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Monthly Record of Geography. 



VOL. IX., 1887. 













G.C.B., &c., &c. 

Honorary President. 


G.C.S.L, &c., &c. 


(ELECTED 23bd MAY, 1887). 
President— General Richaed Strachey, R.E., C.S.L, F.R.S. 


Right Hon. Lord Aberdare, G.C.B., 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B. 
Sir Joseph Hooker, K.C.S.L, C.B., 


Major-General Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

General Sir C. P. Beaucuamp Walker, 

Colonel H. Yule, R.E., C.B. 

Treasurer— Reginald T. Cocks, Esq. 

Trustees— Sir Barrow H. Ellis, K.C.S.L ; Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., M.P. 

Secretaries — Clements R. Markham, Esq., C.B., F.R.S. ; 
Douglas W. Freshfield, Esq. 

Foreign Secretary — Lord Arthur Russell. 

Members of Council. 

Sir Henry Barkly, G.C.M.G., K.C.B. 

W. T. Blanford, Esq., F.R.S. 

Admiral Lindesay Brine. 

Hon. G. C. Brodrick. 

J. Anxan Bryce, Esq. 

Colonel Sir Francis W. de Winton, 

R.A., K.C.M.G. 
Right Hon. Sir M. E. Grant Duff, 

Francis Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir F. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.L, CB. 
Colonel J. A. Grant, C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir John Kihk, G.C.M.G., F.RS. 
Lieut.-General Sir Peter S. Lumsden, 

Colin Mackenzie, Esq. 
William Mackinnon, Esq., CLE. 
E. Delmar Morgan, Esq. 
Cutiibert E. Peek, Esq., F.R.A.S. 
Sir Rawson W. Rawson, K.C.M.G., CB. 
Sir Thomas F. Wadf^ K.C.B. 
Captain W. J. L. Wharton, R.N. 
General J. T. Walker, CB., F.R.S. 
Colonel Sir Chas. W. Wilson, R.E., 


ABsiBtazit Seoretarj and Editor of TranaactionB— H. W. Bates, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.B. 

Librarian—J. Scott Keltie, Esq. 

Map Curator— John Coles, Esq., F.R JL.B. 

Chief Clerk— B. J. Evis, Esq. 

Bankers— liettZB. Gods, Beddulfb, and Co., 48, Charing Cross. 


Candidates for admission into the Society mnst be proposed and 
seconded by Fellows, and it is necessary that the description and resi- 
dence of such Candidates should be clearly stated on their Certificates. 

It is provided by Chapter IV., § 1, of the Eegulations, that, 

** Every Ordinary Fellow shall, on bis election, be required to pay £8 as bis 
* admission fee, and £2 as his annual contribution for the year ending on the Slst 
M December then next ensuing, or he may compound either at his entrance by one 
** payment of £28, or at any subsequent period by the payment of £25, if his entrance 
*' fee be already paid." 

All Subscriptions are payable in advance, on the 1st of January in 
each year. 

The privileges of a Fellow include admission (with one friend) to all 
Meetings of the Society, and the use of the Library and Map-room. 
Each Fellow is also entitled to receive a copy of the New Monthly 
Series of the Proceedings and the Supplementary Papers, the former 
of which is forwarded, free of expense, to addresses in the United 
Kingdom, and the latter obtained on application at the Society's office. 

Ck>pie0 of the RegulationB and Candidates' Certifloates may be had on appUoa- 
tion at the Society's Office, 1, Savile Bow, London, W. 


Authon are alone respcmible for their reepeetive itaiemmUe, 

No. 1. January. 


The Islands of the New Britain Group. By H. H. Romilly 1 

Journey of the Expedition under Golooel Woodthorpe, B.E., from Upper 
Asaam to the Irawadi^ and Return over the Patkoi Kange. By Major 

G. R. Macgregor 19 

Journey of Mr. J. T. Last from Blantyre to the Namuli Hills 42 

The late Dr. G. A. Fischer's Expedition for the Relief of Dr. Junker .. .. 45 

Geographical Notes 47 

Report of the Evening Meetings 53 

Proceedings of Foreign Societies 54 

New Geographical Publications and New Maps 57 

Map. — Ck)untry between the Brahmaputra and the Upper Irawadi 68 

No. 2. February. 

The Dragon Lake of Pamir. By Major-General Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, k.c.b. 69 

Explorations in South-eastern New Guinea. By Rev. J. Chalmers .. .. 71 
The Physical Geography of Japan, with Remarks on the People. By 

Dr. Edmund Naumann 86 

Captain Maitland's and Captain Talbot's Journeys in Afghanistan 102 

A Journey in the Province of San Paulo, Brazil, in July-September 1885. By 

R.F. Holme 108 

Geographical Notes 114 

Correspondence 121 

Olatuary 123 

Report of the Evening Meetings 126 

Proceedings of Foreign Societies 127 

New Geographical Publications and New Maps 129 

Maps. — Sonth-eastem Part of New Guinea ; Physical Map of Japan .. .. 140 

No. 3. March. 

On the Scope and Methods of Geography. By H. J. Mackinder, b.a. .. .. 141 

Mr. A. D. Carey's Travels in Turkistan and Tibet 175 

A Journey from Blantyre to Angoni-land and Back. By J. T. Last, Com- 
mander of the Society's Expedition to the Namuli Hills, East Central 

Africa 177 

Geographical Notes 188 


Obituary 194 

Report of the Evening Meetings 201 

Proceedings of Foreign Societies 202 

New Geographical Publications and New Maps 205 

Map. — Blantyre to Angoni-land (Mr. Last's route) 212 

No. 4. ApriL 

Prejevalsky's Journeys and Discoveries in Central Asia. By E. Delmar 

Morgan 213 

Potanin's Journey in North-western China and Eastern Tibet 233 

A Journey in Northern and Eastern Manchuria 235 

Geographical Notes 239 

Correspoudeuce 252 

Report of the Evening Meetings 254 

Proceedings of Foreign Societies 254 

New Geographical Publications and New Maps 258 

Map.— Tibet: General Prejevakky's Routes 268 

No. 6. May, 

The Alpine Regions of Alaska. By Lieut. H. W. Seton-Karr 269 

Between the Nile and the Congo : Dr. Junker and the (Welle) Makua. By 

J.T.Wills 285 

Gteographical Notes 304 

Report of the Evening Meetings 311 

Proceedings of Foreign Societies 312 

New Geographical Publications and New Maps 315 

Maps. — Alaska ; Sketch-Map of Central Africa 330 

No. 6. June, 

The Annua Address on the Progress of Geography : 1886-7, By General 

B. Strachey, B.E., FJUB., Vice-President 331 

The Lu River of Tibet : Is it the Source of the Irawadi or the Salwin ? By 

General J. T. Walker, B.B., F.B.B 352 

Geographical Notes 377 

Obituary 386 

Report of the Evening Meetings 388 

Proceedings of Foreign Societies 388 

New Geographical Publications and New MapK 392 

Map.— South-eastern 'Hbet 398 


No. 7. July, 


Explorations in Central Africa. By Dr. W. Junker 399 

Notes on a Part of the Western Frontier of British Honduras. By William 

Miller, Assistant Surveyor-General, British Honduras 420 

Russian Geographical Work in 1886. From Russian Sources, by E. Delmar 

Morgan 423 

Geographical Notes 437 

Correspondence 444 

The Anniversary Meeting 446 

Report of the Evening Meetings 455 

Proceedings of Foreign Societies 456 

New Geographical Publications and New Maps 458 

Maps. — North-western Frontier of British Honduras 421 

Re^on between the Upper Nile and the Congo 466 

No. 8. August 

On the Society's Expedition to the Namuli Hills, East Africa. By J. T. Last 467 

A Journey through Yemen. By Major-General F. T. Haig 479 

Recent Changes in the Map of East Africa 490 

Journeys in the District of Delagoa Bay, Dec. 1886-Jan. 1887. By H. E. 

CTNeill 497 

Expedition of Mr. George P. James from the Chanchamayo in Peru to the 

Atlantic 505 

Geographical Notes 608 

Report of the Evening Meetings 513 

Proceedings of Foreign Societies 513 

New Geographical Publications and New Maps 517 

Maps. — Delagoa Bay and Neighbouring Region 498 

East Africa : Political Boundaries 530 

Ko. d. September. 

A Journey in Manchuria. By H. E. M. James, of the Bombay Civil Service 531 
The Aboriginal Indian Races of the State of Vera Cruz, Mexico. By A. 

Baker, British Consul, Tera Cruz 568 

Indian Surveys, 1885-6 574 

Geographical Notes 576 

Obituary 583 

Proceedings of Foreign Societies 584 

New Geographical Publications and New Maps 586 

Map. — ^Bianchuria 594 


No. 10. October. 


Discovery of Two New Rivera in British New Ghiinea. By Theodore F. Bevan 696 
The Ra'ian Moeris ; or Storage Reservoir of Middle Egypt. By Cope White- 
house, M^ 608 

The Feasibility of the Ralan Project. By Colonel Ardagh^CLB., R.B. .. .. 613 

The Desert from Dahshur to Atn Raian. By Captain Conyers Surtees .. .. 613 
The Bar Yusuf, roughly describing its Present State and Uses. By Captain 

R. H. Brown, b.b 614 

The Caucasus. By Douglas W. Freshfield 617 

Geographical Notes 621 

Proceedings of the Geographical Section of the British Association,. Manchester 

Meeting 628 

New Geographical Publications and New Maps 648 

Maps. — The Jubilee and Philp Rivera, British New Guinea ; the Fayomn and 

the Ralan Basin, Egypt 668 

No. 11. November. 

Notes on a Sketch- Map of Two Routes in the Eastern Desert of Egypt By 

Ernest A. Floyer, f.l.8. 659 

(Geographical Notes 681 

Obituary 687 

Proceedings of the G^graphical Section of the British Association, Manchester 

Meeting 689 

Proceedings of Foreign Societies 707 

New Geographical Publications and New Maps 709 

Map.— Eastern Desert of Egypt 780 

No. 12. December. 

A Journey round Chinese Turkistan and along the Northern Frontier of 

Tibet. By A. D.Carey 731 

Silva Porto's Journey from Bihe (Bie) to the Bakuba Country 753 

G^eographical Notes 757 

Report of the Evening Meetings 765 

Pkoceedings of the G^graphioal Section of the British Association. Manchester 

Meeting 769 

Phxseedings of Foreign Societies 774 

New Geographical Publications and New Maps 777 

Maps. — Chinese Turkistan and Northern Tibet ; Silva Porto's Routes in West 

Central Africa 790 

IHDBX 791 


OP THE - ,. 



Tlie Islands of the New Britmn Group, 
By H. H. RoMiLLY.* 

(Bead at the Evening Meeting, November 22nd, 1886.) 

A FEW years ago this group, in common with many other South Sea 
Island groups, was almost unknown, and even at the present time not 
very much is really known of it. The Germans, by whom it is 
principally settled, seem to keep their information very much to them- 
selves. They have changed the names of the islands from New Britain 
and New Ireland, to New Mecklenburg and New Pomerania (Neu 
Pommem), but it is simpler for our purposes to retain the- names by 
which they were first known. It is unnecessary to discuss their first 

The records of the early navigators are very meagre, and many of 
them have been lost. It is always uncertain who the discoverers of these 
groups were, nor does it really much matter. We flatter ourselves that 
Captain Cook was the first to land in Australia, but it is certain that the 
Spaniards landed on its western coast and hoisted their flag there more 
than a hundred years before Cook's visit. 

Dampier gives some slight account of New Britain, but he only re- 
mained a few days there. He visited the magnificent harbour now 
called Blanche Bay and hoisted the British flag there. His intercourse 
with the natives, however, does not seem to have been at all intimate. 

I propose in this paper to speak of the New Britain group as it was 
when I knew it in 1881 and 1883. At that time the- white population 
was very small and very scattered. It was composed of men of all 
nationalities and conditions of society. We had there a mixture of 
French, English, German and Italian roughs, runaway sailors, a 
few survivors of the ill-fated Marquis de Ray's colonising expedition, 
well-educated gentleman-like missionaries, and on6 or two men who had 
evidently once been English gentlemen, but who had, doubtless for very 

• For map see * Proceedings,* 188G, p. 60S. 
No. I.— Jan. 1887.] B 


sufficiont reaei^Qs; bad to leave tbeir homes and bury themselves in the 
most out-<-iPtbe'\vay spot they could find, 

Therft*'Weffe two little oommunities : one at Matupi, a small island 
in Blani^Ke -ftay, and the other in the Duke of York Islandj situated in 
the ehantrel l>et\veen New Britain and New Ireland. The former was 
Germ-^fi, and was the headquarters of the great trading firm of Robertson 
aiid.,I?ernsheini, of Hamburg, and the other was the abode of the 
LEfl^ieh Weslcyan Mission, at the head of which was the Eev. George 
•thrown. As I have observed in many other places, the tendency of the 
/idle eottlera was to live as near rb possible to the Mission quarters. No 
doubt they felt a sense of protection in so doing, and in this opinion 
they were justified^ as on more than one occasion the niissionarios inter- 
jiosed successfully between the whites and blacks. There were also 
isolated traders living by themselves at points on the New Britain coasi» 
hut at the date of my first visit no one had resided in New Ireland. 
At that time the natives of that island w^ere too hostile and treacherous 
to make that advisable, A small trade in coco-nuts was, however, carried 
on with them, and on several occasions the island was visited by Mr. 
Brown, and I believe ho once performed the feat of walking nearly 
across it, and sighting the sea on the east coa&t. 

Before describiDg any of the habits of the native and foreign 
inhabitants of this group I will give a short description of the 
islands themselves, their appearance, and geological formation. On 
approaching New Britain from the southward the first land sighted 
is probably the high mountain called Mount Bcaw temps Beaupr6* 
This is a tall conical -shaped hill, some 4000 feet in height, 
generally covered with clouds. It is usually free from them in the 
early morning and just before sunset, and is at that time an excellent 
landmark,, as it can be seen on clear days at a distance of some 40 miles. 
In a country where the natural landmarks of the coast are incorrectly 
or vaguely described in the Admiralty charts the value of so ctmspicuous 
an object cannot be over-estimated. 

After sighting this mountain, and thereby having ascertained liis 
position correctly, the navigator shapes his course along the New Britain 
coast, and as cloj^e to it as is consistent with safety, in order to avoid 
the tremendous currents of the mid-channol between the two islands. 
These currents are very capricious, and he may have the bad luck, 
as I once had, to bo beating about in the channel for a week or ten 
days without making any progress. It is ikirly free from the great 
danger to sailors in those seas, coral reefs, but it ia shaped like a funnel, 
and is open to the full force of the Gouth-eaat trade wind, which blows 
B8 fiercely in New Britain as it does anywhere. 

The sea is one of the most dangerous to small sailing craft that I 
know anywhere, very short and tintrue, with almost conical -shaped 
waves. Something like it can occasionally be seen on our own coasts 


when a strong south-westerly gale blows up the Bristol Channel. The 
tides have been a puzzle to sailors since they first navigated those 
waters. On one occasion I was beating down the channel on my way 
from Matupi to New Guinea in a small schooner. We had a south-east 
trade wind blowing nearly a gale in our teeth. For a week we made 
precisely the same points of land on each tack, and as far as we could 
see we neither lost nor made a yard. One night, just as we were 
beginning to despair of ever getting out of the channel, and were dis- 
cussing the advisability of returning to Matupi till the weather should 
moderate, the current, without any change of wind, suddenly altered its 
direction from up the channel to down the channel, and in a few hours 
we werfe out at sea. 

But to resume our cruise. Having made Mount Beautemps-Beaupre, 
the sailor would hug the New Britain coast till he sighted the next 
conspicuous landmark, a tall extinct volcano named the Mother. 
This mountain is situated on a narrow arm of the mainland, which, 
curviug to the southward, helps to protect the harbour of Blanche Bay 
from the south-east trade winds. To north and south of it are two 
other extinct volcanoes, the North and South Daughters. Immediately 
to the eastward of it is a small partially active one, and which for three 
days in 1878 was in full eruption, while still further to the northward 
of it are no less than three small craters, evidently extinct for many 
years, as the vegetation on their sides proves. Blanche Bay evidently 
has been, and still is, a very active volcanic centre. The small cone, 
which still has an appearance as if it might any day burst into violent 
eruption, smokes incessantly. The natives are much afraid of it, 
though I believe they have no particular superstition concerning it, and 
on one occasion when I made its ascent in company with a naval officer, 
we had to go alone, as no native would accompany us. That there is 
still plenty of latent energy in it, is evident from the fact that at its 
base the sea-water is so hot for several hundred yards from it, that it is 
impossible to hold the hand in it. In another part of the bay, not a 
mile from the mountain's base, is a boiling river of strong sulphurous 
water, up which a boat can be pulled for several hundred yards. In 
many places the water is actually boiling. It seems strange that in a 
country like New Britain, where some thirty or forty per cent, of the 
natives are afflicted with skin diseases, that they should not have re- 
cognised the curative powers of this boiling river. But they are content 
to continue in their disgusting condition, even with the natural cure at 

During the eruption in 1878, a small island of about three hundred 
yards in length by one hundred yards wide, made its appearance in a 
night. The natives say it was upheaved, but it appears to be more 
probable that it was caused by falling mud and debris. The natives all 
fled in their terror, so that they were hardly fair judges. The whole 

B 2 


BUiface of St. George's Channel was so tLickly covered with pamice* 
Btone, that a German friend of mine who was trying to enter it imme- 
diately after the occmrence, could not conceive what had happened, as 
from a distance it appeared as if St. George's Channel had altogether 
disappeared and an impenetrable barrier of land taken its place. 

For weeks afterwards many parts of the bay were uninhabitablo to 
whites on account of the mill ions of fish which had been killed by the 
boiling water in the narrow ehallow parts of it. "When I lived in 
JIatupi, five yeai-s after this eventi we had slight earthquake shocks 
ncaily cveiy day, and Bometimes such severe otjes, lasting for so long, 
that we fled out of the hoMiie for safety. On one occaBion, a severe 
tihock of oartbr|iiako was the cause of some amusement to us. I had been 
out Bhuoting one terribly hot day with a naval officer. He had had a severe 
attack of sunstroke some years previously on the west coast of Africa, 
and he was very nervous about himself on this account in hot weather. 
At the conclusion of our day's sport, as we were walking home, we 
were both, apparently without any cause, precipitated violently on to 
our faces, and for the next second or two the ground was shaking and 
heaving, and we did not know clearly what had happened. I very soon 
recovered myself, as I recognised at once what was the matter, but my 
naval friend, who had only been one day in the country, and was not 
accustomed to its eccentricities, in a tone of intense anguish said, " I 
knew it would happen sooner or later, and now it has come.** He made 
no effort to get up for a few minutes, but by degrees he began to 
realise that there was nothing the matter with him, and that his 
supposed attack of sunstroke was due to underground, and not to over- 
bead influences. 

Tho climate of the group Taries, as it must do in all the large 
Pacific islands. On the coast, where the healthful influences of the sea 
breezes can be felt, there is not much to complain of. During the day- 
time for seven or eight months of the year, the trade winds blow, Ijut 
during tho night-time the sea breeze usually falls, and its place is taken 
by the land breeze, which blows from tbe interior down to the coast 
and a few miles out to sea. It brings with it malarial poisoning from 
tho swamps inland. I believe, however, the simple precaution of 
putting on extra clothing after sunset every night would prevent much 
fever. Matupi, where the head German statiouB are, is an ejttraordi- 
narily health place and fever is unknown there. The natives themselves 
appear to sufier from it quite as much as the whites, and the proportioa 
of deaths from this cause must be very large. They do not, however, 
consider it a natural death. The only two forms of death they recognise 
as being natural are old age, not very common, and a death from 
violence, "When a native has fever he accuses some friend or enemy of 
his of bewitching him, and hie family invariably adopt hie view of the 


Tlie yegetation is in many places as luxuriant *and varied as tropical 
yegetation can be. In the interior, especially in protected valleys and 
ravines where the atmosphere is from year's end to year's end of the 
nature of a vapour bath, it must be seen to be appreciated. Gigantic 
forest trees, covered with ferns, orchids, lycopodie^ and parasites of all 
sorts seem united to each other and to the earth they spring from, by 
a beautiful impenetrable mass of foliage. Birds innumerable can be 
heard, but are only visible to the practised eye of the savage. Insects 
of every varied size and hue flit about and add a lustre to the scene, and 
to sum up briefly, the vegetation in the New Britain bush, and the 
richness of the volcanic soil, can be surpassed in no part of the globe. 

