of Archives and History 

"Please drop me a line in respect to the above for which I 
will feel gratefuU- 

Very truly your friend & servt 

William S. G. Brown — 


Hon Willie P. Mangum ) 
Speaker U. S. Senate ) 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator 
Red Mountain 
N Ca. 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum. 

Croton Insurance Company 
No 35 Wall St Apl. 29*^ /45 

My dear Sir 

On Tuesday 22d Inst. I was elected Secretary of of this Com- 
pany. I first heard of the vacancy on the 16th. Sunday inter- 
vening I had but five working days. I had 22 competitors. Some 
of them had the start of me 4 to 6 weeks. On the first ballot I 
received 13 out of 16 votes and was instanter elected unan- 
imously & by the same rule I had my salary fixed at $2,000. 
My dear Judge I wanted to tell you this for I did believe no 
one would be readier to congratulate me upon my fortunate 
success. I had intended to cross the Alleghanies & plant my 
family on the Praries. This is better- every way better It anchors 
me here where I belong- and if there is any good in me for my- 
self & for my friends it can be best brought out here- 

We want some Agencies in the 'old North State*. We have 
now Agents at three points: John Huske at Fayetteville, Wm. 
G. Bryan at Newbern, and Wm. C. Lord at Wilmington. We 
want Agents at Elizabeth City, Halifax, Plymouth and Raleigh. 
Do you know the gentlemen now acting as our Agents and can 

The Mangum Papers 287 

you recommend to us suitable persons to act as Agents at the 
places designated? The situation is a desirable one to the party 
receiving the appointment, fairly lucrative of itself and calcu- 
lated to increase the Agent's business. The Company is in first 
rate condition, has been very fortunate, has a good Board of 
Directors, honorable officers and pays its losses promptly. You 
need not be afraid to say this to any one who should ask you 
respecting it and whenever it changes in any respect from the 
character I have given it above, I will leave it instanter & advise 
you of the change. I throw my heart & soul into it pledged to 
its success- My friends, God bless them, have rallied to my sup- 
port and thrown their business influence in favor of the Com- 
pany. They pledged themselves that my appointment would 
give the Company $55,000 this year in Premimums- this was 
$5,000 more than our friend Joseph Hoxie pledged to 'the Mer- 
cantile' to procure the Vice Presidency of that Company & he 
had three months to work in- while your servant was restricted 
to five days.- 

We insure Marine & Fire- coasting, inland & foreign marine 
& fire risks by land & sea. If I do not impose too much trouble 
on you I would like to have the priviledge of saying to our Agents 
that they can refer to you as to the standing of the Croton In- 
surance Company of New York. I forward you copies of our 
charter &c.- You can say besides that we are a clever set of 

In politics we are all still. I see enough to know that Webster, 
McLean, Scott & their respective friends are at work - but co- 
vertly- Open action would prostrate them at once. The elements 
now at work no man can control. My mind as expressed to you, 
remains unchanged. If Mr Polk unadvisedly plunges us into 
War, the Great Harry will go into the House & rule the nation 
from there, mangle the White House. If we remain at Peace, the 
gentlemen now at work canvassing for the Presidency will use 
each other up and then you are the Candidate they uniting on 
you. I have not touched a wire here, that was honest Clay- that 
has not virbrated on the instant in answer to this electricity. 

I live in the hope of welcoming you to New York this sum- 
mer. I trust they will drive you out of your mountain home & 
force you North that you may judge for yourself that your 
friends are not local or sectional. 

288 State Department of Archives and History 

Mrs. C. desired me to present Judge Mangum with her re- 
gards & thanks for his efforts in her husband's behalf last win- 
ter- and to say also that this event leaves her no regret that 
those labors were ineffectual- 

I shall be happy to serve you in any way and trust you will 
command me in any matter that concerns you at the North 

Hoping soon to engage a leisure moment from you for a re- 
ply, I am 

Faithfully & truly 

Yr. friend & servt 

N. Carroll 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange Co 
N. Ca. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator 
Red Mountain 
Orange Co 
N. Ca. 

E. D. Bullock^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Mobile May 3^. 1845. 
My Dear Sir. 

During my stay at your house last summer you kindly prof- 
fered letters to Mr Abbot ^^ of Boston and the Messrs Lawrences. 
If you can now give me letters to them it will be of incalculable 
service to me. After my return from the North last year I had 
propositions made to me, without any solicitations on my part, 
to embark in commercial life. These propositions I thought 
but little of, until about the first of March when I had an offer 
from a highly respectable and responsible House, engaged in 

^''E. D. Bullock was an attorney in Mobile at this time. William Garrett, Remtntscences of 
Public Men m Alabama for Thirty Years, Atlanta, 1872, 786. 

^'George W. Abbot was a commission merchant in Boston. Stimson's Boston Directory, 1845, 50. 

The Mangum Papers 289 

the General commission and agency business. All of my near 
friends at once advised me to accede to their proposition which 
I did. 

The partners in the House are Col John McRae & F. P. 
Ravisies & myself. Col McRae the Brother in Law of Mr 
Ravisies is very wealthy & is the monied man of the House. 
Mr Ravisies married the daughter of Samuel Strudwick Esq 
of Marengo County, who is the Brother of Dr Strudwick of 
Hillsborough. I mention these facts to apprize you of the 
Honorable connection that I have made and to afford you an 
opportunity, if you require it to learn the character and re- 
sponsibility of the House. If we can through you and other 
kind friends procure the confidence of those Houses it will open 
the whole business world in Massachusetts to us. The goods 
that are shipped to us will be sold and the proceeds invested 
in cotton for the manufacturer & se[n]t on to Boston. In this 
business there is not one dollar of risk neither do we buy but 
sell all manner of goods & retain 5 per cent commission upon 
the sales. We also advance 50 per cent upon all articles that 
meet with ready sales in our market & 33-1/3 upon those that 
are not so easily put upon the market. 

Will you do me the favor to send on the letters to the place 
as early as possible as I shall leave here by the West about the 
5 or 6 of June. If this letter should not reach you in time to en- 
able you to send the letters by that time, I will write the day 
I leave to what point you can address them. It is of great im- 
portance to have them here before I leave. 

My wife and little daughter are now at Mr Lyons in the 
country, & will remain some two weeks for the benefit of their 
health. I am grieved to inform you that her health has been of 
late very delicate & a trip to the mountains is determined upon 
for her. 

I hope my dear Judge that you and Mrs Mangum & the 
family are all well and if it is possible we will come to see you 
as I shall probably visit Petersburg & Richmond. 

With many assurances from my heart, of my continued love 
for you and the Ladies I remain 

Your Sincere friend 

E D Bullock 

290 State Department of Archives and History 

The name of our House is 
McRae Ravisies & Bullock 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain P. O. 
Orange Co 
N Carolina 

Nathan Sargent to Willie P. Mangum. 

Phila. May, 16, 1845 
Hon W. P. Mangum 

My Dear Sir, 

You will probably recollect that a resolution was adopted 
by the Senate to print 10,000 copies of Fremont's Journal.^^ 
This was got up Mr Towers, or rather at his suggestion, & was 
intended for him, to enable him to pay off some of the debts 
incurred in publishing the Whig Standard. All that was neces- 
sary after the resolution was adopted was to inform Gales & 
Seaton of the circumstances upon which they would have per- 
mitted Towers to execute the job. This Mr. Morehead said he 
would do; but it seems he probably inadvertently neglected, 
as Mr. Towers informs me, in consequence of which he is like- 
ly to lose the benefit of the job. This would be a Serious disap- 
pointment to him as well as to myself, & I suppose your young 
friend who assisted him during last summer.^^ 

I do not know whether you feel authorized to say any thing 
to Messrs. Gales & Seaton on the subject, but if you do, I ear- 
nestly wish you would drop them a note just to inform them 
what the design was in reference to that report. The least 
intimation of the fact from yourself or Mr Morehead would, I 
have no doubt, be sufficient. It is a matter of some importance 
to me & I know it is to Towers, otherwise I would not have 
troubled you with it. 

*'iThis was published by Gales and Seaton as document no. 174. Senate Documents, 28 Cong., 
2 sess. 

"^Daniel R. Goodloe. See the next letter. 

The Mangum Papers 291 

Mr. Green^3 succeeded in obtaining $1,500 in N. Y. We 
staid there about two weeks before we could accomplish our 
purpose. Nothing could be obtained in Boston. I should have 
been able, I think, to have raised a few hundred dollars here, 
(by the aid of a letter from you to J. P. Wetherill)^* but for the 
Pittsburg fire, which absorbed all the benevolent & liberal dis- 
position, for the time being, of our citizens. 

Is it possible, after the cavalier treatment Mr Calhoun re- 
ceived from Mr Polk, he will come to his aid & help him out of 
the dilemma his blunder has run him into? If Mr C. had the 
spirit he once possessed, I should think not, but I do not know 
how to count on him now. It is clear that an attack on the Tariff 
is designed- I hope it will be made, & be successful.- We must 
sometimes wish for evil as the cause of good. 

Believe me my dear sir, Very sincerely 
& Respectfully 

Your friend & obdt St. 
N. Sargent 

Jno. T. Towers to Willie P. Mangum 

Washington, May 17, 1845. 
Dear Sir: 

I wrote you upon your leaving the city last March, in refer- 
ence to the report of Mr. Fremont, which Gov: Morehead had 
the kindness to get ordered to be printed with a view to my exe- 
cuting it- thus enabling me to liquidate some embarrassing 
debts that were against me on account of the publication of the 
Standard. I presume you were told (by Gov. M.) of the man- 
ner in which the job was brought about at the time of its con- 
ception, and of course it is not necessary to speak more of it on 
that score. In my conversation with Col. Seaton the day after 
you and Gov. M. left the city, on the subject, (and having been 
told by Gov. M. to call on Col. S. and I would find it all right) 
he told me he had a conversation with you and Gov. M. the 

^^Willis Green. See above, III, 484n. 

**J. P. Wetherill aaively campaigned for Clay in 1842-1844. See above Johnson to Mangum, 
September 24, 1842, and J. P. Wetherill to Mangum. June 19, 1844. 

292 State Department of Archives and History 

evening previous, and that you v^ould write him on the sub- 
ject. Since which time I have heard nothing from Col. S. Col. S. 
told me (as I stated in my former letter,) that he was willing 
to do whatever his or my friends required, but preferred giving 
a portion of the profits in money, and executing the job him- 
self- but awaited the wishes of yourself and Gov. M. and, as I 
understood, by which he should be bound. As the time is now 
at hand when the job must be put in execution, I would ask the 
favor of such a letter from you that I could show Col. S. as 
would bring the matter to a definite conclusion. I would pre- 
fer, of course, to execute the job myself because I could per- 
haps make double out of it that will be made at his office; if he 
gives a portion of the profits it may not liquidate the claims 
against me- besides, had it not been for the kindness of Gov. M 
towards me in interesting himself in attending to the passage 
of the resolution it never would have been ordered to be printed 
at all by the Senate at its last session — Gales & Seaton never 
dreamed of this document, their greatest hope being to get the 
money for the State papers appropriated, which would give 
them a fortune without any thing else- and every thing else was 
done that they asked, besides the appropriation, they so much 
desired- thus putting them in possession of more work and 
money than ever before at the adjournment of the session hardly 
excepting the payment of the 20 per cent. Not satisfied with 
all this, they hesitate to permit the disposition of a job that 
was not designed for them, by the friends who had done so 
much. With all due deference, I would make this suggestion 
in order to bring the matter to a close- state in a letter to me 
(that I may show Col. S.) whatever you may deem most pro- 
per- either for my executing the job or otherwise- and leave 
me to do whatever I can with him. Perhaps by my executing 
the work I may be enabled to do with its proceeds some serv- 
ice to the friends who have got it through. Our Whig friends 
here and in the adjoining counties urge the establishment here 
of a large semi-weekly paper, and will assist in its support- I 
am debarred the pleasure of acceding to their wishes by these 
very pecuniary liabilities from which I wish to be relieved. I 
am gratified also to see that so faithful a member of our great 
party as yourself is destined to take so prominent a position in 
the next issue before the People- may I have the privilege and 

The Mangum Papers 293 

opportunity of being one of your advocates. The "Union" as 
you see, no doubt, daily puts forth its Locofocoism unanswered; 
and by the time of the next campaign, what it now asserts as 
principles for its party may become its maxims, too deeply 
rooted to be removed. Thus the necessity of a paper to meet its 
issues, and expose the daily increasing corruptions of Locofoco- 

May I expect an early answer to the above, and such an 
one as your sense of propriety may justify. 

Yours very respectfully 
Jno. T. Towers 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 
of N. C. 

P. S. — The ''Globe" has nearly completed the printing of the 
document for the House, which renders it certain that its com- 
mencement by the Senate printers cannot be delayed much 

J. T. T. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum, 
Red Mountain, 
Orange County, 
N. C. 


George H. Colton^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York - June 4th '45 
Hon. Willey P. Mangum 

Dear Sir. - 

I intended to have written you a long time since- but 
frequent necessary absences from Town, & an infinite pressure 
of business while in town, have conspired to prevent me. I 

^George Hooker Colton, 1818-1847, a native of New York and graduate of Yale, was one of 
the literary figures in New York in the 1840's. In 1840 he wrote a poem "Tecumseh" and some 
essays on Indians which helped Harrison's candidacy. In January, 1845, he published the first issue 
of the American Review. He succeeded in obtaining writers such as Edgar Alien Poe, Rufus Choate, 
Daniel Webster, and J. P. Kennedy to contribute. Mangum promised to write an article for him 
but never did. Colton died in 1847. Frank Luther Mott, A History of American Magazines 1741- 
1850. Cambridge, Mass., 1939, I, /51-752; Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, I, 696. 

294 State Department of Archives and History 

felt it to be the less necessary, as Mr. Webber^'^ was to see you, 
at your residence. He informs me, that he paid you a visit — in 
all respects a pleasant one- adding much to the interest of his 
account, by letting me knov;^ how kindly he was received & 
how interested you were still disposed to be in the Review. ^"^ 
Certainly, both for Mr. Webber, & myself, and in behalf of the 
enterprise, I have to render you my warmest thanks. 

In respect to the subject on which you spoke of writing 
something for the Review this Summer- I hope you will not 
suffer it to slip out of your mind. It is earnestly desired to make 
this a truly national work-free from all Sectional prejudices- 
But as yet, I have not had a single article from any one 
Southern writer. May I earnestly solicit your assistance to ob- 
tain some articles in addition to your own. Will you write to 
Gov. Swain for this purpose- asking him to write on some 
national topic- to also Prof -Tucker, who, I think belongs to your 
State, would furnish something of interest. Any article of real 
value from any gentleman of your State would be welcome. 
It would [be] of great service, if some one of these gentlemen, 
of whom you spoke in your State could be prevailed to send on 
some piece soon. 

May I hope to hear from [you] at your earliest convenience. 
The first instalment of your article — to appear in Sept, no. — 
should be in New York by about the 25th or 28th of July as I 
begin very early to put matter in hand for the succeeding 
month — being obliged to publish by the 1st of each month. 

I am. Dear Sir- 
Most Sincerely Yours 
& with great respect 
Geo. H. Colton 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
N. C. 

^"Charles W. Webber, 1819-1856, a native of Kentucky and educated at home, went to Texas in 
1838 where, as a member of the Texas rangers, he had numerous adventures. For a short time he 
studied medicine and then went to Princeton to prepare to be a Presbyterian minister. In 1844 he 
went to New York to take up journalism. There he met Audubon and fell under the influence of 
his writings on nature and the frontier. He wrote numerous articles and essays. He assisted Colton 
in the editing of the American Review. He went on several adventurous expeditions, his last being 
with William Walker in Nicaragua where he was killed. In 1847 he wrote a long pamphlet ac- 
cusing Colton of "falsehood, imbecility, and shameful cowardice." D. A. B., XIX, 580-581; Mott, 
A History of American Magazines, I, 752-753. 

^''The American Revietu: A Whig Jounral of Politics, Literature, Art and Science, became The 
American Whig Review in 1850. Established with the endorsement of numerous Whig leaders to 
strengthen the party after its defeat in 1844, it appeared first under the editorship of Colton and 
then James D. Whelpley, 1848-1849, and George W. Peck, 1850-1852. With the defeat of the 
Whigs in 1852, it went out of existence. The circulation ranged from 3000 to 8000. which in that 
day was a good circulation. Mott, A History of American Journalism, I, 750-754. 

William Cain, Junior, 1784-1857. The brother of Mangum's wife, Charity Alston 

(Cain) Mangum. From an oil portrait, painter unknown, in the possession of Mrs. 

Annie C. Bridgets of Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The Mangum Papers 295 

D. M. Barringer to Willie P. Mangum 


June 7, 1845. 
My Dear Sir. 

Strange as it may seem to you, an attempt has been made 
to injure me in this District by a charge that I did not do my 
duty in the last session of Congress, in failing to use the proper 
exertions to carry through that body the appropriation for re- 
building the Branch mint at Charlotte, N. C.-^^ I know you are 
aware of the interest I took in this matter — & I desire you to 
write me whether I did not frequently see you on the subject 
desiring and urging your aid & influence to secure the meas- 
ure through the Senate. [Illegible] was freely given and to 
state generally the interest & zeal I manifested for its success. 

Please to address me at Concord N. C. 

Your friend Sincerely 
D. M. Barringer 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 

There is no danger in this District if the Whigs turn out — 
Fisher is the Democratic candidate. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Red Mountain, 
Orange Co 
N. C. 

Daniel R. Goodloe to Willie P. Mangum 

Prince George County Md. June 11 1845. 
Dear Sir. 

I have recently obtained the situation of teacher of a pri- 
mary school in Maryland, and as it will enable me in the course 

^^See above, 263n. 

296 State Department of Archives and History 

of a few months to pay you, I have thought that it would be 
proper to inform you of the fact.^^ The school is situated about 
ten miles from Washington east of Bladensburg- The salary is 
$350.00 per annum, payable half yearly. I commenced teaching 
on the 4th inst. and shall receive the first payment in December 
about the time you arrive at Washington, I trust I shall at that 
time, without an accident be able to pay you. 

I understand from my friends in North Carolina that a 
vacancy is likely to occur in the office of Clerk and Master for 
the county of Franklin, and if such is the case I will be an ap- 
plicant. — If it should devolve upon the Judges of the Supreme 
Court to fill the vacancy I would thank you to speak to Judge 
Nash or Judge Ruffin for me, as you will probably meet them 
at Hillsborough. Or if you happen to see Judge Battle who 
resides in your county be pleased to name the subject to him. 

I feel high gratification at the prospect of refunding the 
money you so generously lent me when the chance of repay- 
ment was so distant. 

I shall ever remain your obliged and obedient servant 

Daniel R. Goodloe 

Hon Willie P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
N. Carolina. 

James Wehh'^'^ to Willie P. Mangum 

HiLLSBORO June 30. 1845 

D Sir 

I Reed your kind message by Mr J. Hancock on Saturday 
that you could spare me 5 Barrels Corn It will be a considerable 

^''The Washington Whig Standard, which Goodloe helped to edit, had been discontinued in 
1844. See above, 84n. 

''OA banker who lived in Hillsboro. 

The Mangum Papers 297 

accommodation to me I use a Bushel a day Let me know when 
I can send for itt or if you can send it to me 

Yours Respectfully 
James Webb 

[Addressed : ] 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 

Samuel Martin^ ^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Campbells Station Tensee 8. Jy/45 
Honble W. P. Mangum 
Vice President- 

D Sir 

I sent another Petition to your House care of our 
Senator Jarnagen^^ in which I again insist on the Nation making 
that canal from Beaufort to the Neuse River. I will never cease 
asking for that matter as long as I can write Justice & Good 
Faith say it must be & it shall be but I must wait untill my 
Postage resolution is passed. 

My Plan was Sir for the defense of the South a Canal from 
the Dismal Swamp Canal passing by Newbern Fayetteville 
Columbia Augusta Milledgeville & so on round to nearly op- 
posite red River this canal to be 80 feet at the Water line & 4 
feet deep from this. I want ship canals from the Sea here will 
be a place men can live & on which Troops can be collected & 
munition of War & on which the[y] can be moved at the rate 
of 100 miles in 24 Hours on the line of canal could be stored 
the cotton Tobacco & Sugar of the South & in safety from a 
Coast enemy & from this line a forced march could be made of 
Cavalry & light artillery Steam will soon become general on 
Canals from this time I want a Branch from the Chatahache to 

'^iPossibly Samuel Martin, who originally came from North Carolina after graduation from the 
University in 1819. Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 416. 

'^^Spencer Jarnagin, 1792-1853, was the Whig Senator from Tennessee from 1843 to 1847. 
Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1147. 

298 State Department of Archives and History 

the Tennessee river down Dark river to the Mississippi direct [?] 
through the State & one from Duck river by Nashville down 
Green River to the Ohio to meet the one from the Lakes no one 
doubts but England will get Cuba & if we get Texas soon will 
she lay her hands on it & I have no doubt she will be very will- 
ing we set the example of open & wilfull robbery on the weak 
& defenceless with the British in possession of the Havana she 
commands the Gulf in the same manner with Possession of 
Gibralter. She commands the exit & entrance in & from the 
Mediterrannean there will these canals be wanted & The[y] 
had better be begun in time she will be made ask our friend G. 
McDuffy what I wrote when he was making such efforts to 
recharter the U. S. Bank George will I think recollect it 

Samuel Martin. 



W. P. Mangum 

Vice Pres'ent U. States 
W. City 

Charles Manly to Willie P. Mangum 

Raleigh, N. C 8th July 1845 

Hon: Willie P. Mangum 
Senator U. States 


It becomes my duty as the Organ of the Board of Trustees 
of the University of North Carolina to make known to you that 
at the late Annual Commencement of that Institution the Sen- 
atus Academicus by unanimous assent conferred upon you the 
Honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws. — 

The Mangum Papers 299 

It is proper for me to add that no Diploma issues for this 
Degree except where it is specially desired by the Recipient. 

I have the honor, to be 
Very respectfully 
Your Obt. Sevt 

Chas. Manley 

[Addressed:] Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange Co 
N. C. 

P. H. Mangum to Ellison G. Mangum.'^^ 

HiLLSBORo' July 24th. 1845. 
Dear Sir, 

I wished to see my friends on Flat River, but I am not very 
well & therefore can not be with you to-day. — 

Things have taken such a turn in regard to the Cty Court 
Clerk's election,^^ that I am desirous my part of the County 
may be in possession of all the necessary information upon 
both sides;- And when they shall be thus informed, I am sure 
their good sense & independence of character will ensure such 
a line of conduct on their part that they will never have cause 
to be ashamed of what they shall have done. 

It is known that we were all at first for Major Taylor's re- 
election, with all his faults; and that we thought that Jos. Nor- 
wood & Jno. W. Carr were doing wrong to become candidates 
for the office in opposition to Taylor, when it was known that 
Genl. Allison was a candidate & would make it a party contest 
necessarily, to almost an entire extent of the democratic strength. 
But all the candidates being out, we hoped that before the 
election, the competitors would narrow down to Taylor & Alli- 
son, & then we could keep the office from being made a political 
machine for partizan purposes. — 

"^^See above, I, 332n. 

'^John W. Carr, Joseph Norwood. John W. Hancock, John Taylor, John Kirkwood, and Joseph 
Allison were the candidates. Carr, Hancock, and Taylor withdrew, but Taylor's friends insisted that 
he be kept in the race. The result was as follows: Allison 1455, Norwood 910, Taylor 403, Kirk- 
wood 163. Allison was elected. Hillsborough Recorder, May 22, 29. July 10, August 14, 1845. 

300 State Department of Archives and History 

Contrary to all reasonable expectation, Major Taylor per- 
mits himself to be influenced into an arrangement with the 
other two Whig candidates, whereby he is ruled out of the 
Field, & he thereby is silenced, with his hands tied. Some of his 
friends were dissatisfied, & avowed their determination to run 
Taylor any how - & a good deal has been said & done to excite 
the passions, & but little that a dispassionate Judgment & a wise 
policy would dictate & sanction. — 

I have been a good deal indignant & perplexed about this 
matter. After collecting all the information in regard to the ar- 
rangement that was to be had, I became satisfied that Taylor, 
altho' bitterly opposed to entering into the arrangement when 
first presented to him, did ultimately accede to the arrange- 
ment under the belief that he would certainly receive the nomi- 
nation. In this, he failed; and it is not alledged by any person 
that the fifteen men chosen to determine the matter, did not act 
throughout fairly & honorably. Well, there being no unfairness, 
indeed no pretence of unfairness in the conduct of the fifteen 
men; what ought to be done? That is the question. — The most 
that could be said, I suppose, is, that in entering into the famous 
arrangement; Taylor thought he would ''chouse" his competi- 
tors, & his competitors thought that he might be "choused". 
This is all, I suppose, that an illiberal spirit could say. - Are the 
Whigs of Orange to sit still with their arms folded, to look 
quietly on this contemptible scuffle for show, between a few 
personal friends, however pure their motives may be? I learn 
that the great body of Taylor's friends above Hillsboro', & the 
most of them hereabouts, will not vote for Taylor - because 
such a course could have no other effect than to divide the 
Whig vote & elect Genl. Allison, but on the contrary they think 
that Jos. Norwood can be elected if the Whigs East of Hillsboro' 
will vote with them for Norwood. — 

On Monday, I conversed with several of our personal friends 
West of Hillsboro' as far as the Over-river Country & Stony 
Creek; and this is the opinion in common, in the Whig ranks 
west of Hillsboro' - the immediate neighbourhood of the Messrs 
Clarks & Banes excepted. — 

I submit to my neighbours & friends on the rivers, if this is 
not the course for us to pursue. — 

The Mangum Papers 301 

Show this to Abner, Harrison,^^ & Willie P. Mangum, 

Yrs. respectfully 
P. H. Mangum. 
[Addressed : ] 

To Ellison G. Mangum Esqr. 
Flat River 

William K. Ruffin to Willie P. Mangum. 

Haw River August 2nd 1845 
My Dear Sir- 

I take the liberty of writing you a line upon the subject of 
our Clerks Election- I know that you wish Allison beaten — and 
I know that between the Whig Norwood & the Democrat Kirk- 
land your choice will be determined by the chances of the Elec- 
tion - My own opinion is that Allison will be elected - and still 
further that his election will inure to the interests & the pevTua- 
nent interests of the Whig Party of Orange County. But we 
must (in duty bound, as every honest man is in duty bound) 
keep him out if we can — I have been upon a tour of elec- 
tioneering for two days and I tell you the impressions that I 
have received - Allison will he elected. But your interest is to 
make friends with the respectable portion of the Republican 
Party ( see how I catch the old Gentleman's phrases ) — and I be- 
lieve that Uncle John^^ will divide (& in our neighbourhood 
more than take his share of the Whig votes). His prospects are 
daily improving - and I assure you that as far as I know & be- 
lieve that the contest lies between him & Allison — Norwood is 
out of the question — He stands no chance — Taylor, you know, 
cannot be elected - & understanding that his friends have been 
privately canvassing in the upper part of the county & sup- 
posing that they feel satisfied that there is no earthly chance 
for him, I hope that he will be induced to withdraw his name — 
If he will do so, I think Uncle John's election is certain — 

J^Abner and Harrison Parker were cousins of Mangum. 
'^^William K. Rufiin's mother was John U. Kirkland's sister. 

302 State Department of Archives and History 

Of course I have v^ritten to you the impressions that have 
been made upon me by the conversations I have held with my 
neighbours- They may be deceptive but I give them to you for 
what they may, in your estimation, be worth. I shall write to the 
same effect to Fulindry[?] brothers, John Ray, & Paul Cameron - 
and you & they & your friends must do what you think is right 
in the premises- 

I flatter myself that I shall be able to spend a day or two with 
you before August Court- Above all things I should be pleased 
to have that time spent in your company. Allow me Dear Sir, 
to subscribe myself 

With sincere affection your friend 


[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

John Cameron^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Friday Morning. [Summer, August, 1845] 

Hon: Willie P. Many there are, high on the roll of fame. 
Among Columbia's chosen civic band! 
None more than he, possess a heartfelt claim. 
Great tho they be, in action, & in name; 
Upon the warm affections of the land! 
Meeting both friend, & foe, with heart upon his 

Theres a flourish for you my dear Sir! What a pattern of an 
office seeker I would make, though I am sadly afraid, that the 
sincerity which constitues the only merit in the above, would 
be so sadly wanting (necessarily) in many instances; that all 
my tact, & diplomacy, could not prevent the cloven foot of 
ridicule from showing. 

''^John Cameron's newspaper, the Oxford Mercury and District Telegram, was suspended in late 
1844 or early 1845. In 1848 he became one of the publishers of the Wadesboro North Carolina 
Argus. He edited or published, with different partners, this paper until 1847. Check List of News- 
papers in the Duke University Library. 

The Mangum Papers 303 

Your high behest has been obeyed! Both hat & coat have 
been won; & I am almost afraid that it will be impossible to pre- 
vent you from throwing in the breeches too. If the "Cocoethes 
Admirandi" of all the botanists, & florists, be not excited to the 
utmost, & Dial's Creek become a favoured resort, for all the 
seekers after the rare, & beautiful, then will I eschew hat, coat, 
& breeches forever; & in Georgia Summer costume walk the 
world, with nothing save my shirt collar & spurs. Yea verily! 
the name and fame of Dial's Creek; depends upon the typog- 
raphy of next week; & should that in any wise come up to the 
merits of the production, from henceforth the denizens of St. 
Mary's District, 

Will each & all, thank the Almighty giver. 
That Dial's Creek doth run into Flat River. 
They will become lions. Sir, men of note, whose 'locum tenens" 
being known, will always be a passport to the very topmost 
crust, of the upper Ten Thousand - Hurra for Dial's Creek! & 
ten thousand welcomes from a world getting ready to admire, 
to that brightener of its solitudes, the matchless, & unparalelled 
Dialia - so much for fun. As for news, our gleanings so far are 
but scanty, & what we have gathered are by no means cheer- 
ing. "^^ Barringer is elected certain; Clingman I am afraid is 
beaten; the last accounts were certainly unfavourable, & should 
he get in, it will be by the skin of his teeth; Dockery will beat 
Worth, Meares, Haughton & Bond,'^^ are all badly licked & Don- 
nell will have to vail his bonnet, to the chivalric Mr. Clark. Asa 
Biggs too, will grow bigger, and bigger, before the admiring 
eyes of the frequenters of the Federal City, the Whigs of Ray- 
ner's district, not having had pluck & energy enough, to Out- 
law him. The tempest of intestine commotion hath completely 
subsided; the Ocean of Orange is still; having scarce a ripple, 
or ground swell; to tell that the storm had ever raged. Every 
one see[m]s to be of opinion now that the result has been, pre- 

"^^^In the Congressional election on August 7, 1845, the results were as follows: 
Dist. Democrats Whigs 

1st None T. L. Clingman, James Graham (won) 

2nd Charles Fisher D. M. Barringer (won) 

3rd David S. Reid (won) A. B. McMillan 

4th Alfred Dockery ( won ) 

5th James C. Dobbin (won) Jonathan Worth 

6th James I. McKay (won) T. O. Meares 

7th J. R. J. Daniel (won) 

8th Henry S. Clark (won) R. S. Donnell 

9th Asa Biggs (won) David Outlaw 

Niles' Register, LXVII, 294, 400; N. C. Manual, 931-932. 

"^^He probably refers to John H. Haughton and Richard C. Bond, candidates from the fifth and 
sixth districts. 

304 State Department of Archives and History 

cisely what he anticipated; though I very much doubt if the 
matter is altogether settled yet. "Entre nous", Gorrell, Gilmer, 
Haughton & others, have written to Taylor, advising him to re- 
fuse to surrender the office & to leave the settlement of the mat- 
ter, to the decision of the Supreme Court.^^ Taking the ground, 
that in as much as he has never at any time, vacated the office, 
he stands precisely where he did, at the passage of the New 
Election law, & is consequently entitled to hold under the old 
Regime. The general impression has been heretofore, that by 
consenting to submit the matter at all, to the abitrament of a 
Canvass; he waived his right to hold under the old law, & that 
having once waived it, he could not again avail himself of its 
provisions. This is a matter however for lawyers to decide, & 
to them I expect, it will be referred, if the old man meets with 
any farther encouragement. This is a thing known but to few, 
& as nothing is determined upon, it would be better, probably 
not to mention it. I should like to know your opinion about it 
("sub rosa" of course) for I hardly know how to talk to him 
about it. I met a young gentleman the other day, who says he 
knew your young Kentuckian Webber,^^ at Princeton. He fig- 
ured there as a Student of Divinity; & was considered a spright- 
ly, & talented man, but having unfortunately taken it into his 
head, that the Spirit of Grace could only be thoroughly ac- 
quired, by the aid, & assistance, of the Spirit of Wine, that too 
got into his head; in other words, Webber got drunk one day; 
or by'r lady it may be it was night, whereupon he was advised, 
to relinquish his studies for awhile, & has I suppose, been Texas 
Von Webber, ever since. What a queer case he must have been? 
studying divinity by a Spirit lamp, & taking a bottle to bed with 
him, to help him say his prayers: 

After a careful perusal of the dicta of Johnston, Webster, & 
Walker, upon the subject; I have come to the decision, that the 
word to be used as most thoroughly descriptive of your senti- 
ments, upon realizing for the first time, the delights of Roast 
Turkey stuffed with mushrooms, should be voluptuous. The 
elegant voluptuary of the present times, holds a corresponding 
position with the Epicureans of old, those elegant savages, who 

^See above, P. H. Mangum to Ellison G. Mangum, July 24, 1845. 
^^See above, 294n. 

The Mangum Papers 305 

from the alembick of their own fertile imaginations, first dis- 
tilled those imaginery wants, & equally imaginery gratification, 
which have tended so much to refine the tastes, and enervate 
the energies of mankind. The true voluptuary is a thing "sui 
Generis." & ranks with the mere sensualist as Hyperion to a 
Satyr. While the one, yielding to his brutal propensities, would 
"leave an angel's bed, to prey on garbage; the other yields not 
even to the fierce call of passion; unless the object be surrounded 
with the imaginery halo, of elegance, & refinement. The one is 
all animal, the other in a measure deifies the brute, making the 
mind an active contributor to the pleasure of sense. In short, 
tis Aspasia, to a common drab. So my dear Sir, you see, that 
the next time you chance to regale yourself, upon triffles, 
plucked from a Turkey's bosom, you are to consider yourself 
as being most voluptuously employed. 

We have just had a very fine & most seasonable rain, which 
if it be general, will eventually knock another quarter off of 
corn, & to which in part, you may charge this very boring epis- 

With kindest regards to Mrs. Mangum, & many bows to the 
young ladies, I remain my dear Sir with the utmost esteem & 

Ever Yrs. truly 

Jno. Cameron. 


By no manner of means let Davis know of the fame that 
awaits him; or the fellow will annihilate me perchance in an 
exstacy; & particularly I beseech, that this entire production 
may be "Entre vous, si'l vous plait, monsieur." When will you 
be up? If you make your visit soon, I think I can procure some- 
thing to while away the short hours with; superior to the produc- 
tions of either Maj. Palmer,^- or Mr. Ellis. Do not deem me 
either impertinent, or a humbug, from the manner in which 
this rambling rigmarole is commenced; the truth is I had been 
thinking of you, while smoking my morning pipe, & that jingle 
of lines, in the way of an acrostic popped into my head. When 
I afterwards concluded to take advantage of the rainy morn- 

^Nathaniel J. Palmer. 

306 State Department of Archives and History 

ing to write; I determined to commence my letter, as never v^as 
letter commenced before. So that you see Hal, if there be aught 
of offence, in all ariseth from that d — d Yankee spirit of ad- 
venture — 

Thomas F. Davis^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Chapel Hill, August 3rd. [1845] 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

Dear Sir, 

I have the honor to address you in behalf of the Dialectic 
Society, and to ask such contribution, as you may think proper, 
for the furtherance of a scheme in which her members are now 

You are well aware, I presume. Sir, from your connection with 
this University, that its two Societies have for some time re- 
solved to construct new Rooms suited to all their purposes. ^^ 
The Halls heretofore in use have become too small and incom- 
modious for their meetings and incapable of accomodating their 
libraries. This design has the cordial approbation of the Faculty 
and of the Trustees generally: I trust. Sir, of yourself among 
the number. Engagements have already been made with a view 
to the speedy commencement of the work. 

The acting members of the Dialectic Society have found 
thcTnselves incompetent to carry out their resolutions. We there- 
fore appeal for assistance to the old members of Society, and 
particularly to you, Sir, as to one who has experienced her 
benefits, and not only is concerned, for the welfare of the In- 

'^^Thomas Frederick Davis, son of Bishop T. F. Davis, who also graduated from the University, 
was a senior at the time this letter was written. Battle, Hist, of the U. N. C, II, 494; Grant, Alumni 
Hist, of U. N. C, 137. 

^*ln 1837 members of the Philanthropic Society petitioned the trustees for a new hall. The next 
year the Dialectic Society made a similar request. In 1839 a special committee of the trustees recom- 
mended that as soon as the funds would permit, two buildings should be created. In 1844 a famous 
New York architect, A. J. Davis, who helped design the capitol at Raleigh, presented plans for al- 
tering Old East and Old West halls to meet the new needs. These plans were accepted. The So- 
cieties paid $1400 each and the state $6,560. The improvements were completed in 1848. Battle, 
Hist, of the U. N. C, I, 511-514. 

The Mangum Papers 307 

stitution, but who takes a kindly interest in the affairs of young 
fellow members, and we would entreat your aid. 

I am, Sir, with high respect, 
Your ob'd't serv't 

Thos. F. Davis. 

[Postmarked:] Chapel Hill N. C. 
Aug 7 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Red Mountain P. O. 

Orange C'ty 

N. C. 

E. W. Hall and others to Willie P. Mangum 

University of N. Carolina. Aug. 1845 


During our last Commencement, several of the Trustees, 
seeing the inconvenience arising from the limited size of our 
party room, and its incapacity to accommodate with any de- 
gree of comfort the large number of persons present, expressed 
a willingness to aid us in building a hall. At this suggestion 
the matter has been taken in hand, and we a committee on be- 
half of the students, are authorized to ask pecuniary assistance 
from such persons as we may think willing to subscribe. Please 
notice this as soon as possible, as we wish to make our calcula- 
tions and complete the hall by our next commencement. Hop- 

308 State Department of Archives and History 

ing that our scheme may meet with your concurrence, we sign 

Yours respectfully 

E. W. Hall ) ( ? A. Daniel 

W K. Blake ) Committee ( ? C. Duke 
D. T. Tayloe ) ( ? Y. Manly 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
N. C. 

WilliaTYi Piper^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Augt 21st. 1845. 
Judge Mangum. 

Dear Sir. 

Your proposition in regard to a school was unexpected 
to me. I have thought upon the subject I do not feel myself 
competent to teach a school as it ought to be done. I am willing 
if a school can be made to do my best, provided I can get a 
comfortable situation convenient for my family. 

Your very generous offer in regard to a school, has led me 
to believe, that you regard my interest, and happiness. It is true 
my situation in life is an uncomfortable one, through the mis- 
haps of fortune. I am advancing in life, with delicate health, 
my children all daughters, and nothing but my efforts, upon 
which I can hope, to sustain myself and family; which will be 
freely and fully exerted, whe[n] an opportunity offers, for 
them to be displayed. I hope you will pardon me, if I propose 
too much, when I say, provided a school cannot be made, that 

^See below letters of W. P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum, March 16, 1846, and William 
Piper to W. P. Mangum, March 24, 1846. William Piper was one of the agents for the sale of 
Rev, John A. McMannin's book entitled A Pictorial Illustration of the Way of Life & Death, which 
was published in 1844. Hillsborough Recorder, February 22, 1844. 

The Mangum Papers 309 

if you will divide your hands, and plantations with Mr. Carring- 
ton and myself to manage, that with fortune in my favour I 
can so manage the part entrusted to my care, that nothing will 
[be] lost to you by the arrangement- Necessity has no law, I am 
anxious to obtain business, and submit this proposition without 
knowing what your arrangements for the next year are, trusting 
that you will believe it to be my anxiety to get business, that 
has induced me to be thus plain. I hope you will answer me, 
and if you think it would not be to your interest to employ me, 
provided a school can not be made, and of that I have my 
doubts, I shall remain as ever, 

Your friend 
Yours &c, 

W. Piper 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Henry Clay to P. Henry Langdon^^ 

Ashland 13th Sept. 1845 
My Dear Sir 

I received and thank you for your kind and friendly letter. 
The trifling object which you requested is enclosed, with regrets 
it is not some thing more worthy of your acceptance. 

I submit, with resignation and philosophy, to the political 
event to which you allude. It has long ceased to give me any 
personal concern. Perhaps I ought to felicitate myself on my 
escape from great responsibilities, in meeting which I may be 
have failed to accomplish all that my ardent friends antici- 
pated. Whatever lingering regrets remain are excited for them 
and for our Country. 