There should be no form of tropical agriculture practised among white 
men which would not be successful in this country. The natives them- 
selves are great agriculturists, and with the smallest possible amount of 
labour produce crops of the richest possible description. On the occasion 
of a long walk of mine from the coast to the base of Mount Beautemps- 
Beaupr6, 1 was amazed to observe the closeness of the cultivation, and 
the skill with which the native labourers had selected the sites of their 
gardens, with a view to combining the richest possible soil with the 
most inaccessible positions as a protection against their neighbours. 
In what appeared to be impossible places to get at, fissures in rocks 
on the sides of steep precipices, one would constantly see small patches 
of sugar-cane and beds of yam and sweet potato. Even the taro, a root 
which requires, artificial irrigation, could occasionally be seen growing. 
The native gardeners had taken advantage of every little trickle of 
water down the hill-sides, and had cunetructed, by means of dams and 
artificial channels, little damp patches of soil in which the taro could 
be grown. The women were the actual labourers in the gardens, but 
all the little engineering difficulties in making such gardens as these 
were overcome by the men. Doubtless the great difficulty they have to 
contend with is the distrust and suspicion with which each man apparently 
treats his neighbour. One constantly sees large tracts of very fertile 
land uncleared because of the ease with which any cultivation there 
could be destroyed by hostile neighbours. They are, therefore, driven 
to select inaccessible situations for their gardens, and, as a rule, in 
the interior, each man builds his house in some commanding situation 
near it. 

Now, to leave the interior and return to the coast. To the 
north of New Britain the sea is an intricate network of coral 
reefs and small rocky islands. But very few ships have visited 
New Britain from that side, as the danger for sailing vessels is extreme. 
New Britain seems to act as a barrier to the trade wind, for while it 
blows with great violence on its south coast, to the northward of it is 
usually a region of calms and strong currents. It was my bad fate once 
to be endeavouring to go from Astrolabe Bay on the New Guinea coast 


to the Duko of York Island. For a week wq tried to befti tlirougli 
Dampier Strait in Tain^ and at last we decided to go along the nortli 
coast of New Britain and arrive at our destination by tliat ronte. For a 
day all went 'well, as our previously fonl wind, by our altemtion of 
conrae, became a fair one* But wlieu yve had rtrn some hundred miles 
from the coai^t of New Guinea the wind gradually died away, and we 
found oursui yes drifting helplessly among reefs and islands innumerable. 
Mauy of them were not marked at all on the chart, and all of them 
that were, were more or lens out of position. For four days we had to 
tow the ship — luckily a small schounei— with our two whale-boats, 
and very glad indeed wo were when a faint northerly breeze, just 
sufficient to fill our saLLa, gave us steerage-way in the direction in 
which we wished to gri. 

The observations of the few people who have sailed those seas — 
whalers for the most partr, and captains of simill schooners fitted out on 
gptfcnlative trading expeditions- — have been verj' incorrect^ and more 
harm is done by placing a shoal or reef incorrectly on the chart than by 
omitting to place it there at alL As far as my obser^'ations of the north 
coast of New Britain went, 1 should say it was very thinly inhabited. I 
pei*sonally saw no signs of life an^^ whore, but it is too much to suppose 
that a seaboard of some two hundred miles in length should be absolutely 
nninhabited. How far the natives on the south coast may be relied on 
I cannot say, but I have l)een told by them that the north coast is only 
occasionally visited by wandering tribes. As far as I know, there are 
not sufficient data in our possession to enable us to form an}*^ estimate 
of the population of Now Britain, Roughly speaking, the population 
might foe placed at 100,000 souls, while the New Ireland communities 
might perhaps muster half that number. There seems to foe no doubt 
that in the little-known districts in the western half of the island the 
population is more numerous than iu the eastern end. 

I have coasted, contrary to my inclinations, and by force of circum- 
stances, a great part of its south coast, and the evidences of abundant 
population were everywhere visible. Smoke could be seen rising in 
eveiy direction, villages could bo occasionally seen, and the coast is 
abundantly lined wath coco-nut jmlms, a sure sign of douse population. 
In these island communities there is no better rule to be guided by, for 
the purpose of ascertaining the denseness of the coaat population than 
by carefully noting the approximate number of coco-nut trees, I 
believe, if it could be proved, that roughly about twenty coco-nut trees 
to every head of population would give a fairly accurate result. In New 
Ireland, the north-western half of the island is abundantly lined with 
coco-nuts, and it is certainly in that part of the island that four- fifths 
of the population is to be found. 

Before I proceed to give a slight account of the natives of this group, 
a few words about the appearance of New Ireland may be of interest. 


New Ireland presents many distinct features from New Britain. In New 
Ireland there is presumably as Heavy a rainfall as in New Britain, but 
while there are numerous small rivers in the latter island, in the 
former, as far as I could discover, there are none worthy of that name. 
A few small creeks and watercourses there may be on the mountain 
sides, but there is no visible escape for the enormous amount of rain 
which falls in the course of the year. It seems unlikely that there can 
be lakes of any great size, as the configuration of the country renders 
any such idea improbable. 

The island is long and very narrow, that is to say, its extreme 
width in any place is not more than 30 miles, while its average width 
is from 10 to 15. A chain of mountains runs directly up its centre 
which varies from two to six thousand feet in height, so that it will be 
aeen that the ground must everywhere rise very steeply from the sea. 

In heavy rains there must be mountain torrents, but I have coasted 
the whole island round, in fair and foul weather, and never seen any- 
thing like a river discharging itself into the sea. On the north coast, it 
will be seen in the map, that there are several islands placed. At the 
time of my last visit, as far as I know, they had never been visited. It 
is most unlikely, however, that that is the case now. The island 
marked as Fischer Island, I ascertained, was in reality three distinct 
islands, while Gerrit Denys is certainly two, and perhaps more. 

It was supposed on the occasion of my first visit, that New Ireland 
was entirely deficient in good harbours. Since that time some excellent 
harbours, protected from all quarters, and large enough to accommodate 
a fleet of ships, have been discovered at the north-western end, between 
New Ireland and New Hanover. As I said before, that end of the island 
is also the richest, and the Oermans have taken advantage of their new 
discovery to station traders there. Their relations with the natives are 
not always friendly. Some have been killed^ and many have been driven 
away, barely saving their lives. 

I believe that at the present time no traders have been established in 
New Hanover, the large island to the north-west of New Ireland. 
While I was in New Ireland the natives of New Hanover showed 
themselves most uncompromisingly hostile to me, and though I tried 
often to land there, I never succeeded in doing so. 

The channel between the two islands is a network of reefs, and in 
spite of all my efforts I never succeeded in penetrating them. There 
were plenty of canoe and no doubt boat passages from one island to the 
other, for constantly while my schooner was anchored at Neusa, the name 
of the northern harbour in New Ireland, canoes would come across from 
New Hanover, and keeping at a respectful distance from the ship, 
insult us with awful threats of what they would do if they ever got us 
in their power. In appearance, New Hanover is far more inviting than 
New Ireland. The mountains are high in the interior, but the land 


slopes gradually to them, and there are evidently many rivers, fertile 
valleys, and wide-spreading plains covered with the wild sugar-cane 
which always denotes the richest soil. Doubtless from the north it is 
more easy of access, but I never had the opportunity of visiting it from 
that quarter. 

Having now touched lightly on some of the more noticeable geogra- 
phical peculiarities of the New Britain group, it may be of interest to 
touch equally lightly on some of the peculiar habits of its inhabitants. 
The ethnologist would find abundant material there for observation 
and reflection, but it would be out of place in this paper to indulge in 
an ethnological dissertation on the races which inhabit these * three 
large islands. Of thej largest of them. New Britain, we know a good 
deal, of New Ireland and its people we know a little, while of New 
Hanover — possibly the most interesting of all, on the principle of" Omne 
ignotum pro magniflco " — we know next to nothing at all. To begin 
with New Britain. There are three subjects which appear to interest 
the students of savage races more than any others. Firstly, their laws 
and ceremonies of marriage, rights of succession to property on account 
of such marriages, and degrees of relationship resulting from them, and 
the manner in which their relations by marriage should be treated or 
ignored. Secondly, their superstitions and the ceremonies which attend 
them ; and, thirdly ,the social laws by which they are governed and which 
control them as to their determination to go to war with their neigh- 
bours. Under this last heading also would come the rights of property 
and the manner iu which it is held, a very comprehensive subject, which 
the limits of this paper will only permit me to touch on lightly. It is 
obvious that these are subjects which cannot be completely mastered by 
any one whose residence in the country has not been of considerable 
duration. The native, as a rule, does not like to be questioned. 
He credits the white man with possessing universal knowledge, 
and often imagines he is being made a fool of, and will return evasive 
or untrue answers. In questioning them about their superstitions 
they usually show the greatest reluctance to answer. 

In New Britain there are some customs they are absolutely forbidden 
to talk of, and some words [they dare not name. It is evident, there- 
fore, that the investigator has to rely principally on his own powers of 
observation, as he cannot get much reliable information on many points 
from the natives by word of mouth. 

To begin with the marriage laws. The parents of a child betroth 
him or her usually at a very early age. If it is a boy he has got to 
work for and pay for his wife before he can marry her, and the sum to 
be paid is agreed on, having due consideration for the means of the 
betrothed. The sum is never fixed at too low a price, and it constantly 
happens that the intended husband is middle-aged before he can marry. 
Sometimes he gets impatient and persuades his betrothed to elope with 


him, but he dare not return to his tribe if he takes so extreme a step as 
this. Usnally when the price stipulated on is nearly paid, the husband 
builds a small house in the bush at some distance from his village. He 
then persuades his fiancee to elope with him, but this time with the 
knowledge of her parents. A complete farce is then acted. When they 
have had time to get well away, the girFs father discovers that she has 
been abducted, the bridegroom's father pretends to sympathise with him 
and vows vengeance against his son for disgracing him. They waste 
more time in assembling the relatives on either side and preparing a 
big feast together. The whole conversation consists of threats against 
their unnatural offspring. When they have finished their feast they 
arm and paint themselves as if for war, and off they sally into the bush 
in search of the absconding couple. They know exactly were to go, 
however, which simplifies matters a good deal, as they have had precise 
information as to where the little house in the bush has been built. 
When they arrive there they find the couple gone. They would 
probably be very much at a loss what to do if they had not gone. They 
bum the house, however, and return home where they consume more 
food. In the morning the yoang couple are back in the village as if 
nothing had happened, and no further notice is taken of them. The 
price originally fixed as the price of the girl has, however, to be 
eventually paid. 

It is the habit as far as possible to betroth children to other children 
belonging to the same tribe, and as many of the tribes are very small, 
it is not a habit which tends to improve the race. As far as I have been 
able to ascertain, they do not recognise the relationship of first cousins. 
In fact in a small tribe nearly all the members of it must be cousins to 
each other. 

I have observed in parts of New Britain, perhaps it is universal, that 
brothers seem to have common interests. One brother often helps to 
pay for his brother's wife, and if he died or was killed would probably 
take her into his house to live with his other wife or wives. She would 
in every sense belong to him, and her social position would be as secure 
as formerly. 

There is one curious bond of sympathy between these people and 
their civilised brethren. It is doubtless a prejudice in civilisation, 
and admits of exceptions. Among the New Britons it admits of no 
exceptions, and is as stem a law as those of the Medes and Persians. A 
man must not speak to his mother-in-law. He not only must not speak 
to her, he must avoid her if ho possibly can ; he must walk miles out of 
his way to avoid her path ; if ho meets her suddenly he must hide, or if 
he has no time to hide his body he must hide his face. What calamities 
would result from a man accidentally speaking to his mother-in-law, no 
native imagination has yet been found equal to conceive. Suicide of 
one or both would probably be the only course. There is no reason 



that th© woman should not speak to her father-in-law, but for the 
mother-io-law there is no mercy* She muflt, in the ordinaiy course 
of events, in native communities, eventnallj liecome a mother- 
in-law, but she is powerless to struggle against fate, and I for one 
have never seen her make anj effort to tlo so. It would take too 
long to discuss the subject of BucccBsion of property. It is enough 
to say that the mother's property, if she have any, may descend accord- 
ing to circumst-ances to her daughter or her son, or go to neither, and 
tlie fathers may be disposed of in the same impartial way. There are 
tribal rights, family, and individual rights to be oonsiderod, and there- 
fore the question becomes a somewhat complicated one. 

One curious feature in the New Britain marriages, and one I should 
think most galling to the hueband, is that oecasionally, after he has 
worked for years to pay for his wife, and is finally in a position to 
take her to his house, she refuses to go. Human nature, I suppose, is 
the same all over the world, but engagements are longer in New Britain 
than in more civilised countries, and the disappointment is proportion- 
ately greater. Oddly enough, he is not supposed to have a grievance^ 
nor can he claim back from her parents the vast eums he has paid them 
in yams, coco-nuta, and sugar-canes. He certainly would have the 
right of killing any one who presumed to elope with the woman he had 
worked for so loug ; but she seldom plays her cards so badly as to com- 
promise herself in a public manner. He has to submit, and no one 
pities him. It is the custom of the country, and no doubt he submits 
to it with the best grace he ca,n. 

It is difficult to say whether they have any actual religion. Super- 
stitions they have in plenty, and they believe in malignant epirita^ but 
not in beneficent ones. The malignant spirit has, on many occasions^ 
to be propitiated with gifts* There are men who aro sorcerers by trade, 
and they exert an immense influence in their tribes, and not unfro- 
(juently amass considerable fortunes. The devices they employ for im- 
posing on their neighbours bear a strange similarity to some of those 
iised by the witches of old in our own country. Figures of challc or 
stalactite, or even stone, could be bought and buried in the bush» and the 
man in whose likeness they had been carved, was pretty eure to die 
very soon afterwards, 'J'he natives have often pointed out to me 
epofs in the jungle where some of these images had been buried, 
but they would never help me to look for them. I found three or four 
with great difficulty, and tho natives would run shrieking from 
mo if they saw me carrying them home. It was impossible for mo 
to keep them in my house, as no native would work for me whOo they 
were in my possession. I therefore pretended to destroy them, and had 
them buried behind my house till I could take them safely out of the 
country. The native is veiy careful to destroy the remnants of his 
meals. Things lik© banana skins, fish-bones, <fec., aro burnt, as ho 


imagines that if an enemy of his were to steal and bury them, he 
would shortly sicken and die. Numerous other superstitions they have, 
but the most remarkable one of all I will describe briefly. 

Visitors to New Britain, who have seen the ceremony of the duk- 
duk as it is called, have not always agreed as to its exact significance. 
It is a very difficult matter to get natives to speak of it at all, as they 
imagine that by doing so to a man who is not duk-duk, that is to say, 
initiated into the mysteries of this superstitious rite, they will forfeit 
the good will of the restless spirit they fear so much. I will describe 
how I first saw a duk-duk in New Britain, and give my idea as to 
the meaning of the performances it went through. It is supposed 
to be a spirit which makes its appearance at daybreak of the day on 
which the new moon appears. It invariably comes from the sea, and 
as soon as there is sufficient daylight for the purpose, two or three 
canoes lashed together, and having a square platform built over them, 
are seen slowly advancing towards the beach. The whole community 
is drawn up to receive them, and they sit in solemn silence, waiting for 
the moment when the canoes shall touch the beach. On the platform of 
the canoe are two figures leaping and gesticulating violently, and 
uttering short shrill cries. They are covered with a loosely made robe 
or tunic made of the leaves of the hibiscus woven together. On their 
heads they wear a conical-shaped hat some six feet in height which 
completely conceals the features. On it is painted a most grotesque 
human face. Nothing can be seen of the man inside this dress but the 
l^s from the knee downwards. 

The dress is supposed to be an imitation of a cassowary with a 
human head. When the two figures land they execute a little dance 
together, and run about the beach with a short hopping step, still 
keeping up the imitations of the cassowary. Not a native stirs or utters 
a sound, they appear to be very much frightened and there is a very 
nervous look on their faces. The duk-duk is to stay with them nearly 
a fortnight, and during that period he is absolutely at liberty to do what- 
ever he pleases. No woman is allowed to look on him, in fact the 
women have long ago disappeared and are all hidden in the bush. After 
a time the duk-duk dances off into the jungle, and the natives get up and 
move off slowly to the village. The same evening an immense quantity of 
food is brought in, and piled in the centre of the square in the village. As 
each man brings his contribution the duk-duk dances round him ; if he 
is satisfied he utters his shrill yelp, and if ho is displeased he deals the 
wretched man a tremendous blow with a club. However, nearly every- 
one brought sufficient food when I saw the ceremony, and very few re- 
ceived the blow with the club. This done, the men all squatted in a 
circle in the square, and then began what could have been nothing but a 
ceremony of initiation. A large bundle of stout canes was brought, each 
one being six feet long, and as thick as a man's little finger. No sooner 



was this done, than five or six yoting raen jumped tip, and holding their 
arma high above their heads, received a trenienduua blow apieco from 
the duk-diik. The caoe curled round their bodies with a loud crack, and 
drew blood at every stroke. But in no case did I see a sign of iiinching 
or pain. Immediately their places wcro taken by other young men^ and 
at the end of the performance, each man standing up in succession had 
received six or seven tremendous blows. For about ten days the same 
thing was repeated, and the yonng men who were {qualifying themselves 
to be admitted into the mysteries of the duk-dnk must have been truly 
glad when those spirits left them in jjeace. The performance was varied 
occasionally by the duk-duk taking a club and giving the unfortunate 
neophyte a ti-emendous blow in the back. It was considered the right 
thing to throw something down in the path of the duk-duk» if one 
met him accidentally, so I invariably carried a supply of tobacco in my 
pockets while we entertained these visitors, as they had a most dis- 
agreeable habit of popping out suddenly upon you from the bush and 
dancing round you, 

I believe the origin and meaning of the whole performance to bo this. 
It is interjded to be a power held over the young men by the old ones. 
The duk-duk is always said to belong to souie old man who lias sum* 
moned it from the sea. In a country where the chiefs of tribes have 
little or no authority the young men want a great deal of keeping in 
order. They are carefully kept in ignorance of all the mysteries of the 
duk-duk. They do not know who is actually dancing in the dre^g, but 
they do know that they may be killed by him if the old men have 
ordered it 80» and no one would interfere to prevent it. Again, the old 
men to whom the spirit belongs get an immense quantity of food con* 
tributed to them, and this is a matter of importance, ai when they 
become too old to work in their gardens they are likely to fare badly. 

In Now Guinea there exists a 8imilar custom, different only in a few 
unimportant details. I often had considerable difficulty in getting a 
boat's crew to go up and do%vn the coast wnth nie^ as it was always 
necessary for me to get men w^ho knew the proprietors of duk-duks at 
the different places we were to visit. In New Britain and New Ireland 
the people are warlike, hut tbey are fonder of killing their enemies by 
cunning and treachery than of meeting them in the open field. For this 
reason it is imprudent to allow natives to walk behind you, unless you 
are in a place where you know them well, and can trust them. 

I did, however, on one occasion see a very big native battle, in which 
the attacking force must have numbered nearly one thousand men. The 
tribe with whom I was then staying was also in unusually strong force^ 
or else I am afraid they would have fared badly. They had sent for all 
their friends to meet me, and the result was that they outnumbered the 
attackiug force, and inflicted on them a crushing defeat. 

All, or nearly all the canoes in which they had come were seized, 


the enemy was driven along the beach for 15 or 20. miles, and many of 
them were killed and subsequently eaten. It would take too long to 
describe the battle. As in the case formerly of the Fijian battles the 
combatants had to work themselves up to the requisite amount of fury 
by insulting each other, dancing in front of their ranks and boasting of 
the deeds they were prepared to accomplish. The women and children 
accompanied their fighting men into battle, and took up a position in 
the rear of their army. Whenever one of the enemy was killed, his 
body was passed back to the women and was by them conveyed to some 
village to await the return of their Iprds and masters. I was, I imagine, 
exceptionally fortunate in being a witness of this battle. The enemy 
had evidently been preparing for it for years, their canoes were new, 
and no doubt they supposed that they would inflict on my friends a 
crushing defeat. They could not have known that I and my little 
party were staying where we were, or that they would find the tribe 
in such strong force. Of course I did not allow my boat's crew of 
&lomon Islanders who accompanied me, and were armed with rifles, to 
take any part in the fight. 

As I have alluded to the fact of the men who were killed being eaten 
afterwards, I may as well say here a few words on the subject of 
cannibalism, both in New Britain and New Ireland. 

Cannibalism is at the present day a far more common thing than it is 
generally supposed to be. On the other hand, people talk very loosely 
about it, and many tribes, especially in New Guinea, are supposed to 
practise it who have never done so. I cannot absolutely say from my 
own knowledge that the natives of New Britain are cannibals, though I 
have every reason to suppose they are. If you ask a man point-blank, 
as I have often done, if he has ever helped to eat any one, he will deny 
it for himself, but say that so-and-so did. 

They usually appear to be very much ashamed of the practice. That 
this is not always the case, however, I will presently show. Some eight 
years ago in Fiji, the Governor, Sir Arthur Gordon, was paying a visit to 
a mountain chief, who had recently been reconciled to the British occupa- 
tion and government. The conversation turned on cannibalism, and 
the impression that he tried to give us was, that he had heard of such a 
custom, but that none of his people had ever been guilty of it. 

A missionary had some time previous to our visit been murdered in 
the very district in which we were, and had undoubtedly been eaten, 
and parts of his body had been sent by our host to friends of his 
belonging to other tribes. He admitted that he had been eaten, by 
whom he said he did not know ; for his part, he said, the idea of eating 
white man was extremely repulsive to him, as they smoked strong 
tobacco and drank whisky. On this an old man in the crowd, forgetting 
his manners and duty to his chief, sprang up and said, '< It is a lie ; he 
was as good as any one else, and you know it." His feelings had 



carried Hm away to such an extent that he at all events admitted having 
Lolped to eat %%^hite man. 

In New Ireland, where immediately after the fight I have alluded 
to I saw them eat the men who had fallen, there appeared to be no 
shame and no pretence of concealment. They did it, they said, because 
they liked it, and they had no objection whatever to my hoing a witness 
of their proceedings- I am aware that to most people it must be an 
unpleasant subject, bnt I think I may venture to describe soMo of the 
incidents which occurred on the occasion to which I refer. 

The bodies having been huug up by the necks till the return of the 
warriors, are scalded with boiling water and scraped with the sharp 
bamboo knife of the country* During this operation, which is per- 
formed by the old women, the former merits and accomplishments of 
each one are discussed with jokes and roars of laughter. This finished, 
they are taken down and laid on mats. In the village in which I was 
watching the proceedings^ there were six bodies to be operated on. 
They were cut up by a very old man who kept up an incessant chatter 
while he performed his duty. Certain parte were kept, the thigh and 
shiD bones for instance, and were no doubt intended to serve as spear- 
handles at a later date. Each portion was wrapped in many envelopes 
of stout leaves by the women, and when ail the bodies bad been 
cut up they w^ere placed in the ovens which bad been previously 
prepared for their reception. The process of cooking took nearly four 
days, and during that time the w^ildest dances and feasting im.aginable 
went on. The heads, however, were reserved for a special purjTose, The 
natives of New Ireland eat a preparation of sago and coco-nut called 
sak-sak. The brains of these unfortunate men were to be added as jjk 
third ingredient. I used to buy eak-eak daily for my Solomon Island 
crew, but it is needless to say that for the remainder of my stay in 
New Ireland I did not do so. I have no doubt in my mind, however, 
that my boat's crew possessed themselves of some of this disgusting 
mixture and ate it. It is impossible to describe more than the most 
noticeable features of this banquet. The details were intensely horrid 
and disgusting, and the women peemed to me to be more brutal and 
Bavage than the men. Though I did not remain with them absolutely 
to the end of the business, I was told that for many days afterwards the 
natives do not wash at all, as they try to imagine that some trace of their 
disgusting meal will cling to them. 

The trade of these islands is principally carried on between the 
coast natives and those who livo in the interior. The coast 
natives exchange salt for the food which the bush natives cultivate. 
There are certain well-kno\\Ti market-places where they constantly 
meet, and their negotiations with each other not unfrequently end in a 
fight. The trade with the whites is principally in coco-nuts. "When I 
was there twenty coco^nuts could he bought for one stick of tobacco. 


One stick of tobacco represented the twentieth part of a shilling, there- 
fore four hundred coco-nuts could be bought for a shilling. The kernel 
of the nut cut up and dried in the sun makes a very valuable article of 
commerce called copra. It is used for making candles, and the refuse 
makes excellent cake for cattle. It takes about 7000 ordinary nuts to 
supply one ton of copra. In those days a ton would have cost on the 
spot about 3Z., and as its market value in Europe was from 162. to 20/., 
the trade was a profitable one. These prices, of course, do not exist 
now, but I have no doubt the trade still continues to pay. Tortoise- 
shell is bought in considerable quantities from the natives, also pearl- 
shell of an inferior quality, and b§che-de-mer. Beche-de-mer is a large 
salt-water slug which inhabits the coral reefs. It is split open, boiled, 
and smoked, and when thus prepared is worth from 50Z. to 120Z. a ton 
in the Chinese market. 

Between white men and natives, tobacco is the only money employed. 
Between the natives themselves a shell money is used, called by them 
de-warra. The de-warra is a very diminutive cowry, and the money is 
supposed to come from the northern end of New Britain. Hundreds of 
these little shells are threaded on immensely long strips of split cane. 
A fathom of de-warra may possibly be taken as the legitimate tender, 
that is to say, a piece of de-warra is broken off of the length of the 
extreme stretch of a man's arms extended. Seven fathoms would formerly 
purchase a good pig, and I have heard of cases where a man's death 
could be compassed for the same amount. Such is the value of human 
life in New Britain. 

In conclusion, I will say that I consider the country to be one suited 
to white colonisation. It presents the richest soil, a climate no worse 
than that of other groups, and not so bad as that of New Guinea, 
and the people, though undoubtedly savage and suspicious, can easily be 
managed by firmness, and consideration for their habits and traditions. 
They make fairly good labourers when not taken away from their own 
homes, and I see no reason why the extremes of savage and civilised 
life should not meet on. amicable terms in this young country. The 
Germans, to whom it now belongs, have a most responsible duty before 
them, and the success or failure of this young colony of theirs depends 
entirely on the view they take of their obligations to its natural 

Before the paper. 

The Chaibman (Sir Hknby Rawlinsok) said that Mr. Bomilly had been for six 
or seven years in the Pacific as a (Commissioner on behalf of the British Government, 
and had visited faost of the principal islands. He had also written a book which 
was a model for the travellers of the present day, being both amusing and in- 
stmctive. After Mr. Romilly had read his paper on New Britain, the meeting 
would be fiivoured with additional remarks by a gentleman who knew probably 
more of the geography of the Western Pacific than any other living man, the 
Bev. George Brown, who had published a dictionary and grammar of the language, 
and who would answer any questions on the subject. 



After tbe pap<?r, 

The Rev. Geor«e Bbown^ said that Ins experitnce of New Britain and New 
Irektjd dated from the year 1875^ when he landed there in comixiEy with a party of 
Fijians aBtl Satuoans, He had previously s[)eiit botweeti fourteen and fifteen years 
in Samoa. At the date of his landuig there was not a nin^le white nian in the 
group. A few white men !md previously called at Port Hunter, but there was no one 
resident there at the time. He landed on Dake of York Island, and had explored in 
ot>0& boats from a point near Cape Or ford on the south-east coast » round Cape 
Lambert and along the north-we»t coast to the '* Father and Sous " volcanoes 
opposite to the I)ui>ortLul lalatKla, He had tilso explored the whole of the west 
coast of New Ireland, and had landed at New Hanover and had coiiimunicjitioQ 
with the natives. There were not many places in the South Seas of which so 
little was known as New Britain, Si>eaking of the early discoveries Mr. Brown said 
that the Solomon Group was discovered by the Spfiniards, under Mendana, in 1567. 
Mendana made las second voyage to Santa Crua in 1595 and died there. The 
earliest distinct notice of the discovery of any of the New Britain islands was in 
the account of Le Maire and Schonten^s voyages in 16I6> when they sighted and 
named St, John's Island and Fischer s Island, and so must of course have also seen 
the mainland of New Ireland, In 1643, Tasman saw Kt. John's Island, Cape 8t, 
Maria, and discovered Antliony Kaana and Gerritt Dcnys Islands. All these 
navigators thought at this time that New Ireland and New Britain formed part of 
the mainland of New Guinea. This was first disproved by Dumpier in 1700, who 
sailed through what is now known as Dampier'a Straits, In 17*17, Captain Carteret 
was drifted by strong currents u|> Dampier's Wide Bay, so called, and found it to be 
a wide open channeL Tnis he called St. George*s Channel, and named the land on the 
east side New Ireland. He had landed at Fort Carteret and had taken possession 
of the island in the name of H.M. George III, Bougainville visited the same place 
in 17G8. Captain Hunter vi^iited and named Port Hunter, Duke of York Island, in 
1701. After ibis there wjls the voyaije of the CoquiUe in 1823, and that of the 
Astrolabe in 1827, H.M.S, Stdphur in 1840, and H.M.S. Bianche about 1872. On a 
small island in Blanche Bay, called Hatupit^ or Matupi, some months before he (Mr. 
Brown) landed there in liJ75, two German traders had landed, but after remaining 
a few weeks they were burnt out by the natives, and sliot five of them in escaping to 
tlifjir boats* That was the bst attempt to settle in New Britain previous to his 
landing. He (Mr. Brown) crossed the New Ireland range at an altitude of 3000 feet, 
and went down to the opposite coast. One of his experiences was a very suggestive 
one. He had immense difliculty in getting any natives to accompany him scroes the 
range. By bribery he got them past two villa;j;es, and then they wanted to go back. 
He ttdd them they ctvnld go if they liked. They replifed, ** You must go back with 
us," but this he refused to do, and they dared not return alone as they were afraid of 
being killed to make a meal for the other villagers if they did so, and so ultimately , 
they went on. One of the houses had a ridge pole some ten feet high with the roof 
coming down to the ground. The ridge pole was covered with alligator and other 
bones, while the brtttena were covered with jaw bones of pigs. On one f^articuIar 
batten he counted tbirty-five jaw bones of people who had been eaten in that house, 
some black with smoke, some brown, and some not long picked, and he felt thankful 
that his own was so far safe, and in its proper position and place. He was in the 
neighbourhood at the time of the great volcanic eruption, and might say that he 
had landed on a very new iiiland indeed. A L<jndon correspondent of the Mel- 
bourne ArguSf wishing to be funny, v\Tote that he Imd been accustomed to sub- 
scribe to a library of fiction, but he should discontinue to do so, because he had 
read in a scientific paper called Nature, that the water in a certain bay in New 


Britain became so hot that the fish came up already cooked. The fact was, that 
though the bay was five or six miles across, and no bottom was found up the 
centre with a thirty-fathom line until a cablets length off the shore was reached, no 
man oouUl bear his feet in the water for ten days after the eruption, and the 
fish came up overcooked. Tortoiseshell was obtained from the Hawksbill turtle 
by burning the fish (which accounted for the marks on the shell), but many 
turtle had been so much cooked that the shells had floated away from them. He 
had many times sailed over the very spot where that little island now was. When 
he first landed on it the soil was so hot that no native could stand on it. There was 
an immense crater of boiling water, and he wished to find out if it communicated 
with the sea. The whole island was hissing at every pore, and he managed to 
ascertain that the centre did communicate with the sea. It certainly was thrown up 
from the bottom of the sea at a place where there was a shallow reef at the time. 
Mr. Romilly had mentioned the superstition about mothers-in-law, but he ought to 
have stated that the mother-in-law was quite as much frightened at the son-in-law. 
When he (Mr. Brown) was translating the Gospel of St. Mark, he, of course, had to 
translate the passage about Herod swearing to give the damsel what she asked, even 
to the half of his kingdom, and he had to investigate the question of the natives* idea 
of an oath, and he found that the most solemn oath a man could take was, *' Sir, if I 
am not telling the truth I hope I may shake hands with (or touch the hand of) my 
mother-in-law." He did not know whether Mr. Romilly had travelled up the west 
coast of New Ireland, but there were some very large rivers there. He had seen 
some large rivers, such as the Topaia, which gave its name to a district, and indeed 
New Ireland, on its west side, was one of the best watered islands in the world. The 
rivers partook more or less of the nature of mountain torrents, and were very soon 
dried up. Mr. Komilly was quite correct in stating that six feet of strung shells might 
be taken as the standard of value. The New Ireland money was measured from 
breast to breast, and the singular thing among such a people was that they had 
words for " buy " and " sell," and " borrow " and " lend," and " redeeming " a pledge. 
They also lent out money at ten per cent interest, and had a word which could only 
be translated as " selling off at a sacrifice," or *' selling under cost price." The 
marriage customs differed, but as a general rule a man had to pay for his wife. In 
New Britain when a man proposed he ran away, and there was a lot of crying when 
they were betrothed, as though they were ashamed of what they had done. He 
had been told that the concluding ceremony in one district was this. The young 
couple were brought together in the square, and presents were made by the married 
women to the girl, consisting of little baskets, digging sticks, &c. Then the chief 
would come with a great spear and point in one direction, and spear the stem of a 
banana, and then do the same thing in another direction, and so on, to represent the 
number of men he had killed. It was a symbolical way of narrating his deeds of 
valour. If he had killed a man with a tomahawk, he would strike with his tomahawk 
at an unfortunate banana; if he had killed him with a spear he would spear the 
banana. Of course he was paid for the performance. The last presents were made 
by the brother or father to the young man. The first present was a spear, to signify 
that the young lady was committed to his charge, and that he was her natural pro- 
tector. Next, they gave him a broom to give to his wife, as a symbol of her domestic 
duties, and to indicate that she must keep the house clean. Outside, the villages 
were all remarkably clean. The third present to the bridegroom was a small sap- 
ling, with which he was to beat his wife if she did not attend to her duties. With 
regeml to the duh-duk, he asked what was the meaning of the tremendous blows 
that were given, and he was told that those who were struck were supposed to be 
killed. Their religion was that of all primitive peoples — that the dead were round 
No. I.— Jan. 1887.] c 


and about them. With regard to cannibalism, he had known many instances of it, 
and was once at a place where the natives were cooking part of a human body within 
a few yards of him, but he did not know it at the time. There were, however, many 
who never tasted human flesh, and in most cases the eating of human flesh was a 
religious rite. 

Sir Geobge Bowen congratulated Mr. Romilly on the very able and interesting 
paper which he had read. He himself had been connected with Australasia for 
20 years, as Governor successively of Queensland, New Zealand, and Victoria, and of 
course he took the most lively interest in that quarter of the globe. Mr. Romilly 
had done good work in the islands which he had visited, and it was well known that 
he could also write good descriptions of what he had seen. But one point had not 
been alluded to in the paper, and that was the political relations of the Pacific 
islands with France and Germany, as well as with Great Britain. He was con- 
vinced that a time would soon come when it would be considered desirable to have 
a formal federation of the Australian colonies. The colonists had strong views 
respecting the Pacific islands, but those views often differed. There should be an 
Australasian Dominion, like the Dominion of Canada, which would speak with a 
single voice of authority for all the British colonies in the Pacific. That voice 
would command respect both in England and on the continent of Europe. More- 
over, an Australasian federation would be a great step towards the desired federation 
of the entire British empire. Such a federation would probably form a friendly 
alliance with the great English-speaking federation in America; and the world 
would thus see a Fax Britannica, far transcending what Pliny called the Immensa 
Romanes pacts majestaa, 

Mr. DsiiMAB MoBGAN Said the allusion to the duk-duk reminded him of what 
he had seen among the natives of the Congo, who bad a practice called Inhimpi^ 
which appeared to be a kind of Dovitiate through which the yoimg men passed for a 
certain time, during which they removed themselves from all intercourse with their 
friends, and painted their bodies white. At the end of this probationary period 
there was a grand ceremony admitting them to a kind of Freemasonry. 

The Chaibmak, in concluding the meeting, said that tbey were indebted to both 
the author of the paper and to Mr. Brown for the instruction and entertainment they 
had afforded. Mr. Romilly had already written one book, and it was to be hoped 
that he would write many more. Mr. Brown had copious manuscript notes, and 
had devoted himself to other subjects besides the mere keeping of a diary, a proof of 
which he had given in his admirable Dictionary and Grammar of the native lan- 
guage, a MS. copy of which he had liberally presented to the Society. He would 
recommend all travellers inihose seas to make a really serious attempt to classify and 
affiliate the Papuan and Melanesian languages. Until vocabularies were issued, which 
could be compared, it would not be possible to understand how those islands were 
originally settled and populated. It was a very interesting branch of linguistic 
ethnology. Mr. Brown had made a great step in advance in a book which was still 
in manuscript, and he hoped it would be extended so as to point out the analogies 
between the New Britain languages and others further afield. In conclusion he 
proposed a vote of thanks to both Mr. Romilly and Mr. Brown. 

( 19 ) 

Journey of the Expedition under Colonel Woodthorpe, -&,"&., from Upper 
Assam to the Irawadi, and return over the Patkoi Range. 

By Major C. E. Maogregor, 44tli Kegiment (Ghurka Light Infantry). 

(Bead at the Evening Meeting, December 13tb, 1886.) 

Hap 9 p. 68. 

I PROPOSE this evening to read to you a paper describing an exploration 
made in the beginning of last year by a distinguished Fellow of your 
Society (Colonel R. G. Woodthorpe) and myself, from Sadiya, on the 
upper waters of the Brahmaputra, to the Kampti Shan country, on the 
western branch of the Irawadi, and to give yo\i a brief account of the 
various tribes we met en route. The country through which we 
travelled lies between the north-east extremity of the province of Assam 
and the upper waters of the Irawadi. 

As the mountain chains here lie in a general north and south direction, 
contrary to the Himalaya, which lie east and west, our route necessarily 
had to cross the ranges. 

After leaving Sadiya, the route lay more or less through thick and 
tangled forests along the banks of the Dihing river for about 125 miles 
up to Kiimki (altitude 3600 feet). On leaving Kiimki, the country 
became mountainous, though still densely wooded, until we crossed the 
Ohaukan range (altitude 9000 feet) and descended into the Bor Kampti 
valley, where we found a series of plateaus of a more open character, 
the hills, however, on either side of the valley continuing as thickly 
forest-clad as on the Assam side of the range. 

The country through which we travelled being very sparsely in- 
habited (a week may elapse without the voyager coming across a 
habitation of any kind), there are of course no regular paths, and the 
route lies either along the rocky beds of mountain torrents, or, should 
these be impassable owing to heavy rains, in the tracks of elephants or 
other wild denizens of the jungle. A system of blazing the trees, by 
the hillmen, which obtains in these regions, enables the traveller to 
thread his way through the seemingly trackless forests. On leaving 
Sadiya, the most important link in the chain of frontier outposts on the 
extreme north-east of the province of Assam, the tribes wo met were 
Kamptis, Singphos or Kakhyens (Singpho merely meaning ** a man " in 
their language), Mishmis, Nagas and, in a valley of the Nam-kiu river, 
Kunnungs, famed for their skill in manufacturing sword-blades and in 
extracting silver from the ore which abounds in the country they 
inhabit, and various specimens of barbarous tribes, such as Meeros, &c., 
who are neighbours, of the Kampti Shans. 

The climate of the country through which our route lay is excessively 
moist. During the months of November, December, January, and 
February there is supposed to be a cessation in the constant downpour ; 

c 2 



Imt tine 18 only Dominally the case, as even in tbo months mgntione^l 
we found that ficarcely a day passed without rain, and I recollect that it 
rained in torronfg, day and night, the whole of one week in January. 
The effect of this almost ceaselefis downpour is, that an enormous quantity 
of water finds its way to the west of the wateri>arting of the Chaukan 
niid Patkoi ranges into the Brahmaputra, Tia the Dihing and other riverej, 
and to the e^i&t into the Irawadi, via the Num-lung and numerous 
other rivers, the drainage from the Xaga Hills to tho south being 
absorbed into tho Ky end wen river winch joins the Irawadi below 
Mandalay, Last March, a most interesting paper, on a jonrney he 
made up the Eyendwen in 188 1 j was read to you by Mr. Annan Eryce. 
Since our annexation of Upper Btiroja it iij of course important that 
we should have as many fmuds as possible in tho tribes of the far 
north, and although the Kampti Shans, whom wo visited, are not a 
very numerous clan (I should say that the %vhole commimity does not 
exceed 12,000 souls), 3^et, owing to their superior civilisation^ — superior 
when contrasted wiih the eemi-barbarism of their neighbours — they 
would prove of use to us ; they certainly showed their willingness to be 
fiiendl}^ in every way* 

Before commencing the narrative account of owr journey I must not 
forget to mention that we were not the first EuropeauB to visit tht^ 
country of the Kampti Shans, In 1826, Lieuts. Wilcox and Burl ton 
with an escort of twenty Kampti militia, visited Manchi from Sadiya, 
Their route coincided with ours, or I'athcr ours coincided with theirs* 
for two days* march from the mouth of the Bapha river. From thence 
the travellers, probably not having been told of the somewhat easier 
and more direct route via Kiimki and the Chaukan Pass into the valley 
of the Nam-kiu, turned their steps more to the north and crossed the 
Phuugan range at a higher altitude than w*e did. Wilcox did not visit 
i'adao or Lao gnu and Laugdau (Mutig Lung), as at that time (sixty 
years ago), the people of Manchi were at war with their neighbours, 
Wilcox's narrative teems with information of various kinds, and we 
(Woodthori>e and I) often wished we bad known him and could compare 
notes. No man, except perhaps W^oodthorpe, has done so much for the 
geography of the north-east frontier as Wilcox, 

On the 19tb of December, 1881, our party, conjiisting of Colonel 
Woodthorpo, b.e,, Mr. ^L Ogle (Survey Department J, Mr. T. Digges La 
Toucho (Geological Survey), Dr, D, Grant, and an escort under my 
command of forty-five men of the 44th (Gurkha Light Infantry) and 
twenty men of the Frontier Police, together with the usual eomplemtiut 
of native surveyors, coolies, &c., left Sadiya and commenced operations 
by exploring up tho Koa Dihing river. The whole of the party was in 
the charge of Colonel Woodthorpe, the survey officer on the north-east 

The route from Sadiya to Indong, a Siogpho village situated on tko 



right bank of the Noa Dihing river, and distant from Sadiya 54 miles, 
needs but little description. We were obliged to cut our way through 
the tangled jungle, and so free a passage for our elephants, carrying the 
provisions and baggage of our party. It took us six days to accomplish 
this journey. En route we passed several Kampti and Singpho villages, 
which we visited, chatting with the inhabitants, sometimes through 
the medium of an interpreter, and at others conversing in Assamese, 
which is more or less the " lingua Franca " on the British side of the 

At one Eampti village I noticed that the inhabitants had decorated 
<he graves of their relations with flowers and flags, and was informed 
that it was customary to do so periodically, like our neighbours across 
the Channel on All Saints' Day. At another village, of which the great 
majority of the inhabitants were Singphos (who are by religion spirit- 
worshippers), we found a Buddhist temple and school, which had been 
erected principally through the generosity of the head man, who was a 
Singpho ; this was quite an exceptional instance of unsectarian conduct. 
On Tisiting the school we found about a dozen boys being taught by the 
yellow-robed Buddhist priest, who showed us over the temple. The 
priest informed us that the paper ho used for writing on was manu- 
factured out of a creeper, and also showed us a peculiar shaped fan 
which was used during prayer. In the early morning the " b&pu " or 
priest, and some of his disciples, walk through the village beating a 
gong and calling people to pray, and also collecting provisions for the 
day's consumption. At this village (Mung Lung) we obtained through 
Mr. Needham (the Political Officer at Sadiya), who accompanied us thus 
far, the services of a Kampti interpreter, called " Deori," who subse- 
quently proved of great use to us when we visited the valley of the 
Kampti Shans on the Irawadi. The Mr. Needham mentioned is the 
same officer who, with Captain E. H. Moles worth, made the adventurous 
journey to Eima on the Tibetan frontier early this year. 