Recollecting with lively and grateful feelings my agreeable 
visit last year to North Carolina, I should be most happy to re- 

^^Langdon was one of those in Wilmington who helped entertain Clay while he was there. 

310 State Department of Archives and History 

peat it; but I am not now aware that it ever will be in my 

Reciprocating your friendly wishes for my health and hap- 

I am Your friend 
And obed. Servant 
H. Clay 

P. Henry Langdon Esq 
Wilmington N C 

[Endorsed : ] From the Honbl. Henry Clay [Postmarked : ] 

Ashland Lexington, Ky. 

[Addressed : ] P. Henry Langdon Esq ^^ 

North Carolina 

J. Pope, Jr.,^^ et als. to Willie P. Mangum. 

Memphis, Tenn. Sept 15th. 1845. 
Dear Sir: 

You are doubtless aware that a Convention was held at this 
place, on the 4th of July last,^^ the leading object of which was, 
earnestly to awaken and stimulate public attention to the long 
neglected wants and resources of the South and West. In con- 
sequence of a somewhat indefinite notice, in the call of that Con- 
vention, no decided impression was made upon the public mind; 
and the result was, that, in some instances, there was no repre- 
sentation, and others a very partial one, of the States interested 

^JThis is a printed letter. In the July meeting, J. Pope, Jr., of Tennessee, was chairman of the 
committee on local arrangements for the November Convention. Herbert Wender, Southern Com- 
mercial Contentions, 1837-1839, Baltimore, 1930, 61. 

s^In March, 1845, at a small gathering at Memphis of West Tennesseans and a commission from 
Arkansas, it was decided to hold an internal improvements convention at Memphis in July. On July 
4, 1845, delegates from several states gathered, but, because of inadequate publicity and the hurried 
nature of the call, it was decided to postpone the meeting until November. Calhoun and other well- 
known political leaders were approached and induced to attend. The result was that at the No- 
vember session 600 delegates representing 17 states were present. Calhoun became chairman. A 
series of eighteen recommendations were adopted: the strengthening of western defenses, federal aid 
to the navigation of the Mississippi and its tributaries, the building of strong forts on the Gulf, a 
navy yard on the Mississippi, and the apportioning of government land to build a main western rail- 
road. The House of Representatives ignored the recommendation, but the Senate, under Calhoun's 
influence, appointed a committee which approved several of the recommendations. The convention 
was called the Calhoun Convention. Hillsborough Recorder, December 4, 1845; Wender, Southern 
Commercial Conventions, 49-69. 

The Mangum Papers 311 

in the great objects proposed for its deliberation. Small, how- 
ever, as was the Convention, compared with the magnitude of 
the subjects brought before it, much interesting discussion was 
elicited, and an intense and inextinguishable zeal was roused 
in behalf of the vast and diversified interests, for the develop- 
ment and guardianship of which the aid of the Convention had 
been invoked. 

In justice to the States interested, for the reasons above 
stated, it was determined that the Convention should assume 
a preliminary form, and that the final consummation of its ob- 
objects should be postponed to a Convention to be held at this 
place on the 12th day of November next. 

Among the projects which will primarily engage the at- 
tention of this Convention may be mentioned: The Atlantic 
and Mississippi Rail-Road, the Great Ship Canal, connecting 
the Illinois River with Lake Michigan, the National Turnpike 
Road through the State of Arkansas, the Military and Naval 
defences of the South and West, embracing Armories, Depots 
and Forts, the Improvement of Southern & Western Rivers, and 
the reclaiming of the banks of the same by Levees, the Facilities 
of Mail Transportation, the Condition and Improvement of 
Agriculture, and the Manufacturing Capabilities of the South 
& West. 

It is expected that the Convention will studiously avoid every 
thing which will tend to excite or inflame party antipathies, 
and that the action of our National Authorities will be sought 
and urged only in cases where there is an entire unanimity of 
sentiment as to the powers conferred upon the General Gov- 

The undersigned were appointed a Committee by the Con- 
vention of July last, to invite the attendance of such persons 
as were presumed to be friendly to the objects proposed for its 
action. Among those who have advocated, with distinguished 
zeal and ability, the great interests of the South and West, the 
Committee are happy to find your name; and they earnestly 
and respectfully solicit your presence and co-operation in aid 
of the important enterprizes contemplated by the Convention 
of the 12th of November next. They would, further respect- 

312 State Department of Archives and History 

fully invoke your influence in procuring a full delegation from 
the district in which you reside. 

With sentiments of distinguished regard, 
Your obedient Servants, 

J. Pope, Jr. 
J. H. McMakon, 
J. J. Finley, 
E. M. Yerger, 
J. P. Trezevant, 
D. Morrison, 
L. C. Trezevant. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Red Mountain, 
Orange Co., 
N. C. 

John H. Young^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Orange Co. Sept. 16th 1845. 
Dear Judge- 

I v^ish to remove two houses at Buffalo Hill tomorrow and 
I ask the favour of you to assist me; - by sending as many 
hands as you can conveniently spare ( if but one ) you will much 

Your obt. servant, 

John H. Young. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 

^^John H. Young, a physician, 1819-1851, lived near Mangum. He married Mangum's cousin, 
Lucy P. Parker, daughter of Gslonel Abner Parker. Hillsborough Recorder, January 28, 1841; Feb- 
ruary 18, 1851. 

The Mangum Papers 313 

Samuel Winjree and John M. Sheppard to Willie P. Mangum 


Richmond, 1st October 1845. 

The subscribers, after many years experience in the Tobacco 
Trade, have associated themselves in business this day under 
the firm and style of 


For the sale of Tobacco, Wheat and Flour. 
They respectfully solicit consignments. 

Very respectfully, 

Samuel Winfree, 
John M. Sheppard, Jr. 

Henderson, N. C. 1st November 1845.^^ 

The subscriber intends removing to Richmond about the 1st 
January next, and would recommend his friends in North Caro- 
lina to the House of WINFREE & SHEPPARD. He will give 
his personal and particular attention to all Consignments of 
Tobacco and other Produce entrusted to their management, 
with the assurance that their interest will be attended to with 
fidelity and dispatch. 

Very respectfully 
V. Winfree. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum, 
Red Mountain 
N. Ca. 

®°This letter in manuscript is written on the printed circular. 

314 State Department of Archives and History 

William Hickey^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 


Office of the Secretary of the Senate U. S. 

October 3d. 1845. 
Dear Sir, 

I hope that you have spent a pleasant summer and that your- 
self and family are in the enjoyment of perfect health, and, 
that in due time, we will have you again among us, ready to do 
battle in the good cause and in support of the best interests of 
our country. — As the session approaches we are admonished 
to prepare for your reception, and, on this occasion, to say a 
word to our friends, to prepare them for the rather extra- 
ordinary aspect which the interested and vindictive zeal of 
some of the ultra Locofocos, seem to threaten to some of our 
household. — Poor Dyer's place^^ was a mark for them, and 
they intended to have opposed his re-election, particularly a 
man of the name of Riell an Editor from New York, but our 
friend Dyer is gone and I hope is better off, leaving the place 
vacant. With regard to this place (as it is not expected that 
a Whig could be elected) two views will be presented to our 
Whig friends, - either to support Mr. Beall the Assistant Door- 
keeper for the place of Sergeant-at-Arms, upon the principle 
of regular promotion (although he may not be personally so 
well qualified as he might be), or, on the other hand, to per- 
mit this Loco-Editor to be brought in upon Strong party 
grounds. — It is thought that if the Whigs would support Beall 
he has personal friends enough among the Democratic Senators 
to secure his election.— 

It is also rumored that a push is to be made at our Secre- 
tary^^ because he is rather luke warm - Keeps whigs in his 
office - is too impartial in making purchases and giving out 

oiWilliam Hickey, 1798-1866, held several government posts: draftsman for the coastal survey; 
chief clerk of the Department of War; executive clerk, reading clerk, assistant clerk, and acting clerk 
of the Senate. He wrote a treatise on the Constitution which went through several editions. Bessie 
W. Gahn, "William Hickey of Greenvale," Records of the Columbia Historical Society of Washington, 
D. C, XXXV-XXXVI. 109-123. 

"^Edward Dyer was elected sergeant at arms and doorkeeper of the Senate. American Almanac, 
1846. 193. 

^^Asbury Dickins was Secretary of the Senate at this time. 

The Mangum Papers 315 

jobs of work &c, whereas he ought to give them all to the Demo- 
crats par excellence. Should they succeed in turning him out, 
we would, of course, be all marked for proscription, and the 
most hungry and pushing harpies be put in.- I considered it my 
duty to mention the subject in time to one or two of Tny known 
and true friends, in order that they might be aware of the con- 
sequences to us of an opposition to our friend Mr. Dickens. — 
He has avoided proscription in the office, and of course, should 
the other party now seek to proscribe him for his moderation 
and justice, the gallant whigs, our friends, will I hope to a man 
stand by him; whom, with his personal friends on the other 
side, will secure his election. — I understand that Colo. Benton, 
who is now here, has given a very emphatic negative, at the 
threshold, to a party man who is seeking Mr. Dickens* place. 
He is reported to have said - "Sir I would have you to know 
that so far as I am concerned the Officers of the Senate are in 
during good behavior, and I will tolerate no proscription in this 
place for opinions' sake." — We will support and aid Mr. Dickens 
in the Senate and out of the Senate with our best energies and 

With apologies for troubling you on this subject I remain 

Dr. Sir, with the highest respect & esteem, 
Your friend and most obedient servant 


The Hon'ble Willie P. Mangum, 
Senator of the United States. — 


T. L. Clingman to Willie P. Mangum. 


AsHEViLLE Oct 5th 1845. 

My dear Judge 

I write you this letter at the suggestion of Col. Gaither^* & 
several of our other whig friends and any reply which you may 
make to it will be made public not further than may accord 

"He refers to Burgess S. Gaither, who at this time was solicitor for the seventh judicial distria 
of North Carolina. Ashe, Biog. Hist, of N. C, II, 93-99. 

316 State Department of Archives and History 

with your wishes. There is a great diversity of opinion here 
with respect to a proper selection of our next candidate for 
the office of governor. I say to you in confidence that a num- 
ber of the best whigs in this district have said in my hearing & 
to others that they will not support Wm. A. Graham. These ex- 
pressions I have endeavoured as much as possible to check & 
have been & shall continue to urge upon the whigs the necessity 
of supporting him if he should be nominated. We had great dif- 
ficulty last year in this district in giving him the vote he got 
(& that was twelve hundred less than Morehead's majority). 
I then made for him all the exertion in my power & my friends 
here say that I lost by so doing more votes than I was beaten 
this year.^^ I know it myself & last year foresaw that I should 
make many enimies with the fishy whigs, (Hoke's friends of 
course). I do not regret this now & shall if Mr Graham be the 
nominee support him again, but the difficulty will be much 
greater to get him along than it was. Many intelligent men 
say that they will not support a man whose own brother would 
not support him but kept out of the district to avoid committing 
himself last year, as he has invariably done when not a candi- 
date himself. In fact James Graham is viewed by the greater 
part of the whigs say three fourths probably in no better light 
than John Tyler himself. 

As to who ought to be the nominee there is much diversity 
of opinion Some are for Rayner, others for Stanly, Manly &c. 

The gentlemen to whom I have alluded at the beginning of 
this note are of opinion that you would make a better run if 
you would consent to undergo the labour than any one else. 
Something which you said to me last winter, which I have not 
thought fit however to allude to publicly made me suppose 
that you might possibly be willing to be brought out. Whether 
you would feel authorised to leave your present position filling 
it as you do with so much credit to yourself & honour to the 
State is a matter about which I cannot undertake to advise, I 
can only assure you that should you consent to run the western 
reserve will come out for you in all its whig strength & give 
you a larger majority than it would any one else of our party. I 
think a strong man & a vigorous canvass necessary to enable us 
to sustain ourselves next year. Afterwards a new presidential 

"'■Clingman was defeated for Congress by James Graham, William A. Graham's brother. Although 
a Whig, James Graham had many Democratic supporters. 

The Mangum Papers 317 

candidate will make the thing easy for us I believe because the 
floating vote will leave the democracy & come over to us in two 
years/I know of course that portion of the voters who go in for 
spoils &c & who will rally on some new man is preferred to 
staying in the ranks of Polks party because some of them will 
feel disappointed & others become dissatisfied with a very tame 
mercenary administration. 

Please let me hear from you at once & direct your letter to 
me at Morganton where I expect to be two weeks from this 
time, Our course will be in accordance with your wishes should 
you intimate them. We shall begin at this place a series of 
meetings for the purpose of selecting delegates to our State 
convention. In these we shall expect no preference for any one 
till we hear from you. 

Hoping that this will be soon 

I remain truly yours 
T. L. Clingman. 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

[Addressed:] Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Red Mountain 
Orange Co 
N. C. 

J. 5. Skinner^^ to W. P. Mangum 

Office of The Farmers Library 

7th Oct^ 1845. 
My Dear Sir. 

You will have to appoint a Serjeant at Arms for the Senate 
and my friend Mr. James B. Mower^^ long known to me as an 
efficient officer in the New York Post Office and perfectly well 
qualified, will be an applicant for the trust, I hope it may be 
in your way and inclination to give him your support, being 

^^in 1845 John Stuart Skinner edited the New York Farmer's Library and Monthly Journal of 
Agriculture for the New York Tribune. Three years later he moved to Philadelphia and continued 
the paper under a different name and under his own control. D. A. B., XVII, 200. 

^"James B. Mower was in the New York post office. In 1848 he tried to have the Whigs nom- 
inate John McLean and Mangum for their candidates. See his letters to Mangum in 1847-1848. 


State Department of Archives and History 

well assured that his performance of the duties would be al- 
together satisfactory 

For myself, I am much more agreeably fixed here, than when 
wearing a collar, that 'though it always chafed and sometimes 
almost choked me I yet had not the courage to slip — God send 
that I may never again by the power of an ''accident" or other- 
wise be poked into such another predicament! one altogether 
repugnant to the feelings of a freeman and to which his poverty 
may, but his will- never will consent. 

Very truly & constantly 
Your friend 

& ob't serv't 

J. S. Skinner 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator. 


J. S. Mower^^ to Willie P. Mangura 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum ) New York. 8th. Oct. 1845 

U. S. Senator ) 
Redmountain ) 
N. C. ) 


I hope you will pardon me Sir, for again troubling you, 
with my application, for the office of sergeant at arms; but my 
good old friend Skinner, is such a right good fellow, that I 
thought, I could not refuse his kind offer, of a letter of introduc- 

^^See the previous letter. 

The Mangum Papers 319 

tion to you, Mr. Senator, and I here take leave, again Sir, to en- 
close it to you. 

I am Sir, 
most respectfully 
Your mo*, ob*. 
J. B. Mower 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator 
N. C. 


Thomas J. Green To The Electors of the 
Western Congressional District Of The State of Texas.^^ 

[25 October, 1845] 
Fellow Citizens: 

Some months since at the request of many friends, I con- 
sented that my name might be used as a candidate for the 
United States House of Representatives, for the western district 
of Texas. Since which time I have been absent from home up- 
on a visit to the best of Mothers, now eighty years of age, whom 
I had not seen during our protracted revolution and an only 
son^oo from whom I had been absent the same period, as well 
as to attend to some indispensable personal obligations which 
a ten years service for the land of my adoption, had caused me 
to neglect. It may not be out of place here to name one other 
reason for this absence. When a prisoner of war in Mexico, 
with my brave comrades, of Mier and San Antonio,^^^ we found 
ourselves denounced by our own President Gen. Houston, as 

^''This is a circular, printed at the office of the Daily and Weekly Globe, by Levi D. Slamm and 
C. C. Chiids. 

i°"Wharton J. Green, later a Confederate officer and member of Congress. Born in Florida in 
1831, he was educated at the University of Virginia and Cumberland University. He practiced law 
with Robert J. Walker until the war broke out in 1861. Davis recommended him for brigadier 
general, but the appointment was not confirmed. After the war, he returned to Warren Counry, North 
Carolina, and later entered Congress. Ashe, Biog. Hist, of N. C, II, 120-125. 

"iSee above. III. 43 In. 

320 State Department of Archives and History 

robbers and marauders upon that country which caused many 
of those men to be lotteried for and murdered in a manner so 
horrible as to shock the humanity of the civilized v^orld.^^^ 
Many of the ballance v^^ere starved to death, piece-meal in the 
cold dungeons of that country. Those w^ho survived this cata- 
logue of sufferings and blood, as well as those who perished, 
had reputations more dear to them than life, — reputations 
which they had gloriously won in fighting the battles of their 
country, — reputations, the proudest heir-loom to their pos- 
terity, — reputations their country's pride and property. It 
was my good fortune fellow citizens, to preserve through all 
the trials and dangers of our captivity the written evidences of 
this most unholy, murderous slander. The living appealed to 
me to vindicate them. — the tears of fathers, mothers, widows 
and orphans, called aloud upon me to preserve to them the 
brightest, the only legacy of sons, brothers and fathers, whose 
bones are now bleaching in an enemies country. Justice to the 
true history of my own country, as well as duty to the living 
and the dead left me no option. This bloody tale I have pub- 
lished, ^^^ and it is a circumstance not less flattering to myself 
than the vindicated, that it has met universal favor with the 
reading public of this country. My absence from Texas during 
these few interesting months in her political existence, I trust 
has neither been idly spent in her cause, but with zeal and 
whatever of ability I possess has been devoted to advocating 
her interest and reconciling and enlightening many unjust pre- 
judices which heretofore had such a strong hold upon the popu- 
lar thought of these states. To believe as I do, that I have been 
of service to Texas, in this respect, is to me, ample compensa- 
tion. A few weeks longer absence makes it proper that I should 
address you upon some few points of great political concern- 
ment, though I can hardly hope to do so satisfactorily in the 
limited space of a letter, If however the presenting at this 
time these questions to your consideration, invites your dis- 
cussion and thereby evidences your public will, I shall feel 
pround [sic] in having done so. 

The surrender of your unappropriated Lands in Texas for the 
payment of your public debt, — the liquidation of all just claims 

i«2See above. III, 431, 434-435. 

i°3Thomas Jefferson Green, Journal of the Texian Expedition Against Mier; New York, 1845. 
482 pp. 

The Mangum Papers 321 

against Texas, — the early settlement of private land claims, — 
the subdivision of Texas into states under the resolutions of an- 
nexation, — the endowment of public schools — the improve- 
ment of your harbors bays and rivers and the western boundary 
of Texas, are among many others, momentous questions for the 
immediate consideration of the people of Texas, and a too early 
discussion of them cannot be had. 

Four weeks previous to the death of the illustrious Ex-Presi- 
dent Andrew Jackson, in discussing with me the benefits of the 
union to our respective countries, he said, "It is impossible for 
the United States to control the Indians and Texas to hold the 
public lands. We must have them.'' So far as I have been able 
to learn, this will be among the strong reasons urged by Presi- 
dent Polk, to procure our public domain by either the assump- 
tion of our debt, or a valuable consideration in some other 
shape. Whether the people of Texas prefer to surrender their 
one hundred and eighty millions of unappropriated acres for 
the payment of seven or eight millions of dollars, most of which 
was paid out of our treasury, at one-fourth of its face, and now 
mostly due foreign shavers; or whether they will prefer an 
average price per acre and settle their own debts and leave a 
large surplus in their treasury; or whether they will prefer to 
hold their lands and thereby control the meets and bounds of 
their own and future states, are important considerations for 
the people of Texas and cannot be too early entertained. While 
the limits of this letter precludes me from more than a hint at 
these important questions, I hope soon to discuss them at length 
in person; and to abide your will thereon will be the duty of 
your representatives. 

In my frequent interviews this summer with President 
Polk and his cabinet, I have invariably found them entertain- 
ing views the most liberal in all things towards our country 
and that they will so continue to feel and act, no one doubts; 
for they know and admit that it was your sweat and blood 
which won our fair Texas back to the bosom of this great na- 
tion, when untold millions of money backed by the influence 
and diplomacy of Adams, Jackson, Van Buren and Clay, failed 
to accomplish it. 

Should it be the will of the people of Texas to surrender 
their unappropriated lands to the general government, they 

322 State Department of Archives and History 

cannot be too cautious in submitting their own private land 
claims to the endless adjudication of an United States Land 
hoard, who may do as has been done in other new States ad- 
judicate the first owners into their graves and delay the second 
generation into penury. With the experience of Missouri, Florida 
and other states before us, let us substitute some plan by which 
the few survivors of our revolution, may be early guaranteed 
in some of the fruits of their hard fought battles. 

Fellow Citizens, upon the subject of your Western boundary, 
I am proud to assure you, that President Polk has planted his 
foot upon the banks of the Rio Grande, from whence no power 
of Mexico, nor any diplomatic trick at National reference, will 
drive him east; and in this position he is backed by an over- 
whelming majority of his countrymen. There is one great con- 
trolling feeling, with the millions of this country, which was 
so boldly avowed by the republicans of the land, under Presi- 
dent Monroe, — to submit to no European control in the affairs 
of this continent — 

"No pent up Utica, confines our powers, 
This whole boundless continent is ours." 

This question of boundary, has been ably urged since the 
adjournment of the United States Congress. — The law of the 
Texas Congress, in 1836 '^defining the boundary of Texas," has 
been mainly relied upon, and those presses in this country who 
advocated a surrender of Texas to the Nuesses [sic] frequently 
answered that ''this law of 1836 was an arbitrary declaration 
and not justified by the facts in the case" — In this they are 
mistaken — I was the member of the Congress of 1836 who 
drafted that law and which unanimously passed that Con- 
gress. — When some members of the committee proposed the 
Nueces as our western boundary, I objected upon the ground 
that we had driven the enemy beyond the Rio Grande — that 
beyond this line the commanding General Felisola, had passed 
under the conduct of our own commissioners Colonels Carnes 
and Teal, and that subsequently those of the enemy who ven- 
tures to the eastern bank of that river was defeated and driven 
back by Captain Erastus, (Deaf) Smith, near Lerado [Larado] 
and that we held to this boundary not only by virtue of 
Felisola's acknowledgment, but by conquest and actual possession. 
Those reasons were sufficient with the Congress of '36, and I am 

The Mangum Papers 323 

proud to say that they are sustained by the overwhelming pub- 
lic voice of this country — Had I then yielded my opinion and 
adopted the Nueces, the case might now be far different, and 
Texas instead of her three hundred and fifty thousand square 
miles would not have one fourth that amount. 

With respect fellow citizens to my political creed, I am what 
is known in the United States as a Democrat — My Father and 
Grand Fathers before me were Whigs in '76 and Republicans in 
'98 and proved their principles then as you have since done 
in your struggle for liberty. 

As to Texas politics, it is unnecessary for me to speak — 
they are known to you all — my principles have been on all 
occasions to fight the enemies of my country. When I have 
seen that country year after year abused by a dastard enemy, 
plundered and desolated and our own Chief Executive Presi- 
dent Houston, foremost in falsely asserting to the enemy our 
inability to redress these outrages, — When I have seen that same 
Executive acting under a settled purpose to destroy that fair 
portion of Western Texas, which has paid the heaviest tribute 
both in taxes and blood, I have boldly and at all times, and on 
all occasions, opposed this measure, — So likewise have I op- 
posed his measures when I have seen him pandering to the 
intrigues of a French diplomatist, who modestly asked to make 
Texas a '^Franco Texian" dependency, — So have I opposed his 
nefarious attempt to put her under British vassalage, — His 
correspondence with the blood-thirsty Santa Anna, — His de- 
nunciation of the brave men of Mier — His usurpation of the 
law which gave them bread. His proclamation of piracy against 
the gallant Commodore Moore and the Navy^^* — His ex- 
travagant friendship to our Indian enemies — His compound 
frauds to defeat annexation, all, all, have I boldly opposed both 
in and out of Congress. While I have many personal friends 
in Texas, who have heretofore been the avowed friends of 
General Houston, I beg that they will not deceive themselves, 
as to my opinion of him. I have long since conscientiously be- 
lieved that he was the most corrupt man personally and political- 

io*The Texas navy consisted of three vessels which at the time of the negotiations for annexation 
were at New Orleans under the command of Commodore Moore. Money was sent to release the 
vessels from creditors, but Moore failed to carry out the orders. Instead, he cooperated in a free- 
booting expedition to make great profits for Texas and himself. Houston ordered Moore to surrender 
the vessels and when he failed to comply, Houston pronounced him a pirate. Moore then challenged 
Houston to a duel, but Houston ignored the challenge and demoted Moore. Marquis James, The 
Raven: A Biography of Sam Houston (Indianapolis, 1929), 334-335; Alexander Dienst, "The 
Navy of the Republic of Texas," Quarterly of the Texas Historical Association, XIII, 113-127. 

324 State Department of Archives and History 

ly I ever knew — This belief has never been disguised; on all 
occasions for the last nine years, have I spoken and published 
it.^^^ His favors and his cowardly malice I have ever held in 
equal contempt, and between him and his principles and myself 
there can be no compromise. — When I have seen him proclaim- 
ing in his annual Message the most stupid untruths — When I 
have seen him swallowing at the bar of Congress falsehoods 
before they were cold from his lips, — When I have seen his 
blubbering lamentations over his Cherokee connections, — When 
I have seen him wallowing in the filthiest gutters of your capitol 
a disgusting bloated drunkard, and a majority of our country- 
men folding their arms and countenancing these, and a thou- 
sand other of his enormities, my heart has bled for my country, 
but never have I despaired of a brighter day — That brighter 
day, fellow citizens, thanks to your republican principles, is at 
hand, when we can produly look to the President of this great 
Confederacy as our President, to the American Congress, as our 
Congress, and to this great Nation, as our Nation. 

Thomas J. Green, 
City of New- York, Oct. 25, 1845. 

James P. Scales^^^ & Others to Willie P. Mangum. 

HiLLSBORo' Nov. 15th 1845. 
Judge Mangum 


We the undersigned have the honor to inform you in be- 
half of the Adelphian Society that you have been elected an 
honorary member of that body. 

The object for which our Society was instituted, is similar 
to that of other literary associations of the kind, and too well 

lo^This hostility continued until the Civil War. In 1860-1861, when Texans were considering 
secession. Green vigorously campaigned for secession. At one place in the discussion when Houston 
was asked his opinion of Green, he replied: "He has all the characteristics of a dog except fidelity." 
James, The Raven, 409. 

i°^A graduate of the University of North Carolina in 1829, James Scales moved to Mississippi 
where he became a speaker of the lower house of the legislature. He was a major in the Civil War. 
Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 548. 

The Mangum Papers 325 

known to you to require any explanation on our part. An early 
answer is respectfully requested 


James P. Scales 
D. T. Towles 
Wm. McKerall 
Correspon'd Committee. 

To Hon. W. P. Mangum 
N. C. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
Orange Cty 
No. Ca. 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham.^^"^ 

Orange Co. 22"^ Nov. 1845. 

My dear Sir. 

I have been requested to ask the favor of you, to write a 
word touching the Sufficiency of two Notes, that will be presented 
next week, to the Cape Fear bank in Raleigh, for discount. - 

The first - W™. Forsythe, principal;- with S. P. Forsythe & 
James Bullock, & E. G. Mangum sureties. - The next E. G. Man- 
gum principal - with Abner Parker & H. Parker sureties. - The 
first for $800 - The next for like sum. 

I presume, you know enough of the parties, to render any 
statement of mine unnecessary. - At all events, the notes, as 
above, will be beyond all question, & as good as any in N. Caro- 
lina. - 

i°^The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

326 State Department of Archives and History 
I speak from knowledge. 

Yrs as ever, most truly 
Willie P. Mangum 

To Gov. Graham 

[Endorsed on reverse:] Willie P. Mangum 1845 
Two Notes in Bank Cape Fear? 

Joseph B. Hinton^"^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Raleigh N. C. Dec 1. 1845 
Honl. & dear Sir, 

Permit an old friend & admirer to say, in the pride & pleasure 
of a Carolinian, your honours wear well, for they have been 
fairly won. Another, indeed, may fill your vacant seat, but 
does the Nation think it is as nobly filled as when occupied by 
the Mangum of the good old North State? No indeed, no. We 
shall see the beginning of the end of the present state of things, 
by & by. 

In the mean time, allow me to commend to your kindest re- 
gards and assistance, if possible, a gentleman who is every 
way worthy of both- I mean Edward Warner Esq. a promising 
young Lawyer of Washington City- the protege of the late Mr. 
Legare, in whose office he studied Law, & under whose patronage 
he went to the bar: besides a ripe schollar, Mr Warren is a 
gentleman in every sense of the word- He desires to be Door 
Keeper of the Senate- and if his political & personal friend, Mr. 
Choat, had not left the Senate, he would have a right to ex- 
pect all that his Whig principles & the influence of his friend, 
Mr Choat, could do for him. His wife is a niece of ex Gov. 
Grayson of Md. & of the late Mrs. Stone of this City & my wife 
also. If you can feel free to aid Mr. Warner - it will greatly 
gratify us all- and if in Mr. Warner, the Senate gets an officer, 
I feel confident, that body never had an officer who gave more 
universal satisfaction, than he would. 

i-J^See above, I, 5 2 On. 

The Mangum Papers 327 

My best wishes for your health & happiness — ever attends 

Yours most truly. 

Jos. B. HiNTON 

Honl. W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Honl, Willie P. Mangum. 
Senator in Congress, 
D. C. 

John Minge^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Petersbg. Deer 1 45 
Dear Sir 

I had intended to have visited Washington to see you in 
person but as circumstances prevent me, I must be permitted 
to call your attention to some of my grievances, as you perhaps 
know I have been without cause or even charge of error been 
dismissed from office and my place supplied by a man, to say 
the least of him, who stands charged with crimes and mis- 
demeanors and who was the only applicant, shewing the settled 
policy of the administration, and no doubt can be left on the 
mind of any man that it is a case similar to the one supposed in 
the debate by Mr. Madison and others on the abridgement of 
the Executive power, and which Mr. Madison in his enthusiasm 
on the virtue of republicks declared ''was not likely to happen, 
and if it did, would afford fair grounds for impeachment." I 
Sir have been displaced directly in the face of publick opinion 
as you might have known on yr visit here last spring both parties 
loudly and numerously demanded my continuance yet a few 
party hacks representing themselves as a delegation from the 
democratic party, in fulfilment of promises of payment to some 
hirelings of their party demanded the removal of every officer 

109 John Minge, 1796-1871, a graduate of William and Mary, married Mary Griffin Adams, of 
Richmond, and later became postmaster under Tyler. William and Mary Quarterly, Ser. 1, Vol. XXI, 
32; XXV. 238; John Minge to , April 12, 1849. 

328 State Department of Archives and History 

in the district, and with the aid of Mr Dromgoole and Mr I W 
Jones to certify to fitness and capacity have placed in situations 
of high trust and responsibility, at least one if not two who 
are unworthy of the places they occupy, if the charge made 
against them be true and which are uncontradicted and these 
charges have been made by one of their own party and who 
is a Lawyer of eminence in this City and who receives and en- 
joys the respect and confidence of the most respectable part of 
our community, and the only means left his opponents of 
countervailing his influence was to charge him with monomania 
on the subject of gambling and cheating at cards, now, a very 
common substerfuge in criminal accusations. — 

You will be surprised when I declare to you that my course 
in this affair, to wit, requesting yr particular attention to the 
confirmation of the present incumbent in the P. Office in 
Petersbg has not been directed by any malignity of feeling to- 
wards this individual, but in obedience to a duty I owe to my 
Country as well as to myself, believing as I do that the chains 
of the slaves may become musick to their ears unless manfully 
resisted when the first rivet is made, and fearfully should we 
look on these small encroachments on the citadel of our liberties 
when in our own history we know that perhaps this domain 
now our beautiful and beloved country has been lost to its 
mother for a paltry tax unjustly levied on a few pounds of tea, 
and Grecian history informs us that a counsel of its wisest men, 
maintained that government to be best, which soonest redress'd 
the grievances of its subjects, and in making this request of you 
Sir whose head & heart have ever dictated and whose hand is 
ever ready to do justice to the humblest individual, I have con- 
tributed my mite smaller perhaps than even "the widows" to 
prevent such great effects from inconsiderable causes, so when 
our beautiful government shall crumble into atoms and be lost 
in Chaotic confusion it shall not be said of me as was said of the 
Romans "their failure to resist the first approach to Tyrany 
rivited their chains." 

I have no intimate personal acquaintance with Mr. Archer 
or I would appeal to him, I know him only as a man of high, 
noble and Chivalrous bearing as incapable of the least shadow 
of injustice or oppression as is water to run upwards and whose 

The Mangum Papers 329 

attention will be call'd to it on the least hint which you may 

I owe you an apology for not calling on you when hard 
pressed as you told me but the truth is I had been lulled into 
security by a conversation which had been held with the Presi- 
dent of his own seeking with Mr. Ritchie in which he distinctly 
told Mr. R he would not molest me, only a few days before this 
self styled delegation from the dem. party in Petersbg demanded 
my removal, I was beheaded before I knew the Guilotine had 
been built, and of course had no time to do so, tho' I shall ever 
believe from our conversation that you could have saved me — 

Yrs. with great Esteem 
Sincerely & truly 

Jno Minge. 

A. W. Gay'^" to Willie P, Mangum. 

Knap-of Reeds, Granville County N. C. 

Deer 4th 1845 

Dear Sir, 

I desired to call and see you before you left home; but was 
prevented by a continued press of professional engagements. 
I perceive that, by the new post office law of March 3rd 1845, 
"members of Congress may transmit, free of postage, any docu- 
ments printed by order of either House of Congress. ["] Al- 
though I shall no more be a candidate, still I wish to keep my- 
self informed on all the leading political topics of the day. On 
this account, I shall be greatly obliged to you, if you will be 
good enough to send me from time to time such documents as 
will give information on what will be the points of most prob- 
able discussion in the contests of next year, relating particularly 
to Texas, Oregon, and more especially the financial concerns of 
the General Government. You are doubtless aware that an im- 
portant element in the political discussions of next summer in 
this state, will be your own political course, as the next General 
Assembly will have either to re-elect you or select some one in 

ii^See above A. W. Gay to W. P. Mangum, April 20, 1844. 

330 State Department of Archives and History 

your place. As far as I can learn, I believe the whigs are dis- 
posed to sustain you and retain you in your present position. 
You will, however, be the object of violent attack by the op- 
posite party. It will therefore be indispensable that your friends 
be, in some way, put in possession of such information as may 
best enable them to meet those assaults. I would suggest 
whether this could not best be done by speeches delivered by 
yourself in the Senate during the present session of Congress 
and circulated, before the canvass of next summer. Such 
speeches, if delivered will be industriously circulated by your 
friends in N. C. 

As the Appendix to the Congressional Union is devoted en- 
tirely to such purposes, and will no doubt be widely circulated, 
would it not be well to prepare the speeches carefully for that 

Please excuse these suggestions if they appear to be out of 
place. They are prompted only by a desire for your re-election 
by the next Legislature. 

Respectfuly yours &c. 
A. W. Gay 

P.S. Since the foregoing was written, I was called to your 
house late in the night on Friday last, the 5th to see your boy 
Alfred. I found him in a state of callapse; almost entirely un- 
able either to speak or to swallow. Dr. Blacknal, who had been 
sent for on Friday, did not get there until Saturday morning. 
The boy had sunk so low that I soon found him to be moribund. 
From the history of his disease given by the family, it was evi- 
dently a case of low typhoid fever, which has been prevailing 
for some months past, complicated with an insidious kind of 
Pneumonia which often does not declare itself by any very 
unequivocal signs to an ordinary observer until irreparable dis- 
organization of the pulmonary structure has taken place. I suc- 
ceeded for a very short period before the arrival of Dr. Blacknal, 
in partially arousing the boy from his stupor; but he soon re- 
lapsed. As I had to attend to a patient dangerously ill at home, 
I left him with Dr. B. satisfied that he could not live long. He 
died on Saturday night. The boy was unwell before you left 
home, and continued somewhat so all the time; but nothing oc- 
curred to alarm the family until Friday. An unsuccessful effort 

The Mangum Papers 331 

was immediately made to get Dr. B. and I did not see him until 
two or three hours before day on Saturday morning. Dr. Young 
had gone off to be married. 

It is not uncommon for Pneumonia to proceed so insidiously 
and to create so little suffering that neither the patient nor his 
friends are ala[rm]ed until all remedies are unavailing, espe- 
cia[lly wjhen the pulmonary disease is associated with very 
low typhoid degree of fever. 

Yours &c. 
A. W. Gay. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 
Washington City. 
D. C. 

Thomas J. Green to Willie P. Mangum 

Washington City 

Deer. 4th. 1845. 
My Dear Judge: 

Herewith I enclose^^^ you a map of Texas, with the Land of 
Dr. Archer,^!- marked upon it, by which you can judge of its 
locality.- You will see that it is within 35 miles of the sea coast, 
crosses Caney & fronts upon the San Bernard river, which is 
navigable at many seasons of the year immediately from it, and 
at all seasons to within a few miles of it.- This tract of 1600 
acres is a portion of Ira Ingrams, head right League of Land one 
of the first and most choice leagues in Austin colony.- It was 
purchased of s^. Ingram, by the Hon Wm H. Wharton in 1834 
at $2. per acre & one half subsequently sold to Dr. Branch T. 
Archer. — The Land is cain brake and cedar and esteemed to 
he as good as any on the earth & entirely above overflow.- It is 

"^^This is not in the Mangum Papers. 

ii"Branch T. Archer, 1790-1856, was a physician and local political leader of his native state, 
Virginia, before he moved to Texas in 1831. In Texas he supported statehood within the Republic 
of Mexico and later Texan independence. In 1826 with S. F. Austin and William H. Wharton, he 
went to the United States as commissioner to obtain money, men, and supplies for the war against 
Mexico. Under Lamar he was secretary of war for Texas. D. A. B., I, 338-339. 

332 State Department of Archives and History 

in Latitude 29^ .30 minutes & quite one degree South of the best 
Sugar estates in Louisana. — The Sugar planters in the neigh- 
bourhood with crude wooden fixtures have made a better yield 
of Sugar than the Lousianians while the cotton produce of 
this region is uneaquelled. Another advantage of this kind of 
Land should be named- towit- that it is as easy to clear a planta- 
tion in one year on it, as it would be in heavy timber Land 
in twenty.- This Land is in the immediate vicinity of Capt. John 
Duncan, & Majr. Rugely, two wealthy gentlemen and large 
planters.- Capt. Duncan, sold the remaining part of this league 
of Land to Mr. P. Weaver, of Selma Alabama in 1838 at $4. per 
acre in gold.- Circumstances makes it necessary for Dr. Archer, 
to sell immediately and he will take for his 800 acres $2,000 or 
$2.50 per acre I do esteem this as one of the best bargains ever 
offered in choise sugar Lands whether it be purchased for im- 
mediate cultivation or as an investment; for I have not yet 
heard a good reason why our Texas Sugar Lands may not come 
up to something like the Louisana prices. — 

There is a popular mistake about the cost of a sugar estab- 
lishment which I desire to correct. — A a small planter can make 
sugar as well as he can make cotton, and with no more ex- 
pence of fixture. — 

Dr. Archer, and myself will go tomorrow to New York where 
we will be absent about a week and return via this place to 
Texas, when if you wish to make this purchase he can be seen.- 
Mrs. Wharton's portion of the Land was offered at the same 
price and can doubtless yet be had for that price.- The whole 
tract is capable of makeing a planting interest sufficient for 100 

In haste your friend truly, 
Thos. J. Green. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Washington City. 

The Mangum Papers 333 

Willie P. Mangum to Ashury Dickins^^^ 

Sunday 7**^. Dec^ '45 
My dear Sir, 

I have just returned from Berrien & Barrow - All right. M^ 
Berrien has been approached both at home & here, in the man- 
ner you had supposed. - He promptly & resolutely rejected the 
overture. - 

He said there, as he has just said to me, that upon no con- 
sideration, nor for any person, would he withhold his Vote from 
you - On the contrary, he goes for you as decidedly & as cor- 
dially, as any Gentleman in the Senate. 

Yrs as ever 

W. P. Mangum 
To As: Dickens esq. 

D. Clapp^^^ to Willie P. ManguTn 

[15 December, 1845] 
Hon. Wiley P. Mangum: 

Dear Sir 

I take the liberty to address you these few lines, and re- 
quest a favor from you, which, if granted, will be a great ac- 
commodation to myself as p[ub]lisher of a public Newspaper. 

What I have to ask is, that you [wou]ld send me any. and 
all public d[ocu]ments and speeches which would be of ad- 
vantage to me in my business. And especially, I wish to get 
such documents and reports as will give any information on the 
Tariff, the amount of imports and exports &C. Also all docu- 
ments giving information in reference to Oregon &c. &c., with 
all reports officially made to Congress during the present ses- 

You will excuse my presumption in making this request. The 
only apology I have to offer is, that our member from this Dist, 

ii^The original is in the Historical Society, Pennsylvania. Compare this letter with the one 
from William Hickey to W. P. Mangum, October 3, 1845. 
ii*See above. III, 97n. 