The chief of Mung Lung, a venerable looking man, arrayed in a 
gorgeous flowered Chinese robe, did the honours of his village to us in 
company with his newest and latest acquisition in the shape of a wife, 
for whom, we were informed, that he had just paid 80/., 10 guns, 10 
slaves, some buffaloes, and 200 beads, was present at a display of fire- 
works which we gave on the banks of the river in the evening. At this 
village, as indeed at all the others through which we passed, a Berthon's 
collapsible boat, which Woodthorpe had brought with hi a), created a 
good deal of wonder. This boat proved of the greatest service later 
on in ferrying our party and baggage over rivers which were too deep 
to be waded. 

On Christmas Day we arrived at Indong. During our stay hero the 
summits of two neighbouring peaks of 6000 and 7000 feet altitude were 
cleared for survey purposes and temporary houses, storehouses, and a 


field hospital (where our clever and energetic young doctor dispensed 
physic and gave advice to all comers) were erected. We had a constant 
succession of visitors, comprising Kamptis, Singphos, Nagas, and 
Mishmis, who were all hospitably received by Woodthorpe and his 
party. Musical-boxes, wind-up toys, &c., were shown, tricks of various 
kinds, and occasionally fireworks. The prevalent disease seemed to be 
goitre, and a large amount of red iodide of mercury was given away ; so 
fond indeed were the Singpho ladies of painting themselves, that their 
necks, unlovely objects to view at any time, soon became masses of 
blisters, and I should think most uncomfortable to their owners. It 
was sought to impress upon our semi-barbarian visitors the benefits 
which would accrue from vaccinaiion ; but they all 'drew the line'* 
firmly there, and " would have none of it.*' Several specimens of coal 
and of serpentine were brought in for the inspection of our geologist 
(who was called the "stone man" by the natives). The ash of the 
coal was rather coloured, but seemed of good quality ; the prices asked 
by the Singphos for the serpentine appeared io us ridiculoualy large, 
30Z. was asked for a lump 6 lbs. in weight. The Singphos informed 
me that they had a good market for the serpentine on the Chinese 

The country round Indong was of a fiat uninteresting nature, tangled 
forests and swamps reeking with malaria were the principal features. 
A few clearances had been made by the Singphos on any high ground 
which existed, for the cultivation of Indian corn and other articles of 
food. During the winter, the Dihing river only runs in narrow 
channels, and numerous grass-covered plains (locally called " Churs ") 
exist several miles in length, forming large islands, inhabited by tigers^ 
buffaloes, and innumerable deer ; the last-named supplied our camp with 
fresh meat, while the river yielded us occasional mahser) the Indian 
salmon), obtained by the rod. 

Before I proceed any farther with my narrative, I will try and 
describe briefly the four principal tribes we came in contact with. 
Probably the majority of my audience know all about them ; but some 
may not. 

First, the Kamptis, otherwise Shans, probably originally came from 
China ; they are by religion Buddhists. Their history is, that three Shan 
brothers founded settlements of the Shan race at Mogong in Burma, in 
Assam, and at Bor Kampti on the Nam-kiu river. The Kamptis come 
from the same stock as the Siamese, with whom I believe they are identical 
in language, religion, customs, and dress. The Kamptis possess a written 
character. Their language is monosyllabic, and very much accented. 
Words spelt the same may express half a dozen different ideas, according 
to the way they are pronounced. 

Whilst among the Kamptis I compiled a vocabulary of about 600 
words, and obtained a few specimens of their writing. 


As I have before said, their religion is Buddhism, but in a somewhat 
modified and tainted form, constant association with their neighbonrs, 
who are spirit-worshippers, has imbued them with ideas foreign to the 
true tenets of Buddhism. The dress of the men consists of a species of 
kilt and a jacket, and that of the women of a petticoat and jacket, the 
kilts of the men and dresses of the women resemble Scotch plaids, and 
they possess, like the Scotch, a large number of patterns and checks. 
The hair of the women is worn neatly coiled up and fastened with 
silyer and bone pins. Amber earrings are in common use with both 
sexes. Every male carries a sword in a wooden scabbard. 

Secondly, the Singphos or Kakhyens belong to the Tibeto-Buiman 
race and are spirit- worshippers. They have a tradition of a partial flood, 
in which all the bad people in the plains were drowned ; but that one 
fEonily was kept by a spirit at the top of a mountain, and from this family 
Singphos (men) repeopled the plains, when the waters subsided, at 
the end of eight ages of a man's life (about 500 years). The Singphos 
have a tradition that in the very beginning, there existed on the 
earth an old man (** TingU ") and an old woman (" Gumgai "). In the 
skies dwelt two spirits (" Nats ") called Miitum and Muta. The terrestrial 
beings had a son and a daughter ; the son wandered about the earth, but 
the daughter was taken up to the skies by the celestial beings who 
finally brought her down and married her to the wandering man. From 
this pair sprang all men. 

The marriage customs of the Singphos are simple. A youth should 
marry his cousin, his mother's niece if possible. Should a cousin not 
be available, the maternal uncle should arrange for a girl of his class. 
Should he be unable to procure one, the uncle goes to another family 
and says, " If you give me a girl for my nephew, I will pay you back 
in kind when one of your family requires a bride." The father of the 
youth then gives a feast and presents to the girl's family. Should the 
bridegroom's father not be in a position to give presents, he gives or 
Bells one of his daughters to the other family in lieu of presents. 

A feast given by the parents of the bridegroom (differing from our 
own custom), ratifies the marriage contract. It is customary for the 
bride to prepare and serve out the food to the guests on this occasion. 

The dress of the Singphos is almost similar to the Eamptis. The 
men wear kilts and jackets, and the women petticoats and jackets. 
Married women wear their hair tied on the crown of the head like the 
men, unmarried women wear theirs tied close to the back of the neck 
and fastened with silver pins. On the whole, the dress of the men is 
comfortable and picturesque, and that of the women modest and neat. 

During the time we were out on the exploration, I set myself the 
task of learning the Singpho language, which I found very difficult. 
My principal instructor was an interpreter and he was far from being 
an enthusiastic tutor. I found him what children would call "very 


trying," and I dare say I was the same from his point of view. However, 
I managed to collect a vocabulary of about 700 words, and to write a 
rough outline grammar. 

The Singpho language is peculiar for its combination of consonants, 
which render its pronunciation difficult to a European. There are a 
quantity of onomatopoeic words, principally the names of animals. Many 
ideas, positive to our minds, such as bad, brave, are rendered negatively 
in Singpho, as not good, not cowardly. The gender in the brute 
creation is denoted in a peculiar way, by cutting off the first syllable of 
the noun and adding 14 for the masculine, and cutting off the first 
syllable and adding vi for the feminine, as shirong, a tiger. Bongl4 a 
male tiger, and rongvi a tigress. I generally found my instructors 
" childlike and bland," but the following little anecdote will show that 
the veneer of his civilisation was only skin deep, and the interpreter 
being scratched, the Shan appeared. One day whilst receiving my 
lesson in the language, I happened to pull out my little Deringer pistol 
with my pocket handkerchief. Deori pounced on the pistol at once, and 
went into raptures over it. On my asking him why the little weapon 
struck his fancy so much, he replied, " It would be so easy to cover it 
up in the palms of both hands, approach a deadly enemy in an attitude 
of prayer and reverence with outstretched palms and so quietly shoot 
him through the head ! " 

Thirdly, the Mishmis. Those whom we met belonged to the Meju 
or middle clan. They are a small, active, and very dirty people, of a 
Mongolian type, flat noses, almond-shaped eyes, &c. 'J'heir dress 
consists of a kind of kilt and a woollen armless coat; their hair is 
turned up and tied in a knot at ihe top of the head. The women were 
neatly dressed, and some of them wore a broad band of thin silver round 
their heads. The men are armed with a short sword, and either a bow 
or a spear, a few have flint-lock muskets. A pouch of the skin of 
some wild animal is generally carried over the shoulders, and contains 
a pipe, tobacco, flint and steel, also some poison (aconite), to put on their 
arrow heads. The Mishmis exchange poison and musk deer pods with 
the Tibetans (whose neighbours they are) for clothing, salt, and swords ; 
and they barter indiarubber, ivory, beeswax, and ginger, for salt, 
opium, and clothing, with the inhabitants of Assam. The religion of the 
Mishmis is a kind of spirit- worship. As is often the case among 
barbarous tribes, the men are much vainer than the women ; both sexes, 
however, distend the lobes of their ears with enonnous silver earrings. 
I thought the men, especially the boys, had sweet and musical voices. 

Fourthly, the Nagas. The few scattered hamlets of this clan are 
situated on the north-western slopes of the Patkoi range. The Singphos 
and Kamptis always spoke of these Nagas as being subject to them. 
These people (who are quite distinct from the powerful Angami and 
Lhota clans of Nagas to the south and west} are miserably poor and 


wear hardly any clothing ; their arms consist of spears, cross-bows, and 
hatchets ; their religion is spirit-worship ; they are tattooed on the face, 
legs, and arms ; their principal trade is in indiarubber. 

I now take np the thread of my narrative. On the 12th of January, 
having completed all arrangements for onr depot and got up necessary 
supplies, I moved forward up the Dihing river, passing several Singpho 
villages en route. At one of these villages I visited the chief at his 
bouse. I was shown over the dwelling, which was, like all Singpho 
houses, built on piles about five feet from the ground, the eaves of the 
roof coming down to the level of the platform which fonned the floor of 
the house. There seemed to be a plentiful supply of cats, which the 
Singphos onomatopceically called " miau." In the house and below the 
raised floor, pigs, fowls, and dogs abounded. The front of the house was 
decorated with the horns of cattle slain for feasts. I was offered some 
of the Singpho wine, called " shim," and out of courtesy tasted it, but 
found, as I had suspected from my experience of Assam frontier liquor, 
that it was very acid and most unpalatable unless one was extremely 

On the 22nd Woodthorpe, having completed his survey work in the 
neighbourhood, joined me on the right bank of the Dapha river, where 
I had established a camp. The Dapha valley was about five miles long 
and one mile wide ; it was covered with short grass, and abounded with 
deer. A few tigers had also taken up their abode in the valley, a fact 
which came unpleasantly home to our coolies, two of whom, poor 
fellows, were carried out of camp at night by a man-eater, who was, I 
am glad to say, eventually shot. In exploring the plateau to the east 
of the valley I came across some wild elephants, who, luckily, were quite 
as much frightened at my appearance as I was at theirs, and saved me 
the trouble of running away by bolting with loud trumpetings into the 
neighbouring forest. 

From this valley we had hoped to have made the ascent of a peak 
called Dapha Bum (16,000 feet), bum in the Singpho language meaning 
mountain, but the route was found utterly impracticable, and no 
guides were to be had, so the idea was reluctantly abandoned, and we 
again started eastward, crossing the Dapha river waist-deep just above 
its junction with the Dihing (or Diyung as it is locally called). Wo 
toiled along the river-bed for three days, sometimes picking our way 
over boulders of all sizes, from that of a cricket ball to that of a small 
house, and at others climbing along the precipitous sides of cliffs, 
making ladders of creepers and trees, or cutting footholds in the rocks 
to enable our laden coolies (hill-porters) to got along. There had been 
such a constant downpour of rain for these three days that the river- 
bed became impassable, and we had to halt for the next three days on 
some ledges of rock just above the water. When the flood subsided we 
started forward again, road-making the whole way. 


Our freedom from acoidente on this as on many other occasions, 
was principally dne to Woodthorpe's engineering skill, and the intre- 
pidity of the Ghurkas of the escort, who would hang over the precipitous 
side of the dangerous places, assisting the coolies with helping hands 
and cheery advice as to the best disposal of their feet. The difficulties 
of these marches were greatly increased by the heavy rain which, 
flooding the river below, drove us to the cliffs above. Not to dwell too 
long on the discomforts and difficulties, which, after all, are inseparable 
from pioneering in a country such as the north-east frontier of India. 
I may mention that we arrived at a place called Kumki on the 14th of 
February, and right glad we were to get on a bit of level ground and 
have a chance of drying our damp and mouldy clothes and bedding. 
In the valley of Kiimki, which is triangular in shape and about two 
miles in length by one in breadth, we found two largo Singpho 
villages ; these villages had never before been visited by Europeans, and 
at first tlieir attitude was a very sulky one, though we did all we could 
to conciliate them ; the largest of the two communities did not bring in 
the customary offering of a fowl and a handful of rice, so we stood on 
our dignity (a good plan to adopt sometimes when dealing with semi- 
barbarians), and refused to have anything to say to the people till the 
usual presents were brought in by the head man. This was done 
eventually, and then some red cloths were presented to the head men, 
the musical-boxes were set going, and a display of fireworks given. The 
inhabitants of this little valley, which is situated on the left bank of 
the Diyiing river in East long. 96° 66' 4" and North lat. 27° 17' 10" at 
3600 feet above sea-level, seemed to have a great idea of the power and 
influence of the Eampti Shans on the Nam-kiu river, and very little of 
that of the English. I think, however, that before we finally left the valley 
their ideas underwent a considerable change, especially after they heard 
how well the Bor Kamptis had treated us. I mention thi«, as although 
Kiimki is only 125 miles to the east of Sadiya, yet the valley had never 
before been visited by English representatives ; Wilcox in his journey 
in 1826 having taken a more northerly direction after leaving the 
Dapha river. 

Whilst at Ktimki I inquired about the manufacture of gunpowder, 
and was informed that the proportion of the three ingredients was as 
follows :— in 100 parts — saltpetre 70, sulphur 15, and charcoal 15. The 
Singphos obtain their nitre and charcoal locally, the sulphur they get 
from Assam and Burma ; the powder is not granulated, and the Singphos 
use enormous charges in their old flint-lock muskets. The survey 
officers mapped out the surrounding country and we made several ex- 
cursions to peaks ranging from 5000 feet to 7600 feet high, and distant 
from one to four days' journey. (I reckon the distances in days and not 
in miles, owing to the extreme inaccessibility of the country. On one 
occasion it took us three days to cut our way to the summit of a 


peak, from which the return journey to camp was performed in seven 

One narrow ridge along which we had to climb had a sheer cliff on 
one side, and on the other a few bamboos, which were ornamented with 
rings of sharp thorns at intervals of every three or four inches up the 
stems ; of course, when the choice lay between lacerating one's hands 
by holding on for support to the thorns on going down the precipice, it 
" goes without saying " that we preferred the thorny Scylla to the rocky 
Charybdis. In some places along these ridges the bamboo jungle was 
so dense and matted together by the weight of the lately fallen 
snow, that we had to cut our way with the Ghurka knife, often 
disappearing bodily, slipping between the tangled masses of under- 
growth, fortunate if we found our arms left free to commence the work 
anew of cutting a way out. We noticed on some of the less precipitous 
ridges where the stunted oak and the gorgeous rhododendron abounded, 
that rhinoceros had travelled over them, probably when making their 
way to the salt-licks in the valley of the Turong (the source of the 
Khyendwen river). I have noticed the marks of wild elephants at even 
higher altitudes than 7000 feet, but never before those of rhinoceros so 

Often when the survey officer has succeeded in surmounting all the 
difficulties of the route up to the summit of a peak, which he has cleared 
of its trees, he is foiled by the perversity of the atmosphere, which will 
not afford him the view for which he came. I remember how, in 1875, 
Colonel Godwin-Austen (who did such splendid survey work in the Sub- 
Himalayan ranges on both banks of the Brahmaputra), Mr. Ogle, and I 
remained one stormy week amid snow, sleet, and hail on Mount '* Shen- 
gore," 7000 feet high, in tlie Daphla Hills, without getting a viewt We 
were literally a week in the clouds. 

On the 6th of March we were all back in camp at Kumki, not sorry 
to have our feet once more on level ground. On going through a 
Singpho village on our return, I, being anxious to air the little know- 
ledge of the language I possessed, called out to (what appeared to me) 
an ancient dame, addressing her as " Giiragai," old woman ; the lady was 
very angry, and shouted out, " I am no more an old woman than you 
are ; if you want to see an old woman, I will show you one," and going 
into the house she produced from the fireside a little old wizened creature 
whom she pushed forward, saying, "Now, there is an old woman for 
you." I pacified the Singpho ladies with some tobacco, and retired, 
feeling properly snubbed for having been so ungallant as to allude to a 
lady's age. 

On the 8th of March, having got up some supplies from our depot on 
the Dapha river, we turned our faces eastwards again, and after ^yq days* 
hard marching we arrived at the very head of the Dihing river, which 
was here, at a height of nearly 8000 feet, a tiny rivulet, being near ita 


junction with the Brahmaputra, over a mile in width. We had great 
difficulty in procuring a guide, and we had got two marches from Kiimbi, 
when our guide announced his intention of returning. However, with 
the bribe of a gun, we persuaded him to accompany us. The man 
amused us much by sending off the gun by a slave to bo placed with 
his Lares and Penates at his village, and on being interrogated as his 
reason, he replied, " Who knows what will happen to your party ; mij 
reward will at any rate be safe." 

The second day's march from Kiimki we bivouacked for the night 
on a charming plateau, covered with short gi*ass and dotted here and 
there with clumps of trees. This plateau about 100 years ago was in- 
habited by a race of men called MuUiks, probably one of the so-called 
Naga clans, who originally came from the neighbourhood of the Nong- 
yong Lake, south of the Patkoi range. These Mulliks, who seemed to 
have been a most inoffensive people, were ousted from their lands which 
they had cultivated on the Diyung river by the Eamptis and Singphos, 
particularly by the latter, and the majority had been either killed or 

Soon after leaving this plateau, which was 4300 feet above sea-level, 
we struck a track which our guide informed us led to the Khyendwen 
valley. On this march some of our coolies broke down, and one was not 
able to carry himself, much less his load, so Messrs. Ogle, Grant, and 
La Toucho carried the sick man by turns ; and I must mention that this 
was not the only occasion that sick natives were carried by the Europeans 
of the party, our young doctor especially being always well to the fore 
in helping to get sick men along. That night wo camped at an eleva- 
tion of 7500 feet. There was no level ground, so we had to scoop out 
holes to lie in on the mountain side and make the best of it. 

The following day, tramping along through the damp rank jungle, 
we came suddenly on an old Kampti and his son. The old man was 
very weak and ill, and could not proceed. We got one of our men to 
carry him up and over the pass ; but the poor man was too far gone, 
and died on the road. At the little stream where we found the dying 
Eampti my aneroid read 7100 feet, and it was from tliis place that the 
ascent of the pass began. A comparatively easy climb of 1200 feet 
brought us to the summit, up to which there was a considerable quan- 
tity of snow lying about in patches. It was hard work for our coolies, 
wading through the melting snow. We Europeans were so delighted 
to be up to our knees in snow, which reminded us of home, that wo 
began to imagine we were schoolboys again, and tried our hands at 
snowballing. To all the natives, except our guides, snow was quite a 
new experience, and one Assamese youth amused us by announcing his 
intention of filling a bottle full and taking it back to Assam to show his 
friends what a strange thing he had met on his travels ! 

Up to this (12th March) we had generally travelled together, but as 


Woodtborpe and I had made up our minds to visit the Kampti Shans 
and the valley of the Nam-kiu river (the western branch of the Irawadi), 
and also to return into Assam via the Turong river (the Khyendwen), 
crossing the Patkoi range near the Nongyong Lake. 

We therefore separated from the rest of the party, taking with us four 
Gurkhas, and travelling very light. As we were all short of rice, we only 
took enough to last us into the Kampti country. Messrs. Ogle, La Touche, 
and Grant, were all anxious to accompany us, but we could not manage 
provisions for the whole party, so they returned via Kiimki to our depots 
at Dapha and Indong. Of course our guide said it was utterly impossible 
to go on, and that he would not answer for the consequences ; however, 
when he was informed that we intended to go on with or without him, 
he waived his objection, and ofif we started. After a dreary march in the 
pouring rain, we camped that night at a place called Mokoshat (7500 
feet). I may mention, once for all, that it poured with rain night and 
day, all the six days' journey to Bor Kampti. ^ 

At Mokoshat, our interpreter said that the downpour was owing 
to our party burning bamboos, which, being filled with water, exploded, 
and ho was continually calling out, *' Don't make a noise, or the 
Deity will send more rain." Frank Hatton mentions that the same 
idea obtains among the Dy&ks in North Borneo. My companion 
(Woodtborpe), who had been more or less ill all day with fever and a 
bad sore throat, became very ill during the night, and I was very 
anxious about him ; however, the next morning he was a little better, 
so we commenced to climb the Mokoshat mountain (one of the spurs 
running down from the Phungun range). Having attained a height of 
close upon 9000 feet, we descended, and making way through the 
melting snow, bivouacked at a height of 7500 feet. It had been so 
stormy the whole day, hail, sleet, and incessant min, that unfortunately 
we got no view whatever, and it was the same on our return. Our 
guide informed us, that on a clear day, the Brahmaputra to the west, 
and the Irawadi to the east, can be seen from the Mokoshat mountain. 
Owing to the intense cold, and the driving hail and sleet, which caused 
the track, which we with 'difficulty made out by the "blazing" of 
former travellers, to be very slippery, our progress was very slow, and 
we had to halt on the hill-side without water, except what we got from 
the skies above. Darkness came on, and our guide ensconced himself 
in a hollow tree from which ho could not be persuaded to budge. Seated 
crosa-legged in his shelter, with a fixed and vacant look on his stolid 
countenance, he reminded me of a picture I have Feen somewhere of 
" Saiambu," a Hindu deity, called the self-existent and self-complacent 

On the sixth day, after leaving the bulk of our party, we arrive I at 
the stockaded town of Langnu. There had been a dreary sameness about 
all otir marches; tramping along through the damp rank jungle, all 


sodden under foot, had a depressing effect, and .we almost imagined that 
we were being gradually absorbed into the mass of decaying vegetation 
which existed above, below and around us ; it was almost a relief when 
the route, as it often did, lay along the rocky beds of mountain streams. 

Thunderstorms were very frequent. I always think they are grander 
and more impressive at high altitudes, the crashing among the trees 
and the awaking of a thousand echoes on the mountain sides, has a 
greater effect when one is out in the open, especially at night. 
Apropos of thunder, the Singphos have rather a poetical way of ex- 
pressing it — for it thunders, they say, '* mou sigade," the cloud is calling 
out. On our way to Langnu, the site of a Kampti bivouac was pointed 
out to us where ten Kampti traders on their way back from Assam had 
been recently surprised and massacred by Singpho robbers, and we were 
warned to look out on our return journey. The Kamptis afterwards 
told us that if it were not for fear of Singpho robbers there would be 
much greater intercourse between the valleys of the Irawadi and the 

Our great anxiety on arrival at Langnu was on account of food for our 
coolies and our four Gurkhas, so Woodthorpe and I walked into the town 
to interview the raja ; we were conducted to the town hall, a thatched 
house with a raised platform, in the centre of which was a fireplace, and 
after a long delay the raja came in state with Burmese gilded umbrellas 
carried over him and his brother : gongs were beaten and occasionally a 
musket was discharged. Among the retinue a conspicuous figure was 
an individual called the Tongnu, who was dressed in a kilt, a black 
goat-skin coat and a Burmese red lacquered helmet (somewhat like a 
fire brigade man's hat); this man's duties are of various kinds, he 
seemed to combine the office of master of the ceremonies with that of 
chief of the police. The Kampti Raja said that if he had known we were 
coming ho would have gone to meet us; but I think this was only 
** a manner of speaking," our sudden and unexpected descent on the 
valley probably saved us the mortification of being turned back had 
the Kamptis got wind of our intention. On the whole we had an 
amusing and satisfactory interview ; rice was promised us and the 
promise was handsomely redeemed. After the interview we were shown 
over the stockaded town ; the stockade was a double one, 11 feet high 
with a banquette of earth about four feet high ; we were told that the 
slaves had built the stockade, and were also informed that all the slaves 
would gladly go to Assam if they could ; this I do not believe, as the 
slaves (so called) seemed perfectly happy and contented. With the 
exception of a few cases of goitre, the Kamptis seemed a healthy people ; 
a few old people complained of rheumatism, for which we gave them 
some vaseline, the rubbing of which would do the affected parts no harm 
(and I am afraid not much good). 

A few wild, uncouth-looking Singphos from the adjacent hills 


came fully armed into onr camp, and the Eamptis seemed much 
relieved when they had taken their departure. Some Kunnungs came 
to have a look at the two white men ; they inhabit the country to the 
north-east of the Eampti valley, and are an extremely gentle, pleasant- 
looking people, small in stature, rather fair in complexion, with their 
hair cut short in a fringe over the forehead ; they had melodious voices 
and pleasant smiles. I wrote down a few words of their language, which 
to a certain extent resembles the Singpho, about five per cent, of the 
words being identical. The Kunnungs are famous for their "daos" 
(short swords), which they manufacture from iron extracted by them 
from the ore found near the Nam-Tis4n river. They also extract silver 
from ore which they obtain eight days* journey to the north-east of 
Langnu. We brought back a small lump of silver ore, which, when 
assayed at the Bombay mint, was found to yield 12^ ozs. to the ton. 
Afterwards, when we visited the chief raja of the Kamptis at '* Padao," 
he said if we would visit his country again he would send us to the 
silver mines ; and he seemed anxious to obtain the services of men who 
could extract the silver from the ore. 

On the 20th March we started for the western branch of the Irawadi, 
called by the Singphos M'Li-kha (" Kha " being Singpho for river), and 
by the Kamptis the Nam-kiu (** Nam " being Kampti for river) (the 
Singphos and Kamptis respectively describe the Irawadi diiring its 
whole course to the sea as M*Li-kha and Nam-kiu). 

After crossing the Nam-lung river by means of canoes formed out of 
hollowed trees, we kept along the left bank of the river for six miles, 
until we came to a large stockaded town called " Langdao." The 
people objected to our going through their lands to the river ; but after 
an interview with the raja, with whom we shook hands (somewhat to 
his astonishment), we were allowed to proceed, and three miles further 
on we struck the Nam-kiu, the western branch of the Irawadi just above 
where it is joined by the Nam-lung. Here wo found the river about 
85 yards wide, and not deep, in no place more than five feet. The mouth 
of the Nam-lung is in E. long. 97° 38' 30" and N. lat. 27° 15' 30", 
and 1630 feet above the sea-level. 

The river up stream was very pretty, and Woodthorpe made a 
charming sketch of it, with its " couch of snows," the lofty Nam-kiu 
mountains to the north as a background. On inquiring, we were 
informed that to the east, three days' journey off", a river called the Nam- 
Tisdn flowed parallel to the Nam-kiu, joining it lower down. Between 
the Nam-kiu and the Nam-Tisan we could see a mountain range which 
was called by the Singphos T-chet Biim. To the east of the Nam- 
Tisan (or Disan), .and five days* journey from that river, another range 
existed called the Nogmiin or Noikon (from this range the Kunnungs 
obtain the silver ore), to the east of which flowed the Nam-Dumai 
or Fhungmai. This river the Kamptis said was the same size as the 



Nam-kiu» that it waa formed by three Btreams which had their origm in 
the Nam-kiu moiintaiuB^ which wo saw to the north and north*east of the 
place where we stood {viz. on tho right hank of the Xam-kin, just above 
the mouth of tho Nam-lung). Tho Kamptis told ns that all the branches 
of tho Irawadi have Iheir origin in the snowy range to the north and 
north-east. The Kamptis mid that some times a trading party went to 
China (-which tho}' called *' Khe Moung "), that the journey to^ik thorn 
on© monih and eight days, that they had to cross in boats two big 
rivers (after having crossed the Nani-kioj the Xam*Tisan, and Nam- 
Dnniai). The traders bought opium in China at tho rate of lOs, ^d, a 
pound, but they said it was not so gocvd as the Assam opium, 'which they 
could ohtiin after a joTiraey which only took them half the time it did 
to go to China ; the opium of Assam cost them» however^ about 30*. a 
ponnd, The Kamptis are not such inveterate consumers of the juioe of 
the poppy as the Bingjdios, We found that the drug answered very well 
in the place of money when we bought rice for our party ; but, of course, 
it was very sticky stufiF to cut up and divide into small particles, as e^ich 
individual only brought ua a few pounds of rice, and we had to pay 
each person separatel}^ at the rate of a penny a pound ; it was a tedious 
business^ and as the people would only transact business with the two 
white men personally, we were not sorry when the day's bartering was 
over. We found the Kamptis strictly honest in their doulingsi, and if 
we paid a person for ten pounds of rice and only received five pounds 
at tho time, he or she would go back to the towm, and bring us the 
balance without fail later on. 

After we had visited the Irawadi we returned to Lunguu very tired, 
as the day hati been ex cestui vely hot, and I suppose wo felt the heat 
more, having recently been travelling at high altitudesi between 700Q 
and 9000 feet; the descent to IGOO feet was somewhat trying. At night 
wt3 were disturbed from our slumbers by some armed men who came 
yelling into our camp. We turned out, weapons in hand, thinking that 
the Kamptis had changed their minds about us ; but discovered that our 
midnight visitors were messengers sent by Lukun, the chief raja of tho 
Kamptis, ami that he^invited us ** to repair to the metropolis." To pay 
Lukun a visit at Padao was just what we wanted. So we started off the 
following morning, taking two Gburkas with us. After being ferried 
over the Nani4ung our route hiy along a level valley covered with 
ghort grass and dotted here and there with clumps of trees ; the valley 19 
divided into three plateaus, Langnu being on the most southern, and 
Manchi on the most northern. In the old maps Langnu and Lang-dao 
were put down under the names of Mung Lung, and Padao (which is now 
the capital), was called Mung Kamptl (the meaning of which is simply 
the Kampti country). The extreme length of the valley is 25 miles^ 
and the average breadth about 12 miles ; and the height above sea-level 
varies from 1500 to 1800 feet. The number of inhabitants does not 


exceed 12,000, and they are divided amongst 13 villages, the most 
powerful of which are Padao and Manchi. The soil of the valley is very 
fertile, and very large crops of rice are grown, the rice being stored in 
excellent granaries. Blood feuds between members of different com- 
munities are not unfrequent, and the Kamptis seem to have a lively 
^read of the surrounding Singphos ; otherwise the Kamptis lead a quiet, 
peaceful life, and are certainly the most intelligent and best behaved 
people on 'the north-east frontier. The Eunnungs, who inhabit the 
lower ranges in the vicinity of the valley, are nominally the vassals of 
the Kamptis, to whom they pay tribute. 

After a nine mile walk, we found a large crowd of armed Kamptis 
awaiting our arrival, and the nephew of the raja who had brought a 
couple of ponies for our use. The carved wooden saddles were most 
uncomfortable, and stirrups very tiring (probably made to fit the naked 
big toe of a Kampti) ; however, as our friends evidently intended to do us 
honour, we mounted, and in noisy procession went to Fadao. Muskets 
were discharged, gongs beaten, and banners and gilt umbrellas were 
waved overhead by an enthusiastic escort. En route we passed some 
small Buddhist temples with gilt domes, under which were enshrined 
the usual images of Gautama. Arrived near the capital we were met 
by the raja's two sons, who informed us that their father was at his 
country residence on the Irawadi, that he had given orders for us to be 
well received and that he would visit us. We tried to get a little rest, 
but closely surrounded as we were by a dense crowd of about 2000 
people of both sexes and all ages, rest was impossible. I was veiy 
unwell, the sun having affected me the previous day, so crept into 
our little tent to lie \iown, whilst Woodthorpe, with his usual good 
nature, tried to draw the crowd off mo by getting out our stock in trade 
of toys, &c. 

Amongst our toys, we found that a dancing doll with golden hair, 
who (when she was wound up) fired off a pistol, was the prime 
favourite, the Kampti ladies being very curious in examining the 
various items of the doll's dress ; a growling bear, and a jumping frog 
were also in great request. 

We paid several visits to the town of Fadao, which was surrounded 
by a strong stockade. The raja's dwelling was inside an inner 
stockade, and at the time of our visit, a new palace (save the mark I) 
was being erected for the potentate. 

On the day following our arrival the raja was brought in with great 
pomp from his residence on the Nam-kiu river. He was a fine-looking 
shrewd old fellow, with a certain amount of natural dignity, and seemed 
to have considerable authority over his people. Before our departure 
Woodthorpe made a capital sketch of the chief and coloured it ; the raja 
asked that it might be presented to our Queen concerning whom we had 
told him, dilating on the immense power she possessed, and trying to 

Ko. I.— Jan. 1887.] d 


give Mm an idea of the vast extent of country sbe ruled over in all parts 
of tlie world. 

The open air darbar whicli was held in our honour was a pretty and 
curious, if not a very iropoBing, spectacle. The chief raja sat cross- 
legged on a curious canred wooden couch » which was flanked by gilt 
representatious of dragons and covered with a crimson cloth. All the 
people were decked out in their bruvest apparel. Nnmerona large 
Burmese gilt umbrellas were held aloft over the inner circle, w^hich 
consisted of Woodthorpe, myself, our two little Gurkha soldiers, and the 
raja's party* We were surrounded by over a hundred Karri ptis, armed 
with flint-lock muskets, behind whom stood dense rows of apearmen. 
The master of the ceremonies, who was gorgeous in a Chinese dress, 
resplendent with dragons' heads and flowers, amused us very much. 
Armi'd with a long stick, he went round during the time the darbar 
lasted, tapping with no light hand the heads of the frtait rows of spec- 
tators, making them sit down so that those behind could see. The 
"long stick in waiting** did not seem to discriminate between the 
bondmen and the free in the force of the blows he administered, but I 
must do him the justice to say that he ** lightened his hand " consider- 
ably w^hen tapping the neat, prettily decorated head-dreeses of the 
Kanipti ladies who were naixed up with the warriors. Presents were 
exchanged, and questions asked on both sides. We asked again about 
the rivera to the east, but the K am ptis only gave ua the earn© informa- 
tion they did near Langdao. The raja said if we could stop he would 
send UH with guides to the silver mines, which lie said were eight days* 
journey to the north-eaRt, Unfortunately we could not stay, as we knew 
it would be very diflicult to get back to Assam oc it was. 

Our intention was to start at once and can-y out our original intention 
of striking south from Kiiniki, and crossing the Patkoi range into the 
Khyendwen valley, and re-crosbing the Patkoi range into Assam, near 
the NoDgyong Lake. This programme we carried out, but with great 
diffieidty, owing to the lateness of the season and the consequent 
increase in the size of the rivers* Had we remained any longer in the 
Kampti country we should have had to remain there for another eight 
munths. The Kampti chiefs treated us most kindly, and said they 
would always he glad to see us again. We returned to Langnu, and on 
the 26th March commenced our return journey. Before our departure 
the Buddhist priest, with two of his acolytes, came to wish ua God- 
speed, bringing with them rice and flowera, which they scattered before 
us, and chanted prayers to the efl'ect that wv mi^ht have a safe and 
speedy journey back, that Singpho robbers might not molest us on our 
path, and that our sick coolies might recover, W^e wore both much 
pleused with this attention on the part of the Buddhist priesta. The 
Eaja of Langnu insisted on sending his brother and half-a-dozen 
mufiketeere to accompany us for the fii'st three inarches to protect ue 


against the Singphos, who, the Kamptis asserted, were always on the 
watch to waylay travellers. With the exception of having our camp 
invaded by a herd of wild elephants one night, and the usual difficulties 
of crossing flooded rivers, &c. — difficulties which Woodthorpe's engineer- 
ing skill and the good work of our Gurkhas soon disposed of — we 
arrived, on the ninth day after leaving the Kampti country, at Kiimki 
again. We were most fortunate, just in time in crossing the Diyung 
liver, as an hour after we had crossed, the river, which was seventy 
yards wide, became unfordable, and, I believe, remained so for three 
weeks. On arrival at Kumki we found, as had been previously arranged, 
that the bulk of the Survey camp had gone down the banks of the 
Diyung to Indong, a small guard with some supplies being left for us. 
The Diyung being in a very flooded state, the party, under the able 
leadership of Mr. Ogle, had (we afterwards learnt) a very rough time of 
it, and all the three Englishmen of the party, Messrs. Ogle, La Touohe, 
and Grant, had vied with each other in helping the sick coolies over the 
dangerous places on the route. 

I must relate one incident, showing what real good men Gurkhas 
are. A non-oommissioned officer of the 44th Eegiment (Gurkha Light 
Infantry) who had been sent with three soldiers in charge of some rice 
for us, to await our return on the Assam side of the Chanka Pass, the 
man thinking something must have happened (we were a few days 
overdue), took his little party over the snowy pass, and was on his way 
into the Kampti country to aid us when we met him. 

On the 6th of April, Woodthorpe and I left Kiimki and crossed the 
Patkoi range at an altitude of 5500 feet. For a week we marched down 
and along the banks of the Turong river (the head water of the 
Khyendwen) ; the route was a very bad one, principally owing to the 
flooded state of the river, which compelled us either to wade waist 
deep in the torrent, or else to clamber over the huge slippery boulders 
and cut footholds along the face of steep cliffs. Each day the rain 
descended in greater torrents and the leeches became if possible more 
ravenous. We noticed that there were hardly any birds in this region, 
and the only living things we saw were a couple of tigers, several deer, 
and some enormous pythons ; there were a great quantity of indiarubber 
trees, some of which bore signs of having been recently tapped by 
Nagas. At the end of the seven days we came to a small collection of 
Singpho hamlets, the inhabitants of which seemed very much astonished 
at seeing us. 

We hurried on, as we were short of food, and could surmise what a 
flooded state the country in front of us was in. On the third day after 
leaving the Singpho villages, which are situated on the right bank of 
the Turong river, just above the mouth of the Loglai river (which we 
had to bridge), we crossed the Nongyong river, partly by swimming 
and partly by wading, and passing by a piece of water three-quarters of 

D 2 



a mile long and half a mile broad, called Nougyong Lake (wMch has been 
fully described and accurately sketched by a Mr. 8. Peal, who Tisited it 
some years ago), we crossed the Patkoi range at 28G0 feet above sea- 
lerel, and once more were in Assam. 

For the next three days we waded down rivers when we could, and 
cut our way through the dense cano jungle when we could not, till we 
were brought up with a round turn by a deep rapid river about 60 yards 
wide ; sle we had no food left, and no immediate prospect of crossing the 
river, a Gurkha swam across to bring ua assistance from our party, who 
were at Indong, a day*8 journey off. After the departure of our 
roeBBonger we set to work to make rafts of plantain trees and bamboofi, 
and the next day we crossed our party without losing a man. Wood- 
thorpe (who worked one of the rafts backwards and forwards himself) 
was as usual most indefatigable ; even our phlegmatic old interpreter 
bestirred himself (seeing that starvation was imminent), and took 
the whole morning to make a raft for himself, which he capsized as 
soon as it was launched ! The following day we were glad to meet our 
Gwrkha messenger, who was accompanied by Dr. Gmnt with supplies 
of food» and on arrival at the Bihing river, which was now about half a 
mile wide, we found the other members of our party ready to help ua to 
cross with, canoes lashed together. The river roiio so rapidly that night, 
that we were not able to cross for three days* After crossing the river 
Dihing we retraced our steps to Sadiya, and arrived there the end of 
April, after having been travelling for four months and a half. 

The distance from Sadija to Padao, tho capital of the Kampti Shane, 
is 197 miles, and now that the route is known and surveyed, the journey 
could be performed in three weeks. Owing to the sparcity of inha- 
bitants on this route and tho physical difficulties of the country, I should 
not think that it would ever do as a possible trade route to China; 
however interesting it might be to revisit the Kampti s with a view of 
acquiring more geographical knowledge of the country to tho noilh 
and east. 

The distance from Sadiya over the Patkoi range and via Nongyong to 
the mouth of the Loglai river (i. e. where it joins the Turong) is 103 
miles, and the journey could be performed in ten days ; from the Loglai 
river to Mainla via Bisa is about 150 miles. In the dry season the 
journey from Sadiya to Mainla could be performed in three weeks. On 
this route there are very few inhabitants, but the country is said to be 
easier to travel over than the route to the Kampti country. The distance 
from Mainla to Bhamo is about 130 miles, and the joui-ney can be made 
in native boats dow^n the Irawadi. Mainla is a Shan town, situated on 
the left bank of tho Pliungmai river (the eastern branch of the Irawadi) 
at its Junction with tho Nam-kiu (the western branch). 

In conclusion, I must express my regret that my old friend Colonel 
Wood thorpe, who has only just returned to India with the Gilgit Mission, 


was not able to write and read yon a paper on the jonmey we took 
together ; be woidd have been able to give yon a much more interesting 
account of the country and people we saw. I cannot do better than 
finish by quoting and heartily endorsing the words of Col. Godwin- 
Austen, in the paper read before the British Association at Aberdeen 
last year :— " CoL Woodthorpe possesses all the qualifications that make 
the successful explorer. Great powers of endurance and observation, zeal 
for his work, brave but cautious, a talented draughtsman, and last, but 
not least, the tact to make himself liked by the people of the country " ; 
and I may add, by all those who have had the pleasure of travelling 
with him. 