334 State Department of Archives and History 

( John Wentworth, ) cannot be prevailed upon to send any thing 
of importance to a Whig, while I myself, have counted, on the 
arrival of one single mail at our place, not less than three hun- 
dred documents all franked by the said ''Long John," to loco- 
focos. And why I presume to address you is that I have had 
the pleasure of an introduction to your Honor; being a native 
of old Orange, N. C. and having emigrated to this state only a 
few years. 

With this explanation I sign myself your servant and friend 

D. Clapp 

Danville 111. Dec. 15, '45. 

P.S. What favors you may [confer 1 upon me please direct to 
Danville Patriot 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon W. P. Mangum 

U. S. Senate 

Washington City 

D. C. 

Chas. G. PercivaV^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

City of Utica N. Y. 

Dec. 16, 1845— 

Dr Sir 

I have the favor to ask that you will put my name on the 
list of those to whom you send Pub Doc^ as unless I can per- 
suade some Whig to do so I shall stand a poor chance in this 

^^''Unable to identify. 

The Mangum Papers 335 

hot bed of loco focoism without a Whig M. C. within a hundred 
miles — 

Very Respcty Yours 

Chas. G. Percival 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 
D. C. 


Report of the Work of the Whig Republican Association 1845 


Boston, Dec. 16, 1845. 

The Committee appointed by the Government of the WHIG RE- 
PUBLICAN ASSOCIATION, to make a brief Report on the 
doings of the Association, for the year 1845, 


That at the commencement of the present season, under the 
discouragements of a recent national defeat, and the estrange- 
ment of some of our friends, it was thought hardly possible 
that our Head Quarters could be kept open, and the Whig flag 
kept flying over them during the year. Through the urgent solic- 
itation of many of our strongest Whigs and their liberal con- 
tributions, and confiding in the liberality of the Whigs of Bos- 
ton, and feeling, also, that it was most important that Mass- 
achusetts should present a bold front during the attacks on the 
Protective System of 1842, and on our general State Policy, the 
Government determined to carry on their operations for another 

Their anticipations have not been disappointed. The Fi- 
nances of the present year will cover every expense, and it is 

336 State Department of Archives and History 

believed that the usefulness of the Association, to the City and 
the State has been greatly increased, without any additional 
outlay, especially as regards its influence v^ith the Young 
Whigs, and the circulation of information by documents, &c. 

During the past year, besides the regular subscribers, more 
than a thousand young men have enjoyed this means of acquir- 
ing political information; we have sent out over five hundred 
thousand pages of valuable documents into the City and adjacent 
towns, and many of our friends from the country towns send to 
our Head Quarters for statistics and political documents. - 
Thousands of Whigs from the interior, and from other States, 
have visited our Rooms, to which they are always welcome. 

The Committee leave it to the Whigs of Boston to decide 
whether the Association shall continue its operations or whether 
their Head Quarters shall be closed and their influence be dis- 

Nathaniel Hammond, 
Nathan W. Bridge, 
Ebenezer Dale, 
James Fowle, 
Henry W. Cushing, 


N. B. - This Circular will he called for. Those who wish to aid 
the operation of the Association by being considered sub- 
scribers for the ensuing year, and those who do not, will 
write Yes, or No, at the bottom. Subscription $3. Those 
under twenty-one, $1. 

W. G. E. Agnew^^^ et als. to Willie P. Mangum. 

PHILAD^ Deer 17, 1845 
Dear Sir 

At a meeting of the Board of Managers of the Home Mis- 
sionary & Tract Society of the M. E. Church of the City & County 
of Philadelphia it was Resolved That W. G. E. Agnew President, 
Wm. H. Richardson T. Norris W. McMackin W. H. Reed W. P. 

ii"In McElney's Philadelphia Directory for 1832, p. 2, he listed his occupation as teacher. 

The Mangum Papers 


Hacker & Alex. Cummings be a Committee to provide Talented 
Popular Speakers for a course of Public Lectures [to be] de- 
livered in this City The proceeds of which shall be appropriated 
to the relief of the poor & destitute without regard to denomina- 
tion within the bounds of our Mission. In pursuance of the 
above object we now address you desiring to know if it would 
suit your convenience to deliver one Lecture for us in the course 
of the Winter on any subject that might meet your views. 

We would urge this the more upon you in view of the great 
destitution among our populace during the Winter and the in- 
creased means of relief with which your valuable services thus 
rendered are calculated to supply us. 

Knowing your Urbanity & benevolence we fearlessly leave 
the matter with you requesting an answer as soon as con- 
venient that if favourable we may take the necessary measures 
to give it publicity 

With great respect 
We are Dear Sir 

Yrs truly & Sincerely 

W. G. E. Agnew Prest 
Wm. H. Richardson 
Thad^ Norris 
W H Reed 
W P Hacker 
Wm. McMackin 
A Cummings 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 


D. C. 


Thurlow Weed to Willie P. Mangum 

Albany, Dec 18, 1845. 
Hon. W. Mangum, 

Allow me, Dear Sir, to thank you, most ardently, for the 
enlightened and patriotic course you took upon Gov. Cass' Reso- 

338 State Department of Archives and History 

lution.^^^ The voices and the Votes of Whig Senators, on these 
Resolutions, while they diminish greatly the chances of War, 
serve to keep the Whig Party out of false position. 

If our Whig friends v^ould consent to leave the responsibility 
of a War w^ith England, and upon the Tariff w^here the People 
have lodged the power, "there would be little of evil to appre- 
hend from either of these crusades. 

Very Respectfully & Truly 
Your Obt Sert 
Thurlow Weed 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W Mangum, 
U. S. Senate 

P. TJ. Murphey to Willie P. Mangum. 

U. S. S. Pennsylvania 

Dec 20th 1845 
My dear Sir 

I am now at the head of the list of Passed Midm. & a vacancy 
has occured in the death of Commodore Elliott: which causes 
me to write you at this time — 

The Commodore has been dead better than a week & the va- 
cancy has not been filled — I feel most anxious to get my pro- 
motion, as you must know, & I hope you will assist me. I have 
seen a great deal of hard service, since I had the pleasure of 
seeing you, & am much altered, from my campaign in Florida. 
At this time, the war fever seems to run high, in the country. 

ii^In the Senate in early December, Cass offered resolutions instructing certain committees to 
inquire into the conditions of the army, navy, and public defenses and to report what improvements 
were necessary. On December 15, when he supported his resolutions with a speech, he said that 
negotiations with Britain had failed and that Great Britain was assuming a menacing attitude. 
Military preparation, he said, was the best means to prevent war. Mangum replied that this action 
would only stir up war feelings. He would leave the matter to the President, who was in a position 
to ascertain the needs of the military forces. He felt that the country was ready to meet an emergency. 
His speech and similarly expressed views of Webster and Crittenden tended to allay some of the war 
feeling. Hillsborough Recorder, January 15, 1846; Cong. Globe, 29 Cong., 1 sess., A1-A9; McCormac, 
James K. Polk, 585-586. 

The Mangum Papers 339 

Should we have one, I hope the officers from the Old North 
State, (though few) will gain laurels for her. 

I hope I shall have a chance of sending you a barrel of fine 
oysters ere long 

Please remember me to my friends from the Old State. 

Excuse this scribble 
Yours truly 

Judge Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Judge Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

D. C. 

Alexander F. Vache^^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

New York December 22nd 1845 
The Honble 

Willie P. Mangum 
U. States Senator 


I have the honor to invite you and your lady, to the 
first annual Ball of the "Texas and Oregon Association" on the 
8th of January 1846, and in conveying to you this wish, I avail 
myself of the opportunity, at their request, to say, that although 
they differ with you in general politics, they nevertheless, ap- 
preciate, and honor the intergrity of a man who casts aside party 
distinction, and fearlessly and magnanimously comes to the aid 
of his Country when threatend with invasion by foreign foes - 
With such Americans, the character and safety of the United 
States, can neither be sullied or endangered, and with such 

iif Alexander F. Vache. a graduate of Columbia College in 1825, dabbled in politics at the 
same time that he practiced medicine. Longworth's New York Directory, 1844-1843, 354; Bonner, 
The World's Metropolis, 270; See below W. P. Mangum to Sally, Patty, Mary Mangum, January 1, 
1846. See below, 344-345. 

340 State Department of Archives and History 

patriots, the Flag of the nation must ever victoriously and 
triumphantly flow to the unrestrained winds of Heaven. 

Allow me to add that your recent speech, on Senator Cass' 
resolutions, has identified you with the distinguished men, who 
prefer defeat, to inglorious submission, and death, to appre- 
hensive venality. 

With profound respect 
Your Obedt. Sert. 

Alexr. F. Vache 
The Corresponding Committee 
29 Chambers Street 

Daniel Mallory^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York Dec^ 22^ 1845 
Dear Sir, 

I was rejoiced to see your name among the Committee ap- 
pointed by the Senate to report on the claims of French Spoila- 
tions^^^ prior to 1800. Indeed, I think a majority of the Com- 
mittee are gentlemen who will be willing to do justice to this 
long protracted claim. I have no immediate interest in the mat- 
ter, but I have friends who are large sufferers in the injustice 
and shameful neglect of our own government. The history of 
this business you are too familiar with for me to speak of it 
here. It is now almost, if not quite fifty years, since these aggres- 
sions took place. The consideration for these losses has been 
in the possession of this government for forty years if my 
memory serves me. Be that as it may our government received 
from that of France a full recompense for these claims, and no 
Subterfuge can be interposed with any show of fairness to 
withold any longer the amounts due to the claimants. Many, if 
not most of the original sufferers, have ceased to want, but there 
are yet a few who are in poverty. For the life of me I cannot 
understand the policy, let alone the justice, of a government 
like ours, refusing to refund the amount which it has long since 

^"He is listed as a "General Agent" in Wilson, The Business Directory of New York City for 
1848, p. 21. 

i^'See above, I, 418n. 

The Mangum Papers 341 

obtained belonging to these claimants. In private life an in- 
dividual would be ashamed to show his head in public who had 
received a large sum belonging to another and refused to re- 
fund it. If he had inadvertently used it, common honesty would 
require some acknowledgement with a promise to repay it at 
some future time, and this should be the course of this govern- 
ment. Let these claims be fairly stated and settled, and if the 
government is not able to pay at the moment let it issue their 
promise — fifty years ahead if advisable with 5 or 6 pr ct interest. 
Something should be done in common business to mark the 
just aspirations of their claimants. I have taken it for granted 
that one of your generous and noble nature would spurn an 
ignoble act let it emanate from what source it may; and what 
can compare in meanness thro' retention of anothers property, 
when the ability to make restitution is manifested. 

I was very much gratified with the course you adopted on 
Genl Cass's resolutions. It has crossed my mind whether the 
early movement of these resolutions by him were not intended 
to place the Whigs in the wrong by the supposition that com- 
ing from the quarter they did they would be opposed Cass is a 
man of some genius, but sadly deficient in long sightedness as 
a Statesman. You recollect a question put to him by some de- 
signing friends of Mr Van Buren on his reaching this city from 
his French mission & as to his opinion of the utility & constitu- 
tionality of a U S Bank? and he had just returned too from the 
most crafty & subtle court in Europe; a friend who knows him 
intimately says he is deficient in moral courage, and is easily 
cowed, of this I know nothing. I do not even know his person. 
It is evident enough that he is commencing a game for the presi- 

I trust, and so does a large portion of the people that there 
is conservatism enough in the Senate to frustrate the folly 
and wickedness of some of its members who would for their 
own vile and selfish ends emboil this country in war with Eng- 
land. Should it take place there is not a town or city that would 
be reached with their Steam Marine that would not suffer and 
a majority would be destroyed. Can it be possible that a ma- 
jority of Congress can be mad enough to bring about so de- 
plorable a calamity? and all for what? It is worse than idle to 
suppose England is desirous of a conflict with us. There is every 

342 State Department of Archives and History 

inducement for a contrary conclusion. Here in this city the agita- 
tion of it is producing disastrous effects. What then would be 
the reality? Should it come it will drive thousands and tens of 
thousands into hopeless poverty. 

I trust that no apology is deemed necessary for the liberty 
I have taken in saying what I have on these subjects 

I am very truly & faithfully 
Your friend & obt. st. 

Daniel Mallory. 

To the Honb Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate. 

[Addressed : ] 

To the honorable, 
Willie P. Mangum 


"A True American'' to Willie P. Mangum 

Nev^ York Dec 24th 1845 
Dear Sir, 

In the present state of affairs, I have one or two things to 
present to your notice. From all accounts brought over to this 
country from Europe we are informed that England is making 
extensive preparations as for war. All eyes turn towards Oregon 
as the moving spirit. ^^^ May I not ask if it may not be making 
preparations to send her ships to the coast of Oregon and of 
erecting forts on the Columbia river, and then saying to us now 
take Oregon if you want it. She might be urged to this by the 
course the American press have been pursuing- I would sug- 
gest one thing and then I have done- it is this Would it not be 

^^^For a good discussion of the Oregon controversy and the danger of war with Great Britain 
see McCormac, James K. Polk, 555-611. 

The Mangum Papers 343 

better instead of comming to any agreement in regard to Oregon, 
at the present time, with England, or of laying claim to the 
country and sending troop there, instead of this I say to go on 
colonising, and affording every facility for emigration there, to 
our citizens there, at the same time establishing a sett of Laws 
by which our citizens could be governed and protected as the 
English have already done. Also by sending occasionally a 
body of mounted riflemen into the country and building stock- 
ades in the country, especially along the banks of the Columbia 
river. The advantage of this you will immediately perceive. 
For every soldier you sent, in the former case, you would be 
obliged to send his provisions to him, and every bushel of wheat 
would cost perhaps from four to five Dollars by the time it 
reached him, and meat in proportion- while in the latter case 
the man who emegrates there raises his own corn and is at no 
expense to the government and he would be as good a soldier 
as the former as he would be defending his own property. As 
to the riflemen, if the British say what are you sending bodies 
of armed men into the country, we can say merely to defend our 
citizens as you do yours. Look at the British fur Company. By 
these means we can take quiet possession of the country and 
in a few years say to the English, now come to to terms. Leav- 
ing these few thoughts for your consideration 

I remain 

Yours respectfully 
A True American 

P. S. I direct to you as I have forgotten at the moment the 
name of our senator but I trust any Whig 

[Addressed : ] 

TO The 

Honorable Mr Mangum 

D. C. 

344 State Department of Archives and History 

Willie P. Mangum to James K. Polk^^^ 

Washington 26th Dec. 1845. 


The President of the U States 


Two days ago Col. Ward requested me (as he was well war- 
ranted in doing, by reason of his knowledge of my former in- 
timacy with some of his most distinguished & near relatives) 
to hand you a note to day, as he understood from me, that I in- 
tended to make a call.- Circumstances prevent my carrying out 
that purpose; & I take the liberty of enclosing his note, lest 
Col. W. may think me negligent or careless in this matter. 

I am very sure, that if Col. W. shall succeed in his purpose, it 
will be gratifying to a large & extended Circle of relatives & 
friends in No. Ca.- all or nearly all, I am sorry to know, are 
democrats as well as agreeable to all- & as far as I know- of the 
delegation in Congress from that State. 

With high Consideration 
I am Sir 

Your Mo. obt. Sevt. 

Willie P. Mangum 


Willie P. Mangum to Sally, Patty & Mary Mangum 

Washington, 1^* January 1846. 
My dear daughters. 

I enclose an invitation^ to a ball at New York on the 8**^. 
inst. for you dear Mother & myself. — Will she come in time? I 

i^^The original is in the James K. Polk Papers, Library of Congress. I did not find the enclosed 
note of Colonel Ward. This letter has been previously published by Miss Elizabeth McPherson in 
the N. C. Hist. Rev. XVII, 266. 

Polk held a more kindly feeling toward Mangum than he did toward most Whigs. On one occa- 
sion he wrote in his diary that Mangum "though a Whig, is a gentleman, and fair & manly in his 
opposition to my administration." McCormac, James K. Polk, 336; Quaife, ed., Diary of James K. 
Polk, III, 381. 

^See above, Alexander F. Vache to W. P. Mangum, December 22, 1845. 

The Mangum Papers 345 

cannot ask you, as you are not invited.- This day is spent here 
in Visits - I have been out the most of the day- It is now 8V2 
oclock, at night.- I am nearer well than I have been, since my 
arrival.- We shall not have War. 

Look at the invitation enclosed. & Misses Sally & Patty will 
lay it before them & copy it an hundred times, & see if they 
cannot begin to write as well.- The invitation & the note, show 
that I struck the right note- Many other evidences to the same 
effect.- I spoke without warning, & without expecting it. 

Give My Love to your Mother & William, & believe me, as 
ever, with the strongest affection for all of you. 

Kiss Mother for me. 
W. P. Mangum 

Misses Sally, Patty & Mary Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 


Misses Sally, Patty & Mary Mangum 
Red Mountain 
No. Carolina 

James Cooper^ to Willie P. Mangum,. 

Harrisburg Jany 4 1846. 

My dear Sir: 

It is of very great importance to the Whigs of Penna. that 
the nomination of Judge Woodward^ to the Bench of the Sup. 
Court should not be confirmed. I have not time to give you the 
reasons at present. But be assured that I do not over-estimate 
the importance of his defeat when I say that it is more than 

^James Cooper, 1810-1863, was a member of Congress in 1839-1843 and of the Pennsylvania 
legislature in 1843, 1844, 1846, and 1848. He was his state's attorney general in 1849 just prior to 
his election to the United States Senate. He served in the Senate until 1855. In politics h^ was a 
Whig. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 846. 

^George Washington Woodward, 1809-1875, was judge of the fourth judicial district in Pennsyl- 
vania frorn 1841 to 1851. In 1845 Polk nominated him justice of the Supreme Court, but the Senate 
rejected his nomination. He served as judge of his state's supreme court from 1852 to 1867 and as 
a member of Congress from 1867 to 1871. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1728. 

346 State Department of Archives and History 

probable it will change the relative positions of parties in this 

Very truly & respectfully yours 
James Cooper. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon: W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Francis B. Whiting^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

St. Marks Florida 

January 5th, 1846. 


I trust you w^ill pardon the liberty I take in troubling you 
w^ith this communication, when the motives are made known: - 
I wish to call your attention to the appointment of Nathaniel 
W. Walker^ as Collector of the customs for this Port, made by 
the President during the recess of your honorable body. 

I have known this man for nearly seventeen years and am 
well assured no Senator would sustain his nomination if his 
perfect unfitness for office was made apparent — 

In the first place he left South Carolina for killing his half 
brother & though acquitted by Law, I know that he is still held 
in detestation by Genltmen cognizant of the fact: in proof of 
which you will please to refer to Col: Robert W. Alston of 
Quincy Florida, (with whom I presume you are personally ac- 
quainted,) formerly of Halifax N. Carolina. 

I also on yesterday ( Sunday 4th instant ) saw the said Walker 
gambling in a Grog shop in presence of eight or ten persons. 

^Whiting moved to Florida from Virginia after 1834. William and Mary Quarterly, Ser. 2, Vol. 
III. pp. 271, 275. 

^In 1842 he was the speaker of the Florida lower house of the legislature. His appointment as 
Collector of Customs at St. Marks was confirmed January 3, 1846. Dorothy Dodd, Florida Becomes 
a State, Tallahassee, 1945, 383; Executive Journal of the Senate, VII, 14, 24. 

The Mangum Papers 347 

I also assert without fear of contradiction, that this man is 
a notorious drunkard and entirely unqualified for so important 
an office and pledge myself to prove those & other serious 
charges against him whenever required by the proper authority. 

I have written also to Col. Benton, Hon. D. H. Lewis and 
Hon. W. T. Colquitt on the same subject to whom you will 
please to refer= — 

And beg to refer you to Gov. CalP & Geo K. Walker of Talla- 
hassee & Col. Alston (above named) as to myself. 

With great Respect 
Yours sincerely 

Francis B. Whiting 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed:] Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 
United States Senate. 
Washington City. D. C. 

Willie P. Mangum to Sally A. Mangum'^ 

Washington 5th. Jany. 1846 

My dear daughter Sally. 

I was distressed to learn from your Mother's letter, that 
your health is not good. — I trust my dear, you will clothe your- 
self sufficiently. — In the Winter, you & your sisters ought to 
wear flannel next to the skin, coming high up to the neck, & 
down to the hips — & you ought to wear thick cotton pantalettes, 
pinning or buttoning to the flannel. — Let me entreat you my 
dear daughter, to array yourself in the manner described. — 

I am now quite well — though I was quite otherwise, during 
the most of December. 

I sat down to write you but a line, as I am in a committee 
room, & must be in the Senate in 5 or 10 minutes. I send you 
a guide to Oregon. — What say you, after reading it? Shall we 

^Richard Call served as governor of Florida from 1835 to 1844. He was defeated for reeleaion 
in 1845. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 937. 

^The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C 

348 State Department of Archives and History 

go?^ Will Mother be willing? Do press it upon her & request 
her to write me a definitive answer. — The sal-Aratus would 
make Letty perfectly happy. — 

Does my boy go to school regularly? I hope he does, & is a 
good boy, & learns his books. Give your dear Mother, my love, 
& a kiss for me. & my love to Patty, Mary & my boy. 

May God bless & protect you all, is the constant aspiration of 

Yr affectionate Father 
Willie P. Mangum 

To Miss Sally A. Mangum— 

P. S. Let me know if you are all for Oregon — if so — We must 
be off early in March. 

W. P. M. 

Samuel Martin^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Campbells Station Tensee 6th Jay,/46 

Honorable Mangum 

D Sir 

Your State of N. Carolina is suffering a large drain on 
her Population not less than 20,000 must have left it during 
the last 5 months had the Canal been made as I have suggested 
to you much of this would have been saved. Those passing here 
say that in places corn is worth 1.25 p. Bushel had there been 
a Canal running from Newbern, Fayetteville & on to the Miss- 
issippi with one from the Mississippi through Tennessee & 
Georgia to Intersect this you could have had plenty of corn 
along the whole line for from 45 to 60 cents corn could be de- 
livered in Liverpool for 75 p. Bushel & your People hav to 
leave their homes or starve. This is a most miserable state of 
things. Your other States gains by it but it is Unnatural to think 
of such matters. Corn is here selling from 12V^ to 20 cents p. 

**Like many North Carolinians in rhis period, Mangum considered leaving his native state for a 
more prosperous region. He was importuned by his brother, Walter, to go to Mississippi and Texas. 
Thomas Jefferson Green tried to get him to buy the land of Dr. Branch T. Archer in Texas. So far 
as his papers show, he never went beyond the point of inquiry. 

»See above, 297n. 

The Mangum Papers 349 

Bushel. I hope you will think of this matter & of the few 
miles of Canal from Beaufort to Newbern if War comes as I 
fear it will it will make those think of Canals that scarcely 
dream of them at the Present Time. 

Samuel Martin. 
[Addressed : ] 

Honble. Mangum 

U. S. Senator 

W. City. 

W. Claihorne^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

[8 January, 1846] 
Dear Judge 

I have ben quite indisposed since I parted with you on tues- 
day evening last — From the heavy freight of Pendleton Veni- 
son & other good things I took on board on Saturday last at the 
Columbian House, combined with additional freight with you 
on tuesday last viz, oysters Pendleton vension, Pullets, plum 
puddings &c., I found that night, that the ship would founder 
unless I through over board a part of the Cargo, consequently 
I took a horse dose of Epsum salts and the way the young Bucks 
and Fawns (about the size of grasshoppers) were skipping 
about the House all day yesterday was a caution — I feel much 
better today but for fear of a relaps, I wish you would come 
over ( if convenient ) & write my will — I send the Paper loaned 
me - do send, or bring me another. 

Yr. Truly 
W. Claiborne. 
Jany 8th 1846. 

Thursday 5 P.M. 



Hon. W. P. Mangum 

loSee above, 202-203. 

350 State Department of Archives and History 

George W. Jones^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Orange Co, N. C. 

Jany: 10 th. 1846 
Dear Sir 

I desire you to cause to be forwarded to me the National In- 
telligencer as I do not think I can get along without it. I believe 
that the terms of subscription is Two dollars in advance per 

If you will be so kind as to advance that amount for me I 
will pay it to Mrs. Mangum, which I suppose will suit as well. 

I have nothing of interest to communicate- 1 learnt this even- 
ing by Moses Chambers^^ that Green Caldwell was nominated 
as the Democratic candidate for Governor. ^^ He is just from 
Raleigh He said that they desired him on his arrival in Raleigh, 
to have his name enrolled as a delegate from Person which he 
declined saying that Graham was democrat enough for him. 
Bank transactions took him down there & not the nomination 
of a democratic candidate. The nomination however you will 
learn thro' the papers ere you receive this 

I would be glad if you would send me a copy of your speeches 
as it is not in any paper I take - I have merely seen an extract 
in the Ral. Reg- 

Yours Truly 

Geo W. Jones 

[Addressed : ] [Postmarked : ] 

To Red Mountain N.C. 

Honb^^ Jany. 13"> 

W. P. Mangum 
Senator of U. S. 
Washington City 
D. C— 

"George W. Jones, of Orange County, was secretary of the Whig county meeting in 1844 and 
delegate to the state Whig convention in 1846. Hillsborough Recorder, June 6, 1844; January 8, 

i^Moses Chambers represented Person County in the state Constitutional Convention in 1835 
and the legislature in 1831-1841. N. C. Mammal, 758, 894. 

i^Green W. Caldwell, of Mecklenburg County, 1806-1864, graduated from the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1831 in medicine. He served as assistant surgeon in the United Stares Army for a 
few months in 1832. He then studied law and practiced in Charlotte. In 1836-1841 he was in 
the legislature and in 1841-1843 he was in Congress. He was Superintendent of the Charlotte Mint 
when he was nominated, January 8, 1846, by the Democratic state convention for governor. This 
nomination was due to the demand that a western Democrat be selected to carry that part of the 
state which normally voted for the Whigs. The nomination was a surprise to many delegates and to 
Caldwell himself. On January 20 he declined the nomination. Whereupon, James B. Shepard was 
selected to replace him. W. A. Graham, the Whig candidate, won the eleaion by a larger majority 
than in 1844. Caldwell also served in the Mexican War. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 116; Norton, De?no- 
crutk Parly ra N. C. 150-152; Hillsborough Recorder, January 22, 18-^6. 

The Mangum Papers 351 

J. R. Creecy to Willie P. MangumJ^ 

[10 January, 1846] 
My Dear Sir 

I will make no apology for thus troubling you feeling con- 
fident that if you can aid me you will- 

MY Son Dr. Will Clinton Creecy now in his 21st year holds a 
commission as Midshipman in the Texas Navy, he was eighteen 
months in active service with Commodore Moore, was in all the 
Battles with the Mexican Steam Ships of War served with much 
credit, I am fully authorized to say, has a strange fondness for 
the Navy, and wishes to be restored, he was treated as was his 
commodore by President Houston- I ask of you Sir, if he can be 
restored; if he can now by the terms of annexation take his 
place in our Navy as a midshipman, or whether he can in any 
way without much delay be entitled or appointed as one, 

I am unskilled, unitiated in the way of obtaining offices or 
appointments never having applied in any way to any one, and 
feeling as if I could not have any friends at Court, or rather 
among Courtiers- Some provisions may have been made for 
the officers of the Texan Navy in the articles of agreement (an- 
nexation) I am ignorant on the subject entirely- Can you spare 
time to ascertain for me, whether there is any chance or prospect 
for my Son; If he can get an appointment at once we are willing 
he should take it on any terms; he only wishes to be in the 
Navy in active Service if possible without delay- I am now 
living in this City, and will ever be happy to hear of your hap- 

Very truly 
yr um ob 

J. R. Creecy. 
New Orleans 10th January 1846. 

[Addressed : ] 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 
United States Senate 
Washington City. 

i'*See below J. R. Creecy to W. P. Mangum, June 5. 1846, and W. P. Mangum to the Secretary 
of the Navy, May 27, 1846, 

352 State Department of Archives and History 

Thomas J. Green to the People of Texas.^-^ 

Washington City, Jan. 10th 1846. 

A friend has just placed in my hand a "Galveston Civilian" 
of the 13th ult., containing a letter from Gen. Sam Houston, 
purporting to be a vindication of his conduct in reference to the 
decimation of our countrymen in Mexico. Gen Houston in his 
letter, failing to adduce any evidence of his innocence of this 
enormous crime, has endeavoured to divert public attention 
from his guilt, by the grossest, false and vindictive — I had al- 
most said unparalleled slander of myself. In this I w^ould have 
erred, for it has many parallels from Gen. Houston himself. 
His publication of the gallant Commodore Moore to the world 
as an outlaw^ and pirate, at the identical time that his cannon 
were thundering against more than ten times his force, that of 
our common enemy — his reiterated slanders against the brave 
Generals Burleson, Sherman and Wharton, and almost every 
other distinguished man in Texas — his oft repeated ridiculous 
charges against ex-President Burnet, one of the purest men in 
any country — his vile denunciation of Gen. Stephen F. Austin, 
the father of his country — his perfidious slander of the spotless 
wife of his own bosom — yea, in his general character as an uni- 
versal calumniator, countless parallels might be adduced. 
Though his charges against myself must meet that contempt 
from every honest man which has followed the habitual false- 
hoods of his whole life, yet the circumstances in which Gen. 
Houston and myself are now placed before the people of Texas, 
make it proper that I should appear before the public through 
the same medium. And I will ask what other redress is left 
me? It is well known that Gen. Houston holds himself perfectly 
irresponsible. If personal chastisement be inflicted upon him, 
as was done by the Hon. Branch T. Archer and Col. Jordon, he 
either pleads sickness or old age. If falsehood is proved upon 
him, as was done by Mr. Wingfield, and many others, he pleads 
drunkenness. It is due to myself then, that I should in this case 
prove his falsehood, and "out of his own mouth will I convict 

^This is a printed circular. Compare it to the circular letter of Green to the "Electors of the 
Western Congressional Distria of the State of Texas," October 25, 1845. 

The Mangum Papers 353 

Fellow citizens, it has been three long years and over, since 
the hard fought and sanguinary battle of Mier: a few days 
more will make three years, since that gallant little band of 
your countrymen was made to draw in a black-bean lottery, 
and each tenth man shot. Such a cold blooded murder astonished 
the whole civilized world, and put to the test the wisest poli- 
ticians of the most civilized nations, to know what sufficient 
cause could be assigned therefor. Could it be that they had 
fought under the requirements of their own government, con- 
sidering the disparity of forces and the circumstances of the 
case, the hardest fought battle in the annals of war? Could it 
be, that when captives, they had, while emaciated and worn 
down by the fatigues of a long and wearisome march, risen up- 
on double their number of armed guards, overpowered and 
dispersed them uninjured, and then peaceably pursued their 
way homewards? No! these actions met the praises, not only 
of all civilized nations, but even the highest encomiums of semi- 
barbarian Mexico. For what then could such a shocking murder 
have been perpetrated? Alone, upon the most authoritative 
evidence, that they were without the pale of those laws which 
govern civilized nations in war. Did that evidence exist? If so, 
who furnished it, and how came it to the knowledge of that 

In this letter, fellow citizens, I must necessarily confine my- 
self to a brief statement of this matter and refer every man, 
who wishes to know the whole history of it, to appendix No. 2, 
page 450 and appendix No. 6, page 477 of my work upon Texas 
and Mexico, in which, will be seen stated, all the evidence in 
the case and such evidence, as no man, so far as I have heard, 
of the thousands and tens of thousands in this country, who 
have read it, pretended to doubt. That evidence is — that Sam. 
Houston, the President of Texas, early in the year 1843 and 
soon after the battle of Mier, wrote a letter to Capt. Elliot, Her 
Britanic Majesty's Charge D'Affairs, residing in Galveston, 
which he, Houston, requested him, Elliot, to forward to Mexico 
and which he, Elliot, did as he was requested; in which Hous- 
ton said, ''that though the Mier prisoners had entered Mexico, 
contrary to law and authority, yet he, Houston, begged mercy 
for them &c." It is in evidence, that upon the receipt of this 
letter of Presd't Houston, that Santa Anna, the President of 

354 State Department of Archives and History 

Mexico ordered the decimation, showing, that the President of 
Texas was the highest, and sufficient authority for this horrible 
deed: because, that evidence had proclaimed them brigands 
and robbers. 

Fellow citizens, these facts came to the knowledge of my- 
self and companions, through the American and English minis- 
ters, while we were in the dungeons of Mexico, very soon after 
this sad tragedy in March 1843, After my escape from the 
castle of Perote and in October of the same year, I published 
them in the "Galveston News" and notwithstanding President 
Houston's then control of the Mails and Post Offices of Texas 
and the limited circulation of that journal, he, Houston know- 
ing the truth of these charges and feeling a murderer's guilt, 
commenced his vindication by denying with uplifted eyes, that 
he every wrote or caused to be written, the letter charged to 
him. (See Lieut. S. H. Walker's statement, page 453.) This was 
President Houston's first defence of himself; but upon my re- 
ceipt and publication of Gen. Waddy Thompson's and the British 
Minister's letters from Mexico, proving the falsity of his denial, 
he fled to the Presbyterian Church in the town of Houston, in 
November of the same year and made a speech, which was 
published in all his newspapers of that day, and which he said, 
"it was not my friend's, Capt. Elliotfs letter, that produced the 
mischief," thereby implying, that Elliott had written the letter. 
In said speech however, he goes on to charge all the conse- 
quences of that murder, to a letter, which Gen. M. Hunt had 
written to, and which was published in the "Houston Tele- 
graph" of the 18th of Jan. previously. This is Gen Houston's sec- 
ond defence, and thus, up to this hour, so far as I am informed, 
Gen. Hunt and the Telegraph, stands charged by Gen. Houston, 
with the horrid butchery. On the 12th of December, which 
was about one month after his speech was published, in his 
annual message to Congress, he again changes his ground and 
said, that "it was a retaliation on account of those under Gen. 
Somerville who rohhed Laredo," charging this murder, to those 
who returned from that place with Col. Bennett. Thus you see, 
for the third time, in the short space of a few months, when 
pursued by the ghosts of these murdered heroes, he changes 
his ground of defence. Now, fellow citizens, after a lapse of 
nearly three years, when his control over the public intelligence 

The Mangum Papers 355 

of Texas, is about to give way to an honest administration of 
the mails, - when my work upon Texas and Mexico, has gone 
the length and breadth of this great nation, and carried con- 
viction to the mind of every man, who has read it, that Sam. 
Houston is the wilful and malicious murderer of his country- 
men of Mier, and just on the eve of the Congressional elections 
and in my absence from Texas, he comes out in the "Civilian" 
of the 13th of last month and charges this crime upon myself, 
as having been the "first to incite the men" to the plunder of 
Laredo. Thus, for the fourth time. Gen Houston, has changed 
his defence. But fellow citizens, falsehood and crime will al- 
ways convict itself, because it rarely ever tells one steady tale. 
Gen. Houston, after changing his defence, as you have seen 
four different times, comes out in his latest publication and for 
the first time admits that ''he wrote the letter to Capt. Elliott." 
It cannot be forgotten, in Texas, how often, for the last three 
years, both Gen. Houston and his partizans have denied this 
fact, and it would have been better for him always to have 
denied it; for then many of his blinded friends, would either 
have believed or professed to believe, that he never had written 
it. The cool effrontery of Gen. Houston's letter to the "Civilian" 
can only be equalled by himself — See how he commences: 

Mr. H. Stuart, 
Dear Sir: — Believing that I should be delinquent in duty to 
others as well as myself, if I were longer to remain silent, 
touching the facts connected with the Mier prisoners, subse- 
quent to their capitulation, I will now express myself." — Now 
express himself! Thus after three years dodging about between 
subterfuge and falsehood, he will now express himself. The 
true reason for his expressing himself now, is the near ap- 
proach to the Senatorial election and if, by the perpetration of 
any possible falsehood upon myself, he can thereby prevent my 
election, to the House of Representatives, he and his crimes, 
may be saved from that fearless exposure in the U. S. Con- 
gress, which I have never failed to visit upon him in the Texas 
Congress. My friendship for Western Texas has been as long, 
constant and as ardent, as has been Gen. Houston's hostility to 
that bleeding country and while he has done everything, to de- 
populate and destroy it, I have stood by it, both in Congress 
and the field. — While Gen. Houston's policy has been to sur- 

356 State Department of Archives and History 

render to the Colorado, mine has been to defend to the Rio 
Grande, and I am proud to say, that my position is sustained by 
the President of the U. S. But let Gen. Houston, slander me 
out of an election to the House of Representatives, and bargain 
himself into the U. S. Senate. What may Western Texas not 
expect, short of an attempt at a surrender to the Nueces? 

Fellov^ citizens, the vindictiveness of Gen Houston's last de- 
fence can only be equalled by its stupidity. If the plunder of 
Laredo had been a sufficient cause for the decimation of your 
countrymen, and I had been the "first to incite the men to that 
plunder," w^hy did not Santa Anna have me shot? His personal 
hostility to myself for the last ten years was well known, and 
the slightest pretext would have been sufficient for him to have 
practised his bloody vengeance upon my person. If Gen, 
Houston's charge be correct, I ask, in the name of common 
sense, why it was that innocent, unoffending men, were made 
to pay the penalty of my crime? Why it was that Majors Cocke 
and Dunham, Captains Cameron and Eastland, Este, Harris, 
Jones and Mahan, Ogden, Roberts, Rowan and Shepard, Thomp- 
son, Torry, Trumbull, Wing, and the "iron nerved" Whaling, 
were made to pay the penalty of my wrong-dong? This charge, 
like a badly counterfeited dollar, carries its own condemna- 
tion upon its face, and I should not have deemed it worthy of 
notice, but to show the recklessness of one who scruples at no 
falsehood to serve his ambition and hatred. 

Fellow citizens, what Gen. Houston asserts in his letter, 
about promptly furnishing the Mier prisoners in Mexico, with 
the supplies which Congress had voted them, is as untrue as 
the balance of his letter, and I will take the journals of Con- 
gress and his own letter to prove it. The facts are these: — 
Early in December, 1845, and soon after the meeting of Con- 
gress, the destitution of our countrymen in Mexico, was pressed 
upon the attention of Congress by myself, the Hon. Wm. E. 
Jones, S. H. Maverick, and others, who had tasted some of the 
sweets of a Mexican prison. To the honor of that Congress, be it 
known, no time was lost in voting $15,000 for their relief, 
under the requirement that it should be forthwith furnished 
them. It was then deemed best by the Congress, for the good 
of our countrymen in prison, that this law should not be made 
public at the time. About two months after, and at nearly the 

The Mangum Papers 357 

close of the session, the Secretary of the Treasury was called 
upon by myself and others, to know what had been done in 
carrying out this law. To our surprise and mortification, we 
were informed, that not a dollar had been sent them, and no 
measures taken to send them one. We saw then, full well, 
that President Houston, would cloak his vindictive direliction 
of duty under a law then not designed to be made public; and 
just before the close of the Congress another law was passed 
in open session, appropriating an additional $15,000. This law 
was passed without the repeal of the former, and thus the Con- 
gress, under full consideration for the eminent services of these 
men, voted $30,000 to their relief. We come now to the ques- 
tion, how much of this money was sent to these men, and when 
it was sent to them. Gen. Houston tells you in his letter, that 
on the 19th of October, 1844, one draft was drawn for $3,740. — 
Mark the time — this is ten months and a half from the passage 
of the law. But he says that he sent Mr. Potter as a special 
agent, (Mr. Hargous refusing to act as such) with $2,500. Now 
I ask the question of every Mier man, did they ever receive 
one dollar of this appropriation while in prison. No! On the 
16th of September, the survivors were turned loose at the gates 
of Perote, like so many cattle, with the exception, that the 
"magnanimous Mexican nation" gave each man one silver dol- 
lar to bear his expenses to Texas. With that silver dollar they 
started home, and at Jalapa, for the first time, they were fur- 
nished, through Mr. Hargous, $2,000. These are the historical 
facts of the case, proved by the acts of Congress, now upon 
your statute book, the assertion of every Texian then in Perote, 
and the confessions of Gen. Houston's own letter. Was there 
any possible excuse for this cruel delay, even had Mr. Hargous 
refused to act as our agent? Was Mr. Hargous the only man in 
Mexico through whom money could be transmitted?, Or was 
it [at] all necessary that we should have an agent? I say not! 
and Gen. Houston knew full well, that in one week from the 
passage of that act, he could have placed the money in some 
responsible house or bank in New Orleans, and with a certificate 
of deposite and authority sent to Gen. Fisher, or Quarter Master 
Fenton, Mr. Gibson, or any other officer in the Castle of Perote, 
to draw for the same, could have been cashed in one hour at 
that place, at a premium of six per cent. Thus, with this small 

358 State Department of Archives and History 

paper, which could have been sent to them in twenty days 
from the passage of the act, every $100 on deposit in New 
Orleans would have been worth to them in their cheerless and 
destitute prison, $106. 

But fellow citizens, in these long ten months of witholding 
the bread of your dying countrymen did President Houston 
hear no complaints from them? Yes! not a sail that crossed the 
Gulf which did not bring from the miserable cells of Perote 
the lamentations of the sick and dying; and the bones of eighty 
odd noble souls now scattered from the bottom of the great 
ditch of Perote, to nearly every prison-yard in Mexico, is ev- 
idence of "President Houston's friendship for the Mier men." — 
Did President Houston hear no other complaints from the Mier 
men? Yes, indeed, be it told to their eternal honor! though it 
has been well said that starvation for the want of food is the 
greatest subduer of the physical man, yet, when these noble 
countrymen of ours heard that President Houston had his com- 
missioners across the Rio Grande, signing their country away 
as the "Department of Texas/' though they were at that time 
living skeletons and daily depositing some of their comrades 
in that horrible ditch, they nobly wrote home, which should be 
written in letters of gold and engraven upon every patriot's 
heart, "Let no consideration of us forfeit your country's honor: 
let us rot in these dungeons ere you concede one inch to these 
colored barbarians." 

All this is only equalled by one thing in the conclusion of 
Gen. Houston's letter, which I must think caps the climax of 
every assertion and assumption of his whole life — to wit: that 
"The day will come when it will be shown, that he obtained 
the release of the Mier prisoners." This beats ''Coqueting" 
about Annexation, so far, that I cannot well conceive, how his 
most devoted followers can read it with becoming gravity. "The 
day will come." Was there ever so propitious a day for Gen. 
Houston to prove that thing as now, when the separate national- 
ity of Texas is merged in this great confederacy and when he 
is staking everything, for a seat in that dignified branch of the 
Congress of this Union, which, should he succeed, it cannot fail 
to experience the disgrace of that success. 

Fellow citizens, so much for Gen. Houston and the Mier 
men, and in conclusion, I must crave your further attention to 

The Mangum Papers 359 

that part of his letter personal to myself. — Gen. Houston says 
that in the sacking of Laredo, I was "the first man, who broke 
open a house and incited the men to outrage." I know not what 
milder epithet to give to this charge, than to say it is maliciously, 
infamously false. It is known by the whole army, that on the 
day of the sacking of Laredo, I did not leave the camp, which 
was three miles below the town and that when those that had 
participated in the sacking, returned to the camp, I was among 
the most active, in getting them to return the articles to Gen. 
Somerville's quarters, to be re-delivered to the alcalde, and 
the well known fact that every Mier man, with many others, 
did so return them, relieves them from Gen. Houston's charge 
of crime, if crime it was. That some who returned from Laredo 
with Col. Bennett, did not return the articles taken from the town 
is also well known. These men are known to be Gen. Houston's 
warmest friends, and they must settle with him, this high 
charge of robbery which he brings against them. I will how- 
ever defend these friends of Gen Houston, against his whole- 
sale denunciations. 

On the 8th of December 1842, Gen. Somerville's forces ar- 
rived at the Town of Laredo after seventeen days march from 
their camp upon the Medina, having exhausted the whole of 
more than three hundred beeves which they started with from 
the San Antonio, Gen. Somerville, made a requisition for 8 or 
10 beeves, which was barely rations for one day and then took 
the backward track home. The men had been promised supplies, 
upon the Rio Grande and now found that promise neglected. 
They had by every law of war and nature, a right to be fed, and 
if the Gen. did not do it, through his commissariat, they were 
reduced to the alternative of doing so of their own accord, 
though with becoming patience, they awaited a whole day, for 
the General to comply with his promise, and did not attempt 
to supply themselves until he had made a retrograde march of 
three miles homewards. That these men took articles useless 
and unbecoming soldiers was more the fault of their General, in 
not telling them what was lawful to take, than in their not 
knowing what was so lawful by the usages of war. Now I will 
ask, did President Houston inform these men, what was pro- 
per by the laws of war to take, when in his address to the people 
of Texas in July 1842, he called upon them to "pursue the 

360 State Department of Archives and History 

enemy in to his own country and chastise him for his insolence 
and wrongs." No! These are his identical instructions, published 
in all the newspapers of the day. The Government (says Presi- 
dent Houston) will promise nothing hut authority to march, and 
such supplies of ammunition as may he needful for the cam- 
paign. They must look to the valley of the Rio Grande for re- 
muneration. — The Government will claim no portion of the 
spoils; they will he divided among the victors. The flag of Texas 
will accompany the expedition." Thus much for President 
Houston's calumny of the sacking of the Laredo; and while the 
Texian army has been in the invariable habit, during our rev- 
olution of quartering upon our own citizens, while in the field, 
he would have them starve while in an enemies country, though 
called there by his own proclamation. 

Fellow citizens, the manner in which Gen. Houston has 
lugged Mr. Hargous into his letter, shows a vindictive hatred 
of that gentleman, which he, Houston, has manifested in several 
of his veto messages on those laws of your Congress, which pro- 
vided to pay him the money he furnished our countrymen of 
the Santa Fe Expedition while in Mexico. Wherefore, I ask, 
has Gen. Houston thus formally brought Mr. Hargous before 
his government? - There can be but one answer. — It is the same 
manifestation of his murderous intent which caused him to 
write to Santa Anna, that the ''Mier men had gone into Mexico 
without authority of law," and while I trust that the fatal con- 
sequences of his Mier letter may not befall this excellent gentle- 
man, it is due, both to him and myself, to state the particulars 
of a transaction for which President Houston, in January, 1844, 
received the unanimous rebuke of the House of Representatives 
of Texas. 

The facts are these, fellow citizens: — In June, 1843, while in 
the castle of Perote, I received, as was known to all my com- 
panions, several letters from my brother, Col. C. P. Green, of 
N. C, saying, that in July he would come to Mexico, to see how 
he could best serve me. On the 2d of that month, not content 
to wait the arrival of my brother, I escaped from prison, with 
fifteen of my countrymen. After weeks of suffering in the moun- 
tains, myself, Capt. C. K. Reese, and Interpreter, Dan Drake, 

The Mangum Papers 361 

Henrie, of Brazoria County, Rd. Barclay, and R. Cornegay, of 
Fayette County, and John Forrester, of the town of Houston, 
met in disguise in the City of Vera Cruz; Capt. Reese had been 
provided with some means through his father's factor, in New 
Orleans, and Mr. Hargous furnished me with $130, and I be- 
came responsible for the balance of the passages of my com- 
rades on board the steamer Petrita, to New Orleans, which, in 
all, amounted to $280. I distinctly told Mr. Hargous that it was 
more than probable I would meet my brother in New Orleans, 
and in expectation of which, I would draw for the $280 upon 
him; but at the same time, I would draw a duplicate draft 
upon the Government of Texas, that for a like purpose Gen. 
McLeod and Col. Cooke had drawn the year previously in his 
favor, for the Santa Fe prisoners, for several thousand dollars; 
that I was satisfied that Gen. Houston, would neither pay the 
one or the other, for he never was known to pay his own debts 
voluntarily, and rarely under any circumstances, but that the 
Texas congress would. When we sailed on the Petrita, John 
Forester preferred to work his passage as fireman, thereby re- 
ducing my indebtedness to Mr. Hargous to $255. On my arrival 
at New Orleans I had sufficient money to pay for the use of a 
bed, and drink of grog each. The next day through the kind- 
ness of my friends. Col. W. M. Beal and Chas. Duroche, I was 
enable to furnish some of them still farther. In a few days 
after we sailed for Texas, I becoming individually responsible 
for passages of four to Capt. Furguson. Upon my arrival in 
New Orleans, instead of meeting my brother as I expected, I 
received the melancholy intelligence that he was upon his death 
bed, and from which he never arose. This fact was known to 
the Supercargo of Mr. Hargous, in Orleans, and at my request 
he sent the duplicate draft to the Government of Texas, which 
he accompanied with some stupid complaints of my brother 
not meeting him in Orleans. At this time I was a member of 
Congress, and had exposed Houston's murder of our decimated 
Mier men. and all other of his mal-practices coming under my 
knowledge, with that unreserve well known to you all. Upon 
the receipt of this draft for $280, expended upon our suffering 
countrymen, President Houston laid it before the House of 

362 State Department of Archives and History 

Representatives, in a special message, with reflections against 
myself. Upon the presentation of v^hich, the House unanimously 
refused to receive his message, and ordered the Clerk forthwith 
to return it to him : thus rebuking him in a manner never know^n 
before or since in the history of the Texian Congress. Did the 
Congress stop here? No! the draft for the $280 was incorporated 
in Mr. Hargou's Santa Fe outlay, without one dissenting vote, 
and if that gentleman has not yet received his whole dues, it 
has been on account of the constant hostility of President 
Houston and Jones, which their veto messages will prove. — 
For these facts I refer to the journals of Congress and the Hon. 
Wm. E. Jones, who was chairman of the Committee, as well as 
to every member of the House of Representatives, and challenge 
their denial. 

Thus, fellow citizens, just upon the eve of your congressional 
election, while I have been here, at my own expense, in the 
absence of any authorized agent of Texas, working for her in- 
terest, and I trust not without effect, have I been arraigned be- 
fore the public, in a hirling press, by the prince of calumniators, 
and it is now for every dispassionate man to say, whether I have 
proved him such by his own documents; and while a proper self 
respect would cause me to pass in silence the contemptible 
pensioned scribblers who may reiterate Gen. Houston's false- 
hoods, yet his position before the people of Texas, and my re- 
spect for them require of me a different treatment. My present 
duty then is to administer the antidote from the same cup, (the 
public press) out of which he has emptied his venom. Nor can I 
allow myself to believe that there are but the fewest number 
of editors, so dead to every principle of honor and justice, as to 
be the means of propagating the vilest falsehoods against me, 
without affording me the same means of proving them such. 

Thomas J. Green. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 363 

John M. Botts to Willie P. Mangum. 

Jany 13th 1846 

Dear Mangum — 

Being no longer President of the Senate, (a situation in 
which I wish you could have retained as long as it was agree- 
able to you, ) you might find time if you ever think of me now, to 
drop me an occasional line to let an old and sincere friend to 
let him know what was going on in the hig world. 

Are we to have War? Did you receive a paper from me & 
did you read it? and what impression did it make on your mind? 
Will the resolution of the committee of Foreign affairs reported 
by Allen^^ pass the Senate or Not? I should be glad to hear from 
you and an answer to these several enquiries- and particularly 
tell me what has become of Morehead, & why he is not in Wash- 
ington- I hope he is not sick- 
Why don't the Whig party thunder against the War! are 
they afraid of a nick name- are they afraid of taking the re- 
sponsibilty of preserving the peace of the world, & being called 
"British Whigs" Let them throw the responsibility of the war, 
(which is cuning ruse) on the authors of it, & we shall see after 
awhile, when the taxes are to be paid, & the battles to be fought, 
without seeing, what it is we are fighting for, where the shoe 

I am afraid timidity, exercises more control over the policy 
of the Whigs in Washington than true wisdom- as you dont be- 
long to the timid family- suppose you shake it off from their 
shoulders- & put them on the true track, & denounce it on every 
occasion — as an ungodly unnecessary & unprovoked war. that 
is provided you agree with me, as to the ''fixed facts." 

^'^William Allen, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, on December 18, 
1845, presented a joint resolution which advised the President " 'to give, forthwith,' the necessary 
notice for terminating the convention of 1827 with Great Britain." In April after two months' debate 
by the Senate, Allen moved that his resolution be laid on the table and that the Senate adopt the 
resolution of the House which directed the President to notify England that the convention would be 
abrogated. The Senate added that this notice would be given at the discretion of the President. Mc- 
Cormac, James K. Polk, 586. 599. 

364 State Department of Archives and History 

Do let me hear from you. 

I am your friend very truly, 
Jno M Botts. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon Willie P Mangum 
U S Senate 

Henry M. Bickel to Willie P. Mangum. 

Phila. Hall. Jan, 14th, 1846— 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 


By order of the Philomathaen Society of Pennsylvania 
College, I hereby inform you, that you have been elected an 
honorary member of that Association. 

The object of this society is, to cultivate and diffuse among 
its members liberal principles, and to promote the great objects 
of social, moral, and intellectual improvement. 

An answer is respectfully requested. I take pleasure in 
subscribing myself 

Your obedient servant 

Henry M. Bickel, 
Cor. Sec. 

Gettysburg- Pa. 

[Addressed : J 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum LL.D. 


D. C. 

The Mangum Papers 365 

William H. Haywood Jr., to Willie P. Mangum. 

Friday Night 16 Jan 1846. 
My Dear Sir 

I am ready to start for home in the Boat to night but some 
of my friends are seized with a panic about Slidells nomination^'' 
and I have pacified them by a promise to pair off with you upon 
the question of confirming it viz: that if I am not here you will 
not vote against his confirmation and that I would make that 
arrangement with you before I left I am sure you do not feel 
any deep solicitude upon the question and it will be a sad disap- 
pointment to me not to go home in the situation of my family 
and affairs there. Wherefore I take the liberty of asking if you 
are willing to accomodate me by entering into this arrangement? 
If it will put you under the slightest embarrassment I shall 
not deem it at all unkind to refuse me. If otherwise as I hope 
may be the case I feel sure you will oblige me. An answer if 
you please 

respy & truly yours 

Will H Haywood Jr 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
From Will H. Haywood Jr E & 8th 

John HilP^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Wilmington N C 

19" Jany 1846 
Hon^i^. Willie P. Mangum 

My dear Sir. 

My son W™ is desirous of spending a portion of his vaca- 
tion at the Cambridge Law School, in visiting the city of Wash- 

^^On December 22, 1845, Polk nominated John Slidell as envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary to Mexico. The nomination was confirmed January 20, 1846. Mangum voted against 
confirmation. Executive Journal of the Senate, VII, 9, 33, 34, 35, 36. 
^^See above, II, 131a. 

366 State Department of Archives and History 

ington, seeing the great men of the Nation & listening to the 
interesting debates which are in progress in Congress, and I 
presume upon **auld lang syne" in introducing him to you, & in 
asking for him such civilities as it may be convenient for you 
to bestow^ upon him. 

I hope the Friends of peace & of humanity, v^ill be able to 
avert the calamities of war, which seem to be impending. 

With a vivid recollection of by gone days, & with much con- 
sideration & respect 

I am very truly 

John Hill 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon^^« W. P. Mangum 
Washington City 

Wm Hill 

J. C. Clark^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Chenango N. Y. Jany 19. 1846 
My Dear Sir. 

I see in a Philadelphia paper a notice of a rumour that Mr. 
Secretary Bancroft is about to commence a new order of things 
in regard to promotion of officers in the Navy. He is about to 
adopt the ''jumping" system. When will locofocoism cease to 
lay its unhallowed hands upon the old well tried & glorious in- 
stitutions of the Country? Is it not enough that we have seen 
the prosperity of the Country blighted - its industry crippled - 
its currency destroyed - and its law - its order, and its constitu- 
tion disturbed & broken down by its ruthless — levelling & de- 
structive spirits — But we are now doomed to witness the de- 
gradation of the gallant officers of our deathless Navy - and a 
fatal blow given to its prosperity. No, I will not believe it - un- 

^''John Chamberlain Clark, 1793-1852, was a Democratic member of Congress in 1827-1839- 
In 1837 he changed to the Whig party because of Van Buren's proposal of the Independent Treasury. 
He was reelected as a Whig and served from 1839 to 1843. In the latter part of his life he engaged 
in the lumber business. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 816. 

The Mangum Papers 367 

till the deed is actually consummated — Should the Secretary 
be so forgetful of his duty to the Navy and its brave officers, as 
to open the door to trickery & favoritism in their promotions, 
I trust the Senate will slam it back in his face. 

Is it not enough to satisfy the aggressive restless & innovating 
spirit of the Secretary, that an officer standing fair on the Naval 
Register having at all times done his duty faithfully & devotedly, 
without a blot on either his Naval or professional reputation, 
should await the tardy movements of time & death to make a 
place for him in the usual & regular lists of promotions — But 
he would go counter to the instinct of Locofocoism and level 
up some favorites - some nephews - cousins - or cousins-cousins - 
to a grade [to] which they hold no just title - and at the expense 
of the lacerated feelings & wounded honor of men higher, as 
well on the list of merit & gallant service, as on that of the 
Navy — But even in this operation the instinct referred to, 
would be followed - for in levelling up one favorite - all above 
him on the register would be levelled down. 

I cannot conceive a blow could be aimed at the Navy, more 
fatal to its interest or more unjust to the fearless men - who 
have shed so much lustre upon the Country — When it shall hap- 
pen, that some demagogue commander, who instead of devoting 
his time & talents to the discharge of his proper professional 
duties shall prostitute them, by electioneering & catering for 
votes, to continue in power a corrupt executive, shall be elevated 
to office over the heads of his Seniors & probably betters - we 
may then bid "farewell & long farewell" to the order - the learn- 
ing the efficiency - and the glory of the Navy 

The country has furnished some examples of officers on 
shore "waiting orders" traversing it as partizon electioneers, & 
heralding from the stump the virtue & glories of their favorite 
candidate for the Presidency — Should the Secretary be per- 
mitted to carry out his plan as shadowed forth in the paper 
alluded to, these examples would be multiplied to a most dis- 
quieting extent. Among the officers of the Navy, instead of a 
generous rivalry, of who should best serve the country and ad- 
vance the best interests of the Navy, the strife would be, who 
could do the most to advance his favorite political aspirant to 
power.- The aliment of this strife would be the hope and expect- 

368 State Department of Archives and History 

ation of reward, in the shape of a post captaincy, at the ex- 
pense of quiet, modest men of ten times their worth. 

But I need not in talking with my old friend enlarge upon 
the disastrious consequences which would inevitably flow from 
the adoption of the suggested policy. 

For many years I have known your friendship to the Navy & 
I have no fears that you will sit silently by, & see it desecrated. 

It has given me much satisfaction to witness your course & 
that of most of our Whig friends in Congress in regard to the 
Oregon matter. — Every Whig in this region of the Country 
opposes it- The Whigs — honest confiding souls, have put their 
feet into not a few Locofoco traps, first & last, - But they have 
had sagacity enough to keep out of this Oregon pit-fall. The 
Locos have inflated their lungs to shout to the top of their 
bent, ''Hartford Convention" - "British Whigs" - "Peace Party" 
& "all that sort of thing" - They may now puff it out & breath 
free again - as we stand "recti in curia" ready to fight like D - s 
if Polk will take the responsibilty of giving us guns & ammuni- 

Will you have the kindess to present to Mr. Crittenden & 
Morehead my sincere regards and accept for yourself the as- 
surance of my friendship. 

J. C. Clark. 

Thurlow Weed to Willie P. Mangum 

Albany, Jan, 19, 1846. 
Dear Sir, 

Excuse, I pray you, my importunities. Were our mutual 
friend Morehead at Washington, you would escape these inflic- 
tions, as I have his permission to tax his time. 

I send you, in the Eve. Jour. Resoultions submitted to-day. 
They express the sense of our friends in this State upon the 
Oregon question.^^ We could not stand here upon weaker ground. 

2"In 1845-1846 Thurlow Weed and the New York Whigs were uncertain about the course to 
take about Oregon. At times they blamed the Democrats for provoking a crisis and at other times 
they defended the American claim to Oregon. Weed wanted the Whigs to avoid a pacifist attitude or 
they might fall into another Hartford Convention trap. Van Deusen, Life of Weed, 146-147. See 
also the resolutions in the New York legislature in Jabez D. Hammond, Political History of the State 
of New York, Syracuse, 1848, III, 588. 590. 

The Mangum Papers 369 

If we should attempt it the People would run away ahead of us. 
And we take this ground because we believe that a Northern 
Peace Party would tempt both our own and the English Gov- 
ernment to plunge us into War. We think, too, that we stand 
best upon the record, and that therefore the ground taken is 
both right and expedient. 

Without its Proviso, we should have hailed Mr Crittenden's 
Resolution-^ with the enthusiasm which Mr. Hillards speech 
excited. We know Mr. Crittenden would delight to follow him. 

We are all grateful for the patriotic direction you gave to 
the first War demonstration made in the Senate, and we look 
with confidence to your wisdom and firmness in taking the 
Country and the Whig Party safely through this ordeal. Should 
Congress adjourn without advising the President to give the 
notice, in his own time and way, the Administration will go to 
the People with an issue that will overwhelm us. 

With great respect, 

I am truly yours, 

T. Weed. 

C. P. Kingshury^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Camp near Corpus Christi, Texas, 

January 22nd 1846. 
Dear Sir: 

The splendor of a Washington ''assembly room," where we 
last parted, is removed almost as far from the frail and simple 
structure in which I am now writing, as is the Capitol of the 
Republic from the Army of Occupation. You will perhaps be 
surprised to receive a letter from me in this part of North 
America, where I have been exiled since last August. The cam- 
paign however, as you are aware, has thus far been pregnant 
with events of but little importance, and we can boast of noth- 
ing more glorious in the line of duty than the daily drill and 

^Klrittenden's resolution amounted to an instruction to the President to resume negotiations over 
the Oregon questions to see if an amicable settlement could be arranged. Wiltse, Calhoun: Sectionalist, 

22See above. II, 2n. 

370 State Department of Archives and History 

parade, which are poor equivalents for the "revels" that were 
anticipated in the "halls of the Montezumas." Yet one practical 
result even now, has been obtained- a knowledge of the soil, cli- 
mate and resources of what has hitherto been a terra incognita - 
which may some day serve to dispel the illusions which have 
gone abroad, in relation to its qualities as an agricultural and 
commercial country. I will not now however, trouble you with 
the perusal of views and speculations which would occupy time 
known to be valuable, but come at once to the purpose of this 

In this obscure corner of the world, though almost forming a 
fraction of the United States, we hear but little, and that at a 
late day, of what transpires in Congress. But among the items 
of intelligence, that have traversed even Texas, is the rumor 
of the probable passage of a law creating two or three additional 
regiments of Dragoons. What basis may exist for this report, 
or whether among those who have circulated it, the wish is only 
father to the thought, I am of course unable to determine, but 
if there be truth in it, you will be able to advise me upon the 
points to which I desire to call your attention. 

It is now nearly six years that I have been serving in the 
Army, and I am still a second Lieutenant. The regiments that 
are to be formed, will doubtless be officered from civil life, 
and by selections from the army. If in your opinion these regi- 
ments will be permanent, I have thought of applying for a 
Captaincy in one of them. The success of this application, 
which I would wish to keep private, would depend upon your 
willingness to give me your aid and influence. There will doubt- 
less be swarms of politicians for the offices, and others who may 
have stronger claims than any which I could urge; and if you 
think there would be but little probability of success, I will at 
once abandon the idea. It might be deemed presumption in one 
of my present grade to apply for the commission, but I believe 
there have been cases on which such transfers have been ef- 

There is nothing of interest that I can communicate in refer- 
ence to the movements of the army. A few days since it was 
believed that a march to the Rio Grande was in contemplation, 
but the rumor has subsided, and if any such measure be antici- 
pated or on foot, the knowlege of it seems to be confined to the 

The Mangum Papers 371 

Commanding General. By the traders from Matamoros, through 
whom intelligence is frequently received, we have no later in- 
formation touching the last projected revolution in Mexico,^^ 
than has been conveyed through the public prints. Gen. Arista^* 
appears to be inactive in the Department of Tamaulipas, watch- 
ing the current of events, and probably indifferent as to the re- 

Every item of information that we receive here concerning 
the action of Congress upon our Foreign relations, is of absorb- 
ing interest. The debate on the resolutions of Mr. Cass,^^ created 
no little excitement in our belligerent community, and you will 
pardon me for adding that your speech was hailed with peculiar 
pleasure, gave most satisfaction, and received most approbation. 
Its views and sentiments, all agree in pronouncing as worthy 
of the occasion and of an American Senator. As an adopted 
son of North Carolina I could not but feel a lofty pride in the 
applause bestowed upon her Representative — and that Rep- 
resentative an early and valued friend. 

If your leisure will permit, may I request you to give me 
your views upon the personal matter contained in this letter, 
the probabilities of a war with England, and the seeming dura- 
tion of our banishment to Texas? The recent demonstrations of 
Gen. Paredes, to effect the overthrow of the administration, 
have put to flight our previous calculations as to the dispersion 
of the troops on this frontier, as the negotations may be retarded 
to an indefinite period. 

Very respectfully and truly yours, 
C. P. Kingsbury. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum, 

U. S. Senate, 


D. C. 

23Slidell's negotiations with Mexico were handicapped by the threatened revolt in Mexico. Presi- 
dent J. J. de Herrera was inclined to receive Slideil as an envoy from the United States but delayed 
out of fear that General Mariano Paredes, his rival, would seize the government if Slideil were re- 
ceived. On December 31 Herrera was overthrown by a combination of the army, church, and mon- 
archists and on January 2, Paredes was selected president ad interim. McCormac, ]ames K. Polk, 395; 
Justin H. Smith, The War With Mexico, I, 95. 98-99. 

^^General Mariano Arista was in command of the Mexican forces in the state of Tamaulipas. In 
early April he took command at Matamoras and soon provoked the attack that led to the Mexican 
War with the United States. Smith, War with Mexico, I, 149. 

a^See above, 338n. 

372 State Department of Archives and History 

Jan. 23rd. A letter from Matamoras just received, states that 
Tampico is the only place that has declared for Gen. Paredes, 
and that his efforts are likely to prove abortive. 

Abraham W. Venahle^'^ to Willie P. Mangura 

Brow^nsville 22 January 1846 

Dear Sir 

I write amongst other things to request you to send me Fre- 
monts report v^ith the maps of his expedition as I observe many 
copies were printed for the use of the Senate. As my immediate 
representative sends me few or no documents if it will not be 
too troublesome please send me such as are most valuable & 
interesting. Our man J. R J Daniel has been exceedingly remiss 
on this subject- I approve most cordially of Mr. Calhouns views 
of the Oregen Question^^ as I take this occasion to express my 
gratification at the speech delivered by yourself on the motion 
of Mr Cass. I dislike a bullying attitude both in public and 
private life and am peculiarly opposed to a transfer of the treaty- 
making power from the President to the hustings & popular as- 
semblies- I trust the honor of the country will not demand a 
war, but if it should I feel confident that the Whig & Democratic 
party will be merged in the American party presenting an un- 
broken front to the enemy. Accept sir assurances of my most 
sincere regard 

Yrs truly 
Abr W. Venable 

Direct to Abrams Plains Granville N. C 

[Addressed : ] 

Honble. Willie P. Mangum 
Washington City. 

2«See above, II, 86n. 

27In December Calhoun rerurned to the Senate determined to fight for a peaceful settlement of 
the Oregon question. As Secretary of State under Tyler, he had been conciliatory towards England. 
Now in December and January he began gaining Southern support for negotiating a peace. With the 
help of Benton, Webster, and other conservatives, he created sentiment for compromise. Wiltse, 
Calhoun: Sectionalist, 251-254, 257-262. 

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The Mangum Papers 373 

J. iS. Skinner^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

[24 Januray, 1846] 
My dear Sir 

I shall leave here for the South on tuesday afternoon, pro- 
posing to touch at Hicksford Gaston Raleigh & Fayetteville in 
your State. Having it in view to make such personal observa- 
tion as may assist me in promoting the more efficiently the agri- 
cultural interest of the Country, through the medium of the 
Farmers Library, which you have been pleased to favour with 
your patronage will you do me the kindness to give me a few 
brief notes of introduction to gentlemen known to you as zealous 
friends of that branch of industry — 

It is only the public nature and value of the interest refer'd 
to that would justify me in troubling you so far — In any case 
be assured of the cordial respect & esteem of yours truly 

J. S. Skinner 
24 Jany 46 

To the Hon 

W. P. Mangum 

Senate of the U. S. 

Edward Stanly to Willie P. Mangum 

Washington [N. C.,] Jany: 27th. 1846 
My Dear Sir, 

I beg your permission to trouble you to call the attention of 
the Secy: of the Navy or the 4th. Auditor A. O. Dayton, to the 
settlement of the accounts of Robt: S. Moore, late a purser in 
the Navy, who died, little more than twelve months since. He 
was the son of Robt: G. Moore, the former efficient & able edi- 
tor of the New Bern Spectator, since dead, & his wife & daughter 
have requested me to aid them, in having the accounts settled.- 

2^See above, 317q. 

374 State Department of Archives and History 

I know the nature of your engagements too well, to request 
that you should hasten your attention to the settlement of the 
account, but if you will write a note to the 4th Auditor, & say 
you feel some desire that the account of R. S. Moore, the late 
Purser should be settled, it will have the effect of hastening 
the action of the Department, on the subject. When you receive 
an answer, let me hear from you, that I may inform Miss V. S. 
Moore, the sister. Miss M. writes me that Lt. H. H. Lewis, 
a resident of Washington City, & Mr De Bree, a purser, who 
resides in Norfolk are acquainted with all the facts — it might 
be of service to ask the auditor to call on them for information. 

After you shall have written to the Auditor, give me a line- 
possibly it may be necessary to present a claim to Congress 
should the Auditor refuse to allow all the claim — early action 
is therefore desirable. An expression of a desire on your part 
that the matter should not be neglected, is all that I wish to 
trouble you with. — 

The Register has furnished you the account of our conven- 
tion doings at Raleigh. The Locos will make a desperate effort 
for the Legislature, and I hope you will soon begin to stir up 
your friends in the counties of Surry, Stokes, Orange & Gran- 
ville. If we work we can carry the State, if we do not, we 
shall lose it. — 

I hope you received a copy of the correspondence, with H. 
T. Clark which I sent you: — 

The Locos in North Carolina, are not so hot for Oregon, 
since the abolitionists have shown such anxiety on the sub- 
ject.— ^9 

Very truly yours 
Edw. Stanly 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Washington City 
D. C. 

280n January 5, 1846. a House committee recommended a resolution directing the President to 
give notice at once to end the joint control of Oregon. Giddings and other anti-slavery leaders pro- 
ceeded to champion the whole of Oregon as a check on the expansion of slavery. Giddings said he 
had opposed expansion until slavery was expanded by the annexation of Texas and that he now sup- 
ported the acquisition of all of Oregon to counteract the Southern expansion. This and other aboli- 
tionist speeches alarmed the Southerners. McCormac, James K. Polk, 587-588; Wiltse, Calhoun: Sec- 
tionalist, 257. 

The Mangum Papers 375 

J. R. Lamhdin'^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Philad" Jany 27*^ 1846. 
Hon W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

I presume upon your former kindness, in addressing a 
few lines to you on a subject in which I feel some solicitude, 
and which is likely to be brought before your honorable body 
shortly in what manner I am not able at present to say. The 
law of 1844-5 authorizing the painting of four pictures for the 
Rotunda^^ of the Capitol has been fulfilled so far as regards the 
commission given to Messrs Chapman & Weir- the third picture 
to be executed by Vanderlyn is, I understand, ready to be ship- 
ped from Paris, where it has been painted in contravention to 
the spirit of the law which required the pictures to be executed 
by native American artists- and as I have reason to believe was 
the intention of the f ramers of the bill- to be executed on the soil- 
the only way in which art can be benefitted to country.- The 
fourth commission was given to Mr Inman of New York- and 
has never progress even to the completion of a design.- his 
death which occurred on the 20th inst leaves the commission 
to be executed by some other hand. — I have given much at- 
tention to the subject of our western History- the character- 
manners, habits & scenery- and for some time past have medi- 
tated the painting of a large picture commemorating an import- 
ant event in the settlement of the great west, but have been 
deterred from the fear of being unable for want of pecuniary 
ability, to carry it through. The death of Mr Inman has led 
me to look to Washington- and to my friends there to aid me 
in procuring a commission to fill the vacant pannel of the 
Rotunda. — ^^ Should you think proper to present my claims in 
any way- you may be interrogated with the questions what 

^See above, 59n. 

^^Henry Inman, Robert Weir, John Vanderlyn, and John G. Chapman were commissioned to 
make these paintings. Henry Inman, 1801-January 17, 1846, before his death, had begun a design of 
the cottage of Daniel Boone. Robert Walker Weir, 1803-1889, painted the "Embarkation of the 
Pilgrims.''^ John Vanderlyn, 1775-1852, went to Paris and employed a French artist to help him 
with his "Landing of Columbus." John G. Chapman, 1808-1889, completed his "Baptism or Poca- 
hontas" in 1847. 

^After Inman's death, William H. Powell, of Ohio, was authorized to paint the western scene. 
He began in 1848 and completed his "Discovery of the Mississippi by DeSoto" in 1853. AH of 
these paintings of Colonial America are in the Rotunda along with the four on the Revolution by 
John Trumbull. Federal Writers' Projea, Washington City and Capital, Washington, 1937, 225; 
D. A. B., IV, 18; IX, 481-482; XV, 153-154; XIX, 180-181, 612-613. 

376 State Department of Archives and History 

historical works has he executed? this may be answered by the 
asking of another- What works had Chapman Weir Vanderlyn 
or Inman executed before they were entrusted with the govern- 
ment orders? — I feel that within me which says, I can do it, 
and in a way that shall bring no discredit on American art. 

Pardon me my dear Sir for this egotism- when I know the 
efforts that will be made by these who have no claims- and 
whose perserverance may yet accomplish what they desire — 
it makes me indeed anxious for an opportunity of bringing out 
that, which has been implanted by nature and cultivated with 
much application. — 

If it be possible to get away from my professional engage- 
ments at home in two or three weeks I may have an opportunity 
in giving you my views in propria persona. 

truly your friend and admirer 
J R Lambdin 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon W P Mangum 
of N. C. 
U S Senate 
D. C. 

Priestley H. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 

HiLLSBORo' Jan: 30th 1846.- 
Dear Sir, 

[torn] Lipscombe is desirous of having [torn] with Roberts 
tried the ensuing spring- and it will be necessary [to] take 
your deposition on the subject of the state of mind of the 
Grantor & bargainor, John Tilly sen'', dec"^. — 

I drop you this note, to ascertain from you, some suitable 
place for taking your deposition in Washington City, so that 
we may be able to give the opposite party the necessary notice. 
Will you write forthwith?- 

The Mangum Papers 377 

I was at your House some days ago, when all were well, ex- 
cept Sally- who was but little indisposed.- The effect on her 
mind, I thought, consequent on the sudden death of Alfred.^^ 
I learn that she is much better since I came up. — 

I have not yet removed to Wake- I expect to be off early in 
the Spring, if practicable. — 

You take it for granted that I am always [torn] - and there- 
fore, it seems, tha[t] what I say is always disregarded by you. 
But you may rely upon it, that if you at all desire to perpetuate 
your reputation; to attain that object you must use the ordinary 
& necessary means. - I perceive that the speeches of every man 
in Congress, & particularly those most distinguished in the 
Nation, suffer nothing to go from them abroad, thro' the pa- 
pers, that is not prepared by their pen. It is obvious to every 
reader of observation.- Hence their reputation abroad is often 
more imposing, as it is more desireable, than at Washington 
with the audience who hear the speeches delivered. This latter 
reputation, tho' to be desired, is frail & unsubstantial- unless 
sustained by able speeches reported.- You don't do yourself 
justice in your late speech as reported. ^^ It is not at all calculated 
to sustain your reputation- it [torn] random shot than a well 
[regu]lated fire- & there are about as m[any] different versions 
of it as there were reporters- & all because you will not write 
out your speeches as others do. — Every public speaker knows, 
that a good speech as delivered by the speaker is often a very 
ordinary one if reported verbatim et literatum- & the same can 
be made a good one by writing it out, without violating any of 
the rules of propriety. — 

(I saw the Whig version only) - 

I hope you are sending into the state more documents than 
formerly- You are aware that that has been a prolific source of 
complaints- Men, who are public servants are expected to no- 
tice their constituents; & if they do not, they may expect dis- 
satisfaction- This is a progressive Whiggism, as well as a pro- 
gressive democracy — a young Whiggism as well as a young 

^^ne of Mangum's slaves. See above A. W. Gay to W. P. Mangum, December 4, 1845. 
^Mangum's speech was published in the Congressional Globe, 29 Cong., 1 sess., 47-49. 

378 State Department of Archives and History 

democracy: & one is worth about as much, in these regions, as 
the other. 

Yrs truly. 
P. H. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 


The Hon: 

Willie P. Mangum 
(Senate of U. S. C.) 
Washington City 
D. C. 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham^^ 

Washington City 31^^ Jan: 1846 

My dear Sir. 

Permit me to introduce to you Mr. Skinner,^^ the editor of 
The Farmer's Library published in New York. - I believe you 
will remember him, having as I suppose, known him in this 
City. - His reputation is so well known to you, that I need say 
nothing, beyond a request that you will afford him the means 
of seeing M*". Cameron, M^ Boylan, Maj"". Hinton & such other 
Gentlemen as are most likely to feel interest in the success of 
his enterprize.- 

Mr. Skinner goes South to make observations &C &C. on the 
modes of Southern agriculture. - With great respect & regard 

I am, as ever, 
Yr«. Mo. truly 
Willie P. Mangum 


Gov. Graham 

^The original letter is in the W. A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 
*See above, J. S. Skinner to W. P. Mangum, January 26, 1846. 

The Mangum Papers 379 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum. 

[January 1846] 

My dear Sir. 

King of Geo.^^ told me to-day he had undoubted information 
that Pakenham submitted proposition to arbitrate the Oregon 
matter and that it was peremptorily refused-^^ As the best in- 
formation nowadays is doubtful from the nature of things, 
would you tell me, if it has come to you in a reliable form? It 
is too important, to authenticate, without being nearly sure. 

Do you get anything of Slidell further than what is before 
the world? or have you any item to increase my little stock of 
intelligence for the "dear people." 

Yours faithfully 
James E Harvey 
Judge Mangum. 

R. W. Brown^^ to W. P. Mangum 

Wilmington, N**. Ca 

2*'. Feby. 1846— 

Honb^^ W. P. Mangum, 
Senate U. S. from N. C. 

Dear Sir, 

My purpose is not to intrude- but, to solicit your kind 
aid in behalf of our requirement here of a Marine Hospital.- 

Since 1835 we have been scuffleing- suffering in various ways 
for the want of the fixture to accomodate & relieve our poor 

^^Thomas Butler King. 

^K)n December 27, 1845, the British minister, Richard Pakenham, proposed to Secretary of State 
James Buchanan that the whole Oregon question be referred to the arbitration of some friendly na- 
tion. Anticipating such an offer, Polk had already decided to reject it. When Buchanan gave an un- 
friendly reply. Pakenham expressed the desire to settle the matter on almost any terms. McCormac, 
James K. Polk, 582-583. 

3^A close friend of Thomas Ruffin, he sent his son by RuflSn's home for counseling before he 
entered the University in 1830. When Clay came to Wilmington in 1844, Robert W. Brown was 
on the reception committee and one of the managers of the ball given in Qay's honor. He was very 
much interested in the development of internal improvements for Wilmington. In 1843 he wrote a 
long statement describing the trade of the city. Hamilton (ed.). Papers of Ruffin, II, 3; Sprunt, 
Chronicles of the Cape Pear River, 214, 218, 506-511. 

380 State Department of Archives and History 

fellows who come here in their arduous duties as seamen and 
having paid Hospital money all their lives- happen to be sick & 
find no place to lay their head- & to bear every expense! The 
cases of small pox when they occur are particularly hard- cer- 
tain death in almost every case is the consequence- Sixty years 
ago my native place & 40 yrs. in active business I have witnessed 
large importations made here & in all cases the crews of Vessels 
have been req^. to pay on the Hospital tax.- Our port, the chief 
in No. Caro'. has long deserved this arrangement, from the 
Governm*.- it has now much increased & is daily expanding- 
our commerce is large & particularly the coasting- we had con- 
tributed & bo*, a place 2^/^ miles below town- which for several 
years we have endeavored to make answer a temporary pur- 
pose- but, we can't stand it any longer- having laid out over 
$2500. We are willing to surrender all if the U. S. will fix it & 
keep it up. Our contributors could not object of course to get 
their outlay in money back again- but prefer to yield all if we 
can but see the needfull establishment- Later occurrences of last 
Summer & this winter since Xmas in cases of small pox- delay 
of vessels & death have produced another effort. 

Why should it be, my Dear Sir, that when a poor fellow has 
paid his Hospital tax for 40. 50 years & happens here his first 
time & sick to find no place to lay his head! They all complain- 
say it is not so any where else & tis indeed hard to see them 
banished & to die! Our Petition is preparing to go on- annexed 
to it is copy of the act of Incorporation of ''Wilmington Marine 
Hospital association" which will show how the property stands 
& that the right exists in us to transfer- We are not asking for 
public money or a share of the spoils, you know, but, purely a 
necessary- important item & return occasionally of monies paid 
in long ago- a little money will produce the means of relief & 
comfort to the hardy few who are largely deserving & entitled! 
Honble. Mr. Haywood understands our situation & he will be 
fully advised- as also Honble. Mr. Dobbin with other Gent". - 
for myself I take leave to add this hasty letter to you as a means 
of preparing you for the battle & I fear not the result- 
Here we are within 3 Days of New York- Balt^. Philad*. 
New Oris. West Indies & without any preparation & quite a dif- 
ferent condition from those other distant Western Waters- The 
Shipping of New York, lately suff<*. here- Massachusetts & Maine 

The Mangum Papers 381 

all interested largely- perhaps their representatives would aid 
you in our cause when y [torn] all others- our frds. get together- 
explain [torn] & understand the importance of our case — 

Our Collector has taken interest with us & since his time 
of being here is fully aware of our wants. I gave him a plan of 
our place in question which he sent to Washington- IVEr. Dobbin 
will have a full detail & can explain- IVEr. Haywood has an idea 
of our deplorable fix from frequent conversations here at Gov''. 