After the reading of tbe above, 

Colonel YuLB said he was delighted to hear the testimony which Major 
Kacgregor in his interesting paper had home with regard to his fellow-traveller, 
Cokmel Woodthorpe ; an officer with whose remarkahle enterprises the speaker had 
been much impressed for the last seven or eight years. Colonel Woodthorpe had 
made several remarkable journeys to the north-east of India, but his explorations 
had not been confined to that region. He had just returned from a journey in the 
extreme north-west, beyond the British frontier, thn>ugh passes which had never 
before been trodden by any European. Of all geographical problems in Asia which 
had been dealt with by the Society for many years past, no two had interested him 
(Colonel Yule) more than those relating to the sources of the Irawadi and the 
sooroes of the Oxus. Colonel Woodthorpe had been an explorer in both those 
r^ona. The result of his last exploration in the Oxus region had not yet been 
published, and he believed there were political difficulties in the way of their 
publication. He was glad also to hear how Major Macgregor had spoken of one whose 
name perhaps was not very familiar to this generation, but who deserved the highest 
honour — Lieutenant Wilcox. Sixty years ago there was no more promising explorer 
or British traveller in existence, but his career was short, and he had been almost 
forgotten by those who were not specially called upon to study the results of his travelr>. 
But every man who had occasion to examine the many problems connected with the 
sources of the Irawadi must be familiar with the name of Wilcox. Some years ago, 
when the everlasting question of the source of the Irawadi was discussed at a 
meeting of the Society, a gentleman who took the heterodox view spoke disparagingly 
of Wilcox, because apparently Wilcox*s facts were contrary to his theories. On that 
occasion he (Colonel Yulu) was called on to speak, and he said a few words on the 
subject which he might appropriately quote now. " Wilcox was not a man who 
ought to be treated as this gentleman had treated him. He was one of the most intel- 
ligent and competent of writers on geographical subjects, as well as a great traveller. 
No one could read his papers in the ' Asiatic Researches' without being struck by 
Ilia acuteness and accomplishments.*' He was therefore glad to hear bow thoroughly 
lieut. Wilcox had been appreciated by the most recent travellers in that region. 
There was another point more personal to himself which he should like to call 
attention to. Major Macgregor had spoken of the excessive moisture of the region 
through which he travelled, and the enormous discharge of water which that must 
send down not only towards the valley of Assam, but also towards the Irawadi. On 
the occasion to which he had alluded, dealing with some of the assumptions that had 
been put forward, he (Colonel Yule) said, •* It was vain to assume quantities of rain 
in a country about which there were no data. It was very possible that the rainfall 
near the sources of the Irawadi was very excessive, the position being like the end 


of a great fuunel Colouel Pit jevalsky had ascertained a fact which was entirely 
new to geographers and pliysical philosophers. Where the Hoang-ho left the 
mountains forming the north-ivoat boundary of China, he canae suddenly from 
the dry steppes of the north upon a moiiutaki country of the most extra- 
ordinary moisture; and further south Abb6 Davjtl, who went up the Yang- 
tsze-kiang into the eastera part of Szechuen, came upon a continnation of the 
same country. He stated that if a man fired a ^n ho brought down a heavy 
shower of rata ! The supposition of excessive rainfall north of Kampti was very 
probable, from what was knoun of the Kasia Hills, where the rain was moat 
excessive^ He thought it very possible that the key (o the extraordiuary discharge 
of the Irawadi might he that there was an extraordinary rainfall among the hillB, 
But the question might be considered from another point of view. The Mogouug 
river-mouth was the highest point on the Irawadi that had been reached by any 
European travellers fram Burma, Colonel Han nay, Dr, Bayfield, and others were 
all obliged to leave the Irawadi there, and to go towards the Assam hills. They 
were all struck by its magnitude at that point, as was also Dr. Griffith, who was 
perha]\^ the best observer among them. But many years ago he (Colonel Yule) 
calculated the basin of the Irawadi above that point, and he found it to be about the 
same as that of the Khine at Cologne. And it was easy to imagine what a 
tremendous flood the Rhine would he if it were fed by only one-half the rmnfall 
of the Kasia Hills ! '* That was a long shot, and he was rather pleased to leani from 
Major Macgregor that it htt the mark. 

General J. T. Walker, b.e., said it was a great gratification to him to hear such 
an interesting account of the expedition, and to find that Major Macgregor had written 
80 kindly and enthusiastically of his old friend, Colonel Woodthorpe, who was one of 
the ablest and best ofikers in a Department which contained many able and excellent 
men. It would have been a great pleasure to Colonel Woodthorpe to have read a 
ITaper on the subject himself to the Society j but he happened to be one of those 
willing horses whom Governments were very glad to have an opportunity of riding, 
and no sooner had he returned from his exi>edition to the Upper Irawadi than he received 
a telegram asking him if he would he willing to accompany Colonel Lockiiart'a 
expedition from Gilgit to the Hindu Kush range and Afghanistan. The authorities 
knew all he ha<:l gone through, and they had some qualms of conscience as to whether 
it was quite fair to him to send him off immediately on another arduous expedi- 
tion ; so they telegraphed to inquire whether he felt up to going. Of course, he 
replied that he was quite ready to go, and he joined the expedition very speedily; 
but I have been told that on his arrival Colonel Lockhart, seeing how worn and wan 
he was, said he was afraid a mistake had been made in asking liim to come. How- 
ever, it turned out that so far from being a mistake, it was a good thing for Colonel 
Woodthorpe. The bracing climate of Afghanistan ami the Hindu Kush did him a 
great deal of good, and was as good for him as a visit to his native country. He 
had done admirable work on that frontier. Twice he had cros.sal the Hindu Kush, 
and although ptolitical reasons prevented the immediate publication of his work, it 
was to be hoped that it would be published eventually. No sooner had he returned 
to Simla than he volunteered to go to Assam and explore the proposed line of railroad 
down to Bamo in Upper Burma. Ilie Government decided on postpouing that under- 
taking for the present, but they gladly availed themselves of his services, and sent 
him to Burma^ where he now is. 

The line of country throu;ih which Colonel Woodthorpe and Major Macgregor 
passed was ncit an easy one in which to carry on a continuous survey, but the jjositioa 
of the Irawadi and its distance from Sadiya were fixed by Wilcox sixty years ago 
within two miles of the position recently determined by Woodthorpe, A year and 



a half ago Mr. Gordon read an elaborate paper to the Society in which he endeavoured 
to prove that the Sanpo river of Tibet came down into the Irawadi, and was in fact 
the upper source of that river. He carried it over a course which was almost pre- 
cisely identical with a range of mountains indicated on the wall-map illustrating 
Major Ma<^egor's paper, and then down into the Irawadi, crossing the course of the 
Lohit Brahmaputra, as given by Wilcox from native information. Mr. Gordon said 
he was quite ready to accept everything that Wilcox had done personally, but not 
what he got from native information. Only a very few weeks elapsed before 
Mr. Gordon's conjectures were conclusively negatived. Lieut. Needham travelled 
from Assam up to Rima, and showed that the eastern branch of the Brahmaputra 
flowed continuously from Rima into Upper Assam. It was therefore perfectly im- 
possible that any river could cross this region and pass into the Irawadi. A second 
corroboration was obtained by the work of Colonel Woodthorpe and Major Macgregor, 
who had reached Mr. Gordon's Irawadi, and found it only 60 yards broad, and hot 
more than five feet deep, rising in hill ranges immediately to the north, and not a con- 
tinuation of the Sanpo, which rose 1500 miles away in Western Tibet. These were 
very valuable geographical facts, and he was glad to find that his old friend Colonel 
Woodthorpe had been able to throw some light on the question of the sources of the 

Dr. G. Watt said that Manipur, through which he had travelled, was a small 
valley surrounded by a series of mountain ranges, and to reach it from Cachar nine 
nmges had to be passed over, crossiog in most cases the same river, which flowed 
backwards and forwards in a most cirouitous way. In the valley of Manipur the 
rainfall was only about 39 inches, or the average of Great Britain, but 17 miles off 
on the mountains which formed the north-east ranges, the rainfall was as much as 
120 inches, and towards the Naga country to the north it became greater and 
greater in certain limit tracts. In the Rhasia Hills 600 inches might fall in one 
place, and 20 miles off only 50 inches. Such transitions were very frequent. The 
word Naga was applied to many of the races along the north-eastern frontier of 
Assam. From some of the things exhibited to the meeting he fancied that Major 
Macgregor and his party had got into one or two of the extreme ends of the Naga 
country proper, probably a branch of the Angami Nagas. The kilt on the table was an 
Angami one — the symbol of a triple murderer. When a man took the head of one 
enemy he was allowed to wear one row of shells on his kilt; when he killed a second 
he might wear two rows, and when he killed a third he might wear three rows, but 
after that no more rows of shells were added to the kilt Another specimen on the 
table was the ** Y .C." of the Angami Nagas, which was worn by their heroes. It differs 
very little in style from that met with in the south-west, the head-quarters of the 
Angamis. The country of the Angami Nagas was a little to the south-west of the 
Singpho country. One of their peculiarities was the social system which prevailed 
in their villages. A village was divided by one or two walls into different sections, 
or khilSf and each section was occupied by a distinct branch of the Angami Naga 
family, often speaking different dialects, never intermarrying, and knowing nothing 
of eadi other, but occasionally fighting with one another, and still they were only 
diidded by walls. A common house was erected at the meeting points of the wall, 
and there the young men of the village watched night and day what the members of 
the other kheU were doing. 

One point with regard to the rainfall was worthy a passing remark. Nothing 
in Manipur struck him as a botanist more than the remarkable transition of vegeta- 
tion in that Fmall region. Major Macgregor had alluded to the oak and the 
rhododendron, but he (Dr. Watt) gathered twelve or more species of oaks, many of 
which were new to science, and ten or twelve species of rhododendron in Manipur 



alone* It would be extremeiy intoresting to know wliat porticular oaks tinJ:' 
j^hododendrons the recent expct^ition came across* One of the rhododendrons in tbe 
Kaga Hills was fonnd in the Himalayas by Sir Joseph Hooker, and it was named 
after a distinf^ished officer, Bhododendron FaloomrL This specJes was nowher& 
met with in the immense tract of country between the Naga Hilla aod Sikkira, There 
was alflo the Bhododtndrou DalhauBejt, an ephiphytic rhododendron which grew on 
a hill 30 miles north of Darjeeling, When he went up to the Naga Hills he found 
these species throughout tbe whole country, at an altitude of about fiOOO to 8000 feet, 
aod these rhododendrons never occur in Sikkim below 10,000 to 13,000 feet. There 
were many instances of plants falling in their altitude as the traveller passed to tho 
east and south-east from Sikkim, until at Moulmein a rhododendron was found 
growing near the sea, a circumstance which was not met with in any other part of 
Asia. Primrosea showed the same tendency to falling in their altitude in tho 
direction indicated. He was inclined to think that there was something in that 
region which* apart from pure geography, was of vital interest. Saramett, which 
was under 13,000 feet high, the natives said had snow all the year round, whereas 
on, the Himalaya the lowest point on which snow occurs is 17^000 feet He himself 
was on the shoulder of Sarameti in May, and it was then covered mth snow^ and in 
April, when he went to the top of Japvo, in corojiany with the Chief Commissioner 
of Assam, he enjoyed snowkilting with one or two companions at an altitude of 
9000 feet aixjve the sea. In Manipur the whole valley, 3000 feet high, was covered 
with hoar-frost in December. He thought this was a point of very great im- 
portance, and one which should be thoroughly inveEti?;ated ; what was the cause of 
this falling of altitude in the vegetation? Major Macgregor had tmvelled with 
CJolonel Woodthorpe and Mr. Ogle ; with the latter gentleman, he (Dr. Watt) had 
had the pleasure of sojoumin|[; for three or four months in the Naga country^ 
and the officers of the Burma Manipur Expedition, so ably conducted by Colonel J. 
Johnstone, hatl obtained a good deal of information, but much still remained to be 
done, not only in settling the head-streams of the Irawadi, but in exploring the 
many other points of interest in that region* 

Mr. J. Annak Bryce said his experience of those regions was at a lower levf 1 
than that described by Major Macgregor. But there were one or two points with 
regard to which he thought some information was desirable. He wished to ask 
Major Macgregor, if it ever became necessary for the Government of India to have a 
railway from Assam to Burma, at what point his experience would suggest that it 
should be constructed. Another question he desired to ask was whether he thought 
a trade would ever be develoj^ed between the upper regions of the Irawadi and the 
vidley of Assam ? Reference had lieen made to the Singi>ho» trading in indiarubber, 
and he would like to know if that and the other articles produced in the upper valley 
uf the Irawadi at present found their way down to the lower reaches of the river, or 
across the Patkoi range into Assam, Mr. Gordon in his theory with regard to tbe 
sources of the Irawadi entirely underestimated the actual facts. The river Linwin 
rose to an enormous height during tho rainy season, to 40 and 50 and 60 feet above 
the dry eeiison level, and yet Mr, Gordon in his discussion of the question assumed 
that the rainfall on the Lin win was tit7. 

Major Macgregor said it would be very difEcuU to construct a railway from 
Assam to Burma, but from Makum, where there was now a station, it was not 
impoesiblo to make a railway over the Patkoi Pass vil the Nongyong Lake to Maiula. 
It was not impracticable to do that, but at the same time ho considered it very 
difficult. He did not consider that the Kamti Shan country would be a good trade 
route to China, The only trade i-oute that could be established would be over the 
Patkoi range, which could be crossed at 3000 feet, and so on to Main la, from whence 


he believed a fortnight'* journey would take the traveller into Yunnan, where there 
might be some trade, but he was not sufficiently acquainted with that region to say 
whether there was much trade or not. Most of tiie country through which the 
railway would pass was very desolate. With reference to Mr. Bryce*s question 
about the destination of indiarubber and other articles produced in the upper valley 
of the Irawadi, Major Macgregor stated that at present all articles were taken iuto 
Assam where there was a settled government and a good market, and were shipped 
vi& the Brahmaputra and Dhubri line of railway to Calcutta. 

Mr. Holt Hallbtt said that Mr. Colquhoun and himself had proposed the con- 
nection between India and Burma, so as to join the Indian with the Burmese 
railways^ and did not propose the construction of a railway over the terrible hills, to 
the east of the Upper Irawadi, into China. Their route to China lay in a north-east 
direction, starting from Maulraain, a seaport at the mouth of the Salween river. 
The Burmese railways were now being -constructed to Mandalay, from thence they 
could be extended to Bhamo, and they certainly would be before long. From Bhamo 
they propose that the line shall be extended through the Tsenbo defile, which lies 
five miles to the north, and is 20 miles in length. This defile narrows the river 
Irawadi in one place to 50 yards, and could be easily crossed at some convenient 
point by the railway. From the north end of the defile the line would be continued 
up the basin of the Mogoung river into the Hookong valley. Officers who had 
passed over this route stated that between Mogoung and the Hookong valley they 
did not pass over mountains, but only among small spurs or hills. Proceeding from 
the Irawadi there would be no heights to cross between the Hookong valley and the 
Nongyong hike, which lay near the Patkoi Pass, as the Nongyong was a tribu- 
tary of the Turong, which is a branch of the Khyendwen river that passes through and 
drains the Hookong valley. The Patkoi Pass, according to the paper, was only 
2860 feet above the sea, considering that Bhamo was 430 feet above the sea, and 
that the Brahmaputra at Makum was at least the same height, the rise to the crest 
of the pass would not be 2500 feet. Such an obstacle was inconsiderable when it 
was remembered that Burma now formed about one-fourth of our Indian possessions, 
and that the railway was intended for the connection of our neighbouring Indian 
and Burmese provinces. He was glad to hear that the Government of India intended 
as soon as possible to carry out the survey, and that Mr. Colquhoun was about to be 
appointed Deputy-Commissioner of Mogoung. He knew that gentleman well enough 
to be certain that he would not rest satisfied until a feasible route, as they had every 
reason to believe theirs to be, was traced out through the small tract of country which 
at present separated and blocked our Burmese and Indian railway systems. 

The Cbaibhan (General K. Stbachey, b.e.) said that before proposing a vote of 
thanks to Major Macgregor for his extremely valuable and interesting paper, he 
wished to make a few remarks on some apparent peculiarities of the climate of the 
region. There appeared to be a very curious lowering of the general temperature 
there, which was shown by the fact that though the latitude was only about 27i° N., 
snow was found on the ground in April and May, at an altitude of 9000 or 
10,000 feet; whereas far up in the north-west, in latitude 30° N., no snow 
would be found at that time of the year at a similar altitude. He should con- 
sider that the peculiarities of the vegetation of Manipur compared with Assam, 
to which allusion had been made by Dr. Watt, were connected with this. It was 
to be noted that the valleys which Major Macgregor had visited were at a com- 
paratively low level, only 1500 or 1600 feet. Bhamo was only about 400 feet. 
Immediately to the north rose abruptly what was really a permanently snowy 
range. There could be no doubt that the warm currents of air coming up the 
valleys of the Irawadi and the Salween and meeting these snowy motmtains 




producsed an enormous precipitation of rain, whicli during the winter fell as snow. 
The ooasequenco seemed to be that there was snow there at a very much lower 
le^el than in the mountains further to the north. That an immenBc (quantity of 
rain fell on the np[>er portions of the valky of the Irawadi there could be no qnestion* 
The rainfall at Badiya \\&b upwards of 100 inches in the year, and for a sue cession 
of ,monthe from May till September it was nut leas than 15 or 16 inches on the 
average, and even in the dry months, which Colonel Woodthorpe and Major Mac- 
gregor selected as j^articularly practicable for their purix)ses, there were four or five 
inches per month. If it had been a rainy year they might have had double that 
quantity. Such a rainfall seemed iu itself quite suCScieut to acwunt for the large 
volume of water that was. drained ofl' by the lower portions of the Irawadi, and 
anybody who knew what the climate of Tibet^ was must be jierfectly aware that 
even with a course of several hundred miles in Tibet^ the river would pick up but a 
small quantity of water, which would have but little eflfect iu swelling the stream 
in the lower parts of Burma, in comparison with the enormous volumes wbich were 
collected from the rain which fell in Upper Burma. He had roughly calculated that 
a monthly fall of rain of 18 inches over a square, degree would mean 05,000 cubic 
feet per second for the whole month. That would give some idea of the enormous 
quantity of w^ater supplied by the rainfall^ though of course the whole of it was 
not carried off by the rivers, a considerable part of It being absorbeti Major 
MftCgregor mentioned that at an elevation of 8000 feet the snow weighed down 
the bamboos. That was a very peculiar feature of the climate. With regard to 
communication between India and Burma, he confessed that the very last way in 
which he should ever dream of attempting to connect India with Burma, would 
be through Assam over the mountains at the head-waters of the Irawadi. He 
would not say it was impossible^ but he should be very sorry to be a shareholder 
in any company that put its money into such a concern. In couclosioa he returned 
the thanks of the meeting to Major Macgregor for hie papen 

Journejj of Mr. J, T. Last from Blanbjre to tJie NamuU Milk, 

W© have received tlic following letter from our traveller, Mr, J. T. 

Foot of Moujit Chalt, near Namuli Peaks, 
Aii*just ^ith, 188G. 

I LEFT Blantyre on the I2th of July, and reached this place near Namuli on the 
3rd of August. I have camiKHl at the foot of Mount Cbali, which is a little to the 
south of Namnli, instead of at Namuli, because my coast men would not bo able to 
bear the continuous cold at the high elevation. 

On leaving Blantyre our path lay past the Scotch Mission station, then by a 
road to the east we went on to the foot of Ndilandi Hill. Here we camped for the 
night, and tbe next morning we crossed over a pass on the east side of Ndilandi and 
went along the plain to Mount Kiladzulu. The country traversed is undukting, 
with large marshes and bogs here and there. The rivers Lunzu, Ikimgnni, 
Mnombezi, and Nangoma w^ere crossed during the day. Tljey are all small now, 
but during the wet season they have a consitlerable flow of water. I was delayed 
four days at Mount Kiladxulu, owing to difficulties with the local native porters. 
On starting again we crossed the wide jilain which lies between Kiladzulu on the 
west and the Milaoji range of mountains on the east. We reached the hill 
Machemha, at the north end of the Milanji rangej on the morning of the third day. 


The c um i if> tnTcraed is geDerally fiat» with here azni there patches of &irly good 
kad, bat gpoeaJHj the groond is poor sod barren. lo pUoes there are laige bog8» 
which nu^e this plain almost impassable in the wet season. The chief rivefs 
crossed were the IfnamsTi and the Falombe. The fonner rises in the Bwanji hUls, 
west of Moont Kiladznln ; on its way it reoetyes the Mwenji, which rises on Kilad- 
zolo. The Mnamari then goes on to join the Palombe. This latter is a consider- 
able riTcr, some 40 yards wkle, with banks 20 feet high. In the wet season the 
liTer is filled. This is shown by the dried grass, sticks, and ddbris on the trees on 
its banks. The Pslombe rises on the north-west side of Milanji and flows on into 
the sooth end of Lake Shirwa or Kilwa, as it is sometimes called. 