IVEo: respectfully, 

Yr. Ob. Sert. 
R. W. Brown, 

Our Board of Navigation are getting up a petition separately we 
sign it too- as a Hospital is desired hy all! & willing to have it 
somewhere- Some few don't like the distance of our place from 
town- not over 3 & think not more than 2^/^ miles. Suitable in 
all other points I don't see why the mere convenience of a Doc- 
tor shou'd be largely consulted. Sever'l Gent", here who would 
take the place at reasonable annual pay- & then be idle greater 
part of his time — 

[Addressed : ] 

Honble. W. P. Mangum, 
Senator U. S. from No Ca- 
Mail. Washington City. 

James Manney^'^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Beauford N*'. C^ 

Feby. 2nd, 1846 

Dear Sir, 

I have just read your amendments to the Resolutions of the 
Honbl. Senator from Kentucky on the Oregon Territory.^^ They 

*°Member of the House of Commons from Cartaret County in 1834, N. C. Manual, 539. 

^^Crittenden's resolution authorized the President to notify Great Britain that the Oregon con- 
vention of 1827 was abrogated. Mangum proposed an amendment to the effect that the notice of 
termination of the agreement be accompanied with a proposal to submit the claims of the two coun- 
tries to arbitration. He added a second part which authorized the Senate Committee on Territories to 
report a bill organizing a territorial government for Oregon upon the expiration of joint occupation. 
Cong. Globe, 29 Cong., 1 sess., 239- 

382 State Department of Archives and History 

meet my entire approval- I w^ould not alter a v^^ord v^ere it in 
my pov^er. If ever there was a time when it was right & proper 
for a Senator's constituents to communicate their opinions free- 
ly to him- this is, in my opinion, the most important. I have 
conversed freely and unreservedly with intelligent men of both 
political parties. We all, with very few exceptions, prefer an 
honorable peace, to an unnecessary & disgraceful war. Nothing 
could be more disgraceful, now and in all future time, than 
for two great civilized and protestant Christian nations to rush 
blindly and inconsiderately into a War, ruinous to both Nations, 
and distressing to the whole civilized world, for a Territory not 
worth five cents pr. acre. Arbitration is the proper and only 
mode in which the dispute can be settled — and I am surprised 
that the President should have entirely omitted to mention the 
proposal of Great Brittain to settle the dispute in this just and 
friendly manner. 

I have read the correspondence of our diplomatists, with Mr. 
Packenham, with great attention- but I cannot arrive at the 
conclusion that our title to the whole of Oregon "is clear and 
unquestionable." It appears to me that England has a title to 
the Northern part of the Oregon Territory. I should think from 
the nature of the climate & productions that the northern half 
of Oregon would not be settled by a white population in two 
hundred years from this. 

Our country now is nearly out of debt, and prosperous in 
every department of business. Ever since the Tariff of 1842 
went into operation, Agriculture, Manufactures, commerce, & 
the Mechanic Arts have flourished. The revenue has increased 
under this Tariff, because the people have prospered in every 
department of business, and been enabled to purchase & pay 
for a vast amount of Foreign Luxuries- and Manufactures of 
Foreign Nations, paying duties or taxes into the National Treas- 
ury. The Polititions who put their shoulders to the pillars of 
this fair fabric, to overthrow it- are more hold than wise. They 
will be buried in the ruins- and the Elections of 1848 will satis- 
fy them, that I am a true prophet. 

When I was a young man I was opposed to a Tariff for Rev- 
enue with incidental protection to Manufactures. After studying 
attentively the arguments of our greatest Statesmen on both 
sides, I became a convert to the doctrine of the great Statesman 

The Mangum Papers 383 

of the West.-^^ whose fame will be brighter and more enduring 
than that of any of the great conquererors and desolators of the 
World in ancient, or modern times. 

I have read with great satisfaction your remarks in the 
Senate, on the reference of the resolutions to give Notice, &C- 
Your sentiments are entirely worthy of a Senator of this great 

My grandson's now playing about me, will probably live to 
see & form a part of a population of one hundred millions- what 
a brilliant prospect! 

Patres conscript! take care of the Republic, let not reckless, 
and unhallowed ambition shroud it with ''clouds and darkness." 

I am 
very respectfully 
Yr friend & obt. Servt, 
J. Manney 

Honbl W. P. Mangum 
Senate of the 
United States. 


Hon^^. W. P. Mangum 
Senate of the 


J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 

New York 5th. Feby. 1846. 
My dear Sir 

On my arrival here, I was surprised to learn, that there 
was just getting up, a very serious and powerful opposition, to 
the confirmation of Mr. Laurence, ^^ the present collector of this 

*2By 1844 many Southern Whigs accepted the tariff as a good thing. Cole, Whig Party in the 
South, 101-102. 

*3Abram R. Laurence was chairman of the Whig General Committee of New York City. See 
below Abram R. Laurence to W. P. Mangum, August 4, 1846. 

384 State Department of Archives and History 

port, and all, or almost all, from the friends of Mr. Calhoun & 
others, of the democratic party. And to the end, that they 
may gain time, to arrange & carry into successful effect, their 
determinations, they respectfully solicit, the Senators of your 
side of the chamber, to postpone action, on this nomination, till 
you further hear from us again. I have w^ritten to Mr. Clayton, 
on this subject & to Mr. Lew^is. 

I am my dear Sir 
with the highest respect 
& good will, very long enter- 
tained for you. 

J. B. Mower 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

U. S. Senate 


[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Gouverneur Kemhle^^ to Charles Fisher. 

Cold Spring [N. Y.] 6th feby 1846. 
My dear Sir/ 

after having sent my trunk from Gallaturns to the rail road, 
in looking over some old cards to burn them, I found one with 
the name C. Fisher - had my trunk not already gone, I should cer- 
tainly have remained another day to see you, and I now very 
much regret that the neglect of the servants, should have pre- 
vented our meeting, as I had much to say to you on the subject 

♦^Gouverneur Kemble, 1786-187.5, a graduate of Columbia College in New York, began busi- 
ness as a merchant. While visiting Spain he studied the process of casting cannons. Upon his return 
to the United States, he established a cannon foundry at Cold Spring, where, for the first time, cannons 
were cast in this country. He was a Democratic member of Congress from 1837 to 1841. Biog. Dir. 
of Cong., 1173. 

The Mangum Papers 385 

of copper, to which I have of late turned my intention [sic], 
without however abandoning my Iron interests — Could we 
have met, you would most probably have been able to satisfy 
me on the mines of North Carolina,^^ as it is, I want you to give 
me some information in relation to them, the facilities and cost 
of raising the ore - its average produce, and the possiblity of 
so selecting as to render it capable of transportation, with the 
cost of transportation to the nearest water carriage - what are 
the facilities of water power for crushing it, and in what dis- 
trict are the best mines - is there any body in the vicinity of 
Fayette Ville who could direct me in case of my coming to North 
Carolina, and whether you will probably be at home in the 
month of April.- I have long intended this visit, but when I 
returned home after my service in congress, I found it necessary 
to apply myself closely to my business here, after having 
abandoned it entirely for four years, and at the only time 
when I could have left home, you were absent in Kentucky; 
so, after proceeding as far as Washington I returned back 
again, until the last year I have thought no more of copper, 
but having thrown a venture at Lake Superior, it has induced 
me to collect information, and to investigate the subject more 
closely, and it appears to me that our Country presents a wide 
and interesting field, that from it, will hereafter the great sup- 
plies of copper be drawn, as yet both the smelting and manu- 
facture have been little thought of - we have neither chemists 
who understand the theory, nor practical workmen for the 
manipulation - both must in the first instance be supplied from 
abroad - but when I first commenced the manufacture of Iron 
it was little better with that great branch of national industry - 
there was something more to be sure to be learned from books, 
but practical workmen were wanting, in every branch, and for 
many years, until we could create them here, we were entirely 
dependent on Europe- [But] the case is now reversed, and there 
are some branches in which we actually vie with them on equal 
terms, and if ten years hence we do it not in copper, it is our 

*sPrior to 1845 several small iron foundries were operated in Gaston, Lincoln, and Chatham 
counties. Elisha Mitchell and Denison Olmstead, the state geologists, reported the presence of a 
low grade iron ore in several counties. In Gaston County the High Shoals Manufacturing Company, 
supported by New York capital, continued to operate until 1854, when it failed. There was not 
much iron mining in North Carolina after 1840. Lester J. Cappon, "Iron making — a Forgotten 
Industry of North Carolina," North Carolina Historical Review, IX, 331-348. 

386 State Department of Archives and History 

own fault, and you must join me in this, when I think of the 
open field, that now offers, it makes me young again. 

Yours truly 
Gouv Kemble. 

Chs. Fisher Esqr. 

The only speciments that I have of copper ore from North 
Carolina are selected ones for the cabinet, but these give little 
information in relation to the average richness of the ore & 
the minerals with which it is associated. 

G' K. 

[Addressed : ] 


Charles Fisher Esqr 

North Carolina. 

John D. Hawkins^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Near Henderson 

Feby. 13th. 1846 
Dear Sir. 

After I obtained your name as well as many other members 
of Congress to the recommendation to the Post-Mas-Genl. to 
put 4 Horse Stages on the Road from Raleigh to Columbia, I 
went to see Col. Johnson^^ accompanied by Mr Haywood Gen^ 
McKay and Mr Dobbin, The Post Mas-Genl. was very willing 
to make the substitution if he could get the power which the 
present Law did not give (the present stages are 2 Horse) him. 
But he said if he did make the change of the 4 instead of the 2 
Horse coaches, he would stipulate that the Great mail now 
going by Wilmington should be sent by Raleigh when he pleased. 

^sjohn D. Hawkins, 1781-1858, a graduate of the University of North Carolina and son of 
Colonel Philemon Hawkins, praaiced law for a short time in Raleigh before he moved to Franklin 
County near the Granville County line. He owned and cultivated large plantations in that section. 
For many years he was presiding judge of the court of Common Pleas and Quarter Sessions. In 1834 
and 1840 he represented Franklm County in the legislature. He helped promote the Raleigh and 
Gaston Railroad. Ashe, Biog. Hist, of N. C, V, 160-162. 

*^He refers to Cave Johnson, Postmaster General under Polk, and Will H. Haywood, James J. 
McKay, and James C. Dobbins. 

The Mangum Papers 387 

He said moreover He must send the Big Mail that way, as there 
were so many failures on the Wilmington rout, that the service 
would not put up with it. I understood Mr Haywood to say he 
would have nothing to do with taking the Big mail from the 
Wilmington Road. But at the close of the conference, it was 
settled down by the Congress men, and Col. Johnson, to which 
I assented, that I would cause two propositions to be made to 
the Department. First what price would be asked for substitut- 
ing 4 horse coaches in place of the 2 now in use, And 2"*^^. if the 
Big mail was put upon that rout which should be at the pleas- 
ure of the Post Mas. Genl. at what price? I put Gov''. Grahams 
letter of Terms as to the Rail Road in the hands of Mr. Dobbin 
and asked him to act for me. On my way Home I met Capt". 
Guion,^^ and I am notified since that he in behalf of himself 
and the other Stage Contractors to Columbia, agreed with the 
Post Mas- Genl. upon terms for 4 Horse coaches instead of 2, 
provided an act of Congress is passed giving power to the Post 
Mas. Genl. to contract for a time suited to the wishes of the 
stage contractors. Col. Johnson under the present Law could 
only contract for the unexpired term, which is so short the 
stage contractors could not incur the expense of new stages 
and additional Horses for that term especially as corn is very 
scarce in So. C. The Post Mas. Genl who doubted his pov/er 
under the present Law to even substitute the 4 Horse coaches 
for the 2 now in use. But he agreed if the power was given 
him he would make the contract as desired by the Stage Con- 
tractors. Mr Haywood & Genl. McKay said that a law to that 
effect could be passed immediately. As the terms have been 
agreed upon by the Department, and the Stage Contractors, 
and nothing is lacking to consummate them, but the Law, to 
give the Power; I have written Mr Haywood & Genl. McKay 
and asked them to endeavour to have that Law passed as they 
proposed, and the object of this letter is to inform you of the 
result of my negotiations in the matter and to solicit your co- 
operation. If I can as an humble instrument in this matter aid 

^sProbably Haywood W. Guion, of Charlotte. 

388 State Department of Archives and History 

to sustain the Rail Road, it will give not only me, but many 
others great pleasure - 

I am most respectfully 
Your Humble Servt. 

Jno. D. Haw^kins 

The Honble. 

W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

The Honble. 

Willie P. Mangum 
Washington City. 

Wm. Gihhs McNeilV^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Newt York 14th Feby 1846.— 
Hon: Willie P. Mangum.- 
U. S. Senate. 

Dr. Sir: Surrounded by a number of officers of our Navy 
I venture to address myself to you, in their behalf & fully sym- 
pathizing v^ith them - in relation to the commission (appoint- 
ment of) Comr. Moore to a Captaincy in our Navy. — 

All that they ask is a little more time for Hon: Senators to 
reflect on the injustice w^hich may result from the precedent - 
to say nothing of that w^hich, in excited feeling - perhaps - they 
think will have been done them by the confirmation of Captn. 
Moore before his nomination shall be acted on. — 

Omitting any argument: will you allow me to suggest 
that if he & others (or he alone) are to be introduced as part & 
parcel of the effects - the public property - of Texas; an increase 
of the numerical rank of Captains & others of subordinate grade 
would, measurably mollify the excited (& as some think) out- 
raged feeling of the Navy: - That is - if it be determined to in- 
troduce ("annex") Comr. Moore to the list of Navy Captains - 

^'^William Gibbs McNeill, 1801-1853, a native of Wilmington, North Carolina, attended West 
Point. A successful engineer, he surveyed most of the railroad routes of the East. In 1837 he re- 
signed from the army to promote other railroads. D. A. B., XII, 152-153. 

The Mangum Papers 389 

do it (not by filling a vacancy) but by special Legislation in- 
dividualizing (if there be such a word) & creating a place for 
him by increasing the number of Captns. 

You will excuse this when I tell you that hearing that gal- 
lant arm of the National defence - so well represented by those 
present - express confidence in the justice of Senator Mangum: 
I am called on to write for them because I almost claimed re- 
lationship! "The Old North State" - drank with "three times 
three". - (Loco-foco as I am I had to lug in "Hon. Mr. Critten- 
den" & I am not the only democrat!! (shade of my Federalist 
Father do not hear it! ) who am prepared to go for him "right, 
or wrong, dead, or alive" — politically speaking — 

Most res'y. I am truly &c 

Wm. Gibbs McNeill 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon: Mr. Mangum. — 
U. S. Senate.— 
Washington City. 

Note of Willie P. Mangum on the ^'History of Ivory Crucifix'' 

14 Feby 1846. 

The following is a most remarkable work- I have for hours, 
sat looking at it, in a sort of dreamy solemn idealism.- It speaks 
to the Senses of the heart, with an eloquence beyond the pulpit; 
& when is superadded, the back ground view (a painting) of 
the City of Jerusalem, with the heavens overcast with angry 
clouds, & the fierce, avenging, & forked lightning is seen burst- 
ing & descending in a red & wrathful stream of fire to "rend the 
Vail of the temple" it is absolutely magnificent, appalling & 
dissolving to a mind & heart of the slightest devotional cast. 

I am tolerably well. 
W. P. Mangum 

390 State Department of Archives and History 






Carved from a solid Block of Ivory 

By a monk in the Convent of 

St. Nicholas, 

Genoa, Italy. 

J. Watson Wehh to Willie P. Mangum 

[16 February, 1846] 
My Dear Sir. 

More enquiries- to v^hom did Mr. Buchanan say that the 
People possessed all the facts in regard to the Oregon affair? 
I ansv^er that he told Mr. Calhoun & Mr. W. S. Miller^^ the mem- 
ber from this City. To Mr. Miller he made his declaration after 
the 1^* of January- I do not know^ w^hen he spoke to Mr. Cal- 
houn. To both his declaration was precise & full, that all the 
correspondence was in the possession of Congress; & both of 
these Gentlemen repeated it to me. Mr. Miller's Brother who 
is here, says further that Buchanan deliberately lied. He and the 
Brother, was in Washington at the time. Send for Miller, & Mr 
Calhoun, & you will have facts enough. Miller will give you 
other names to whom he made the same declaration. I believe 
to Campbell member from the Cty. 

Yours ever. 

J. Watson Webb 
Feby. 16 1846 

Hon W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

To the Hon: 
W. P. Mangum. 
U. S. Senate 

^William Starr Miller, Gsngressman from New York City in 1845-1847. Biog. Dir. of Cone. 

The Mangum Papers 391 

William Hooper^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Columbia S. C. Feb. 17 [1846] 
My dear Sir 

Will you be good enough to send me a list of the two Houses 
of the present Congress, as I suppose you have it in pamphlet 
form. We are, you may be sure watching your proceedings with 
deep interest & some anxiety; and our comfort is to think that 
it is, as you & others every now & then give us a hint, namely: 
that a game is playing- that the President & his backers have 
no notion of going to war- & are only making a fair show for 
some party purposes. I read, with much pleasure, last night, 
Mr. Clayton's speech, at least the concluding part of it. I was 
glad to hear from Mr. Preston this morning that his private ad- 
vices from Washington increase the hope held out by the papers 
that we shall get thro this business without a war. What a war 
it would be to us! You will be interested to hear about your old 
friend- Col. Preston.^^ Academical habits seem to set easy up- 
on him- He goes to prayers most punctually every morning & 
evening- and lectures his classes 4 times a week very diligently- 
too much so, for his strength- for I am sorry to tell you that 
his health appears much worsted by a severe attack last sum- 
mer, and as he himself says he "is very easily put out of tune." 
He appears easily fatigued. He has to live very carefully & 
abstemiously. I hope as the cold weather withdraws, he will 
be better. He is very popular as a president & I think will con- 
tinue so. Pray give me what circumstances you know of the 
late fatal duel between our countrymen Jones & D"" Johnson.^^ 
The unhappy cause we have heard, to our infinite astonishment, 
& our great sorrow, for our friend Devereux's sake, as well as 
the immediate parties concerned. We learn from N. Ca that 
Mr D. had gone to Washington to see Jones Is it true that Jones 
& his second & Dr. J.s second are in custody, or have they been 

^^See above. III, 23n. 

^^W. C. Preston was president of South Carolina College from 1846 to 1851. 

"•^Dr. Daniel Johnson and Thomas F. Jones, both of Perquimans County, fought a duel at 
Bladensburg, Maryland, February 2, 1846. The duel developed from the infidelity of Jones's wife. 
Johnson, a physician, refused to fire. Jones, a lawyer and near sighted, shot and killed Johnson. 
Jones and his second were arrested, but no action resulted from the arrest. The duel produced great 
excitement. Both men were prominent and respected in their communities. About 300 people wit- 
nessed the shooting. Hillsborough Recorder, February 12, 1846; Stephen B. Weeks, "The Code in 
North Carolina," Magazine of America's History, December, 1891. 451; Raleigh Register, February 
6, 13, 1846. 

392 State Department of Archives and History 

discharged? We learn that Dr J.s body was brought home to 
his friends. Is it true that he reserved his fire, & protested, to 
the last, that Jones's jealousy v^as groundless? This is stated 
in a Baltimore print. But can this he possible? The accounts 
we have rec*^, direct from Raleigh, ( said to be on the best author- 
ity) make the proof ocular, personal! Would that there could be 
a ''loop to hang a hope upon," for poor Devereux's sake & his 

Excuse me for intruding upon your public cares v^ith this 
letter, v^hich your uniform courtesy & kindness assure me you 
will do- 

Yours very truly & 
W. Hooper 

S. Ca. College 
[Addressed : ] 


Hon. W. P. Mangum 

D. C. 

J. Whitehorne^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

New York Feb 17th 1846 
Dear Sir, 

I write to beg your influence in procuring the picture for 
the Rotunda which was to have been painted by N. Inman^^ but 
which has never, even had a beginning. My only recommenda- 
tion is the Design of the senate, a proof engraving of which you 
will see in Washington in the course of four weeks- at which 
time I hope to see you myself. 

I suppose that it will be left open to competition for some 
months. May I hope for any influence that you, Sir, or any of 

^*See above, J. Whitehorne to W. P. Mangum, March 7, 1845. 
^^See above, 375n. 

The Mangum Papers 393 

your friends may bring to bear upon the Com*^® to whom this 
subject is referred? 

I shall remain in W. long enough to paint several portraits. 
If you, sir should wish to employ my pencil I should be pleased 
to know it previous to my leaving home, that I might make my 
arrangements accordingly — 

Yours in F. L. & T. 
J. Whitehorne 

Hon. W. P. Mangum - 


Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

D. C. 

Politeness Hon. Ely Moore) 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 

19th. Feby. 1846. 
[New York, N. Y.] 
Dear Sir 


I have been much occupied, since my return home, about 
my own affairs. But I am not unmindful, of the topic, we fa- 
miliarly discussed, at your lodging. I have in my walks, found 
a few old friends, of both parties, who unhesitatingly declare, 
their decided preference, for the Judge, over the General^^- And 
their reasons, are unanswerable. From the very nature of 
things, who is best able, who is, the most proper person, to be 
at the head of a Government, like ours, founded on universal 
suffrage; him, who has been tried, as a representative, execu- 
tive, and Judicial office, displayed, the very best administrative 
talent, in each. Or him, who has, from his youth, been ac- 

^«He refers to Judge John McLean and General Winfield Scott. 

394 State Department of Archives and History 

customed, to hold the sword, in his hand. Who has always com- 
manded, knows nothing, of being commanded. Unaccustomed, 
to mingle, with the great body, of the people; knows nothing 
about them, nor of Human nature- He is very irritable, vain, 
and pompous, very credulous, and visionary, beyond all com- 
parison. Irritable, as I will show you. During the Embargo, in 
1809. or- 10. the Government desired, a cession, of a piece of 
Land, at the battery, in this city, and because, it was not done 
in time, and manner, to suit Col. Scott, (now General) Dewitt 
Clinton, (afterwards Governor) then being mayor, of the city, 
was challenged, to mortal combat. That story, would not read 
well now, when it is known, that the General, refused to meet 
General Jackson, with his hands untied. Besides Sir, there is, 
a prejudice among the people, of taking the President, from 
a slave state. General S must hail from Virginia. The people, 
are quite willing, to take the vice-President, from a slave hold- 
ing state. I desire, you should most distinctly know, from me, 
that I disclaim, any ill will, towards the General. We are on 
the very best of friendly terms. But I place these facts, be- 
fore you, my friend, as they are freely talked, among the peo- 
ple. It is also due to truth, to inform you, that Mr. Calhoun, 
just now, stands well, in our community. The people generally, 
are quite pleased with his acts, on the Oregon question. And Sir, 
I assure you also, that you may ride, from Washington, to this 
City, stop one day in Philadelphia, mingle with the business 
people, and with a few calls, on personal friends, and you will 
not hear, the name of Mr. Polk, mentioned, in any other way, 
than with contempt, if mentioned at all. 

I salute you Mr. Senator, with 
a great deal of Respect & good 

Your friend. 

J. B. Mower 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 
D. C. 

The Mangum Papers 395 

T. L. Clingman to Willie P. Mangum. 

AsHEViLLE Feb. 21st 1846 
My dear Sir 

I should have written to you some time since in reply to your 
favour but that I know that situated as you are a letter even 
from a friend is often a burden. In the first place permit me 
to thank you for the many favours which I have received from 
you in the shape of interesting documents. Your course on the 
Oregon question allow me to say is just what it ought to be, 
I am much pleased to see that you were the first of the Senators 
to take what seems to me the true position on that question, 
and I am strongly inclined to believe that manner in which 
you expressed yourself at the beginning of the discussion has 
had a favorable effect in preventing some of our Northern 
friends from taking an extreme anti-war position which as our 
political enemies hoped, would have weakened us as a party. 
For however silly [and] weak may be the views of our executive 
(and I believe that the history of governments does not present 
a greater climax of absurdity and wickedness than would be 
the system of Mr Polk reduced into practice) yet it ought al- 
ways to be kept prominently before the public mind that in 
the event of actual collision with a foreign nation all parties 
here would support our government, Your resolutions on this 
subject it seems to me are just what they ought to have been 
and point to that course which I think alone it is practicable to 

With respect to party politics here we are all in a state of 
much quiet. What the Locos will do now that Caldwell has 
declined I have no means at present of knowing.^^ 

Should they decline giving us opposition I shall think it 
fortunate for us for with all the effort which the active Whigs 
in this part of the state would make for Gov. Graham he would 
I fear if opposed by a respectable man fall smartly behind the 
party strength. We found in 1844 that many of these persons 
who voted against us in August who were called Whigs could 
not be gotten back in November for Clay with all our efforts, 
though as you may remember we gained nearly a thousand 

^"^See above, 35 On. 

396 State Department of Archives and History 

votes, on the gov., election. Should we be crippled in the same 
manner again I fear we might be placed in a minority in some 
of our counties. This however, you understand is not for the 
public to know, but on the contrary we tell the Locos that their 
men are afraid of our candidate. 

As to Gov. Graham himself the promient Whigs have no 
objection, and as for myself it is hardly necessary for me to 
say to you that I entertain the same feelings towards him that 
I did in 1840 when I took occasion to defend against the as- 
saults of your very particular friend Mr. Shepard.^^ Should we 
have opposition you may rely upon our doing here all we can 
for him and the Whig party of the old North State 

How the Legislature is to be no one can tell, If we can get 
out the right men we can easily carry the state. Should we get 
the majority of the Legislature I may without any impropriety 
say to you as I do to my friends that I am for you if you are 
willing to serve, against any man in the State even if he were 
from old Buncombe itself, I consider this much due to the fidelity 
and ability you have shown to principles of the Whig party. 
Should you find time to write to me occasionly it would always 
as you know give me the greatest pleasure to hear from you 

I am very truly yours 
T. L. Clingman 

Hon Willie P. Mangum. 

Daniel S. HilV^ to Willie P. Mangum. 


February 21st 1846 

Hon Willie P Mangum 

Dear Sir 

If you have any spare copies of Fremonts Expedition 
through the countries west of the Rocky Mnts &c. I would be 
glad if you would send me one, or procure me a copy & let me 

"Sec above. III, 8 In. 
69See above. III, 387n. 

The Mangum Papers 397 

know the price & I will remit the amt. to you on its reception. 
The Oregon question is discussed very fully & sapiently by our 
Loco-foco fire eaters hereabouts, but there is an evident wincing 
under the developments made by the corespondence between 
our valiant Secretary of State & the British Minister published 
by the House They claim the Resolutions passed by the House 
as carrying out the views of the President, which of course they 
do not believe I think so far as I can understand; Public senti- 
ment in our community is decidedly opposed to war & in favor 
of fair honest compromise Either by negotiation or arbitration 
and unanimously condemn the course of Mr Polk on the sub- 
ject, as you remarked the other day if the people had confidence 
in those who had charge of the negotiation they would rest 
satisfied let the issue be what it may, but those who aided to 
elevate him & especially those who know him best have no 
confidence either in his honesty his firmness or his patriotism 
& I see some of the Northern Papers, ( the Journal of Commerce 
for instance) have confessed it. Of course the leaders here who 
get their cue from the standard Union &c are obliged to be- 
lieve & think & talk as they are ordered to do by their mas- 

The Party have not yet brot out their candidate for Govr. 
since Green W Caldwell did not prove to be as green & verdant 
as Wheeler supposed him. I understand he tried to be nominated 
for Govr himself^^ indeed a Democrat informed me that he 
wrote to some of the leading Democrats in the state soliciting 
their influence in his favor before the convention & when he 
found it was no go, he made a virtue of necessity & came out in 
the Standard with great self sacrifice & refused to have his 
name brot before the Convention 

If we get up a big barbecue in our county will you come 
to it this summer? it will be given with especial view to your 
benefit & approbatory of your course in Congress If there is 
any way to fix it I will send you a vote from Franklin we have 
done such things notwithstanding there are just 2 to 1 against 
us. Any thing that I can do, you know I will do for your suc- 
cess, & I have the consolation to know that in none of our re- 
verses could I reproach myself after it was over for not having 

^The Raleigh Register, March 6, 1846, stated that after Caldwell declined the nomination, the 
Democrats had trouble finding a candidate. "McKay did not want it. Saunders had been appointed 
as minister to Spain. Col. Wheeler's alarm lest he might be made Governor 'before he could get 
there,' was soon removed, as nobody seconded the motion." He refers to John H. "Wheeler. 

398 State Department of Archives and History 

done all I could to advance the good cause If you have anything 
that can be used to our advantage in any way send them & 
I v^ill send you the amt. 

Success to our cause 
your Respectfully 

Danl. S. Hill 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Washington City. 

Washington Hunt to Willie P. Mangum. 

Feb 23 1846 
My dear Sir. 

This picture has been sent to me by the Editor of the Whig 
Review, and he desires some of your friends to give an opinion 
of its merit. In the main I think it a capital likeness.^^ If I were 
disposed to find fault, I would object to the stern solemnity of 
expression. But this gravity is dignified and Senatorial, and I 
have seen you wear that serious look on many occasions. I think 
this must have been taken after the election of 1844, when 
your mind was sorrowful in contemplation of the degeneracy 
of the times, and the doubtful future on which we were about 
to enter. Yet it is evident that you did not "despair of the Re- 

I have conversed with Gov. Morehead who will prepare a 
sketch of your Life & Character in time for the April number 
of the Review. He takes up the subject con amore and no man 
can do it better justice. 

In haste, dear sir, 
Yours truly 
W. Hunt 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

^^The portrait of Mangum was a daguerreotype by Anthony, Clark & Co., engraved in mezzotint 
by T, Doney and published in the American Review, 1846, and later reproduced in the Portraits of 
United States Senators, with a Biographical Sketch of Each., Claremont, N. H.. 1836. 

The Mangum Papers 399 

J. Watson Wehh to Willie P. Mangum. 

[25 Feb. 1846] 
My Dear Mangum 

You know all about our Yacht bill. It is out of position in 
the House, & I have written to Butler King, to see you & get it 
started in the Senate. For my sake, & to save the friendship of 
two hundred gentlemen who will talk & act as we desire, I en- 
treat of you to bring it forward in the Senate & push it through. 
You can do it, & to you shall be the glory. 

Ever yours 

J. Watson Webb 
Tuesday night. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 


Have I not given C.^^ ^ hig friends a dose this time? 


W. P. Mangum 
Senate U. S. 
Washington City. 

[Postmarked : ] 

New York, Feb. 25. 

William B. Lewis^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington D. C. 

Feb. 27th 1846. 

The members of 'The Cambrian Benevolent Society" of 
this city having been given to understand that you are of Welsh 
descent,^* have instructed me to request the honor of your com- 

^^He probably refers to Calhoun, 

^^He ran a clothing store in Washington at this time. Tbe Waashington Directory and National 
Register for 1846, published by Gaither & Addison, Washington, 1846, p. 57. 
^*See above, I, 84n. 

400 State Department of Archives and History 

pany at their Festival in honor of St. David to be held on Mon- 
day 2d day of March next — 

The Society will assemble at the store of Messrs Owen, 
Evans & Co at 6 o'clock P.M. and will from thence repair to the 
Swan dining rooms, near the residence of John C. Rives Esqr. 

Very respectfully 
Your obt. St 

William B. Lewis 
Corresponding Secy. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate— 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate. 


Henry W. Moncure et als. to Willie P. Mangum^^ 

Richmond, 4th March, 1846. 
Dear Sir, 

You have already been made acquainted, through the me- 
dium of the public press, with the death, so sudden, sad and 

We desire not to enter into any particulars connected with 
this melancholoy event. It is sufficient to say, that Mr. Pleas- 
ants fell a victim to the merciless requirements of a code of 
honor, which, false as it is, has yet the powerful sanction of 
public opinion, and of the society in which our fallen friend 
was born and reared. Yet it is but justice to his memory to 
say, that he went upon the field with no desire to take his ad- 
versary's life; that, in his last moments, he declared that pre- 
viously to the combat he had extracted the ball from his pistol 

^^This is a printed circular letter set in heavy mourning borders. Thomas Ritchie, Jr., editor of 
the Richmond Enquirer, accused Pleasants of abolitionist leanings. A duel followed, and Pleasants 
was killed. D. A. B., XV, 8. 

The Mangum Papers 401 

to lessen the chances of a fatal result, and that his only object 
in the encounter, was to repel the imputation which had been 
cast upon his courage. Such a course, extraordinary as it ap- 
pears, was only in keeping with the lofty magnanimity and for- 
getfulness of self, which had ever been a distinguishing char- 
acteristic of one of the most chivalrous and magnanimous spirits 
of the age. 

You, Sir, are familiar with the public course of John H. 
Pleasants for the last twenty-five years. The founder of the 
Richmond Whig, the gallant champion of our political principles, 
the man whose splendid genius commanded alike the admira- 
tion of friends and foes, it is unnecessary that we speak with 
minuteness of his political history to any one acquainted with 
the affairs of Virginia. But it may not be so generally known, 
that an interesting family were entirely dependent upon the 
labors of his mind, and that this sudden and appalling bereave- 
ment has left an aged mother and two young and promising 
children unprotected and destitute. 

To that mother, to those children, his last thoughts were 
given. Expressions of love and gratitude to her who gave him 
birth, exhortations to his children to pursue the path of virtue, 
honesty and truth, fell from his dying lips. Shall we not re- 
ceive the mother and the children as a precious legacy? Shall 
we not seize with eagerness an opportunity to manifest our grati- 
tude, for the illustrious services of the deceased, and our sym- 
pathy with the surviving members of his household? 

The people of Richmond having commenced the good work 
of contributing to the relief of this destitute family, appeal to 
you. Sir, (as an old and tried friend of the cause to which the 
whole life and brilliant powers of Mr. Pleasants were devoted,) 
to give your generous aid; and, as a friend of humanity, to 
visit with your bounty the widowed mother and orphan chil- 
dren of a man whose own heart was ever open as the day to 
the call of charity, and to whom the children of affliction and 
want never appealed in vain. 

402 State Department of Archives and History 

Contributions may be forwarded to either of the subscribers, 
trustees appointed to receive the same. 


Henry W. Moncure, 
Henry Ludlam, 
Joshua J. Fry. 
[Addressed : ] 

Hon Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. S. 

Washington City 
D. C. 

Samuel F. Man^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Providence 14th. March '46 
Hon. W. P Mangum. 

Dear Sir 

The "law and order" leaders^"^ in this State have spared no 
pains to impress the public mind with the belief that Senator 
Simmons, as a whig, has lost cast with whig Senators. They 
assert, that it is a subject of general remark, as well as deep re- 
gret, amongst Whigs in Washington, that Mr. Simmons should 
have so conducted, as to have forfeited the good opinion of his 
Senatorial brethren.^^ 

They allude to his vote upon Aliens resolution as the act, 
which has strengthend, what before was rather impression, as 
to his defection. 

Please, per return post, if it comports with your feelings, 
state Mr. Simmons' standing - and particularly as a firm & un- 
flinching whig, and whether any vote or act has in the least im- 
paired confidence in him in this respect 

Very truly & respectfully 
Your obt. Servant. 

Saml. F Man 

^•'A student at Brown University in 1812-1813, he became a Whig and in 1844 he was vice- 
president of the national Whig convention, which met in Baltimore. Niles' Register, LXVI, 147; 
Historical Catalogue of Brown University, 1764-1904, Providence, 1905, 599. 

e^See below S. F. Man to W. P. Mangum, March 17 and 21, 1846. 

«8See below S. F. Man to W. P. Mangum, March 17 and 21, 1846. 

The Mangum Papers 403 

P.S. Please say how far I may use yr reply - Shall I publish it? 
Please direct to Providence. 


Honr. Willie P Mangum 
U. S. Senate 
D C. 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 

Monday evening. 
Washington City, 16*^. March 1846 

My dear Love. 

Two or three days ago, I received a very pretty letter from 
our dear daughter Sally, and a day or two after I reed, one from 
you, saying, Sally would write the next week. - I don't know 
how it came about; but I was greatly gratified to hear that 
Sally was improving, that the rest of the family were well. - I 
have not written because I intended to be at Hillsbor^. Supr. 
Court, if the state of the business before Congress had admitted 
of it.— 

It did not, however — & yet I intend God willing, to go home 
in the month of April & stay a week. - From present appear- 
ances, the session may run, until late in the Summer. — 

As to Polly's roses, I intended to carry them home. - That 
failing, I thought it best not to send them, unless by some safe 
hand, & none such offered, - because they might be a month on 
the road, & perhaps never get home. — 

Tell the girls they must lay out their own borders & beds, 
& let us see how much taste they have. - I have a great many 
seeds that [I v/ill] try to get off tomorrow by the mail. — 

I hear that some movement has been made [the o]bject of 
which is to deprive Mr. Piper of his school.-^^ I am sorry to 
hear of it.- It is unpleasant to have to interfere in such matters, 
as the selfishness of people, will neither view, such interference 
with justice, nor listen to reason, & will think every thing of the 

6»See above, 308. 

404 State Department of Archives and History 

sort an evidence of unfriendliness.- I certainly have no such 
motive nor object, yet I wish William to go to school to one 
Competent to teach and manage him.- Davis Hester cannot be 
fit for either the one or the other.- I fear Meekins and Col. 
Mangum^^ have failed to use the influence & energy which was 
due to the subject & the neighborhood.- I do not understand what 
is either done or intended.- Talk to Mr. Piper on the subject & 
ask him to write to me.- 

I desire him to make a school & will subscribe $50. rather 
than be without a good School. — 

At the same time that I will do this- I wish to do it, in a 
way, to give as little offence as possible. - 

Tell my boy that I hope he learns his book well, & say to Mr 
Piper & to him, that I think he ought to begin to use the pen- 
to make letters & to write a little- It would amuse him, & he 
would not only be not kept too closely to his book, but would 
learn to use the pen & to write, just as well as if he were further 
advanced.- At his age, he ought to be taught how to hold a pen, 
& to use it.- Shew this to Mr Piper.- 

I hope our daughters Patty & Mary not only attend to their 
books, &C. but that they also work & go in the open air enough 
to promote health. 

I have generally been well, until within the last two weeks- 
I have had cold but am now nearly well.- 

I hope to see you in a Month. In the meantime give my love 
to the Children, & say, that I very much desire to see you all. — 

I trust my Love, that you are well and cheerful.- You must 
think of me often & Kindly, & with the assurance of my ever 
constant love 

& all the regards of an 

Affectionate husband 

Willie P. Mangum 

To Mrs. C. A. Mangum- 

'OMeekins Mangum and Ellison G. Mangum, cousins of Willie P. Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 405 

Samuel F. Man to Willie P. Mangum. 

Providence. 17th March. 1846 

My Dear Sir 

Your very acceptable letter of the 14th inst^^ is before me. 
The flattering exordium, is highly appreciated and be assured, 
Sir, that the remembrance of the social enjoyment, that I ex- 
perienced during my visit in Washington in your society, has 
made an indelible impression on my mind, which I shall cherish 
whilst memory lasts; the reccollection of it is amongst the most 
pleasing incidents of my life. 

There is a fierce political contest before us in this State. I 
am engaged in it to the extent of my power. For I deem the 
continuance of the Law and Order party's ascendancy, a fatal 
blow, to our prospects as whigs. That organization is thoroughly 
hostile to the formation of a whig party here, which by its in- 
sidious wounds has been prostrate ever since its organization. 
Indeed in their selections for office, even in our National Coun- 
sels, whig, democrat or trimmer, all stand upon a level- the 
only test is, fidelity to Law & order dictation, and the most 
subservient is the most eligible. With such a party I cannot 
harmonize, my whig principles forbid. If you have received 
a pamphlet, which reflects upon Mr. Simmons honor, the act 
has not been committed by him in our State, which will justify 
the charge. I have been intimate with Mr Simmons for thirty 
years, and the first dishonorable act as a politician or a man is 
unknown to me. 

The opposition to Mr. Simmons does not proceed from his 
recent course in advocating the release of Dorr.- this is made the 
occasion to gratify an old grudge, and break him down; for this 
purpose is the Law & order party continued- this it is which 
gives it vitality. The men engaged in the work, are trimmers 
of the true Tyler stamp and Mr. Simmon's straight forward 
and independent course does not square with their diplomacy. 

TiSee above. S. F, Man to W. P. Mangum, March 14, 1846. 

406 State Department of Archives and History 

I did myself the pleasure to address you a few days since, 
making enquiries of you as to Mr. Simmon's standing, which 
you have anticipated. 