I fbond the chief on Machemba Hill to be an old acquaintance. He made me 
Tery welcome at his village, and brought me a present of fowls and flour. There is 
plenty of food here, among other things dried fish from the lake. The next 
morning we started for Mansi hill. The chief Kaduia, or Machemba, went with me 
some distance on the road to show the way. I had given him a return present for 
what he had given me ca my arrival at his village. My general practice is to give 
a present somewhat larger or of more value than that I receive. When a present is 
not made by the chief I give the ordinary present of two yards of calico. In the 
case of great chiefs, or troublesome ones, presents have to be given according to 

Onr journey from Machemba to Manzi was by the east end of Machemba, along 
the north side of Mount Cheza, then in a northerly direction to Mount Manzi. All 
the country at the north of Cheza is very fertile, but it was depopulated a few years 
ago by Chikuri, the King of the Mangoni, who in his turn was driven back by the 
Alob Maknas, into whose cotmtry we were just entering. Further on we came to 
a large deserted village surrounded by well-cropped gardens. The chief of the place 
had lately died, and, according to custom, the people had gone to build a new village 
elsewhere. At the south side of Manzi there is a very large marsh, some three miles 
across, and extending all along its soutfi and east sides. Now the marsh has a hard, 
cn^ed crust, but during the rains it is quite impassable. 

From Manzi we went on to Lake Limbi. This is a long, narrow pool, forming 
the head-waters of the Sombani river. It is some 200 yards wide by three miles 
long. There are a number of hippopotami in the lake, and fish in abundance, but 
no crocodiles. The old chief Mpaodakani having refused to give me a guide, we 
had to return to the main road, which leads to Kango Hill, and after following this 
for some distance wo found a path which led to a ford over the Sombani near its 
egress from the lake. This we crossed, and then struck across the forest to the 
district under the chief Mlumbi. In the evening we reached a partly dried up 
stream, and there camped for the night. The whole of the country passed over was 
very poor, with coarse grass and stunted trees, and no water. We moved on the 
next morning, and reached early the fertile, well-cultivated district under the chief 
MlxmibL He received us very kindly, and at once gave us a place to camp in. 
Food of all kinds was abtmdant and cheap. The following morning, when we were 
ready to start, many men came forward and wanted to carry loads for a piece of 
calico. There is here a great scarcity of cloth, for no European has passed this way 
before, and trading caravans seldom visit the district. The common dress is a piece 
of the bark of the miyombo tree, hammered out to form a kind of cloth. With 
many the dress is very scanty indeed. 

In a part of Africa like this, which has never been traversed before by any 
European, local guides are absolutely necessary; anything new to the natives 
implies danger: he therefore is on the alert, and often the most simple thing may 
upset the native mind, and produce trouble and disaster. Often we passed through 



large villages without Beeing a male about the place. They were all out with their 
guns and spears, and had located them selves alongside the path in the forest, ready 
for any emergency. When, however, they saw we were accompanied by some naen 
from the last villaj^e and that they gave a good account of us, they became at once 
friendly and supplied us with what we wanted, and so we went on from place to place. 

We reached the village of the chief Miyan^a who had accompanied us from 
Mlumhi'st about noon. In the afternoon I wanted to ascend a little hill named 
Knz\, not far from whicli we had canii3ed, but the people living in a village at its 
foot refused me permission on the ground that I had camped at another village 
instead of theirs. As they were all more or less under the influence of drink, I did 
not attempt to reason with them, bat simply returned. Besides, I did not wish to 
have any dispnte with tlie natives, but to act in such a manner that there would 
he a clear road between Zomba and Nan ml i for my men to pass by. The head man 
of almost every village is independent, even when he is living in the territories of 
another chief. Should the chief of a district wish the head man to remove his villuge 
against his will, there would probably be an appeal to arms first. The chiefs are 
continually fighting with each other, hut should an outside enemy appear they 
all combine to oppose him. ,This was the case when the Mangoni King, Chlkuri^ 
attacked the Alolo and Loraur, and haii to retreats 

Prom Miyanga*a we went on to Mmakawa's and thence the next day to Ana 
Mwinye'a. The country is of an undulating character^ varying in quality of soil. 
There are a few small streams of little importance, which flow into the Lumanana. 

We reached the village of Mahuti towards evening. Here we were received 
amicably and food was supplied in abundance. The people here dress in a most 
primitive style, esi^cially the women* On chief Mtihuti being asked the reason 
for this, he said that their custom was that women should not wear more than they 
did until they had borno children. The next imoruing we went on to Mkwai's 
village and rested for a short tin\e. Mkwai undertook to go with me to Xamusula's 
town. At Mkwai*a I saw a woman with an enormous ** ndomya ** or lip- ring, it was 
quite 3i iochea in diameter. This is the common ornament of the women in all 
these districts. In addition to tins, some of them wear a brass or iron nail from 4 to 
7 inches in length. It is passed through a hole in the lower li]> and left hanging in 
froat of the chin. When the lady cannot afford a metal ornament of this kind she 
utilizes a piece of stick which she covers with beads. 

Namusula being the most powerful chief in these districts, I had to give him a 
considerable present. He seemed pleased with w hat 1 gave him, and said he would 
take care to see that my men were well treated whenever they might pass through 
his district, 1 stayed with him till the next day. 

On Monday, August 2ud, we Icit Kamusula's and went on to Ana Koroa's, who 
the next morning conducted us over the Lukirgu river into Ana Guruwe's district- 
Here we were received by Ana Guruwe's son-in-law, who led us on to the chiefs 
priociiml village. After we had rested in the villaj;e square for a short time, Ana 
Ciuruwe came out, followed by some of his men, and after some introductory cere* 
monies placed three houses atour disposal and said we could alter or arraogo them as 
we plea8<xl. He brought me four fowls and some rice. The next morning I made 
him up a good present, which has pleased him very much. Shortly afterwards he 
brought me a goat* Several small presents were brought in from minor chiefs, 
which for the sake of establiiiljing a friendly feeling amongst all the people were 
receivetl and acknowledged by a rather larger present in return. As the chief and 
people are so friendly diaj)OBed, and the Irreality suitable, I feel I cannot do better than 
make this my head-quarters, and from this place visit all the aurrounding country. 

( « ) 

The late Dr. G. A. Fischer's Expedition for the Belief of Dr. Junker. 

A PRELDCiNABT report from the pen of the late Dr. Fischer on this im- 
portant bnt unfortunate expedition, the progress of which we have 
noted &om time to time, is published in the current number of Feter- 
mann's ' Mitteilungen.' It will be remembered that the expedition 
was fitted out at the expense of Dr. Junker's brother, the banker of 
St. Petersburg. Dr. Fischer's choice of routes was made in ignorance of 
the hostility of the new King of Uganda. In preference to the route 
through the Masai country and the district of Usoga, and also of the 
usual caravan route to Victoria Nyanza vi& Tabora, the traveller decided 
to proceed direct to Kagehi, on the southern shores of the lake, by the road 
which the Fangani caravans take to the district of Umbugwe. After 
some delay, a fEivourable start was made from Fangani, on the 3rd 
August, 1885, the party numbering over 200. The general direction 
taken was west-north-west over the hilly country to Nguru, to the flat 
tablelands of the South Masai territory, until the district of Irangi was 
reached. The want of a guide, and the scarcity of water along the 
road, compelled the traveller to alter his plan aud to turn to the south- 
west. Skirting the country of Usandawi, he travelled for a short dis- 
tance along Stanley's old route through Uwerewere. On the 14th 
October he reached Usure, having crossed the small river Muaru or 
Wembare (Stanley's Liwumba), which he ascertained does not, as repre- 
sented by Stanley, join the Simiu, but loses itself, in the dry season, in 
the plains of Wembare, and in the rainy season forms a lake. These 
plains, according to the traveller's barometrical observations, are at 
least 325 feet below the level of the Victoria Nyanza. Leaving Usure 
after a rest of seven days, and passing through Usukuma, and along 
the banks of the Simiu, he eventually reached Kagehi on the IGth 
November, with his stock of goods considerably impoverished, owing to 
the excessive and frequent tribute demanded by the chiefs of the many 
districts traversed. Here the rumours as to the impassability of Uganda, 
which had reached him for the first time in Irangi, were confirmed, 
both by the Arab traders and by two messengers sent by himself across 
the lake to the English missionaries in Uganda, and he had to abandon 
the route. To this fact must be attributed the failure of the expedition, 
as the traveller's stock, consisting chiefly of cotton goods, was selected for 
the natives of Uganda, while the people of the countries through which 
other routes lay buy nothing but copper wire and beads. The only 
route that seemed open to him was that round the east side of the 
lake, and then to Wadelai through the country to the north of Ussoga. 
Accordingly, on the 11th January, 1886, after a stay of eight weeks in 
Kagehi, unhealthy in the rainy season, the time having been occupied 
in collecting geological and botanical specimens, the traveller set out. 



Eoimding Spelc© Gulf, and crossing the Simiu and the Rubana, the 
l>arty entered the sparsely wooded country of Shashi, with its mouo- 
tains 5000 feet above the sea, and its dry, treeloss plains, the 
haunts of the zobra» gazelle, gnu, &c. Spades are much sought 
after hy the agricnltnre-loving people of Shaahi. The territory of 
^'iawasaii which was then traversed, is inhabited by a mixed popn* 
lation of Ktiavis and Eantus* The Bantu language is spoken, but 
the manners and customs are Kiiavi. A toilsome march through tall 
grass where there w^aa no path hrougbt the party to the uninhabited 
region of the Moii riixr, and thence into the important and densely 
populated country of Kawirondo^ the physical features and inhabitants 
of which are described by the traveller in detail. Crossing Njoro the 
party reached its chief towoi, Ulala (Thomson's Kwa Sundu), the head- 
quarters of the Mohammedan caravans. His slender stock of wire and 
beads being almost exhausted, Dr. Fischer states he would have parted 
willingly with weapons and ammunition in exchange for corn, hut the 
natives themselves were suffering from famine ; thus his last hope of 
proceeding further north was dashed to the ground. With only a 
meagre stock of dnrrJai^ the traveller on the 22nd March set his face 
eastwards to Lake Baringo, and following practically the route taken 
by Thomson on his outward journey to Victoria Nyanza, reached the 
south end of the lake in the first week of April. Being unable to obtain 
here any fresh stack of goods* he loft the lake on tho 13th April, and 
with sorrowful heart commenced the long march to the coast. Again 
lull owing Thorn Bon*8 route in a Bouth-south-wcsterly direction, and 
passing to the east of Lake Nakiiro» he arrived at the north end of Lake 
Kaivasha* lie then struck across the highlands of Kinangop with the 
view of reaching Mianzine, but being from lack of means without a 
ji^uide, he lost bis way, and after a weary march, contrived to reach a 
Kikuyu village on the west slope of the southern end of the Aberdare 
range, the whole party being in a most exhausted condition. HerCj 
fortunately, the traveller's cotton goods found a ready market, and he 
was able to replenish his stock of provisions. Under the direction of a 
guide the journey was resumed acroas the range at a height of over 
8900 feet, but the party was shortly afterwards deserted by this guide 
and left to spend two days in a bamboo thicket. Guided by some 
natives the party marched for some miles through the thickly populated 
and richly cultivated district of Kikuyu, in the direction of Mount 
Kenia, two glimpses of whose cloud-covered summit were obtained, 
l*hen turning Bouth-west, the traveller, after numerous adventures not 
ultogether of a peaceable kind with the inhabitants, left the^e wooded 
highlands, which he describeB as the most beautiful and luxuriant he had 
ever seen in East Africa. Proceeding through the district of Liu, ho 
marched along the east of the Ulu range, across the head-waters of the 
Ssabaki, and thence via Kissigau to Wanga on the coast, where he arrived 


on the 14th June last after an absence of eleven months. Dr. Fischer, 
although nnsnccessful in the immediate object of his expedition, has 
nevertheless added much valuable information to our knowledge of the 
geography of Eastern Equatorial Africa, more especially of the east 
coast of Lake Victoria Nyanza. 


' Dr. Junker reached Zanzibar on the 11th ult.,and is now on his way 
to Europe, where he is expected to arrive about the middle of January. 
He will bring detailed news regarding the position of Emin Pasha and 
the present state of the countries through which lies the best-known 
route between his province and the East Coast. In a telegram from 
Zanzibar to Mr. J. T. Wills, Dr. Junker gives us the very interesting 
information that on his late journey he penetrated westward (from the 
Monbuttu country) down the Welle-Makua river as far as 22^ E. 
long., finding it generally navigable. At 22° E. Dr. Junker was only 
about 150 miles distant from the point on the Mobanji tributary of the 
Congo, reached by Mr. Grenfell in the steamer Peace. The conclusion 
is therefore irresistible that these rivers are connected. With regard to 
Emin Pasha, it is announced that an English private expedition, under 
the command of Mr. Stanley, and supported by a grant of 10,000?. from 
the Egyptian Government, is about to be despatched. 

The Crater-lake of Chala, on Mount Kilimanjaro. — ^Mr. J. A. Wray, 
writing from Sagalla, on November 19th last, informs us that he has 
succeeded in reaching the edge of the water of the picturesque Lake 
Chala, of which Thomson gave so charming a description after passing its 
borders. Mr. Wray says it is about three miles long by one mile wide, 
and the banks so steep that a descent to the water is impossible except 
at one place on the western side. He found the water clear, cool, and 
perfectly sweet, though the lake has no apparent inlet or outlet. It 
contains fish, and numerous waterfowl were swimming on its surface, the 
flapping of whose wings, when they took to flight, produced a sound, 
through confused reverberation in the deep well-like basin, like the 
rushing of a distant railway train. The steep banks, about 1000 feet 
in height, are well wooded, and vegetation clothes their surface down 
to the water's edge. There is no mark of higher water, and it probably 
keeps the same level all the year round. The cries of birds had a 
peculiar sound, and Mr. Wray had no doubt that it is these noises 
which have given rise to the native myth, viz. that a Masai village 
formerly stood here, which was swallowed up by the lake ; the people of 
Taveta believing that they hear voices, the lowing of cattle, and so forth. 

Count Pfeil*8 Journeys in East Africa. — In connection with the 
German East African Association, Count Pfeil has recently made two 



important journeys in Africa, the first of whieli reanlted in tne 
acquisition for the Association of tho large territory of Khtitn ; the 
second was principally occupied with the exploration of the Ulanga 
riven An iatere^ting accotint of these operations has been oontributod 
hy the traveller himself to Petermann's * Mitttjiiungen * (1886, No, 12). 
Starting in May 1885 from the German station of Muinie in Usagara, 
he crossed the Mukondogwa valley and traversed the plain of Makata. 
Ho discovered a largo village, hitherto unmarked on our maps, called 
** IMhamba/' which is situated in Makata about two days* march from 
Myombo* During the two days of his stay there no less than nine native 
caravans arrived* Ue resumed his march southwards across the Rufutu 
range, then turniog directly east entered the district of Khutu, and 
again south he struck the Ruliji near the 36th parallel. On hie road to 
the Rtifiji he passed through Rubehobeho^ the scene of Keith Johnson's 
death. Continuing his journey down the river by boat, he arrived on 
the coast at Mburai, the last part of the route having been accomplished 
by land. — The second journey was commenced in October 188S. His 
starting-point was again the station of Moinie, With the view of 
exploring tho plateau of ITliebe the traveller crossed tho Rubeho range 
and the Ruaba river, and then marched through the dry treeless country 
situated between the latter and the mountains of IJhebe. His journey 
along the tableland extended as far as Kuirenga, then retracing his 
steps he again crossed the Rubeho chain more to the south, and turning 
abniptly southwards anivetl on the banks of the Ulanga at Nga-homa. 
This important river^ hitherto unknown, for Thomson on his journey to 
the Central African lakes mistook an arm of the river for its main 
stream, was ascended by tho traveller, in company with a friend and 
twelve men, for a distance of about 150 miles, as far as the little village 
of Muinga, in long. 35^ 5' E. and hit. 9*^ 5' S. The retuni journey was 
also accomplished by boat down the river to the Suguli Falls, below 
which the river is known as the Rufiji. Here tho party struck across 
the country in a due east direction and arrived on tho coast at Kilwa 
Kivinji in Felirnary 1886. The general direction of the Ulanga from 
Nga-homa is west for a long distance, and then sen th- west to its source, 
which lies among the mountains to the north-east of Lake Nyaesa. 
Above Nga^homa it flows through the Mtihenge territory, between th© 
Lijungo range on the right bank and the mountains of Uhebo on the 
left. Its banks are generally steep and well-defined, but in places 
where tho valley broadens the river overflows in marshes. Its breadth 
at Kga-homa is 330 yards, while at its narrowest point it measures 
nearly 90 yards. The depth in its lower course exceeils 20 feet at many 
points, and is never less than 10 feet; thus this important waterway is 
navigable for Kuiall steamers for a long distance. Tho volumo of water 
in the river is very large oven in tho dry season, considering the few 
and unimportant tribut^vries which it receives. In its broad stretohe^ the 



rUnga is studded with islands, the haunts of birds of gay and varied 
plumage. The natives live close to the banks, and aie described in 
detail bj the traveller, whose notes on the fauna and flora of the r^on 
possess ipecial interest. 

Hr. LsBX^s Expedition. — ^Further news has been received from Dr. 
Lenz, dated Eibonge. April 20th, Xyangwe, May 19th, and Kasonge, 
June 1st. In company with Herr Bohndorf, in canoes supplied by Tippo- 
Tip, Dr. Lenz ascended the Congo to Nyangwe, taking forty-eight days 
between Stanley Falls station and that to¥m, indoding detentions of 
several days at Kibonge and Riba-Riba. For the first few days a good 
many cataracts were met with, and four times they had to transport the 
canoes overland, over ground to a large extent marshy and covered with 
bushes. Two days above the last cataract, about lat. 1^ S., Kibonge 
(named after its chief) was reached, a very extensive settlement of Arabs 
and Zanzibaris, on the right bank of the river. It was founded only nine 
years ago by a Nyangwe trader, independent of Tippo-Tip. It consists 
of some hundreds of what we may call homesteads, spread over a great 
space, with a few thousand inhabitants. It lies very low and is most un- 
healthy, especially for Europeans. Dr. Lenz found great changes along 
the river since Mr. Stanley descended. The natives in many places have 
retreated from the banks, to make way for Arab trading settlements and 
enormous rice-fields, ^'owhere. Dr. Lenz states, has he seen in West 
Africa so many and so extensive rice-fields. In the neighbourhood of 
Kibonge provisions of all kinds are abundant. The whole life of the 
place reminds one more of East than of West Africa. The natives here 
live deep in the forest, are to a large extent cannibals, and make use of 
poisoned arrows. After leaving Kibonge, the banks in many places 
were found to be thickly wooded, with numerous signs of former native 
settlements, now deserted, owing to the inroads of the Arabs. After 
passing the mouth of the Kasaka, the banks showed evidences of native 
^ettlements, some of them hostile, and others on friendly terms with the 
Arabs. The Arab settlement of Riba-Biba was reached on May 2nd. 
This place is named after its chief, a Mahommedan negro from Nyangwe ; 
it is only four years old, and though not so large as Kibonge, does a great 
business in ivory. Riba-Biba was left on May 5th, and next day the 
mouth of the Elila was reached, a river on Stanley's map, on the right 
bank, without a name, in the neighbourhood of which Stanley puts a 
place named Urangi. The banks now became comparatively well 
peopled, and on the 9th they became very steep, and the current rapid. 
On the 10th a cataract (Tutumbe) was passed. Another cataract was 
passed on May 15th, the cataract region here bearing the name of 
Gulunga Wuesa. Nyangwe was reached on the 16th. After passing 
the last cataract the river expanded greatly, and both sides were bordered 
with numerous inhabited grass islands, the channels between which are 
bewildering. Nyangwe lies about 100 feet above the river. It is not 

No. L— Jan. 1887.] k 


a compact town, but a cluster of small settlements, outside wKich are 
groat rice- fields autl bauaoa pluuUtioDs. (^aravaus are continually 
coming ami going, so that the population varies almost daily* The 
town contains some very wel! built houses of sun-dried bricks. Pro- 
visions arc abundant tind living cheap, !Nyangwe» l>n Lenz states, ii 
by no means tbo important trading place which it is generally tlionght 
to be in Europe. Though still prosperous, it has lost much of its impor- 
tance since Kaaonge, a few days to the south-cast, has become so great. 
It is not at Nj'angwe, but at Ka?;ongo, that caravans for Lake Tangan- 
yika are fitted out. Kaaonge is Tippo-Tip's head-quartera, and he is 
all-powerful. Dr. Lena arrived at this place on May 20th, and was 
tho guest of Tippo-Tip. Kasonge ia surrounded by hills, with moun- 
tains in the distance eastwards. The houses in Kasonge are arranged 
in streets, many of them large and handsome, while the rice-fields are 
some distance from the town on the neighbouring hills* It is the great 
centre for the ivory and slave trades. Tippo-Tip has a great rival here 
in Said Moliamed Kasuenda, though the two aro on good terms. At tbe 
date of his letter (June let) Dr. Lenz did not Imow how long ho would 
remain at Kasonge* It is evident, from what he tells us, that the whole 
of the region traversed by hi eh is in the power of the Arab traders ; that 
it ii becoming thickly peopled by themselves and their dependents; 
and that the cultivation of rice is rapidly extending.^^It ma^' be well 
to recall the fact that Dr, Lenz went qui with tbo object of reaching 
Dr» Junker and Emin Pasha ; the former wo know is now safe at 
Zanzibar, and if Dr. Lenz continued his journey as he hoped to do, ho 
may by this time be within hail of Emin Pasha. The latest telegraphic 
news, however, is that Dr. Lenz has been compelled to abandon hia 
intention of reaching the Albert Nyanza, 

Prejevalsky's recent Journey in Central Asia. — We hear from M. 
Yenukoif that Colonel Prejevakky has returned to St. Petersburg from 
his country seat, where he has spent the summer reposing after the 
fatigue of his late journey, and that ho is preparing for publication the 
results of his great expedition, Manj of the principal scientific men of 
Eussia and other countiies arc engaged on tho examination and descrip- 
tion of the natural history collections made in the deserts of Mongolia 
and on the Tibetan plateau, and it is repmted that tho cost of bringing 
out the work will exceed 3200^, sterling. A chapter of the personal 
nanutivo will appear very soon in one of the liussian periodicals as a 
specimen of tho work. 