But if any thing further occurs to you. & particularly as to 
his vote upon ALLen's resolutions which affects him as a whig, 
it would afford me great additional pleasure to receive it. 

I troubled Gov. Woodbridge- Senator Jarnigan and Gov 
Morehead, by the same mail. You ask "And yet where shall the 
man be found who shall charge him with delinquency?" It is 
upon this very point, that the Law and order men are making 
head way against him. They assert, and several of them have 
recently returned from Washington, indeed the story is com- 
mon throughout our state, that Mr. Simmons has lost his stand- 
ing in Washington as a whig, with whig Senators; And that con- 
sequently he has greatly impaired his usefullness in his present 

I have ventured to brand the story, as false, but as they 
have just returned they claim to know, better than myself, and 
it was on this account, that I took the liberty to write you. A 
leading article in the National Intelligencer would place this 
thing beyond a question, for no whig in this State gainsays what 
appears in that Journal. 

I know not how the thing can be accomplished but it would 
be of inestimable service to the friends of Mr. Simmons. I 
have ventured to suggest it, in the hope, perhaps presumptuous, 
that a thing can be brought about. 

The money power of the State is against Mr. Simmons. His 
political opponents, are nondescripts, who are on any side for 

What talent- and money- and will can do, will be done 
against him. Social, political- pecuniary and business relations 
are all brought to bear, backed up with a very influential and 
somewhat talented press. Pardon me for repeating, that if any 
thing occurs to you which will aid us in our labors, which are 
truly Herculean in this contest for Mr. Simmons, I flatter my- 
self that you will communicate it. 

The Mangum Papers 407 

With my thanks for your kind and timely letter, and the as- 
surances of my high regard. 

I am dear Sir Your much 
Obliged and Obt. Sevt. 
Samuel F Man 

To Hon. 

Willie P Mangum. 

P S. Would you permit the publication of your letter. 

S. FM. 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum, 

New York 20th March 1846. 
My dear Sir 

I congratulate you most grave, respected, and respectable 
Senator, on the prospect, of a speedy and honorable adjustment 
of that worn out name, Oregon. That small person, who fills & 
so fills, so large a place, rode in, on the Texas horse, and will 
gallop out, on the Oregon, on the very hobby, that promised 
so much good Capital, to this administration. 

Is it not Sir, a very important affair, that this country, has 
got such a body, as is known to the Government, by the name 
of the Senate, 52 or 54 Senators, all, all, [sicl Honorable men, 
it is most devoutly, to be hoped-'^^ 

Where would we be, just now, without such an anchor? Since 
my return home, I have called, on several prominent men of 
the Whig party, & some old fashioned Republicans like myself. 
I found, every one, very kindly disposed, towards the judge,"^^ 
the most influential person of all, without my saying one word, 

■^^At this time many Senate leaders were trying to check the warlike moves of the administration 
forces on the Oregon question. 

''^^Judge John McLean, the perennial candidate. 

408 State Department of Archives and History 

for any candidate, declared off handed, for the judge, as the 
safest, strongest the very best candidate, for the Whigs to rally 
on in 48. He deplored the idea of bringing the GeneraF* out, 
as ruinious in the highest degree, to the Whig cause. He v^as 
decidedly & firmly opposed to that move. And Sir w^hen you 
come to look at the question, as it must shortly present itself 
to you; And if the Whigs avail themselves, of the event that 
vi^ill most assuredly, cast their shades before them. The Candi- 
date, of the Executive, must come from a non slave holding 
state, and the Vice President, from a slave one. You are aware, 
I presume Sir, that we are to have, a state Convention,'^^ to alter 
our Constitution. And it is considered, that the old party ties, 
will be severed, that Western New York, will be Whig and 
abolition, this union, will control, the balance of power, and 
make New York, a whig state. 

These fanatic abolitionists will support the judge, but they 
will not go for the General. You must look at men, and things, 
as you find them. I am stronger in my opinions, since my re- 
turn, from seeing, reading and hearing, what passes every day, 
before me. And if the Whigs will only act, with common prud- 
ence, sagacity, and honesty, the road is clear, for a most splen- 
did triumph. 

The tongue of slander, hath not, nor never can, assail him. 
His character, is without a blot upon it. Look at him, I repeat 
again to you Sir, at the Head, of that most vexatious, and per- 
plexing, departments of the Government, the General P. O. and 
behold him, coming out of it, with a solid, and healthful popu- 
larity; such as no one, ever enjoyed before, or perhaps, ever 
will again. 

Then Sir, I ask you, if he was so successful, in this most dif- 
ficult of offices, coming out of it, as he actually did, with such, 
an abiding popularity, how can he, but excel, in this, his new 
position, surrounded, as he would, most certainly be, by such a 
Galaxy, of kindred- spirits, as yourself, J. M. Clayton, W. C. 

'^General Winfield Scott. 

"^The state constitutional convention of New York convened on June 1, 1846, and remained in 
session until October 9> 1846. The changes were in keeping with the trends of the day. The num- 
ber of elective officers was increased, the system of representation was altered so that mernbers of the 
upper and lower house were elected by single districts. Jabez D. Hammond, Political History of the 
State of New York, III, 609-670. 

The Mangum Papers 409 

Rives & others, of the like stamp- away with doubt, — away 
with fear — you must triumph, you will prevail. 

I am my dear Sir, 
most truly 
Your friend 

J. B. Mower. 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate, 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Saml. F. Man to Willie P. MangumJ^ 

Earls Hotel. Providence 21. Mar. '46 
My Dear Sir 

Yours of the 14th is just at hand. I feel most thankful, for 
the free use which you permit of what you have written as 
spoken on the subject of Mr. Simmon's standing. But so far 
as you have expressed yourself to the Editor of the Journal, 
we may rest assured, nothing of it will appear in his columns. 
His is the organ of Law & order, and the great object of that 
party particularly the leaders, is to break down Simmons 

Our friends are ignorant of what "pamphlet" you have re- 
ceived by mail breathing a spirit of bitterness against him. 
We know of but one pamphlet which is in print, and that is 
from the pen of Dexter Randall Esqr. an old and bitter loco- 
foco; but it dropped * 'still-born" If you have received any 
other pamphlets, it would be very acceptable. If you would 
forward it strongly envelloped, you would confer a great favor, 
or if it is Randall's, please say so - but we do not wish a copy. 

We think that we have passed the Rubicon, for we have 
formed and published a strong whig ticket of thirteen rep- 
resentatives from this city. The success of this ticket determines 
the reelection of Mr. Simmons. 

7«See above, S. F. Man to W. P. Mangum. March 14, 17, 1846. 

410 State Department of Archives and History 

It*s is almost, if not quite certain, if the candidates are bullet 
proof- but we cannot overlook the fact, as was significant and 
with an air of triumph thrown into our teeth by a Law & order 
man this morning on the appearance of the ticket, that **we 
should remember that the whole money power of the city will 
be brought against us"! This is true, they have & every effort 
will be made to crush the candidates. 

Time alone, will determine with what success. 

Other than this, there is no danger, our course is clear and 
our haven near 

Very truly yours, with great respect. 
Saml. F Man 

To . Hon^ 

Willie P Mangum 

William Alhrighf^"^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Sandy Grove N. C. 21st March 1846 
Hon. Wilie P. Mangum 
My Dear Sir 

I take pen in hand to inform you that we are in reasonable 
Health & hope these will find you in the enjoyment of the 

My further object is to ask you to forward to me if you have 
it in your power Secretary Walkers Report,^^ and other docu- 
ments that might be of use to us in the Next Campaign. I have 
not Reed the first Document or other paper during this Session 
from any member of Congress, nor has there been the first one 
sent to this office for any person, you will please also, if con- 
venient, to send such documents to Daniel Hackney.*^^ St. 
Lawrence P.O. Chatham County N. C he will probably be one 
of our candidates for the County. I think it stands our Whig 
friends in hand to distribute information as much as they pos- 
sibly can, between now and the Next Election. The Locos are 

■^"See above, II. 278n. 

''^Robert J. Walker's report as Secretary of Treasury in December, 1845. 

■^Daniel Hackney, of (Zhatham County, was a delegate to the state Whig convention which met 
in Raleigh in January, 1846. Hillsborough Recorder, January 22, 1846. 

The Mangum Papers 411 

determined to take the State & Elect a Loco Senator next ses- 
sion, Should the Tariff be altered I want a Copy of the new 
act. I write in haste, the mail is coming. 

Very Respectfully yours 
Wm. Albright. 

My Respects to 
Genl. Dockery. 


Hon. Wilie P. Mangum 
Washington City 
D. C. 

John G. Roulhac^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Marianna Flo. 21 March 1846 
Mr. W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

Since the House of Representatives gave the Seat of Mr. 
CabelP^ to Mr Brockenbrough this part of the State has been 
left to the tender Care of the Loco Focos to supply us with docu- 
ments which they have used well in Loading the mail with 
speechs essays &c &c none have supplyed the wants of the 

An exciting canvass for the seat in the next House of Rep- 
resentatives is about to commence in the State and we are very- 
much in want of the aid of Documents speechs &c &c to use 
during the summer that we may be enabled again to return a 
Whig to the House. An occasional supply from you & such other 
members of either House of such as you may have to spare 
would give pleasure & be of great service in this County & 
probably in most of the others in the State. 

sojohn Gray Roulhac, 1797-1858, graduated from the University of North Carolina with high 
distinction at the early age of fourteen. In 1846 he moved to Florida, where he became a planter. 
Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 536; Helen M. Prescott, Genealogist Memoirs of the Roulhac Bam- 
tly tn America, Atlanta, 1894, 64. 

^'Edward Carrington Cabell was a representative from Florida from Oaober 6, 1845 to January 
24, 1846, when he was replaced in a contested eleaion by his Democratic opponent, William Henry 
Brockenbrough, who served until March 3, 1847. Cabell, a Whig, served again from 1847 to 1853. 
Btog. Dtr. of Cong., 739, 773. 

412 State Department of Archives and History 

I know you have a large constituency to supply, yet hope 
you may have some to spare for us. Almost the entire popula- 
tion of this County are North Carolinians & would much pre- 
fer to receive favours of this kind from the Representatives 
of their Mother State than from others — 

I have enclosed you a list^^ of a number in & about town 
should you have time & opportunity to supply them with such 
things as may be useful in the approaching Canvass. 

Should you wish it I can supply you with names & Post offices 
in some of the adjoining Counties. 

I am very respectfully 
Yr M O Sert 
Jno G. Roulhac 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 
D. C. 

George C. Collins^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Philadelphia March 24th. 1846. 
Hon: Sir. 

I ought to have long since congratulated you on the noble 
effort made by you in the Senate Chamber relative to the Ore- 
gon Territory. I take this opportunity of doing so from the 
bottom of my heart. Nothing would afford me greater pleasure 
than to contribute my mite towards placing you before this Re- 
public as the next Whig Candidate for the Presidency, and I am 
happy to say that I am not alone in this matter. I have lately 
been to Harrisburg and other surrounding towns delivering 
Lectures in order to defray my expenses whilst pursuing the 
study of the Law in the office of Josiah Randall Esq. of this 
City. And I discovered that your name stood prominent for 
that high office. A great majority of the people are in favor of 

8^his list is not in the Mangum Papers. 
^^See above, 25 n. 

The Mangum Papers 413 

our claim to the whole of Oregon. I would not suggest a thing 
to a Senator, unless I felt a deep and profound regard for his 
welfare. Let me then say with great humility and with a due 
sense of my uttter worthlessness, when placed near you in the 
scale of comparisons. ''Vote for the Notice." The masses are 
alive to that question. I shall never forget your kindness to- 
wards me, perhaps the day might come, when I shall have it in 
my power to render you some service. I only expect the ar- 
rival of that happy moment. 

I observe a likeness of you in this month's "American Re- 
view," which is pronounced by the publisher a ''fine likeness/' 
I hope you will excuse me for my freedom, when I say I think 
it is a poor likeness. Painters generally flatter the original, 
but in this case, the artist has fallen far short of doing you jus- 
tice - "Sat dictum est" 

Since the defeat of Mr. Clay, I have had many, yea un- 
exampled difficulties, wherewith to contend. I had only $200 
saved, after the sale of my furniture in Washington. Mr. Ran- 
dall threw open his office to me gratis, and I embarked in the 
study of Law with a wife and 4 small children and $200 in 
Cash. I have now spent 16 mos. and there remain but 8. When 
I trust I shall be admitted. Alfred du Pont of Delaware sent me 
$400 to assist me, and I earned about $600 which have enabled 
me with great self-denial to pass so far on my journey. I pro- 
pose delivering another Lecture in the Museum of this city on 
Thursday Evening next on Christopher Columbus. I have al- 
ready reed, from there many favors, but I know I may with 
confidence expect a little assistance from you, say $5 or $10 by 
the return mail. I shall give my countrymen and others tickets 
for the Amount, and in the mean time shall never fail to regard 
the generous Senator from N. C. in whom I more than once 
found a friend, with sentiments of devoted attachment. 

Believe me Hon. Sir 
I am your Obt. Servt. 
And ever devoted friend 

Geo: C. Collins. 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Senator from N. C. 

414 State Department of Archives and History 

"A True Whig" to Willie P, Mangum, 

Providence March 26. 1846 
Hon Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir. 

I deem it necessary to address you at this time on a sub- 
ject w^hich to the people of R. I is one of momentous importance, 
and as you are somewhat implicated I trust you v^ill feel some 
little degree of interest in w^hat I may say. Mr Simmons has 
within a few^ weeks been in our state electioneering, and pur- 
ports (as I no doubt he has) to have brought letters from you, 
stating that you have the fullest confidence in him as a ''Whig/' 
and also that the present Law and Order party of this state, 
ought to be broken up, and the parties fall back as they were 
before our troubles with T. W. Dorr.^* 

You cannot, nor can any one unless they have lived or been 
among us some little time, know the state of things in our 
state. We are on the eve of an election which our best and 
ablest men think to be, one, if not the most important of any 
that ever occurred in our state, the Dorrites are the same that 
they ever were and if they get the power, would carry out all 
their plans, and in my opinion sap the foundation of our country, 
but let me say and perhaps I ought to have said it in the com- 
mencement, what part Mr. Simmons our present senator has 
taken in this election. Where was James F. Simmons during 
the Dorrite troubles in this state, was he shoulder to shoulder 
as he ought to have been with his fellow citizens, willing if 
need be die in defence of our institutions, our hearth sides and 
all that was dear to us; No; he was where nothing would 
trouble him, and where he at least was secure from any harm 
that might happen to any of us who were defending ourselves 
from a band of ruffians willing to do anything if they could 
but carry out their designs. 

Did not the Law and Order party, or in other words the 
Conservative party of this state beat them at the ballot box 
and with the bayonet; and think you that they will now sit 
down and suffer themselves to be governed by such a set of 

8*See above. IH, 335: IV. 405. 

The Mangum Papers 415 

rascals, without first exerting all their powers to defeat them 
as in 1842; if you would come to R I I am satisfied you would 
not say the Law and Order party, ought to be abandoned, the 
party is composed of Whigs and Democrats, but I will guarran- 
tee to say seven eighths of them are Whigs, true Whigs, and I 
trust and I know Mr Mangum is one of this same kind of Law 
and Order Whigs, but what I wished in particular to call your 
attention to in this letter is. the part James F. Simmons has 
taken in order to secure his re-election to the U. S. Senate, far 
be it from me to say anything which will injure Mr Simmons 
in any way. but when I see him doing as he is now doing. I 
cannot and I will not suffer his conduct to go unrebuked. I 
have the greatest respect for his talents, and heaven knows I 
would not injure him in the least, last Spring just before our 
election Mr Simmons came out without consulting any of his 
friends who had always supported him. and who always would 
have done so. formed an alliance with Chas. Jackson our present 
govenr and went over with the Dorrites. he publicly addressed 
them in this city, and urged them to use all means in their 
power, to elect Jackson as Gov over Fenner^^ the then in- 
cumbent, he did this without consulting any of his former 
Whig friends, he had as he has since said thought ''his party 
was not strong enough to re-elect him" and so he went over to 
the Dorrites. who as you very well know, are the very worst of 
Democrats, real Jacobins. Mr Jackson was elected Gov. the 
only man on their prox. This spring Mr Simmons has left his 
seat in the U. S. Senate, where his services are greatly needed, 
has come to R. I. stationed himseK at one of the public houses 
of this city, and has been making a Prox for Representatives 
to our State legislature for the city of Providence, when he is 
a native of Johnston, has gone over entirely to the Loco Foco's. 
and there is not a Dorrite. or a Loco Foco in the State but 
what will vote for him. he has succeeded in getting 12 so called 
Whig representatives from this city to stand as candidates to 
the legislature to be supported by the Dorrites. and if he goes 
to the U. S. Senate another Six years, he goes there as a Loco 
Foco. Dorrite Senator. 

I cannot think Mr Mangum would uphold Mr Simmons in 
this act of his. he has been guilty of so base conduct, as to 

86 James Fenner was governor of Rhode Island from 1843 to 1845. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1151. 

416 State Department of Archives and History 

merit the scorn of the whole whig party. I trust he will be de- 
feated, there is not a Whig in the State, who is really one. that 
will [vote] for him. he has said since he went over to the Dorrites 
that if the Whigs would pledge themselves to support him, as 
Senator he would sink the Dorrites. where they never would 
be heard from again, think you the Whigs of R. I. will support 
such a man; if he can wear two faces at home, it is certainly 
not much to say he can wear them abroad. 

let me assure you my dear sir. I love the Whig party and 
what is more I love my Country. I would spill my blood for 
her honor, and in her defence, but I cannot nay I will not up- 
hold those men, who are willing to be anything provided they 
can have an office, if such men as Jas. F. Simmons were at the 
head of our government I fear we should soon go to ruin. I 
have written to you because you ought to know the whole facts 
in the case. I do not profess to understand letter writing, but 
I have deemed it important you should know all about this 
affair. I assure you I have the best wishes for the Whig party, 
and always mean, so long as it is, what it is now, to support it. 
but I cannot uphold Mr Simmons in this act of his merely to 
secure his seat in the Senate. If you wish to know more of 
the details of this matter Mr. Greene^*^ our other Senator. I have 
no doubt would gladly inform you. With the best wishes for the 
Whig party and with a fervent desire to see Whig principles 
carried out. I remain with great respect. Your most Obt. Servant 

"A True Whig" 

Let me repeat what I have said. If Jas. F. Simmons goes to the 
Senate, another time he goes there supported by the Loco Focos. 

[Addressed:] Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Washington. D. C. 

8«Albert Collins Greene, 1791-1863, served in the Senate from 1845 to 1851. Biog. Dir. of 
Cong., 1032. 

The Mangum Papers 417 

D. Francis Bacon^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

New York, March 28, 1846. 
Dear Sir, 

Arrangements have been made by a large and respectable 
Committee of the unchanged friends of Henry Clay, for a cele- 
bration of the birth-day of that patriotic statesman on the 
evening of Monday, April 13, by a grand festival at Niblo's 
Saloon. At a large meeting of that Committee on Thursday the 
26th inst. a resolution was unanimously adopted inviting your 
attendance on that occasion, as the guest of the Committee; and 
the undersigned. Chairman of the Committee of Management, 
was instructed to urge this invitation most earnestly upon your 
notice, and to express the ardent wishes of a large body of 
the friends of Mr. Clay, for the gratification which would be 
afforded by your presence among them at the proposed enter- 

In communicating to you this urgent request of my highly 
respectable and patriotic associates, I am but repeating the 
wishes which I have had occasion to express to you formerly 
at personal interviews. It is a long time since you have visited 
this great metropolis; and a renewal of your acquaintance with 
it, under auspices so favorable, must be productive of great 
enjoyment and benefit to yourself, as well as to the numerous 
friends whom you would find here. 

I have observed, with great regrets, notices of a recent ill- 
ness which you have suffered; but I have inferred that your 
indisposition was not so serious as to have materially impaired 
your strength, and trust that your convalescence has already 
proceeded so far as to make the brief ride to this city both easy 
and beneficial to you. I presume that it would contribute great- 
ly to the perfect restoration of your health and to the refresh- 
ment of a mind tasked as yours has been with the peculiarly 
harrassing and momentous labors of the present Session. 

I assure you that during the proposed visit, no demand shall 
be made upon you for any exertion incompatible with your 
health or feelings. Preparations will be made for your com- 
fortable accommodation at a quiet and elegant Hotel up town; 

^See below W. P. Mangum to D. Francis Bacon, April 10, 1846. 

418 State Department of Archives and History 

and the evening's entertainment v^ill be altogether devoid of 
the crowd, noise and bad air of an ordinary meeting. The num- 
ber of persons admitted is limited (by the size of the Saloon) 
to six hundred: the hours v^ill be early,- the company good and 
orderly, and the whole entertainment neat and elegant in the 

If you can arrange public engagements so as to leave Wash- 
ington on Saturday, April 11, you will enjoy Sunday here as 
a day of rest, and will have Monday for visits and rides about 
the city as may suit your convenience; and if the emergencies 
of National Affairs should forbid a longer stay among us, you 
can be in Washington again on Tuesday evening, with the loss 
of only two days' attendance in the Senate. 

The proposed celebration has no other objects than those 
which appear on the face of the plan. It is simply a grateful 
and cordial commemoration of the public services and manly 
worth of our much-wronged patriot-chief, designed to encourage 
half-despairing honesty here and every where, and to assure 
the world that though such a man may be cheated of the sta- 
tion which his capacity deserved, he retains a degree of popular 
affection and veneration, worth more to him than a whole life- 
time in the Presidential office. 

The invitations given by the Committee are very few,- 
limited to yourself and seven of your associates in the Senate, 
to the Representative of the Ashland District in the House, to 
the two Senatorial Electors on our Clay ticket in this State in 
1844, and lastly Mr. Fillmore and Mr. Frelinghuysen. 

Trusting that this communication may receive your most 
favorable consideration and that you may signify speedily your 
acceptance of the invitation, I am 

Yours with great respect 
D. Francis Bacon. 

(at the "Carlton House" 

New York city.) 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum, 

in the 
Senate of the United States. 

The Mangum Papers 419 

Wm. G. Webster to Willie P. Mangum. 

New Haven Conn. Apr. 6. 1846 

In the 17. S. Alhum,^^ the arms of N. Carolina are delineated 
without a motto. Will you do me the honor to inform [me] 
whether that State has no motto, or what it is? — 

Pardon the liberty I have taken, & believe me Sir, with 
true respect, Yr Obedt. & humble Sert. 

Wm G. Webster 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 


Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Washington City. 
D. C. 


John Hogan^^ to Willie P. Mangum 


Utica. N. York April 7*^. 1846 
My dear Sir 

I hope you will excuse me in meddling or speaking in re- 
lation to the course & policy of the Whig party in this (NY). 
State. Let me here say to you that from all that I can gather 
from Gent in your party in this state our friend Gen Scott will 
not be the perference of his party, mark that, of course I can- 
not speak further on that subject I have only to say let Gent 
take care of themselves as nothing appears more improper than 
a Gent belonging to an opposite party to interfere with a party 

^The United States Album, Embellished with the Arms of Each State and Other Appropriate 
Engravings, Containing the Autographs of the President and Cabinet, Twenty-Eight Congress, Supreme 
Court and Other Officers of Government. Arranged and designed by J. Franklin Reigart, Lancaster 
City, Penna. 1844. 

^K lawyer and land agent, he became quite prosperous after the Erie Canal was opened. Alex- 
ander C. Flick, History of the State of New York, New York, 1935. VII, 32. 

420 State Department of Archives and History 

to which he does not belong, but I suppose that it is not an un- 
pardonable sin for one to express an opinion to a friend as I do 
in this case. The weather here is fine & vegetation on the move- 
ment & should we have no more snow or cold our crops will 
be good. 

Since I left Washington my health has improved much. I 
hope in a few days to enjoy tolerable health. Now can you 
tell me what is to become of the Oregon question will you 
take a vote on it this week or will the discussion be put off. 
Did you make the call for my papers yet I hope so. I hope your 
health continues improving and that our mutual friend Gen 
Speights's^^ health will also improve. 

I will write you again in a few days I send you some of our 
State papers, be good enough to say to Gen Speight that I will 
write him I hope you will both keep me advised as to the pro- 
gress of Gen Cass & friend Allens^^ as to 54.40 

accept Sir my best wishes 
I remain your Obt- 
humble Servant 

John Hogan 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Hon Willie P. Mangum 
D. C. 

^He refers to Jesse Speight, former Congressman from North Girolina and in 1846 Senator from 
Mississippi. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1553. 

"William Allen, Democratic Senator from Ohio, was chairman of the Senate Committee on 
Foreign Relations. 

The Mangum Papers 421 

WilliaTn H. Thomas^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington City 

April 8, 1846 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
of the Senate. 

Dear Sir. 

The adverse report of the Committee on Indian Af- 
fairs, on my claims for furnishing Cherokee Indians in the years 
of 1836, & 38, having been adopted yesterday, allow me to ask 
of you the favor to obtain permission for me to withdraw the 
papers from the Jfiles of the Senate.^^ 

I had supposed that upon the evidence I last forwarded to 
you not only of the supplies furnished but the services rendered 
my country no objections would have existed to the passage of 
a resolution authorizing the Secretary of War, to settle with 
me on the principles of equity and justice, for, provisions fur- 
nished the Indians or for my services, I did not suppose that 
it would have been considered necessary that I should sustain 
the loss of my time and then not be compensated for provisions 
furnished the Indians which became necessary in consequence 
of the means adopted to restore peace, but it seems the Senate 
have thought otherwise. I therefore desire my papers, to be 

With the highest respects 
your obt servt 
Wm H. Thomas 

"^A descendant of the Maryland Calverts and a relative of Zachary Taylor, Colonel William 
Holland Thomas became, at an early age, a merchant in the Cherokee country of North Carolina. 
From childhood a friend of the Cherokees, he was made a member of the tribe. As the Cherokees' 
business adviser, he spent much of his time in 1836-1841 and all in 1841-1848 in Washington 
working for the Cherokee claims. Upon his return to North Carolina, he was elected to the legisla- 
ture and served until 1862. He supported the South in the Civil War. He was also largely respon- 
sible for building the Western North Carolina Railroad to Murphy. "Colonel William Holland 
Thomas" The University of N. C. Magazine, No. 5 (May, 1899), 291-295. 

"^June 12, 1846, Mangum introduced a joint resolution in the Senate for the relief of Thomas. 
Cong. Globe, 20 Cong., 1 sess., 965. 

After the Cherokees decided to migrate to the West under the treaty of 1835, the eastern branch 
of the tribe obtained, through Thomas' aid, the right to remain in western North Carolina. Under 
the settlement Thomas was given, as the agent, their part of the money due for improvements. At 
various times until 1861 he bought up tracts on the Oconachee River in Swain and Jackson counties. 
Since the state refused to recognize Indians' right to own land, Thomas kept the titles in his own 
name. James Mooney, "Myths of the Cherokees," in Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1897-1898, Washington, 1900, 
I. 157-159. 

422 State Department of Archives and History 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum 

Office of the Creton (Mutual) Insurance Co. 
No. 35 Wall-St., New York, April 8th 1846 

To Hon Willie P. Mangum - 

My dear Sir 

Some days since I was informed that you had been in- 
vited by the Young Men to be here on the 13th.^* of this month- 
to be their guest at a supper given in honor of Henry Clay. 
Some wiseacres have attempted to connect this honest expres- 
sion of personal attachment with ulterior political views. I can 
assure you 'the movement' as they call it has nothing to do with 
the next Presidency. Whatever course the friends of Mr Clay 
may take with reference to that, you know them well enough to 
know that their action cannot be transmitted. If they choose 
to nominate him all the powers of earth & hell could not pre- 
vent them and if they have no such active idea at this time 
nothing half so sure to bring it forth as opposition- come the 
latter from whatever quarter it may. Denunciation, intimida- 
tion, meanance or threats will as sure, as there is a God in 
Heaven place Henry Clay in the field again with or without 
Regular Nomination & utterly regardless of his assent or dis- 
sent — Men cannot be dragooned like horses to wheel into or 
out of line at the word of command or tap of the drum — I have 
never met any class of men so hard to curb as the Young Men 
of New York, none so easy to direct, guide & lead by argument 
backed by kindness. Coax them and they can be moulded, so 
the request be reasonable & right- all the inmates of Pandemo- 
nium can not drive them. I believe the question of the next 
Presidency is yet to be determined. It is a thing of chance & 
conjecture and the result will be mainly reached through cir- 
cumstance & that present design would be as brittle as pipe clay. 
"Enough for the day is the evil thereof." 

You will I hope in no wise be guided in coming here or not 
coming by any remarks or assertions made by these *would-be- 
conscience-keepers-of-the-Party.' They and their ordinary course 
is beneath contempt- We feel that their day has been & is past 

»^See above D. Francis Bacon to W. P. Mangum. March 28, 1846. 

Paul Carrington Cameron, 1808-1891. Mangum was tutor of Paul Cameron while 
reading law under his father, Judge Duncan Cameron. From the oil portrait by William 
Garl Browne, painted in 1887, in the possession of the Dialectic Society at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 

The Mangum Papers 423 

forever- Their power is gone and the 'Young Men' of New York 
are their own men- the instruments & tools of no faction- 
ready to do battle whenever 'the trumpet' calls them forth 

For yourself personally & politically they have warm affec- 
tion & regard, and being on the Com®. I know the feelings which 
induced them to ask you here- and they will regret that any 
circumstances should prevent your presence here- but they would 
be grieved indeed if any feeling on your part, that yourself & 
others were by your presence at a personal festival to be used 
for a political movement, should deter you from coming to New 
York & being in person & spirit present with them at the social 


Yr friend & sert, 

N. Carroll 

Louis Thompson^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

U. S. Frigate Potomac, Very Cruz, Mexico, April 9th 1846 

Most Respected & esteemed Sir 

Mr. Mangum 

Once more I take the liberty of writing to you and hope that 
This may find you enjoying good health it may surprize you to 
find me writing so far out of the country in so short a time since 
I wrote you from New York although at the time I left New 
York, I was doing very well indeed and getting $25 per month, 
and was there in charge about eight months and part of the 
remaining four months I was in England and the old countrys 
Mr. Mangum. You will please excuse me for troubling you 
with this statement but I feel it a duty I owe you as you have 
always shown so much kindness towards me as well as to pro- 
mote my welfare that I have resolved within myself, to com- 
municate the same to you whereever I go or whatsomever my 
employment may be. I shall always write to you I hope you 
will grant me that permission. 

"See above, 37. 

424 State Department of Archives and History 

Capt. Aulick received orders for the Frigate potomac. and 
wrote to new york for me and I came Immediately on as far 
as Baltimore, and finding there was no conveyance from Wash- 
ington to norfolk. I taken the baltimore route to norfolk and 
arrived in norfolk on the day he appointed. My pay here is 24 
dollars per month and out of that I have left enough sufficiently 
to school my children, the balance I believe I can save up to a 
dollar. Our cruze is said to be short about six or eight months, 
and by next winter I am in hopes to be in Washington, please 
make my humble respects to Mr. Crittenden. Govr. Morehead. 
and Mr Barrow, as a token of my gratitude I should be much 
pleased if the Judge would be so kind as to forward my Mothers 
letters on to me that she may write to me and one line from 
the Judge, would afford me more pleasure than any thing else 
in the world. I have taken the liberty of enclosing a letter for 
my mother, therefore I feel myself under many obligations 

With great respect Believe me dear Sir your devoted Servant 

[Addressed:] Louis Thompson. 

Hon. Wilie P. Mangum [Post marked : ] 

U. S. Seante Pensacola Apr 27 

Washington, Dist Columbia, 
U. States. 

Willie P. Mangum to D. Francis Bacon.^^ 

Washington City 10th. April 1846. 
My dear Sir. 

I received in due course of mail, your letter inviting me to 
be present at a dinner to be given in your City by the friends 
of Mr. Clay in honor of the anniversary of his birthday, and as 
a testimonial of their abiding respect, & affection for that great 
& good man. — I had hoped that the condition of the public busi- 
ness before the Senate would admit of my availing myself of this 
occasion to visit your great City : & to meet a body of Whigs who 

^''This is a rough draft in Mangum's handwriting. It is a reply to D. Francis Bacon's letter to 
W. P. Mangum, March 28, 1846. 

The Mangum Papers 425 

have not only deserved but commanded the respect of the whole 

Such however, is the important character of pending ques- 
tions, that I dare not leave my post. I am constrained there- 
fore to deny myself the pleasure of participating with the im- 
perial guard of the Whig party, in testifying their respect for 
the man who above all others, has clustering around him the 
confidence & the affections of the intelligent & patriotic portions 
of his Countrymen & whose name & whose deeds will descend 
to posterity with a lustre neither enhanced nor diminished by 
the giving or the withholding of the first official station. — His 
history constitutes a large portion of our National renown en- 
during, ineffaceable, perpetual which as the tooth of time will 
spare, may defy the fangs & the poison of detraction & Cal- 
umny. — 

Be pleased my dear Sir, to make known to those whom you 
represent my acknowledgements & my profound sense of the 
honor they have done me, & accept for yourself 

the assurance of my high 

respect & Mo. friendly regards 
Willie P. Mangum 

To Dr. D. Francis Bacon. 

John Cameron[? ]^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

HiLLSBORo: 23d April, 1846 — 
My dear Friend 

After having jolted about from Pillar to post the major part 
of the winter, until I was thoroughly sick, sore, & sorry, at the 
bare idea of locomotives or locomotion, I have at length set 
seriously to work, to endeavour to effect what you so earnestly 
impressed & urged upon me last Fall; namely: the getting into 
my hands the means of circumventing the Locofocos & thereby 
securing to myself much personal emolument, & to the Whigs 
great glory. 

^See above. III, 4n. 

426 State Department of Archives and History 

In other words I have made formal propositions to the con- 
trollers of the Whig press in Raleigh, agreeing for a reasonable 
number of half pence, by w^ay of compensation, to do all the 
political drudgery, as w^ell as take all the kicks, and cuffs, which 
make up the ordinary allowance of a political editor. So far 
the idea seems to take very well! Our friends so many as I 
have seen of them, seem pleased with the project, & flatter me, 
that although not of much value now, I will improve & in time 
both draw well & carry a gay head in the harness- I have written 
to Clingman & to Guion^^ in the western part of the State, re- 
questing an expression of opinion from them as to the amount 
of encouragement likely to be obtained up there. It is necessary 
I find that we should have some data of the kind to be guided 
by, as the times are so hard, that otherwise the editorial gentle- 
men would not find it to their interest probably, to make such 
an offer, as could with prudence be accepted. 

Graham has given to some extent, & promises his further aid, 
the active young whigs about Raleigh are clear for it! You 
must write to some of them & stir them up. get Barringer too 
to write to some of his leading friends & Dockery & James Gra- 
ham, urging them on in the cause; & request them, if possible 
to obtain for me some estimate of the amount of additional aid 
to be procured in their respective districts, to a press in Raleigh, 
whose tone & temper may entitle it to be considered as the Organ 
of the Whig party. I have taken the liberty of using your 
name, as my friend & adviser; & in as much as at your instance 
I have aimed my head at the stone wall. I shall certainly ex- 
pect your assistance either in getting through safely, or butting 
my brains out gallantly. The negotiation for the present is 
pending with Lemay,^^ though I believe now, it could be more 
favourably, & readily effected with Gales, ^^^ ^'entre nous'') & if 
it can be done, I think it would be better, in as much as it is 
easier certainly to increase the circulation of a paper already 
established, with a large patronage, than to give a sufficient cir- 
culation to one which has to be built up almost from the begin- 

My only difficulty now, in effecting an arrangement imme- 
diately, is the absence of any proof that the Whig party, as a 

°**He refers to Thomas L. Clingman and Haywood W. Guion. 
®®Thomas J. Lemay was editor of the Raleigh Siar at this time, 
loo^eston R. Gales published the Raleigh Register. 

The Mangum Papers 427 

party, will certainly take the matter in hand, & just as soon as 
I can obtain a sufficient expression of opinion from leading men 
in the State to establish that fact, I will have the matter going 
in less than a month. 

I know there is great & general dissatisfaction throughout 
the State at the present State of affairs, nor do I flatter myself 
that the satisfaction would be any greater. Should I come in- 
to the administration, unless my own crude efforts be assisted 
from time to time, by the various talent with which the Whig 
party abounds. The main advantages which will accrue to us 
are these. In the first place there is nothing in the whole course 
of my career, upon which the enemy can lay hands, as an ex- 
cuse for affecting to doubt the purity of my sentiments, or for 
attempting to invalidate the truth of my Statements. I have 
never been anything but a Whig! & I have only been before 
the public long enough, to make it perfectly apparent, that I 
was one without shadow of turning. Even Democrats have 
given me credit for being honest, & stating nothing but my real 
sentiments! So that if fairly upheld & put forward by the leaders 
of our party, the editorial columns of the journal, no matter by 
whom written out, would be subjects of faith to one side, & 
could only be effectually attacked by the other, in a fair & legit- 
imate manner, as against an adversary of acknowledged can- 
dour, all shuffling, & rascality would only in the end recoil upon 
themselves, making their own men doubtful, & the winningL?] 
of ours firm. 

In speaking to our friends in Washington, do not I pray, 
let your personal partiality induce you to draw such a picture 
of my merits, as will only lead to disappointment upon a per- 
sonal interview. I am nothing you know but a good Whig, pos- 
sessing but few qualifications, & rusty in the exercise of them 
devoted however to the cause, & ready if it is desired to bear 
its flag through good or evil report, from this time forth! The 
mail is about closing, & I must spur up my pen, which has been 
travelling already at such a rate, that I am afraid you will be 
unable to read. I wish you would write to Clingman & such 
others as you may think it expedient to address, also drop me 
a line expressive of your sentiments & so worded, that you 
would not be averse to its being shown to a few friends. 

428 State Department of Archives and History 

I suppose you have had news from Dial's Creek since I 
have? Our friends here are all v^ell, the Small Pox or w^hat- 
ever it was, is dying out; & all hands are revelling in the luxury 
of nothing to do, & nothing to eat! I saw Graham a few days 
ago he was in fine health & fine spirits. I am afraid however 
if our friends are not more active, that he will be disappointed 
as to the result in Orange. Old Allison & the Locos are working 
the wires all the time in Secret, while we are not certain that 
one of our men will run. I would be glad, Waddell would con- 
sent, though J cannot urge him knowing his situation. If he will 
take the lead, the rest will all follow! Remember me to my 
friend Jeames the President, & tell him if perfectly convenient 
I will go as Minister to Chaney [sic'] be Consul at Gibralter or 
enact the part of Great Plenipotentiary at the Court of the Grand 

Present my regards to Barringer &c. & believe me ever 

Yrs. truly & sincerely 
J. Cam. 

[John Cameron?] 

A. H, Shepperd^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Good Spring Apl. 26, 1846 
The Hon W P Mangum 

Dear Sir 

As my Representative is rather busy in attending to his 
peculiar friends, may I ask the favour of you to procure and 
send me the last compilation of the pension laws &c embracing 
the decisions of the Commrs. & attorney Genl upon the various 
questions that have arisen: such a compilation I perceive has 
been published by order of Congress & many extra copies di- 
rected to be published. If you cannot procure a copy in the 
Senate perhaps some friend in the House would oblige you. 

How is the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions ?^^2 Does he recognize & relish the striking likeness of him- 

i"iSee above, I, 16n. 

i°2William Allen, of Ohio, a Democrat, was chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign AflFairs. 

The Mangum Papers 429 

self which has been painted in such vivid & lasting colours by 
the Senator from Kentucky? — No news here & nothing do I 
ever hear except from the news papers from Washington. 1 
suppose Graham can beat two Democrats, although one would 
I think be an overmatch for him — Is he not a singular standard 
bearer for the party that sustains the Tariff principles of the 
Act of 1842^^^ - Why, I pray you has he never even offered an 
apology for his course in the Senate on the subject of the Tariff, 
I mean not his opposition to the law as it passed, that he has 
justified mainly on the ground that it surrendered distribution, 
yet who does not know that the bill vetoed by Tyler & which 
preserved distribution was the great Whig measure of the ses- 
sion- This the Govr, also voted against. Why I repeat has he 
never noticed in any way the reasons of his action on this bill? — 
He will have to do so in the coming campaign- Untill quite 
lately I thought of continuing in private life but recently I have 
thought seriously of becoming a candidate for the Genl. As- 
sembly. — 

I am Dr. Sir 
Very respy 

Yrs A. H. Shepperd 

Should you have a spare copy of your Speech would be glad 
to have it. A.H.S. 

[Addressed : ] 


The Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Senate of the U. S. 


D. C. 

•a^°^W' ^' ^'^^^^ ^*s Opposed to protection, but for party reasons he gave lip service to the 
tarm. Statement of Dr. J. G. de R. Hamilton, University of North Carolina, who is editing the 
Wilham A. Graham Papers. See also A. H. Shepperd to W. P. Mangum. May 20. 1846. 

430 State Department of Archives and History 

L. D. Dewey^^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

New York April 27- 1846 
Hon Senator Mangum, 


Permit me to renew a request made in a letter of 
March 2^, that you would favor me with an "opinion" of the 
importance of the bible and the Sabbath, to be published in 
connection with the "Advice" of chief Justice Hale to his chil- 
dren and like opinions from other distinguished Americans, for 
the benefit of our youth. The great influence which the em- 
inence of their names will impart to such a work, makes it very 
desirable to obtain such opinions, and I am happy to say that 
already a hearty response with much commendation of the 
plan has been received from very respectable sources. I ex- 
press the more freely my wish and hope to receive a tribute to 
so good an object from your pen. If your many duties will ad- 
mit of bestowing but a few lines they will be greatly appreciated, 
as they will have much influence. A few strong words, or 
page or two of your warm testimony in favor of the virtue and 
true honor which it is the design of the bible and the sabbath 
to promote, will, thus sent forth, bear on the best interests of 
our youth in our country for years and years to come. 

If received in the course of May it will be in season. 

Respectfully yours 

L. D. Dewey 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York 28th. April 1846. 
My dear Sir 

I congratulate you, your friends, and all the good people, 
of the nation, that you have at last, settled this Oregon "foot- 

lo^L. D. Dewey was a New York publisher who in 1831-1834 published the New York Whig. 
Fox. New York City Newspapers, 1820-1850, 115. 

The Mangum Papers 431 

ball," so far as the Senate, & House, are at present concerned.^^^ 
And now we shall see, what Mr. 54.40, one day, & 49.50, the 
next, will say, or do. 

Permit me Sir, to call your attention, one moment, to the 
Sub Treasury,^^*^ which is about, to be fixed upon us. I beseech 
you, to strive, to put off, the specie clause,^^*^ to the 1st. of July 
1847, the one half of it. The other half, to the 1st of July 1848, 
which will be only 4. months, before the Presidential election, 
and then, if you don't lick, "the rascals, naked through the" na- 
tion, then, I can't see, one atom ahead. Provided always, you 
take, that good & popular citizen, of Ohio, John McLean, for 
your candidate. The Whigs, if they desire to gain the ascend- 
ancy, and keep it too, in the U. S. must either, change their 
views, or their leaders,. For, where so many, emphatically 
truisms, can be said, of such a distinguished man, as Henry 
Clay; the rabble, the great mass, the floating, dirty, drunken 
population, of this free country, will always have a thousand, 
tens of thousand, falsehoods, and lies, to tell of this, and against 
this, American orator, & statesman. The whigs generally, as a 
party, rely too much, on the respectability of their candidates, 
the intelligence of the people, and the justness of their cause,. 
You had at the last election, all the elements of success, in your 
own hands, but your people, were so cock sure, of triumphing, 
that the voters, were presumed to vote, who never came to the 
polls, but would come, had they been draged there, as the dem- 
ocrats, haul their creatures, to the hustings, on election days. 
Bonaparte, never won a battle, by presumption. There is another 
reason, why Mr. Clay, should not be the Whig Candidate, in 48. 
having a view to success. It is predicted, by those who pretend 
to know, that the abolition vote, in 48. will be nearly, or quite, 
l/6th. of the whole electoral vote, of the U. States, say 45. 
votes, that might defeat any Candidate, but more especially one, 
from a slave state. Mr Calhouns friends here, are thinking, of 
bringing him forward, as a candidate, but the same facts, stare 

io50n February 9. the House of Representatives passed the resolution authorizing the President 
to " 'cause notice to be given' to Great Britain that the convention of 1827 would be abrogated at 
the end of twelve months." The Senate changed it to authorize the President to give notice " 'at his 
discretion.' " McCormac, James K. Polk, 592-600. 

i<^In his message to Congress, December 2, 1845, Polk advocated the reestablishment of the 
Independent Treasury which had been abolished in 1841 by the Whigs. Polk's supporter, Dromgoole, 
of Virginia, introduced a bill on March 30. 1846. calling for building fireproof vaults for safe keep- 
ing of public money. Under the bill only specie would be accepted in payment of government obli- 
gations. With minor changes the bill passed the House April 2 and the Senate August 1. McCormac, 
James K. Polk. 669-672. 

i"^The Senate added a clause postponing for six months the proviso requiring payment of gov- 
ernment obligations in specie. McCormac, James K. Polk, 672. 

432 State Department of Archives and History 

him in the face, as well as Mr. Clay. But Sir, just so sure, as 
your people bring out, fairly before the American people, Mr. 
McLean of Ohio, just so sure, your party, are in the ascendant 
and I know, he will have one of the most profound & respectable 
Cabinets, this nation ever had, I will not except, James Monroe's. 
May you, and I, live to see this, & much more good, meeted 
out, to our great & growing country, and your health & hap- 
piness, in particular, shall be my constant & devout prayer. 

Most truly your friend 
J. B. Mower 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 
D. C. 

John Cameron to Willie P. Mangum. 

HiLLSBORo: 7th. May 1846— 
My dear Friend 

Permit me to put my right foot foremost & return you my 
sincere thanks, with all the genuflexions of a truly oriental 
salaam, for that copy of Fremont, both on account of the work 
itself, & as evidence of your kind recollection. I wish it was in 
my power to send you something in the way of news or fun 
that would afford you half as much satisfaction, in return. 

But the truth is that as far as incident is concerned a man 
had as well be shut up in an iron cage, or wander thro the alleys 
of some city of the dead, as frequent the promenades of our 
sombre little burg: The Small Pox has been declared *'hors du 
combat," by the descendants of Dr. Hornbook, but though re- 
lieved from our apprehensions, we are not yet freed from the 

The Mangum Papers 433 

inconveniences, incident to a knowledge of its presence. The 
country folk are still too much alarmed to bring us in anything 
to eat, & in a general way. 

Our only dependence to keep us all frisky. 
Is Salt hog & turnip tops, washed down with whiskey. 
So far as our county politics are concerned, we are still 
somewhat at a loss. All the Old Whig candidates will run again 
I think with the exception of Waddell, unless Pratt's^^^ health 
should render it impossible for him to go through the fatigues 
of the campaign, in which case James Patterson is spoken of 
to fill his place. In the Senate it will be either Holt, Mebane 
or Faucett. I am sorry that Waddell can't make it convenient 
to run; as I should then look upon the Senate as certain, as 
even old Santa Ann acknowledged that they have no body to 
watch him, & his Superiority is so generally admitted, that I 
do not believe, that they could organise anything like an ef- 
ficient opposition. With the others the thing is at least doubt- 
ful, though either of them, I think ought to beat Berry. The 
Locos will run Berry Sid, Smith Bill Patterson. Patterson Mc- 
Dade & somebody else I dont know who: McDade is spoken of 
as the most dangerous, as he is very popular at Chapel Hill & 
will very likely cripple our vote there a good deal as far as he 
himself is concerned, which with the party vote will probably 
put him ahead of the rest of his Squad. I can hardly think there 
is any danger to be apprehended from the rest, if our men will 
only exert themselves; but the Clerk's Office is doing its prittiest, 
& the wires of the Loco foco Telegraph have been vibrating 
for a week or two. Such a laying of heads together, such plan- 
ning & arranging has not been seem for some time. They in- 
tend to carry the County if they possibly can, so as to have 
the call in the Selection of a member of Congress, which dis- 
tinguished position, the present Solicitor, would have no ob- 
jection to holding, as I am informed. 

If he should cut Sid out, there will be heart burnings in the 
Wigwam certain. In the Sheriff's election Nichols^^^ says that he 

lo^in Orange the Whig candidate for the state senate was Hugh Waddell. Dr. M. W. Holt, Giles 
Mebane, C. F. Faucett, and John Leathers were the Whig candidates for the lower house. The Demo- 
crats nominated John Berry for the senate and William Patterson, H. McDade, Sidney Smith and 
William N. Pratt for the lower house. Waddell, Mebane, Faucett, Leathers and Sidney Smith were 
eleaed. Raleigh Register, June 2, 1846; Hillsborough Recorder, June 4, August 13. 1846. 

io«poj. sheriflf of Orange County, the Democrats nominated James C. Turrentine and the Whigs 
Richeson Nichols. Turrentine was elected. Hillsborough Recorder, August 13, 1846. 

434 State Department of Archives and History 

certainly will be elected though I believe he is the only one 
w^ho is satisfied of the fact. 

It w^ill be a fair race between them, Nichols pledging him- 
self to withdraw the minute a Loco foco takes the field. Our 
friends are all well! Your Nephew Wm.^^^ is about to take a 
wife tis said, from our Judge Bailey's family; though when the 
affair is to come off is not known. 

He has bought the carriage & horses, & the sugar plums so 
I suppose it cant be many months off. Perhaps you may go 
home in time for the frolic. 

Poor fellow his lassie ought to be kind to him, for he was 
very much shocked at poor Mitchells death, to whom he was 
as much attached I believe as he could be to any one; & a little 
affection now, kindly displayed would go a great way with 
him. I have heard nothing from West or East yet, & Lemay I 
understand wont move until he has some inkling of what the 
harvest is to be : 

Mrs. C- sends her respects & says that as we are a little 
nearer down town than we were, she hopes to have the pleasure 
of seeing you sometimes, when next you come among us. I sup- 
pose you received my letter by Robin Jones: Write me if you 
have leisure, & believe me ever 

Yrs very truly 

Jno. Cameron 


Hon: W. P. Mangum. 

Bring all the money home from Washington that you can, for 
scarcely [?] the cent is there here to be had. 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 

Washington City, 11*^. May 1846. 
My dear Love. 

I have not written to you for a long time, as every week, I 
supposed, I would get off the next, for home — . And now I in- 

^"He refers to Mangum's nephew-in-law, William Cain, who married Sarah Jane Bailey, daugh- 
ter of John L. Bailey, July 21, 1848. Hillsborough Recorder, July 23, 1848. 

The Mangum Papers 435 

tend it, as soon as possible- for, from appearances, no correct 
notion can be formed, when we shall probably get away from 
this place.- We are getting into, or have got into, a War with 
Mexico - & I fear, that may bring War with G. Britain. 

I know not what ought to be done with the administration- 
They deserve any & all sorts of punishment. 

I have not enjoyed scarcely any health this Spring.- I was 
confined ten or twelve days with severe bilious fever, brought 
on by cold.- I have not been well since- I was confined in April.- 
To leave here for a fortnight would I think, be useful to me- 
I have received a letter from Sally- I will write to her.- 

I have nothing to write, except to say, I am in ill health & 

I do not intend to come to Congress any longer than my 
term, even, if so long. Were it in my power to come by unan- 
imous vote. 

I hope to see you all soon.- 

In the meantime, give my Love to the Children & believe me 
as ever 

Your affectionate husband 
W. P. Mangum. 

I had hoped to leave here this Week. The news on Saturday 
night from the Mexican frontier make that impossible. & when - 
I cannot say — 

WP. M. 
Mrs. C. A. Mangum 

Elipht. NoW^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Union College May 15th 1846. 

Dear Sir 

Having been somewhat conversant, from my position and oc- 
cupation as a teacher and experimenter, with many of the im- 
provements which have been introduced during the last half 

"^Eliphalet Nott, 1773-1866, a Presbyterian minister, was president of Union College in New 
York for sixty-two years. In addition to his work as a minister and college president, he made a 
number of inventions involving heat. D. A. B., XIII, 580-581. This letter was L.S., not A.L.S. 

436 State Department of Archives and History 

century, and which have so greatly contributed to the multi- 
plication of the Comforts, and the amelioration of the Condition 
of the human race; and feeling a deep interest in v^hatever con- 
cerns the grov^th and glory of our own Country - I have thought 
that perhaps I might be justified in addressing a few lines to 
some of the leading members of Congress, in relation to a 
Marine instrument recently introduced called the "Sectional 
Dock" and which in my judgement is destined ultimately to 
change the method of raising vessels not only, but also of laying 
them up and repairing and launching them: And which, if 
this be so deserves the attention of Congress especially during 
a season when there is time and means for making such changes 
and improvements in our Marine instruments as the advanced 
state of science and practical skill may be found to call for. 

It would not be easy without drawing nor is my purpose to 
attempt to convey by letter an account of the instrument in 
question - but by an expression of opinion to bespeak your at- 
tention to its merits, when the question of appropriations for 
Dry Docks shall come before you - an instrument in the intro- 
duction of which every maratime nation has an interest- For 
were the exposure of the hull of a vessell for inspection clean- 
ing and repair, alone in question, the Sectional dock would, I 
apprehend, on account of the diminished expense it occasions 
as well as the increased Convenience and Safety it affords - 
Supersede the use of each and all the other Docks hitherto 
known to the public But there are other and very important 
naval purposes to which this instrument may be successfully 
applied - and this being the case it is very important at a time 
like the present, that the attention of those charged with the 
care of the public interests should be directed to an examination 
of the question - and the object of this letter is to bespeak in 
its behalf that attention - and this is done under a full belief of 
its claim to superiority over every instrument of the kind 
hitherto in use- And should it be so, your influence in favour 
of its adoption will I doubt not be secured - and should it not 
be so, it is not desired 

It is because I have thought the public interest might be 
materially promoted by inviting leading minds to an examina- 
tion of the marine instrument in question - that I have taken 

The Mangum Papers 437 

the liberty to do what might otherwise appear not only uncalled 
for but obtrusive 

I have only to add that I am with Sentiments of respect & 

Yours &c. 

Elipht. Nott. 
[Addressed : ] 

To the Honourable 
Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator 
Washington City 
D. C. 

Fahius Stanly^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York 

May 16 /46 
Dear Sir 

War has been declared. Our country will soon look to the 
actions of her officers, I have an innate feeling - long kept 
quiet - that desires duty fraught with difficulty, teeming with 

Experience assures me that I am calm and decisive in 
danger, competent in professional emergencies. 

The time has arrived, when I hope, I can solicit your in- 
fluence, as a Senator from N Carolina - to obtain for me a com- 
mand will need no apology. 

There will doubtless be many small vessels fitted out for 
the West Indies and the Pacific Ocean. I believe it my duty, as 
it is my highest ambition to command one of them. 

I remain- 
Your Obt'. Serf. 

Fabius Stanly 

Judge Mangum. 

"^Unable to identify. 

438 State Department of Archives and History 

A. H. Shepperd to Willie P. Mangum. 

Good Spring May 20 - 46 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

My dear Sir 

I have too long delayed tendering you my thanks for your 
prompt attention to my request for a Document, which I have 
received accompanied v^ith Capt. Fremonts Book — This journal 
carries with it the strongest evidence of the truth of the narra- 
tive from the remarkable absence of all grouping of extraordi- 
nary & startling occurrences, & that too in the midst of a wilder- 
ness abounding with Mountains Indians & Buffaloes- Oh what 
a book a real Yankee would have made out of such a tromp- 
You speak of Candidates for the Presidency, for myself I am 
strongly inclined to go for Benton as the best man among them. 
No one of the Whig party can come it - & we must look amongst 
the enemy — If Scott would not straddle & swagger so much 
like a Virginian he might get along tolerably well, McLean's 
Methodistical cant might help him somewhat but really. My 
Dr. Sir what task or inclination can the Whigs have for suc- 
cess even if it were practicable with this that or the other 
make shift of a Candidate when by a fair experiment they have 
established the fact of the nations unwillingness to be governed 
by one, who was prepared to reflect the highest honor on that 
once most exalted station — I say again why should we think of 
a contest with such a candidate as we must now look about for 
among the whigs- 

Let the thought be at once utterly abandoned & let us all 
unite for Benton. Calhoun is certainly doing his prettiest this 
session, now & then however, I find him splitting hairs about 
internal improvement, & on that subject he has dodged & bun- 
gled more than any other, trying to get away from himself. — 

Your anticipation seems to be quickly realized for it seems 
that we are already at war with Mexico - what will Polk do? 
surely in the midst of all his apparent purposes of bravery in 
a fight with somebody he never could seriously have thought of 
doing so far I cannot be mistaken in believing that so great is 
the timidity of his character he would feel alarm for his per- 

The Mangum Papers 439 

sonal safety if the seat of war was not Isicl nearer than Mexi- 
co. — 

I regret having mentioned to you my apprehension as to 
the result of a single contest in our State for Governor: it 
would be truly mortifying to the whigs to fail in a single con- 
test with either of the individuals spoken of as the Democratic 
Candidate & such a fate I sincerely pray may not await us — 
I spoke of Mr. Grahams vote on the Tariff^^^- do not understand 
me as objecting so much to the vote as to his course before the 
public on the subject- In all his addresses he has merely said 
that he voted against the Tariff as it passed & became the law 
assigning for reason first that some of the duties were too high, 
& its surrender of distribution & alleging that if his amendment 
to restore distribution had been seconded he would have gone 
for it, yet but a few days before he had voted against the great 
whig measure for raising revenue & at the same time preserv- 
ing distribution &c &c - the reasons, all the reasons that the 
Governor has ever given for voting against Tylers tariff would 
have seemed to require his support of the first Bill: that too he 
voted against, but has taken care to allude only to his course 
on that which became the law by obtaining the signature of 
the President. - But enough - He can & must beat such candi- 
dates as the Democracy are able to bring out. 

I shall be glad to hear from you if it be but a line. Do 
mention me to Crittenden Morehead & Barrow. I am yr. friend 

A. H. Shepperd 

[Addressed to : ] 

Hon Willie P. Mangum 

U S Senate 


"3See above A. H. Shepperd to W. P. Mangxun, April 26. 1846. 

440 State Department of Archives and History 

James S. RusselV^'' to Willie P. Mangum. 

Berea May 22 1846 
Dear Sir 

I am again candidate in Granville and v^e shall no doubt 
have a desperate contest, and as I have become somewhat 
rusty in political matters, I am driven therefore to request of 
you the favour to send me such documents and other informa- 
tion as in your opinion w^ill best enable me to conduct a cam- 
paign. Sub Treasury Tariff and Oregon questions w^ill be dis- 
cussed, in Granville, together v^ith such subjects as may arise 
between now and the adjournment of Congress whatever ex- 
pence may attend your compliance with this request, you will 
please inform me 

Yours Respectfully 
Jas. S. Russell 

Granville Cty 
N. Carolina 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Washington City. 

James Lynch^^^ et als. to Willie P. Mangum, 

New York, May 22«^. 1846 

On the 20th. instant, a meeting was held in this city in the 
Park, in pursuance of a call from the Mayor addressed to the 
citizens of the City and County of New York to respond to the 
action of the National Government in relation to our difficulties 

"^Jaraes S. Russell was a member of the legislature in 1840-1841, and 1846-1847. N. C. 
Manual, 623, 624. 

^^ James Lynch, who graduated from Columbia College in New York in 1799 and who died in 
1853, was a lawyer and justice of the Marine Court of New York City. M. H. Thomas, Columbia 
Unwersity Officers and Alumni 1754-1837, New York, 1936, 118. 

The Mangum Papers 441 

with Mexico: At a preliminary meeting a Committee had been 
appointed, composed of distinguished members of each of the 
political parties to make arrangements and prepare Resolutions, 
the Officers of the meeting were selected from the several 
parties and some of the whig officers attended under the im- 
pression that the Resolutions were to be limited to the expres- 
sion of an opinion that as War existed, it was the duty of every 
good citizen to sustain the administration in measures necessary 
to bring the same to a successful termination, and particularly 
to reinforce the army on the Rio Grande. When the Resolutions 
were read to the meeting it was discovered with surprise that 
they justified the existing war^^^ on the ground that submission 
to the wrongs to which our country had been subjected by the 
authorities of Mexico would be deemed pusillanimous by the 
civilized world, and that it was declared in the Resolutions that 
the War is just and necessary. It can hardly be necessary to 
say to you that the Whigs of the City of New York unan- 
imously do not concur in those sentiments, and the question 
is now presented as to the expediency of a formal public dec- 
laration to that effect at this moment. The Whig General Com- 
mittee have had the subject under consideration and have ap- 
pointed the undersigned a Committee to consult some of our 
leading friends in Congress. 

There are some amongst our Whig friends who are unwill- 
ing to remain for a moment under the imputation that the 
Whig party have concurred in the Resolutions referred to, and 
are anxious without delay to call a public meeting, for the 
purpose of expressing their dissent, whilst others on the score 
of expediency would prefer to await the further action of our 
friends in Congress, and the further progress of the events on 
the Rio Grande, on the ground that there are strong symptoms 
of a lurking dissatisfaction among the friends of the administra- 
tion which will probably be soon developed; as well against the 
measures which have produced collision, as against the in- 
efficient manner in which the military movements have been 
conducted, in addition to which the class of our friends last 

ii^Many Whigs had insisted that annexation would lead to war, and their opposition had been 
put on that ground. They held that war was unnecessary and was brought on by the rashness of Polk. 
On the day of Polk's war message, the House of Representatives passed a resolution with a preamble 
which asserted that by "aa of the Republic of Mexico a state of war exists." In the Senate the Whigs 
and Calhoun objected to this preamble. They held that war did not exist until Congress acted. 
Mangum declared, in the course of the debate, that if the Democrats would separate the political ques- 
tion from the bill for supplies, money, and troops, the Whigs would support it. Wiltse, Calhoun: 
Sectiondist, 282-284; McCormac. James K. Polk. 415-416; Pegg, "Whig Party in N. C," 237-238. 

442 State Department of Archives and History 

mentioned, apprehend that in the excitement at a public meet- 
ing there is danger that some ardent friends might express 
opinions which would be unpopular and might tend to re-unite 
the friends of the administration. 

Having viewed with great satisfaction the course taken by 
our friends in Congress on this War question and being under 
the impression that you have well considered what should 
hereafter be done, we should be much gratified to have the 
benefit of your advice on this occasion at your earliest con- 
venience, as it is not improbable that the action of the Whig 
party in this City may have a considerable effect upon our 
friends in other parts of this State. 

We have the honor 

to be Most Respectfully 
Your Obt. Servts. 

James Lynch Chm 
M. L. Davis 
John Cromwell 
James S. Thayer 
James Brooks 

To the Hon. 

Willie P Mangum 

Thomas G. PoW'^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Holly Springs, Miss - pi 
Honble. W. P. Mangum. 

My Dear Sir. 

I renew an old No. Ca. acquaintance by asking a favour 
from your hands, which I hope will be granted if consistent with 
your feelings. 

The last Washington papers, brought us the Presidents Mes- 
sage & the Bill for the increase of the Army, as well as the ap- 
propriation for its support — True to the principles of my fore- 

i"See above, II, 340n. 

The Mangum Papers 443 

fathers, I stop not to enquire by what means this War has been 
brought upon us - by whom - or for what purpose- It is sufficient 
for me to know that the country is at War, and I am anxious to 
enter into the service in defence of her honor & the maintenance 
of her rights. May I then ask, if consistent with your feelings, 
& a knowledge of who I am, that you would with other friends 
to whom I have written place my name before the President 
for the appointment of Brigadier General — I have written to 
Haywood - Speight & Chalmers & some others — Some of my 
friends have voluntarily written to the Secty of the Treasury 
& I learn also the President — 

I should be pleased if you would speak to Mr. Calhoun, with 
whom I have an acquaintance & also to Mr. Benton who may 
possibly recollect me - at least he will know who I am. Take 
what course you may deem advisable & you will confer a favour 
on your very 

Sincere friend & 
obt. Sevt. 

Thos. G. Polk 

[Addressed : ] 

Honbl. W. P. Mangum 

Washington City. 

O. F, Long^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

HiLLSBORO May 25th, 1846 
Dear Sir 

Long. Webb & Co have purchased and fitted up the Union 
Hotel and as we intend the House, shall be first rate, we wish 
to have some of the leading Journals of the country. You will 
therefore confer a favour on us. by calling at the office of the 
**Nat: Intelligencer" & "The Union" and request them to send 

i^^smond Fitz Long, 1808-1864, a graduate of the University of North Carolina and a native 
of Randolph County, studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. After marrying Frances 
Helen Webb, daughter of Dr. James Webb, in 1832, he moved to HiUsboro, where he associated 
with his father-in-law in his many businesses. Carolina Watchman, Oaober 13. 1832; Grant. Alumni 
Hist, of U. N. C, 375. 

444 State Department of Archives and History 

their tri-weekly papers to the ''Union Hotel, Hillsboro, No Ca" 
- and you will confer a further favour by paying the subscrip- 
tion to each for one year v^hich v^e will settle on your return — 
We expect to bring out our candidates this week. As usual 
the Whigs are Blundering about. Nobody knows what we will 
do for candidates- The Democrats are well prepared for the con- 
test^ ^^- Capt. Berry will be their candidate for the senate - Sid 
Smith & some kindred spirits in the commons- Rick Nichols has 
a foolish notion of trying to be Sheriff and I fear will injure the 
whig cause 

Yours Respectfully 
O. F. Long 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Washington City. 

Willie P. Mangum to the Secretary of the Navy^^^ 

Senate Chamber 27*^. May 1846 
To The Hon: Secretary of the Navy. 


I enclose to you a letter addressed to me by M''. Creecy/^^ 
in behalf of his son. 

I have learned, that the administration has taken a proper 
interest in the officers of the late Texan Navy, & therefore do 
all that is proper on my part, by refreshing your recollection by 
simply inviting your attention to the subject. 

During the past Winter, I received several communications 
in regard to young M"". Creecy, in all of which he is represented 
as a young man of Spirit & much promise. 

I am Sir with much respect 
Your Ob*. Ser*. 

Willie P. Mangum 

iieSee above John Cameron to W. P. Mangum, May 7, 1846. 
i^^he original is in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

"^See above J. R. Creecy to W. P. Mangum, January 10, 1846. The enclosure here referred 
to was not found. 

The Mangum Papers 445 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Washington City 
Thursday morning, 4th June 1846. 
My dear Love, 

Mr. Gordon of Guilford County will probably hand you 
this.- He leaves this morning & in a few minutes, & promised 
me last night, that he would endeavour to go home by our 

I am just out of bed & undressed to write a line — I am tol- 
erably well.- My health is much better, than it was during the 
latter part of the Winter & Spring. I had hoped My Love to 
see you all before this time — But the follies, Wickedness & War 
of this administration rendered it impossible.- I have not given 
it up, - because we may be kept here a long time yet. 

We ought not to leave before we settle all with England, 
for two wars would almost ruin the Country. 

Mr. Gordon is a plain, ingenious & worthy man. Of course, 
you will treat him kindly — I send by him a few books for Sally 
& Patty - & Mary & William.- He wants a copy of the Patent re- 
port, & perhaps several- Give them to him.- 

Give my Love to the Children. 
Your affectionate husband 

W. P. Mangum 
Mrs. C. A. Mangum 

J. R. Creecy'^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New Orleans 5th June 1846 
My Dear Sir 

Your very kind and friendly letter of the 27th was reed, this 
morning; from my heart I thank you; but of how little avail are 
all my exertions, to obtain even so small a boon as I have asked 
from the "powers that be! God save the Nation! To show you 

^^See above J. R, Creecy to W. P. Mangum, January 10, 1846, and W. P. Mangum to the 
Secretary of the Navy, May 27, 1846. 

446 State Department of Archives and History 

how I have been understood or misunderstood; I enclose a letter 
reed, yesterday from the Honl. Secty of the Navy.^^^ My son 
never w^as a Citizen of Louisiana, never expects to be; and in 
my first letter to the Secty. I mentioned particularly that he 
w^as a native of No. Carolina and had been for the last eleven 
years a resident of Mississippi; and that he had been a mid- 
shipman with Comm. Moore, 18 ms. in the Texan Navy; and 
had returned from Texas (after being dismissed with Comr. 
M. by Gov. Houston) to Mississippi, where he had remained, 
until he came to this City and volunteered in a company from 
Natchez about three weeks since, he is now at Matamoras- I do 
think the "wants of the service" will require 'ere long a "few 
more" appointments; and that this little favor might be granted, 
to me, Mississippi or Texas, or No. Carolina, but I did not ask it 
for Louisiana. — 

The war has caused me to give up the idea, of publishing a 
paper for the present; and under authority from Genl Gaines, 
I was actively engaged in raising a Regiment for the Army of 
^'Invasion/' when a damper arrived upon the old GenP. acts^-*- 
and we are now in a state of most unenviable suspense and ex- 
pense! I am requested to "hold on" a few days by Genl. G. in 
the hope that his ''doings'' will not be finally repudiated - but 
the administration appear determined to kill off the old veteran 
in some way; and I have but little faith in the establishment- 
The people will force the Government into the entire conquest or 
occupation of Mexico; and to settle all disputes about the next 
President; Genl. Scott, Mr. Polk &c &c may furl their banners, 
for Genl. Z. Taylor is the man already selected for our next 
chief — Excuse me for enclosing an article^-^ written by yr. 
humble Sert. and published in the Jeffersonian a few days since; 

^^he enclosure was not found. 

i^*Oa August 2, 1845, word reached New Orleans, where General Edmund P. Gaines was in 
conunand of the Western Division of the Army, that Taylor had been surrounded in Texas by the 
Mexicans. Without considering the extent of his authority, Gaines immediately called on the gov- 
ernor of Louisiana for two regiments of the militia. His aaion was declared illegal by the Adjutant 
General, but the troops were accepted. In May, 1846, when Taylor was fired upon by the Mexicans, 
Gaines requested several Southern governors to hold their forces in readiness. He also accepted vol- 
unteers. Polk dismissed him June 2 and ordered a court martial. James W. Silver, Edmund Pendle- 
ton Gaines: Frontier General, Baton Rouge, 1949, 258-265. 

^^The enclosure was not found. 

The Mangum Papers 447 

it may aid in preventing Northern troops from being sent to 
untimely graves in this war- 

I will not take more of your time. 
With best and warmest wishes 
Yr friend 

& much obliged 

J. R. Creecy. 

[Addressed : ] 

For the 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Willie P. Mangum to Messrs. Gales & Seaton^^^ 

Senate Chamber. 6*^ June '46 

To Mess". Gales & Seaton 

The turn which the debate of yesterday took upon great 
principles will fix men's positions to some extent. — I participated 
with the view of postponing immediate action, & had to pursue a 
course of remark extemely liable to be misunderstood^^^ — The 
subsequent part of the debate attracted so much attention, that 
I desire to see my remarks before printed. — The ''Union" makes 
me express opinions, which I expressly disclaimed. 

I avoided expressly expressing any opinion in advance upon 
those important points afterwards so much debated. 

^^The original is in the Ford Collection, New York Public Library. 

^^Oti June 5, 1846, the Senate debated Cass's resolution requesting the President to inform 
Congress if any army officers had called volunteers or militia organizations into the service of the 
United States without legal authority. This was directed against General Gaines. Mangum took the 
position that the resolution was unnecessary for the law was explicit on calling men into service and 
that if Gaines had done anything wrong, it was the President's responsibility to court martial him. 
Cong. Globe, 29 Cong., 1 sess., 930. 

448 State Department of Archives and History 

Will you do me the favor to enclose the remarks v^ritten out, 
& I will return them v^henever desired. 

Yours truly 

W. P. Mangum 

[Addressed To:] 

Mess'^^ Gales & Seaton 
Intell. Office 

[Endorsed:] W. P. Mangum 
June 6, 1846 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 

New York 8. th. June 1846 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

It is some time since, I did myself the pleasure, to v^rite 
to you, and I beg now^, that you will hear me with patience, for 
I am one of the people, and I talk to you Sir, directly from 
amongst them. 

I have received glad tidings from afar, *'I hear from the 
Mississippi river, IIP. and so on, through the "Western States" 
that the people there, are determined, to take their own bus- 
iness, into their own hands, and to manage it for themselves. 
That the people's man, John M^^.Lean, of Ohio, is the very one, 
to break down, this uproarous democracy. That they are re- 
solved, that no man, shall be forced upon them, not even, in 
the person of Mr. Clay. And they desire not, a ''general officer," 
to take command, of their civil concerns. The Whigs of the 
West, will not support this Mexican war, of conquest; and so 
says, very many of the democracy. They sigh for the day, to 
arrive, when they can go to the ballot boxes, and speak through 
them, to Jim Polk & C"". in this wise. Go ye into everlasting re- 
tirement, thou unworthy servants, for we have had enough, of 
thy misrule. 

The Mangum Papers 449 

I shall be most happy, to hear from you. I desire to hear 
from one, who is in a position, to know, (if any one can) the 
designs, of this administration, in prosecuting this mexican war, 
of conquest. Is it to be a long, or a short one. Will England and 
France, look on quietly, and see America, take possession, of 
this rich and fertile country, and what shall we do with it, after 
we have obtained it. Or, will the war be prosecuted, with vig- 
our, to the end, that will cause the Mexicans, to sue for peace, 
if so, I say Amen. But Mr. Senator, we say here, no war, for 
conquest of territory. 

I remain my dear Sir, 

very sincerely your friend 
J. B. Mower 

Hon Willie P. Mangum) 

U. S. Senate ) 

Washington ) 

D. C. ) 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 
D. C. 

Willie P. Mangum & W. S. Archer to James Watson Wehh^^^ 

Washington City 11*^. June 1846 

My dear Sir, 

Mr. Archer & I think, we have reason to complain of your 
Wine Merchant, in sending us Wine which we do not drink nor 
can our friends be induced to drink it - I received Six boxes - 
M"". Archer I think, a larger number. 

i28The original is in the Ford Colleaion, New York Public Library. 

450 State Department of Archives and History 

I opened one on its arrival, & have not used it all - The other 
five remain unopened. 

It is the more unlucky for us, as our neighbour M''. J. M. 
Clayton received from the same House an excellent article - 
He paid one dollar more p^ doz. - As We did not mean to place 
any restriction upon the price, we feel that v^e have not been 
quite so w^ell treated by him. We w^ould like to return it, & re- 
ceive in lieu of it next Winter, a better article, of course, in- 
demnifying for any proper Cost above the price of this, v^hich 
v^as $11 p'". doz. 

Will you have this placed before your merchant, & be so 
obliging as to advise us of his determination in this behalf? 

With great respect 
Yrs truly 
Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

Mr Mangum has shewn me the above letter, and I am under 
the necessity of concurring fully, in his representation as re- 
gards the entirely valueless character of the wine sent me, be- 
ing Mansanilla, the wine drunk by only the lowest class of 
People in Andalusia, instead of Amontilliado the wine which 
Mr. Mangum and myself expected, and which Mr Clayton did 

I did not return the wine, because I had paid for it before 
receiving it, and because a reluctance to inpose any concern 
on you who I was aware had no knowledge of the Imposition we 
had sustained. I do not now, wish you put to inconvenience, 
though I do not regard the wine as worth a single dollar for 
the entire quantity sent instead of $11. per doz. 

Yr obt St etc. 
W. S. Archer 

Mr Webb. 

[End:] 11 June 1846 Washington 

The Mangum Papers 451 

Thos. J. Green to Willie P. Mangum 

Phil. June 12th /46. 
My Dear Friend: 

You will find enclosed a faithful minature Likeness of my 
brother Colonel Chas. P. Green, which I beg you to accept ;^2^ 
for a truer or more devoted friend you never had. 

Your friend truly, 

Thos. J. Green. 


Hon. W. P. Mangum. 
Washington city. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 
U. S. Senate, 
Washington city. 

By Genl. ) 

J. T. Mason) 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 

Washington City 22"**. June 1846 

My dear Love 

I was much pleased to receive your letter of last week. I 
fear, the wheat crop is greatly injured. The City has been quite 
sickly this month, not with fever, but diahrhea. I have had my 
share of it, but am nearly well of it. 

The weather is cold enough for the first of November.- I 
have resumed my flannel.- 

We shall not get away from here before the first of August. - 
Others think the 20th July, but I feel sure, it will be August. 

^"^Charles Plummer Green died December 1, 1843, of consumption. He was thirty- four years 
old at the time of his death. I have been unable to locate this miniature of Green. 

452 State Department of Archives and History 

I have given up hope of seeing you all before the end of the 
session- The business has been & v^ill be so important, that I 
ought not to be absent. 

I thank God, that War v^ith England is averted. ^^^ That 
with Mexico can & ought to be speedily settled, yet v^ill it? I 
fear not. There are too many objects of personal ambition & 
avarice to be gratified by its continuance. We must however, 
one & all fight it out, or sustain it with vigor.- I have not heard 
whether [my] boy William has volunteered- I think, he is too 
young, yet if Mr. Piper thinks otherwise he is a volunteer, let 
him go to the War^^^ 

I cannot say my Love, how much I [desire] to see you & be 
at home.- This session [has] in the main, been the most un- 
pleasant I have ever passed here- My health for more than [torn] 
of it, has been decidedly bad- & yet I have been so careful of it.- 

I fear my lungs are incurably affected [torn] trip to Virginia 
two years ago, I fear, [torn] shorten my life, if other causes 
shall not [torn] the thread more speedily.- 

Give my Love to all the children, & 
believe me my dear Love, 
as ever, 

Your affectionate husband 
Willie P. Mangum 

Mrs. Charity A. Mangum 

Josiah Randall to Willie P. Mangum. 

[22 June, 1846] 
Dear Sir 

When I saw you, you promised to be here on the 4th July, 
the day is favorable & you need not be absent one hour from 
the Senate. I reported you would come. The Comt. & our 

i^^On June 15, 1846, Buchanan signed a rreaty with Pakenham settling the Oregon dispute. 
McCormac, James K. Polk, 609- 

i3iWilliam Preston Mangum was born July 13. 1837. 

The Mangum Papers 453 

friends expect you; I exact of course the promise that you will 
stay with me- Write an answer immy. 

Yours &c. 

J. Randall 


June 22/46 

Hbl Mr Mangum 

Willie P. Mangum to Mess""'. Gales & Seaton^^^ 

Monday 29**^. June '46 
41/2 O. C. 


Mr E. Johnson called to enquire this morning, whether I 

knew anything of the movement intended by Mr. Mc. Duffie, & 

referred to in the public prints on the subject of the Mexican 

I have talked with Mr. M<^. D. - There is no foundation for 
the rumor. - 

I suggested, that an idea thrown out by Crittenden & others 
I thought of value. - 

He seemed to seize upon it, & said he w*^. urge it upon the 
Pres^ - 

To take some occasion, ( if he had to go out of his way to do 
it in a Message) to say, that whenever he might receive satis- 
factory evidence, that the Mex. Govt, desired to negotiate, 
that he w^. be ready to send a mission of three or more gentle- 
men, without regard to party, to negotiate a treaty of peace up- 
on foundations solid & enduring, Clay, Calhoun & Benton for 

It's moral effect upon the world w**. be good & show, though 
at home divided upon internal policy as regard to foreign 

i*The original letter is in the Ford Collection, New York Public Library. 

"^At this time George McDuffie was chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. 

454 State Department of Archives and History 

powers we were as one man, & upon grounds, liberal, generous 
& magnanimous. This is all. 

Yrs truly 

W. P. Mangum 

Messrs. Gales & Beaton 

[Addressed:] To Mess". Gales & Seaton 
Intell: Office 

Dudley Selden^^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

New York July 8*^ 1846. 
Dear Sir 

When at Washington I did not express any opinion as to the 
general merits of the Tariff Bill, My interest being confined to 
the article of sugar alone, I only endeavored to give informa- 
tion upon that subject, and to shew, that the enormous duty 
levied upon sugar under the Act of 1842 ought to be reduced, 
whether any thing was done with regard to other articles or 
not. On my return here it being known that I had visited Wash- 
ington a great many conversed with me with regard to the pro- 
bability of the passage of McKays bill,^^^ and I have been sur- 
prised to find how many of those who belong to the Whig party, 
have expressed a willingness to see the new plan adopted, some 
assigning as a reason that the measure coming from the South 
will likely prove permanent, that nothing was more mischievous 
than constant agitation of the question, and the derangements 
of private interests, based upon protection, that until the 
south had their own way, they would not leave the country at 
rest. Others have said that if any great mischief was to arise 
from the House Bill it would fall upon those who brought around 
this state of things, whereby the act of 1842, was to be changed. 

i^See above. III, 213n. 

i^In 1844 James J. McKay, Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means, tried to revise the 
Whig tariflF of 1842. In 1846 he presented to the House what was later known as the Walker TariflF. 
Under this bill all duties were ad valorem. Commodities were put in several groups and the rates 
varied with the groups. On July 3 the House passed the bill with few changes. The Senate began 
debating it on July 6. Because of the radical changes proposed. Senator Will H. Haywood, of North 
Carolina, broke with the administration and resigned. His resignation made possible the passage of 
the bill by the vote of 28 to 27, McCormac, James K. Polk, 672-678; Norton, Democratic Party in 
N. C, 119-120. 

The Mangum Papers 455 

I mean those, who were engaged in various handicraft work, 
most of whom by their vote manifested a preference, to a policy, 
which would reduce the price of articles of consumption other 
than that which will keep up a high rate of wages. 

I am very desirous of knowing, whether the House bill, will 
pass the Senate, for should I have reason to believe it would 
pass I would order at once, a change in my present apparatus 
for manufacturing sugar, with the view of bringing to the 
market an improved article, and I think many other sugar 
planters in Cuba from the United States will do the same 
thing. If I make the change I ought to give my orders for ma- 
chinery at the earliest possible day, which by the way will prove 
a job for the mechanics here of some $15,000 I suppose the re- 
sult of the bill, is doubtful arising out of the uncertainty of Mr. 
Jarnegan and Mr. Athertons vote, and herein I assume that you 
will vote against the bill. 

Yours very truly and with great respect 
Dudley Selden 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 


W. P. Mangum 
D. C. 

George Constantine Collins^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

Philada. July 14th. 1846 
Hon: Sir. 

I hope it will not be considered a presumption on my part, 
to drop you an occasional line, inasmuch as, your exalted sta- 
tion should, and doubtless does afford you correspondents bet- 
ter suited to your official dignity and literary lore. Yet from the 
opinion which I formed of your attachment to those noble 
principles of equality, which characterize our blessed Institu- 

i36See above, 25 n. 

456 State Department of Archives and History 

tions, and which you have so eminently sustained in your pub- 
lic life, I am emboldened to address you. 

Some time since, I w^rote you a Letter respecting the dif- 
ficult [y] v^hich I had to encounter since the defea[t] of our illus 
[trious] Candidate in endeavouring to obtain a profession [I] 
still have 5 months to put in before I shall be [a mejmber of 
this Bar. Mr. Randall my Precep[tor] ha[s] been kind [to- 
ward] s me, Alfred du Pont of Delaware has been [torn]er,- a 
benefactor. Both of those Gentlemen [are] warmly devoted to 
your interests an[d] honor. Mr. [Ran]dall told me a few days 
ago, that your name [was] associated as V. P. with that of 
Jud[ge] McLean of Ohio, who it is thought will be our Candi- 
date for the Presidency. To this I am opposed, from this I dis- 
sent. I told Mr. Randall, that you should not be placed in that 
position, as your standing required perhaps the first position. 
Frelinghuysen more than anything else, defeated Mr. Clay. 
He was a bitter Sectarian, McLane is a little more moderate, 
but the same objection lies. He is already called the psalm- 
singing Candidate! I informed you in my last letter, that your 
name was freely used, in connection with the Presidency. 
Josiah Randall, thinks your nomination would be hailed with 
popular acclamation. I am still a Clay man, though I am in- 
structed by many to say nothing on that score. Next to [him] 
your flag shall float above my 'sanctum.' N[otwith] standing 
you did not deem my last letter worth [y of n]otice, I yet shall 
remember your former kindness [with] undying gratitude. Your 
opposition in private convers[ation] to that greatest of all 
political heresies, 'Nativisra' endeared you to my heart, and 
your letter of [instru]ction to the Whigs of the Union still re- 
mains in [my no]tion as a monument of the liberality of the 
Senator from [Nor]th Carolina. 

But, I regret that the nomination of McLane cannot re- 
ceive my approbation, as I recognize in him a bitter enemy to 
my Faith, and the same objection, which applied to Frelingn. 
will also be against him: Let me have a line, if your leisure 
will permit to the care of J. Randall Esq. In all events, come 
what may, sink or swim, I shall never forget you, though I 
should seem to you but a small speck on the great ocean of 
humanity. I have a soul which shall always be grateful to him 

Courtesy of Frick Art Reference Library 
James Turner Morehead, 1797-1854. From an oil portrait, fainter unknown, in the 
possession of the Kentucky Historical Society, Frankfort. 

The Mangum Papers 457 

who once treated me with respect, though when the storm of 
politics should blow over, would be forgotten by him. 

With Sentiments of profound regard 
Hon: Sir, your 
Friend, and humble Servt 

Geo: Constantine Collins 
(Author of "50 Reasons," & once respected 
by Whigs but now forgotten though as 
good a Whig now as ever). 

Hon W [P. Man] gum 
Senator f[rom N.]C. 

WilliaTn H. Thomas to Willie P. Mangum and Enclosure^" 

Washington City 

July 17, 1846 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
of the Senate, 

Dear Sir, 

I have obtained another statement from General Scott 
relative my claims provided for in the Resolution before the 
Senate which I herewith enclose. May I ask of you the favour 
at the earliest opportunity to show it to Mr. Jarnagan and as 
soon as you can have the opportunity to have the Resolution 
called up and acted on. 

I have been waiting and must continue to wait until some- 
time next week to ascertain whether the investigation now 
going on before a board of Commissioners will result in a treaty 
being made with the Cherokees by which their difficulties will 
be settled and the [payment] of their claims provided for,^^^ 
The President, [torn] has authorised the Commissioners to em- 

la^See above, 421. 

i880n August 6, 1846, a treaty was signed at Washington with the Cherokees of the West al- 
lowing the eastern band of Cherokees, who remained in North Carolina, to participate in the bene- 
fits of New Echota Treaty of 1835. Mooney, "Myths of the Cherokees," in Smithsonian Institution, 
Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, I, 163. 

458 State Department of Archives and History 

brace [torn] [exjamination and report- on which a treaty will 
probably [torn] claims of the North Carolina Cherokees, 

With the highest respect 
your obt. servt. 

Wm. H. Thomas 


Winfield Scott to W. H. Thomas 

Head Q uarters of the Army. 

Washington, July 17, 1846. 

In answer to your inquiries, I refer you to my reports to the 
War Department, from Athens Tennessee, dated Nov 6, 1838, 
relative to the means to be used for the capture of certain 
Cherokee murderers, &c. In that report I say: ''Col Foster 
(Com^^ 4 Inf) will also have the aid, as runners, guides & in- 
terpreters of some of IVEr. Thomas's Oconolufty Indians, as well 
as the personal services of IVlr. Thomas himself, who takes a 
lively interest in the success of the expedition. "^^^ 

The reports of Col Foster speak of the valuable services 
rendered by yourself & Indians up to the successful accomplish- 
ment of the objects of the expedition; & I cannot doubt, that 
this result would have been longer delayed had other instru- 
ments, less acquainted with the localities, been used. Such de- 
lay, besides the expense attending it, would have retarded the 
march of the 7th. Inf, then awaiting the arrival of the 4th. at 
Fort Gibson, before proceeding to Florida. 

I remain, Sir, respectfully, 

Winfield Scott. 


IVTr. W. H. Thomas 
Washington City. 

ia«See above, 42 In. 

The Mangum Papers 459 

Jon. H. Jacobs^^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Durant's Neck N^. Ca. 

July 20"\ 1846— 

My dear Sir, 

My health for the last two years has been very bad and for 
the last twelve months it has been a struggle for me to live - ( the 
Chronic Diarrhia) A trip to the Mineral Springs of Va. last 
Summer, I am well satisfied has protracted my life-, and I con- 
template travelling in the Western part of this State this Sum- 
mer and Fall, as soon as I am able to locate my family at my 
Cabbin at Nag's Head- 
Not being politically represented in Congress I have rec*'. 
few documents this Session, indeed I may say none, if I except 
''B [illegible]", & Mr. Bigg's speech on the Tariff, sent me by 
Mr. Bigg's, & the report of the Coast Survey, "House Document 
No. 38" which I think was sent me by my Friend Mr. Barringer- 
I have somehow, been generally much neglected in that respect, 
I think, and could not be reconsiled were I not a subscriber to 
the Nat. Intelligencer & "Niles' Register"- 

This is principally addressed you, my old Friend, ( if I can be 
permitted to use the expression & I think I should) to ask a 
favor of you & through you my other Friends in Congress, to 
send me some few of the Valuable Documents which have be [en] 
printed, this Session, by order of Congress- Confined as I am 
a great deal within doors, reading and writing are my principal 
occupations, and have a tendency to wile away the tedium of 
a sick room- 
Well I suppose we shall have a "Democratic Tariff," and 
once more be guilty of the folly of trying to increase the reve- 
nue by reducing the duties!- I should really think that the "Com- 
promise" Tariff, had already convinced all sane persons, that 
no such result can be expected- But I suppose Demagogues must 
rule us so long as they rule the " majority "- 

But of all the wild measures and positions of the present 
dominant party in Congress, none gave me so much uneasiness 
as the "Oregon" Controversy- The "54.40" and "all or none" 

"oSee above. III, 296n. 

460 State Department of Archives and History 

men- Thank God, the good sense of Benton and Calhoun & some 
few others, induced them to unite with the Whigs & we may hope 
that affair is settled- But the "Mexican War," I much fear, will 
yet involve us with Europe, for it seems, we must go to the 
Rio Grand and of course follow up to its head, and we must have 
California, and New Mexico- Then after this is all accomplished, 
I think Mexico it self will be another "Texas," and "annexed" 
by "Joint resolution"! 

I fear you will have to make yr. "Bow" on the 4". of March 
next, and to use a common expression of an old friend, be 
"turned to grass"- The retirement of Rayner, the death of 
Cherry, and defeat of Outlaw have ruined we poor Whigs in 
this Dist. We are very unfortunate too in the candidates in 
this 1st. Senatorial Dist. both as to Senate & Commons- I fear 
we shall be beaten - tho' I have been almost bed-ridden, know 
nothing of myself & only from others- 
Present my respects to Messrs. Haywood, McKay, Biggs, Bar- 
ringer, Dockery, and all other Friends and believe me D^ Sir, 

Yr. Friend & ob Sert 

Jon. H. Jacobs 
Hon'. W. P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon^ W. P. Mangum 
Washington City 
D. C- 

Charles Miner^^^ to William, A. Graham. 

Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne Co. P. July 20/46 

To his Excellency William A. Graham 

Governor of North-Carolina. 

I take leave, most respectfully to invite your attention to a 
matter, which appears to me not only interesting to North-Car- 

"^Charles Miner, 1780-1865, was a journalist in Wilkes-Barre before he moved to Philadelphia. 
He endeavored to popularize the silk industry in various parts of the country, experimenting on a 
farm of his own. He also tried to increase the use of anthracite coal. D. A. B., XIII. 22-23. 

The Mangum Papers 461 

olina, but to the whole Union. I refer to the culture of Silk. 
The severity of our northern winters, retarding the growth, 
and injuring the tender branches, of the Mulberry, renders our 
position less eligible for the business, than a more southern 
climate. South of you the heat would become too intense; South 
Virginia and your state I apprehend, possess that favourable 
temperature, best adapted to the growth of the mulberry, and 
the perfection of the silk-worm. I am therefore extremely anx- 
ious that with you, and under the auspices of the State Gov- 
ernment, the experiment should be fairly and faithfully tried, 
not on an expensive, but yet on a liberal scale: neither doubt- 
ing, nor entertaining a shadow of a doubt, but the result would 
prove a perenial source of incalculable wealth and abiding pro- 
sperity to your noble Commonwealth - and reflecting to after 
ages the highest honour on the public authorities whose spirit 
and forecast should introduce and effectually establish the 
inestimable benefits of rearing the silk-worm and the produc- 
tions of silk- 
Reading a few days ago, the eloquent description, in the 
7th volume of Gibbon, of the rise and extension of the Silk- 
culture, in eastern Europe and Asia, it gave new impulse to a 
Resolution, long since formed to bring the matter, expecially to 
the consideration of your Government; and various treasury 
statistics upon my table enable me to present to your Excellency, 
some highly curious comparative views, shewing the importance 
of the subject 

Cotton, Tobacco, Rice and Flour are regarded, and truly, as 
our leading staples of exportation: 

In the ten years from 1836, inclusive, to 1845 the exporta- 
tion of cotton, was in value $578,037,882 

In the same period the importation 
of Silks amounted to the enormous sum of $124,870,326 

From a fifth to a quarter the value of 
our great staple! 

During the 10 preceding years the 
imports amounted to $ 93,392,934! 

Shewing an aggragate increase of 31 millions; or more than 3 
millions a year. 

The exports of Tobacco from 
1836 to 1845 amounted, in value to $ 85,598,727 

462 State Department of Archives and History 

Exhibiting a Silk import of 39,271,599 

greater than the whole export of Tobacco 

During the same period there were exported 
of Rice $ 20,868,266 

The two. Tobacco and Rice, falling short of the value of 
Silks imported nearly 20 millions. 

The export of Flour during the same period amounted in 
value to $ 58,288,108. 

Less than half the value of importations of Silks. 

It must be obvious to your Excellency that these figures are 
exhibited to show, impressively, the great and steadily grow- 
ing value of Silks consumed in the United States: 

When the increase of opulence, and consequent advance of 
luxury, combined with the rapid augmentation of Population, 
are considered, must it not be among the things of moral cer- 
tainty, that the consumption of silk will proceed with an equal 
if not accelerated pace? Is it not equally clear, that the over- 
production of Cotton, must certainly transfer its culture, ex- 
clusively to the more southern and better adapted locations, 
leaving it desirable that some new and more profitable staple 
should be introduced into North-Carolina? 

I write under the fullest persuasion that your State may be 
made, four-fold, the richest in the Union: that her least fruitful 
hills - her fertile valleys, and even her sterile plains, may "by 
the education" of the Silk- worm, and the production of the 
white mulberry, be made as valuable as the low southern lands 
yielding the Sea-Island Cotton. It is understood that on light 
and sandy soils, the Mulberry leaf, though less luxuriant, pro- 
duces a counterbalancing fineness of Silk. 

My Plans would be simple, involving little comparative out- 
lay; avoiding the common fault of Governmental schemes; that 
is of beginning on too large a scale, and expending unnecessary 
sums in the experiment 

A Farm of 100 acres, in the immediate vicinity of the seat 
of Government, it is presumed may be bought for $60 an acre - 

Obtain from the Town of Mansfield, Connecticut, two fam- 
ilies, which should embrace at least 4 males, accustomed to the 
Silk-culture, (their habits are simple - their expectations mod- 
erate, while industry and economy are familiar from childhood ) . 

The Mangum Papers 463 

Such could probably be obtained, they having the use of the 
Farm to subsist upon, by paying the two men 20 dolls a month - 
the two young men 15 - making 840 dolls a year 

Five acres of the Farm to be sown in beds carefully with 
white mulberry seed, for nurseries - each year - for 3 or 4 
years, until sufficient young trees should be raised to supply, 
gratuitously ( or at a very small price ) every family in the State, 
that would accept of them, with a Mulberry orchard or field, of 
from 100" to 3 or 400 Trees. 

Domestic, or Household culture, diffused throughout every 
County, giving easy employment to old men - to women and 
children, whose labour would otherwise be of little value, may 
well be regarded an object of great importance. Some families 
might be careless; not a few indifferent, for fixed habits are slow 
to change; but many of the rising generation, giving the experi- 
ment a fair trial and proving successful, would ensure an ulti- 
mately favourable issue 

In three years from the first planting. Silks, in moderate 
quantities might be made. Ten years prudent management 
would give a product, surprising to the incredulous - and cheer- 
ing to the sanguine. 

The Nursery farm would, of course, be under the immediate 
eye and supervision of the Legislature, and here, at the earliest 
suitable period, young persons might be brought from different 
parts of the State, to learn the simple process of gathering the 
leaves and feeding the Silks-spinning-gold-coining, insect. 

So far from recommending, I would dissuade from costly ex- 
periments - large buildings - heated rooms; or any early attempts 
at fine manufactures. The Coccoons being produced for market 
the more expensive processes by machinery, and manipulation, 
might be left, solely to individual capital and enterprise. But 
it would be well to consider whether a Legislative bounty on 
the production of Coccoons and Sewing silk might not be ad- 
vantageous to the business while in its infancy 

The Farm, remaining the property of the State would, prob- 
ably, appreciate in value. 

The action of the Government in the matter, could scarcely 
fail to give a favourable impulse to the business of the Capital. 

And would not the promising commencement of the Silk- 
Culture, in the state, offering such rich returns, have the effect 

464 State Department of Archives and History 

to turn the tide of emigration, from the teeming hives of New 
England, into North-Carolina? It is known many of the New 
England race are now settling in Virginia, desirous of enjoying 
a middle climate and more congenial sky. 

It has been estimated that the product of an acre in the 
white mulberry, would be $200 a year. Looking for no excessive 
returns, it is yet firmly believed, that, with the same outlay of 
Capital and Labour, it may be made to equal, if not exceed, the 
product of Sugar, or the general returns of the finer sorts of 

I need not say to your Excellency, that the Statesmen, who, 
with liberal forecast and firm resolve, make those embrio ar- 
rangements, demanding time and expenditure - patience and 
perserverence, the results of which are new and valuable har- 
vests to the husbandman - increased profits to labour, and the 
consequent diffusion of plenty and happiness among the People, 
are indeed Patriots, and deserve the Public gratitude. 

I pray your Excellency to allow the purity of my motives, 
to plead my apology for this intrusion; as I have no personal 
interest to advance, and to permit me to subscribe myself 

Your obedient Servant 
Charles Miner. 

[Addressed : ] 

His. Excellency 

William A — Graham 
Governor of 

J. W. Carr^^^ to Willie P. Mangum and Enclosure 

Chapel Hill 24th July 1846 
Hon W. P. Mangum — 

Dear Sir 

You will see from Mr Utley's letter that he wishes you 
to look into a patent which he obtained in Sepf last from the 

i*2See above, 299n. 

The Mangum Papers 465 

patent office of the U. S. It seems that there is some misunder- 
standing about the knife &C- & unless it can be explained satis- 
factorily it may cause a suit — Dr Jones of this place Jones Wat- 
son Aliegh[?] Hutch & myself are all concerned & wish to estab- 
lish the Letters patent & to show that no infringement has been 
made on Gay lords patent of 1843 or any improvement that he 
may have made up to the 27*^. Sept^ 1845 — 

You will please see Edmond Burke and Dr. Page who we 
think will do a way all doubts about the matter — we have 
written to Edmond Burke Comm''. of patents this day about it. 
please attend to it & write us as soon as you possibly can to- 
gether with your own opinion about the matter — 

I am Sir with great respect 
Your obt servt 

J. W. Carr 

If you can send us any documents that will be of any service 
in our approaching Election we should like to have them — It 
will be a hard contest in Orange but we hope the Whig Ticket 
will succeed - 

J. W. C. 



W. P. Mangum 

(Senate of the U States) 
Washington City 


Grey XJtley to W. P. Mangum^^^ 

Chapel Hill July 24th. 1846 

Dear Sir- 

I obtained a patent on the 27th day of Sepf last from the 
patent office of the United States for an improvement in a 
straw-cutter- Since which time there has some difficulty arisen 

^**This letter is in the handwriting of J. W. Carr. 

466 State Department of Archives and History 

in this section of the country about it. It is contended by two 
persons here through malace that my patent is an infringement 
upon a patent obtained by Gay lord in the year 1843 — they also 
say that the teeth of my knife should each be one inch apart, & 
I contend that I have a right to make four teeth within an inch 
so they are made in the same manner and the principle not al- 
tered — 

Will you do me the favour to look into the matter- & please 
examine Gaylords patent & see if it has been extended so as to 
cover the different shapes of his knife — 

Now your attention to the above will greatly oblige me & 
save me from going to Washington City my self — 

Please let me hear from you soon 


Grey Utley 

Hon W. P. Mangum 
Senate U S— 

[Addressed : ] 


W. P. Mangum 

(Senate of the U States) 
Washington City 

Benjamin Colevfian^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

KiNSTON Lenoir County N C. 

July 28, 1846. 

Dr Sir 

Any speach or document which would throw any light upon 
the issues now before the people would be greatfully received. 
The Whigs are useing their utmost endeavours in their section 
of the county, to dethrone the reign of Loco-Focoism. I feel 
confident that Gov. Graham will be elected by an increased 
majority; we shall also elect a whig Legislature, and thereby 

i"See above. II, 355-356. 

The Mangum Papers 467 

secure a United States Senator! furnish me with all the Docu- 
ments you have have \_sic'\ to spare and believe me your friend 
and Obedient Servant 

Benj Coleman 

[Addressed : ] 

To the Hon W P Mangum 
D. C. 

P. 17. Murphey^^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

July 31st 1846 

My dear Sir 

I called to see you the evening before I left & much regret 
that you were out. as I wished to thank you for your kindness 
to me, & to have explained to you what I wished you to do for 
me, in the case of the date of my Commission. When I spoke to 
you about it you thought, there would be no difficulty in the 
case- When the vacancies which existed were filled, Now Sir 
since the Secretary has concluded to fill those vacancies I am 
most anxious to call your attention to it. I should have had my 
Commission dated back to the 1st of December last, at which 
time, Comodore Elliott died: but instead of which it was dated 
the last of May. The difference of pay to me is nearly four hun- 
dred dollars, which to a poor officer with a family is a great 
deal. I ask for nothing more, than the old established customs 
of the Navy Department- I know Sir, you will see that justice 
is done me, & know what course to pursue better than I can 
tell you, 

I am sorry to write you, my wife's health was such on my 
arrival I could not leave to send you the figs I told you, I would, 

i«See above, 123. 

468 State Department of Archives and History 

but will certainly send them by the next boat, & I will procure 
you some of the cuttings, if you wish them 

In great haste 
Yours truly 


U. S. N. 
Hon^^« Judge Mangum 

N. B. I have writen to Captain Ramsey to call on you, & ex- 
plain to you the former custom of the Dept. in my case, as its a 
matter which interests me very much. 

The report in this place is, that the old North state will do 
her duty 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon^^ Judge Mangum 
United States Senate 
Washington City 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 

New York 2^. Aug*. 1846. 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

U. S. Senate 


Dear Sir 

Well Sir, in a few days, Congress will have adjourned, & you 
Honorable Senators gone to your respective homes. But, before 
you go, I beseech you, my good Sir, to give me your views, 
of the Great political chess board, of the Nation, and please say, 
how you think, it can be played, how you think, it ought to be 
played, & how will it be. For Sir, I hear such contradictory re- 
ports, about you Gentlemen of Congress & parties, that I am 

The Mangum Papers 469 

sometimes, at a loss to know, what to think of you, in Washing- 
ton. But you will inform me. This much, I can assure you Sir, 
that in this quarter, the ticket, of the Ohio & North Carolina 
candidates. Let me speak out plainly. The names, of John 
M^.Lean, of Ohio, & Willie P. Mangum, of North Carolina, are, 
the most popular, the very strongest, and will, as you will short- 
ly see, the most available candidates, that the people, can rally 
on, for the Campaign of 48, having a view, to the welfare of 
this great, growing, and beloved country of ours. I have the 
very best reports, of the disposition and intentions, of the good 
people of the West, towards the Peoples candidates. I am in- 
formed, that Mr. Clayton, adhears very strongly, to General 
Scott. How is this? He is a frail candidate. Whoever embarks, 
on board of that Ship, will most assuredly founder. And if any 
portion of the Whig party, attempt, or do in fact, bring forward 
Mr. Clay, as a candidate, it is as surely defeated, as that it is 
manifested. What man, is there, in this nation, that loves his 
country, that can say Henry Clay, ought not to have been elected 
in 1840. In 1844. I actually thought, he was elected. The ident- 
ical clique, (Scott & Co) that prevented his nomination in 1840, 
went against him, with the addition of the vile Abolitionists in 
-44. And this wicked combination, is ready, at a moments warn- 
ing, to do effective battle, against him again in 48. And I can 
further say, of all men in these U. S. Henry Clay, of right, and 
with a single eye, to the best interest of North America, ought 
at this moment, to be sitting in his arm chair, in the White 
House, as President. And so you, and thousands of others, all 
honorable men, say. But Sir, what avails all this lamentation. 
All great, towering geniuses, like Mr. Clay, have ever had, and 
always will have, strong, vindictive, powerful, tremendous op- 
position, and which, regarding Mr. Clay, seems, that no time 
can chill, no circumstances, can allay. We must take men and 
circumstances, just as we find them. There is no altering them. 
It is very true of Mr. Clay, as you remarked, on a certain oc- 
casion, "His, history constitutes, a large portion, of our national 

470 State Department of Archives and History 

Pray take good care of your health, for I desire much to see 
you, again and again. I hope my eyes will open in 48. 

I am D"". Sir, 

with the Highest regard, 
Your friend 
J. B. Mower 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 
D. C. 

Ahram R. Laurence^^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York Augt. 4th, 1846 


Honble. Willie Mangum 

In Senate - Washington City 


Several Members of the Whig General Committee have been 
urged to press upon that Body a call for a Whig Meeting in this 
city to express their opposition to the new Tariff and make ar- 
rangements for effecting its repeal- The subject was considered 
in our Executive Committee last evening - and as acting Chair- 
man of the General Committee I was directed to address you 
and some other eminent members of the Senate in regard to 
its policy at this time - and to ask the favor of your opinion 
whether at this or at any other time such a procedure would be 
approved of by our friends in the South — 

It is proper in explanation to add that however unanimous 
we may be in this quarter of the Union upon the blighting in- 
fluence of the new tariff we cannot forget the obligation due 
to you and other distinguished Southern Senators for their hon- 
orable and disinterested course in regard to the Tariff of 1842 

"«See above. 383n. 

The Mangum Papers 471 

Suggestions have been made that a more effective and less 
embarrassing hostility, to the law may be produced by associa- 
tions of manufacturers formed without party distinctions and 
embracing operatives as well as their employees 

Oblige us by imparting your advice as soon as your leisure 
will permit- 
Most respectfully and truly 
Your friend & Servant 
Abrm R. Laurence. 

P. S. Not having time before the departure of the mail to ad- 
dress Messrs Crittenden and Berrien - to whom I had directions 
to write and sollicit a like favor, allow me to impose upon your 
kindness the task of submitting this letter to their perusal 


A. G. Hodges^^^ to Willie P. Mangum, 

Frankfort, Ky. Aug. 4th 1846. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir: 

I received your letter announcing the receipt of the Bi- 
ography of Capt. John W. Russell. I was greatly gratified with 
your warm expressions of approbation of the Captain. For he 
is a noble and generous fellow. I showed your letter to Capt. 
Russell, and the kind expressions of him by you almost melted 
him to tears. He said he had the warmest friends of any man 
upon earth. I am gratified today to inform you that Russell will 
be elected in the Senatorial District by a majority of between 
800 and 1000 votes. 

ii'^From his youth, Albert Gallatin Hodges worked in newspaper offices. Beginning as a reporter 
on the Kentucky Reporter, he later established the Kentuckian at Lancaster but was unable to finance 
it for long. In 1824 he published the Louisville Morning Post, Two years later he and James G. 
Dana established the Frankfort Commonwealth which he continued until 1872. A fiery editor, he 
exerted considerable influence in Kentucky politics. Thomas D. Clark, A History of Kentucky, New 
York, 1937. 347-349. 

472 State Department of Archives and History 

At the close of the vote today for dinner, Russell had in 
Franklin County 622 votes 

Drake had 149 

Russell's majority 473 

Russell's majority in 
Shelby County last night 
at close of Polls 179 


Franklin & Shelby compose the District. Our election con- 
tinues 3 days, and the voting will go on until to-morrow night. 
I believe we shall give Russell about 650 or 700 majority here, 
and I think he will get about 300 majority in Shelby county. 

I see the Locos have passed the Tariff for the Relief of the 
British Laborers! Well, I hope they will now consummate all 
their schemes of destruction to the best interests of this country, 
and let them come before the country upon those measures. If 
ever there were a set of corrupt scoundrels upon the face of the 
earth, the Leaders of the Locos are such. 

Please show this letter to Crittenden & Morehead, and much 

Truly, your friend 
A. G. Hodges 

[Addressed:] [Postmarked:] Frankfort Ky. Aug 4 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator 
Washington City 
D. C. 

Benjamin H. Brewster^ ^^ to Willie P. Mangum. 

1 Sansom Street 
Philada. [Aug. 8, 1846] 
My Dear Sir: 

Today I directed a copy of the North American to be sent you 
containing the notice of you. While I was pleas'd with its 

i^^After graduating from Princeton in 1834, Benjamin H. Brewster, 1816-1886, became a suc- 
cessful lawyer in Philadelphia. In 1846 he held a minor Federal post in settling the Cherokee Indian 
Claims. He was later attorney general of Pennsylvania and attorney general of the United States. 
His most famous accomplishment was his successful prosecution of the Star Route fraud in 1881- 
1884. D. A. B., Ill, 26-27. 

The Mangum Papers 473 

phraseology and the handsome way in which it did but justice 
to your high claims and lofty position yet I would rather that it 
had been more pointed in the conclusion. As it is a Whig press 
you must acquit me of all power to guide the pen editorial 
though I may give tone to their purpose and good will for you. 
Had it been our rabid Loco Foco organ, and had you been sancti- 
fied in the grace of Democracy the broad folds of our banner 
should gleam'd with your name. As it is remember I've only 
given earnest of my love by pitching the key note even of my 
''enemies in war, in peace friends." 

They dare not boldly leap and do but timidly step, and did 
they know you as you are known they would proudly herald 
your name for that post which from your party you so much 
merit and which you would fill with so much honor. 
''Glamis, and thane of Cawdor; 
*'The greatest is behind. — 

Remember "the Earldom of Herefordshire" and when you 
are King do not make a Buckingham of me or even treat me as 
Edward treated the Great Neville - Earl of Warwick to whom 
in your pleasantry the other day you likend your young and 
frolicksom friend. Remember I am to be Great Emperor of 
Morocco and that is my Earldom of Herefo[r]dshire. 

Ever with respect and 

Bjn. H. Brewster 
8 Aug 46. 

To Honble. Willie P. Mangum 
Washington City 



Honb. Willie P. Mangum 
Washington City 
Senate. D C 

474 State Department of Archives and History 

Asa Whitney^ ^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Washington D. C Aug 12/46 

I am desirous of seeing Mr Packenham to explain my pro- 
ject for a Railroad to the Pacific, and show him how much and 
when I think England interested- 

If you will be so kind as to give me a note of introduction, 
(addressed to me through the Post office) I shall feel myself 
extremely obliged and as I have no claim for such a request, 
the obligation will be considered the greater 

Most Respectfully 
Your obt Servt 
A. Whitney 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 
D. C 

James Auchincloss^^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

New York, August 19*^. 1846. 
Dear Sir, 

I trust that it will not be deemed by you too great a liberty 
if I urge upon you the absolute necessity of doing something to 
appease the clamors of the people here for a bank of some de- 
scription or other that will furnish a good currency for the 
whole Union, and at same time equalize the Exchanges. Mr. 
Clay's bill would have done this if it had been sanctioned by 
Mr. Tyler, but seeing we are not to have it, let us have that if 

u^Aher traveling extensively for a New York dry-goods firm, Asa Whitney entered business for 
himself. In the Panic of 1837 he failed. Soon thereafter he went to China for a New York firm 
and became aware of the value of a transcontinental railroad. In September, 1844, he presented his 
plan to get Congressional aid. When Congress gave him little encouragement, he began an extensive 
campaign to convince the people. In 1849 he published A Project for a Railroad to the Pacific. Two 
years later he turned to the English for help. D. A. B., XX, 156-157. 

^°See above. III, 216n. 

The Mangum Papers 475 

possible which will subserve every useful purpose. I have 
given my idea in brief and very hurriedly to Mr. Tallmadge, 
and although it may not furnish you with anything novel on 
the subject, permit me to ask you to read my letter to him. I 
have spoken to Mr. T. as a practical merchant, and let me say 
to you, my dear Sir, that my experience in Exchanges, first and 
last, has not been limited. My views, such as they are, are cor- 
roberated by such men as Saml. Jaudon Esq. and Morris Rob- 
binson Esq.,^^^ both long connected with the late U. S. B. in 
its palmiest days and before the "old Roman" resolved on its 
destruction. A bank of Exchanges and issues is what we want 
in this quarter : Give us this and rely upon it we shall soon have 
"peace and plenty"! If I were allowed by that noble specimen 
of true and devoted patriotism, I would say to Mr. Clay- "give 
the whole energies of your mind to the accomplishment of this 
plan, and the gratitude of all parties awaits you." But I for- 

I trust and hope that you will not separate without carrying 
every measure you started for at the commencement of the 
session; if you do separate without effecting this, and the cry 
of defeat ringing in your ears from your noisy and factious op- 
ponents, be assured that the consequence here and elsewhere 
will be most disastrous to us. I look forward to the Ides of 
November in such an event with unfeigned alarm. 

Do me the favor to write to me and I pledge myself in ad- 
vance that your communication shall not be improperly used. 

My best regards to Gov. Morehead and other grave Senators 
at No. 2. 

With great respect 

Your friend & servant, 
James Auchincloss. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum, 
U. S. Senate, 
D. C. 

isisamuei Jaudon was cashier of the United States Bank at Philadelphia. On the New York 
board was Morns Robinson. Reginald C. (ed.). The Correspondence of Nicholas Biddle dealing 
wtth NaHonal Affairs, 1807-1844, Boston, 1919, 81; Tuckman (ed.). Diary of Philip Hone. II, 231, 

476 State Department of Archives and History 

John B. Fry^^^ to Willie P. Mangum 

Washington, August 24*^. 1846. 
My dear Sir: 

I did not have an opportunity, on yesterday, of saying as 
much to you as I desire in relation to a thorough organization 
of the Whig party, and of commencing at the opening of the 
next session of Congress, to distribute the most suitable speeches 
or documents over the entire Country- to both Whigs & locofocos. 

If I could be assured that yourself- Messrs Crittenden, Clay- 
ton, Corwin and other influential gentlemen of our party would 
co-operate heartily in giving the plan efficiency, I v^ould, at 
once, take steps to procure the fullest possible list of names, in 
every section of the Country, and be ready next December to be- 
gin a regular & systematic circulation of approved speeches, to 
be kept up till the Presidential Election in 1848. 

I submit to you whether a circular letter emanating from a 
committee of Whig members of both branches of Congress, ad- 
dressed to Whig capitalists in different parts of the Country, 
would not be responded to with sums of money sufficient to put 
the plan into immediate operation? If it would, and it shall be 
the desire of your committee, I will undertake the matter with 
the utmost zeal. 

I am Sir, very respectfully. 

Your friend & obt Serv*. 
John B. Fry. 

Hon: Willie P. Mangum, 
U. S. Senate. 

T. L. Clingman to Willie P. Mangum 

AsHEViLLE Aug 25th 1846 
My dear Sir 

I was in hopes that I should have had a letter from you ere 
this, but I know too well how you have been occupied at Wash- 

^^See below, 499-500. 

The Mangum Papers 477 

ington to complain of your silence, Gen Waddy Thompson now 
here informs me that he left you looking uncommonly well at 
Washington and doing in all things as becomes a senator from 
the old North State. Our elections have gone off right and I 
have the satisfaction of thinking that your efforts both in this 
district and elsewhere contributed something to the result. 

I take it for granted that you will give to the whigs the use 
of your name for reelection to the senate, though in your letter 
to me of last fall you you [sic] expressed yourself differently, yet 
I did not suppose that you would be permitted by the Whig party 
of the State and nation to decline, connected as your name has 
been so frequently with the first and second offices in the na- 
tion, Accordingly to my own suggestions therefore the Whig 
candidates in this region came out for you against all the world 
as their first choice, and afterwards having understood that 
some persons a little this side of you and a few Whigs in this 
district who have lately been indirectly connected by a demo- 
cratic link with a certain prominent whig in Guilford of whom 
you told me that you had a little right to complain, understand- 
ing I say that they were for substituting that person in your 
stead, I made it a point myself in my replies to Mr. J. B. Shep- 
ar(ji53 a^ various points especially at Burke & Rutherford to tell 
the people that it was the duty of the Whigs to make every effort 
to secure the legislature and that it would be discreditable to 
the state to allow you to be driven from the position you oc- 
cupied with such distinction to yourself and the State You will 
therefore I have no doubt be supported for a reelection by all 
the whigs from this quarter as against any one. Mr. Haywoods 
resignation came on us very unexpectedly a few days before 
the election and though I am informed that Col. G. and one or 
two others profess to wish to elect Badger & Morehead yet you 
will lose no member of the legislature, These matters of course 
I write in confidence as I do not care to be unnecessarily em- 
broiled with any body, but you know I am not a man to shun 
responsibility whenever a proper occasion is presented. As to 
the second vacancy (Mr Haywoods) there will be diversity of 
opinion. ^^* Some of my friends are desirous of presenting my 
name for that appointment and I feel at liberty to mention the 

^^James Biddle Sheppard was the Democratic candidate for governor running against W. A. 
Graham, the Whig candidate. 

'"George E. Badger was selected. 

478 State Department of Archives and History 

matter to you because you alluded to it heretofore &c- Before 
however any decided step is taken in the matter I must know two 
or three things, And first as to whom I might be brought in col- 
lision with, If Badger is anxious to go to the Senate (though 
I presume from former things and from a letter lately received 
from him by me that he would not desire such a thing) then I 
should not like for any of my friends to bring my name in oppo- 
sition to him eminent as he stands both in and out of the State, 
But I should not only wish to be informed as to whom are to be 
my competitors, but also to know what probability there is of my 
getting a respectable support in the middle or Eastern part of 
the state. Though I might be sustained by all the members from, 
this part of the state, yet the number is comparitively small and 
I do not besides wish to be presented merely as a sectional 
candidate, I write to you as a friend in confidence to know what 
you think of the matter as I am satisfied that you can from your 
position give me more information than any one else and what 
you may write will be not of course made public. What would 
be my chance (if I should be pressed on the legislature by the 
western whigs) with the deligations from yours & the adjoin- 
ing counties? What are Gov. Graham.s feelings towards me? I 
believe from my position, I was able both in his first and second 
canvass to render him more service than any one Whig in the 
state, and my influence was in both instances exerted to the 
uttermost both by political & personal appeals though I well 
knew at the time that I was thereby greatly weakening myself 
personally in the district and then believed and still am of opin- 
ion that my efforts against Mr. Hoke in '44 lost me more votes 
than I was beaten by in '45.^^^ If you and others whom I know 
to be personally my friends are of opinion that my efforts against 
the South Carolina politicians, against the democratic leaders 
in North Carolina & against the Locofocoism of the Union gen- 
erally afford evidence of sufficient capacity and zeal in the serv- 
ice of the Whig party, then I have no objection to my friends 
making an effort, but of course unless I am taken up by the 
whigs of the middle and Eastern part of the State, my friends 
are too feeble in point of number to justify them in pressing my 
name. I should like to hear from you at your earlest leisure 

^^See above, 316. 

The Mangum Papers 479 

and I believe you know me too well to doubt but that I will take 
kindly any suggestions that you might make of whatever nature. 
In conclusion I will only say that if there should be any oc- 
casion for it (though I do not apprehend such necessity) I shall 
use any influence I possess in your behalf as decidedly as any 
friend you have in the state will do. 

I am very truly yours &c 
T. L. Clingman 

Hon Wilie P. Mangum 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum. 

Saratoga Springs. 

Aug. 25. 1846. 

My dear Sir. 

After parting with you, I held over a day in Philadelphia & 
a week in New York, very much against my will. During my 
stay, I saw many of the master spirits of the Wards, by far the 
most important personages in regulating the sentiments of the 
masses, whom to a great extent, they control - at least, direct. 
The fact is not to be disguised, that the preference of the City 
is for Clay & that of the Country for anybody, but him. Still 
however the politicians of the former, have another idol dearer 
even than him of Ashland - which is Number one - a deity they 
never abandon, a worship they incessantly practice. Convince 
these gentry, that Clay cannot be elected & that somebody else 
can, who will reward as fully & punish as severely & the charm 
is at once dissolved. To a certain extent, that has been already 
done & some of them are now openly enlisting under McLean's 
banner. The only difficulty I have encountered, is in reference 
to the distribution of the patronage. Could they be assured 
on that head, we should get a momentum, that no other aspirant 
could resist. As it is, we have the track of Taylor, & the course 
so far as Scott is concerned. He (S) has no party & the clique 
which is par excellence & deservedly so, his friends, affect what 
they do not feel - Even they however — Webb, et id genus omne 

480 State Department of Archives and History 

have knocked under for the Presidency & are now on the look- 
out for other game. It is difficult to tell v^here they will go - 
or rather where they will not go. They have very little hold 
on any subdivision of the party & no affiliation with the great 
mass. All things considered, the posture of affairs in New 
York, is vastly better than I expected to find it & I believe I 
impregnated the waters more strongly with my McLean & 
Mangum Catholicon. I mean no humbug, when I tell you, the 
name of the latter is a tower of strength among these same 
ultras. You blazed away so "dangerously" in 1842, that they 
think they smell the sulphur even now & that odor puts them 
on a Crusade against all moderation & conservatism. 

I halted a day in Albany to dine with Spencer (J. C.) who 
invited me to do so in answer to a copy of the "Sketch" which 
I sent him. We went over the whole ground from alpha to 
omega & he is as true to the Whig cause as you are. This J knew 
when you were all warring upon him in the Senate,^^^ as I hap- 
pened to share his confidence, during all the Tylerian time & no 
greater mistake was committed, than his rejection for the Bench, 
especially to us at the South. You have now a rank abolitionist 
in disguise, in the place he should have occupied. But, there is 
no use in looking back, in this age of Progress. Spencer never 
was a Clay man, nor were any of the anti-Masons in New York 
of which he was the head exponent - hence the falling off in the 
vote of that section in 1844. He is thoroughly for McLean & 
has forgiven you. He proposes to come out in the fall