Progress of Russian Ixploratiou in Forthern Asia. — M. Yen ukoff also 
gives us the following details regarding ri-ceirt Hussian scientific work 
in Asia. MM, Potanin^ Skassy, and Be^e!^uf^ky have lately returned from 
their expedition in China and Mongolia, bringing immense collections 
in anthropology, zoology, and botany, besides maps of the countries 



which they have traversed during their three years* journey (1884-6). — 
M. Tchersky, an old political exile in Siberia, has just published at St. 
Petersburg his geological map of the borders of Lake Baikal, together 
with explanatory text in a separate pamphlet. It is an excellent work, 
which adds greatly to our knowledge of the physical geography of this 
great water basin, the best known of all the Asiatic lakes, thanks to his 
labours and those of his predecessors, Dybowsky and Godlefsky (also 
ci-devant Siberian exiles, but now professors in Poland), and the 
eminent naturalist Dr. Eadde, besides numerous Eussian surveyors. — 
M. Erasnof, the eminent botanist and physicist, on his return to St. 
Petersburg, after his journey in the Tian Shan and Chinese Tiirkistan, 
has entertained the Eussian Geographical Society by a brilliant lecture 
on the Balkash basin, in which the general principles of physical geo- 
graphy were applied in a searching and effective manner to the geogra- 
phical description of the region and of Central Asia generally. — The 
subject of the desiccation of the Siberian lakes continues to engage the 
attention of the Eussian Geographical Society. Basing his case on 
the facts adduced in M. Venukofifs memoir,* M. Yadrintzoff has urged 
on the Eussian Geographical Society the necessity for more thorough 
investigations, and a committee has been nominated for the purpose, 
consisting of MM. Stebnitsky, Tillo, MushketofT, and Schmidt. It is 
expected that an expedition will be despatched to study the subject on 
the spot. 

Merv. — A correspondent of the * Petersburger Zeitung' has forwarded 
interesting details on the present condition of Merv. A fortress has been 
built on the lofty right bank of the Murghab, whilst the modem town 
of Merv extends along the left bank. Both are connected by a bridge, 
somewhat slightly constructed of wood and iron. The climate is stated 
to be most unfavourable to Europeans, and nowhere in this region, 
except at Penjdeh, is the number of sick so numerous. New Merv num- 
bers between two and three thousand inhabitants, more than half of 
whom are officials and workmen employed upon the railway, the remain- 
der being traders of all nationalities, including Armenians, Persians, 
Bokharans, and many adventurers. A weekly market takes place outside 
the fortress, at which provisions, fruits, vegetables, game, cattle, felt, 
carpets, straw mats, wooden and leather ware, cotton stuffs, &c., are 
sold. Most of the things sold are '* cheap and nasty." Cafes chantauts, 
drinking-shops, and still less innocent places of resort abound. 

Bnssian Expedition to the ST ew Siberian Islands. — According to the 
latest news of the expedition under the leadership of Dr. Bunge and 
Baron von Toll, the travellers have failed in their attempt to cross the 
Glacial Ocean and reach the New Siberian Archipelago, in consequence 
of the reindeer being attacked by distemper, in the vicinity of Ust- 

♦ In the * Bevue de Gdograpliie,* July 1886. 

s 2 


Yansk and Nijni-Kolymsk. They intend, therefore, to remain for some* 
time in the district in order to dig up the complete skeleton of the 
mammoth which they have found there. 

Iceland. — Dr. Labonne reports to the Geographical Society of Paris 
(26th August, 1886) from Akreyri in northern Iceland, that he had 
just crossed the island from south to north through the central desert or 
Sprengisandr. The journey was accomplished on a pony, and without 
either tent or provisions. On the 14th July he made an ascent of Mount 
Hekla, and with very favourable weather, rarely experienced there, 
obtained an extensive view from the summit, embracing the Westmann 
Islands, 60 miles distant. Several small columns of steam issuing from 
small fissures in the rocks were the only indications of the activity of 
the volcano. Its height above the sea-level, a disputed point among 
explorers, he ascertained with the aid of a good barometer by Dutrou to 
bo 5096 feet. The thermometer at the base of the mountain registered 
57^ Fahr. (14*^ Cent.), and at its summit 18° Fahr. He saw the large 
geyser in full activity, the column of boiling water rising over 100 feet 
into the air. He was assured by his guide that for the last two years 
the geysers had been very active, although recent travellers have asserted 
that they were gradually becoming inactive. Dr. Labonne stayed three 
days in this district in order to find traces of the former vegetation of 
the country, which the "Sagas" or hymns of the ancient Icelanders 
describe as luxuriant, whereas at the present time the only tree found is 
the Sorhtis Aucuparia, At the suggestion of M. Bureau, professor of 
paleeontological vegetation at the Natural History Museum of Paiis, the 
traveller tried to find traces of this vegetation under the beds of silica 
round the basins of the geysers. He was fortunate in obtaining a large 
piece of rock, situated at a depth of about 16 feet, incrusted with leafy 
stems of the Betula alba, Salix caprsea, and Salix arctica. This valuable 
specimen will be submitted to competent authorities on his return. 
Meanwhile a superficial examination shows that the size of these stems 
and leaves is not larger than that of existing shrubs. It may be re- 
marked that the formation of a bed of silica 16 feet deep would require 
at least 1000 years, or about the time that the island has been known to 
Europeans. The valley of the geysers, now denuded of vegetation, was 
formerly covered with small shrubs, which owe their disappearance not 
to any change of temperature, but to the fact that the natives pluck 
them up in winter for firewood. The ti-aveller concludes by remarking 
on the exceptional cold experienced last August in Iceland, due to the 
icebergs remaining stationary on the north coast of the island. 

Mr. Seton-Earr'8 Account of Mt Saint Ellas.— Mr. 0. Mitchell Grant, 
Secretary of the Geographical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 
informs us that Mr. Seton-Karr states that Mount St. Elias is not less 
than three miles to the east of the 141st meridian, and over thirty 
miles from the coast, thus being in Canadian territory. With regard to 


the river named after Mr. Jones of the New York Ttmes, he says that he 
considered it was produced by the molting of the enormous glaciers in 
the neighbourhood. He estimates the area of Agassiz and Guyot glaciers 
(so named by the party) as not less than 1800 square miles, including 
their tributaries. The Tyndall glacier is the principal glacier, descend- 
ing directly from the south-west face of the mountain. He also con- 
eiders the Icy Bay or Jones river to be larger than, and not identical 
with the Riko BoLshe Vuala of Portoff. Lieut. Schwatka stated that it 
was too large to be produced merely by the melting ice. Mr. Karr, 
who ascended 400 feet higher than Woods, and over 1000 feet higher 
than Mr. Schwatka, saw no break in the chain, and nothing but fields of 
ice in every direction, from the highest point reached below the clouds. 
The party claim to have made the highest ascent ever recorded above 
the snow-line. 

The Kew French Census. — From the preliminary statistics of the 
census of France, which was taken on May 30th last, we find the popu- 
lation at that date to be 37,885,905. This shows an increase on the 
-census taken December 18th, 1881, of 213,857, in 5]^ years, or at the rate 
of only • 1 per cent per annum. This is a great falling-ofT in the rate of 
increase from that between the census of 1878 and 1881, when it was 
-415 per cent. As in the former period there has been a considerable 
decrease in the population of some of the departments. 

The Kew Oerman Census. — The results of the German census taken 
December 1st, 1885, show a much greater rate of increase. The popula- 
tion then was 46,844,926, as compared with 45,234,061 five years 
previously, showing an increase of 1,610,865, or at the rate of '71 per 
kxidL per annum. But even this is a falling off from the two previous 
periods ; between 1871 and 1875 the increase was at the rate of 1 ' 01 
per cent, per annum, and between 1875 and 1880 at the rate of 1 • 14 per 
cent, per annum. 


Third Meeting^ Deeeniber 13/A, 1886. — General A. Strachey, r.e., f.r.s., 
Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Pbesektation. — Edwin Bauson Freshfield, Esq, 

Electioss. — Henry Anderson Bryden^ Esq. ; Sir Duncan Campbell of Barcal- 
dine^ Bart ; Alfred James Day, Esq. ; William Keswick, Esq. ; Percy Mathews, 
Esq.; William Prince, Esq.; George Sadler, Esq.; James McDougall, Esq.; 
Ernest Henry William Tripe, Esq. ; Eev. Ernest E. Wood ; Henry Page Wood- 
ward, Esq. 

The paper read was : — 

'* Journey of the Expedition uoder Colonel Woodthorpe, B.B., from Upper Assam 
to the Irawadi and return over the Patkoi Range.' By Major C. B. Macgregor 
(BeDgal Staff Corps). Ante, p. 19. 

{ 54 ) 


Geographical Society of Paris* — ^November 5th, 1S86 ; M, A. Germatk m 
the chair, — This was the first meetin^c of the Society after tho recess. Among the 
announcpmenta made by the Secretary were the foUowitig : — The National Consxress 
of French Geogmphical Societies wotjld be held next year (1887) at Havre^ simul- 
taneously with the International Naval Exhibition; Lieut.-Col, Gallieni had just 
started to take the chief command on tho Upper Senegal and the Upper Niger ; M. 
E. Viard was on the eve of departure fram Saint Louis on a new journey into tho 
interior of Africa, — M. Alpbonse Pinart presented two short papers by himself on, 
the State of Panama, in which he gives some interesting ethnographical details on 
the Cunos Indians ; tbeao papers form part of a proposed series of fifteen.— M. T. 
Barbosa Rodri^es^ Director of the Botanical Museum at Maoaoa (Brazil), sent a 
copy of a work just published by him od the river Juapery and the Indian tribes 
inhabiting its bonks. The author was the first to explore this rivt>r. He further 
transmitted his own surveys of the Ca|Hiy, Yarauodfl, and Urubu rivers. — -It 
was stated that M. Leon Poirier had bequeathed to the Society the sum of 200,000 
francs (8000?.) the interest on which was, according to the conditions of tho 
legacy, to be invested every three years in an annuity (never to exceed GOL) to 
be awardeti to one or more travellers of French birlh whose works should be 
considiTed the most valuable to science*^ — An iuiportant communication was 
forwarded by iL Leon Dru, on the results of bis mission in regard to the proposed 
canal between the Volga and the Don. — M. Venukoff forwarded a summary of 
recent geographical work in the Bnssian Empire, He gives some of the results of 
M, Tcheniichev*s barometrical obtsorvations in the south of the I'ral Mountains 
(1882-5). The Ural Mountains are, from a hypsometrical point of view» the least 
known of any range in Europe, M, Tchernichev has determined the precise altitude 
of ten summits possessing an elevation of over 3280 feet (1000 metres). The 
Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg has just published General Tillo*a memoir on 
magnetism in Siberia, which is accompanied by a map, showing tliat the horizontal 
comjKtnent of the magnetic force of the earth diminishes towards the east across 
Northern Siberia under from 65°-80° latitude, but increases under the 50*'-52^ 
parallels* The return to Kussia of MM. Potanine, Skassy^ and Beresovsky was 
daily expected. They bad explored the north-west of China and a considerable part 
of southern Mongolia* M. Skasay has determined more thnn a hundred astronomical 
points and aeveral hundred altitudes. MM. Ignatiev and Krasnoff had complt^ted 
their studies on the Khttn*Tengri group in tho Tbian Shan, and had penetrated to 
the south as far as the town of Ush-Turfan. M. Krasnoff had proceeded into Russian 
Turki'Stau and the region of Merv in order to examine the flora of the country in its 
relation to the vegetation of Eastern Turkestan. M. Groum-Grjimanio, whoso 
object was to study the flora of Eastern Pamir, had met with extraordinary difficulties 
on his journey. He had visited the environs of Kashgar* but had not succeeded in 
penetrating into the mountains of Upper Pamir in consequence of the bad weather. — 
Several communications were read ujjon Tongking, one from Lieut. L, de Mazenad, 
giving an accoimt of a journey along tho Upi>er Mekong, which was found to be 
navigable as far as the Kong Falls, and one from M. de Montaignac, announcing a 
scheme for the organisation of the Muongs which had been proposed by M. Gouin, 
the French Kesident, and M, Moulin, Chancellor, and had been favourably received 
by the nativea. M. Gouin transmitted a short paper on the Muongs, which will be 
inserted in the Quarterly BulIetin.^ — Two short notes were read from M. E* Renou, 
Director of the Meteorological Observatory of the Pare du St. Manr, on the altitude 
of several points in Morocco, and on the different routes from Morocco to Timbuctu,— 


Dr. Bouire presented a resume of the paper just published by him in the Bulletin of 
the Geographical Society of Lyons, which deals with the hydrography and orography 
of Central Tunis and its agreement with the Ptolemaic account. He has been able to 
identify all the peaks mentioned by the latter, and to confirm his hydrography. — 
A communication was read from Dr. Ten Kate on his recent operations in Guiana. 
He started from Paramaribo on the 15th December, 1885, to visit the natives on the 
Upper Surinam, but was compelled to return on account of the exceptional dryness 
of the season and the consequent shallowness of the river. He then sailed down 
the coast to Albania, a small colony on the Lower Maroni, where he visited the 
Indians along both banks of the river. He proceeded next to Georgetown, intending 
to accompany M. im Thum on a journey up the Pomerun river, but the absence of 
the latter in Europe compelled him to alter his plans. He accordingly embarked on 
a steamer up the Orinoco and reached Angostura on the 7th of March. From this 
point he struck across the country to Cumana, where he arrived after a journey of 
eighteen days. He described briefly the natives and physical features of the districts 
through which he passed. The people, mostly Indians and balfbreeds, are very poor, 
in oonaequenoe of the numerous political revolutions and the drought of last summer, 
when swarms of grasshoppers invaded the country, devouring the harvests of maize, 
cassava and sugar-cane. Directly after leaving Angostura the traveller crossed the 
vast sandy Llanos and passed the three rivers, Morichal, Tigre, and Guanipa. llien 
the route led over a chalky and schistose sierra with almost impracticable paths. 
Among the mountains, which are very little wooded, he stayed a short time in the 
beautiful valley of the Gu&charo near Caripe, where he visited the celebrated grotto of 
which Humboldt gave the first description. On the 30th March ho reached Cumana, 
which has suffered greatly from earthquakes ; along the Gulf of Cariaco he visited 
the Guayquery Indians. An attack of marsh fever compelled him to seek a more 
temperate climate, and after a stay of some weeks in the United States he returned 
to Holland. — ^The Minister of Public Instruction communicated a letter dated 
27th June, 1886, from M. A. Thouar, according to which the traveller, after a 
laborious journey from Tarija, had reached the Bolivian frontier where he had been 
attacked by fever. Later news mentions his arrival at Sucre and his recovery from 
two further attacks of fever. He intended to return to Buenos Ayres through Chaco 
about the end of December. — From Chili, M. R. Serrano sent an account of the 
recent geographical and hydrographical works executed in the country, which 
include several new surveys along the coast, and a large part of Tierra del Fuego. 
—Captain Soaville addressed a letter on the Pitcaim and ^Norfolk Islands, upon 
which a discussion arose, M. Depping, M. de Quatrefages, and Dr. Hamy taking part. — 
In conclusion, M. Bouquet de la Grye, of the Institut, read at the invitation of the 
Chairman, a short report of the meeting of the French Geographical Societies which 
took place at Nantes during August. 

November 19th, 1886 : M. A. Germain in the Chair. — A communication 

was read from M. Hangsen-Blangsted on the physical aspect of Denmark during 
the eleventh century as compared with its present state. — A letter from M. Yenukoff 
gires the relative altitude of the highest point (Lake Bolshoe) of the canal uniting 
the Obi with the Yenisei, as 62 feet above the level of the former river at its 
junction with the Kite, and 180 feet above that of the latter at a corresponding 
point. As Lake Bolshoe is three times nearer to the Yenisei than the Obi, it follows 
that the slope on the eastern side is much greater than on the western. — Recent 
observations made by M. TAbb^ Desgodins at Phedong (Tibet), were transmitted 
to the Society by his brother. — Captain Bernard forwarded from Fort National 
(Algeria), the report of the mission in South Algeria with which he was charged 
in the winter 1884-5. — Reference was made by the General Secretary to the 


report that MM. Capus and llonvalot, the Frencli travellers in Central Asia, 
had been arretted m Af^banistsin. The Clmirmim stated that aji applicatiou 
would be made to the Minister for Foreign Aifairs for Jiia intervention if the 
news were confirmed, — M. G. Bepping read a letter from Comte Fressinet de 
Ballanger giving the results of hia investigations on the locality of the grave of 
Tavernier, He establishes the fact that the great traveller waa buried in the 
Protcatant Cemetery near Moscow. — A ctimrautiication waa made by M. Guerin on 
the Bubject of geographical teaching by means of etereographic projection, i. e. repre- 
senting the earth as seen in parallel perspective. He waa of opinion that thin method 
was the simplest and most easily understood,^ — The Chairman announced that the 
general meeting of the Society, at which the Secretary's report on the progress of 
geography would be read, wouhi take place on the 17th December, and that the Annual 
Banquet haa been fixed for the 20th December. ^E* Ferd. de Lesaeps would preside. 
— M. Rouvier, French Consnl at Buenos Ayres, in a deajatch of 2GLh September, 
addressed to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, announced the discovery of auriferous 
bearings in Tierra del Fuego, more particularly in the country round San Sebastian 
Bay. — In conclusion Captain Longhoia read an account of his journey to Shoa, the 
object of which waa the exiiloration of the Awash and its basin, Hia remarks were, 
however, of an ethnographical rather than of a geographical character. 

Geographical Society of Frankfurt-oE-Main. — December 8th, lB8r>, 
Fiftieth Antiivenmry. Thi; Prei^ideni uf the Societ}^ Senator Dr. von Oven, pre- 
sented a rc])ort of the fifty years* work of the Society, which, having been fonnded 
on December 9th, 1836, is the oldest in Germany, that of Berlin alone excepted. 
Prof. Theobald Fiacher of Marburg then delivered an addreas in which he traced the 
progress of geographical science during the past fifty years. A large number of 
Honorary members were elected in celebration of the event, including the Presidents 
of the geographical Societies of Berlin, Madrid, Paris, Turin, Ley den, and London, 
Prof, Kordenskiold, General Prejevabki, Dr. Schweinfurth, Prof. B, Studer, Major 
Powell of the United States, Mr. E. G. Bavenatein, &c. 

Geographical Society of Mmiicll.— December 3rd, 1886. Lieut, Baron von 
Gravenrtuth read a paper on Eastern Africa^ in the course of which he gave au 
account of an expedition up the Pangani, in which he took part. Owing to the 
desertion of the carriers the expeditiou failed to reach Mt. Kiliuumjaro, A station, 
Korogwe, was founded on the Pangani. In ooncUiaion the author gave a general 
account of the territories recently acquiret^i by Germany in Eastern Africa, and 
apoke favourably of their natural wealth and hygienic conditions. Prof. Dr. Brenner 
then read a pa|)er on Ola us Magnus**! Map of Northern Europe, the original of which, 
dated 1539, was discovered by him in the Munich Town Library. (Comp. * Pro- 
coedings,M886, p. 790). 

Geographical Society of Berlin* — December 4th, 1886 : W. Esibs in the 
chair. — At the commencement of the proceedings the Chairman alluded to the recent 
sudden death of the meritorious African traveller Dr. G, A. Fischer, and stated that 
the Geographical Society of Hamburg at their Kitting of the 2nd December had 
decided to send to the parents of the traveller the gold Kirch en pauer Medal, being 
the first year of the award of that majrk of honour. The Chairman also greeted, in the 
name of the Society, Prof, H, Kiepert on hia safe return from Asia Minor, and expressed 
his satisfaction that the serious accident said to have befallen him proves to be a false 
report, — Captain Henniog then addressed the meeting on his two years* residence in 
China and Korea in the Chinese service. The speaker dilated more eapecially on 
the pecnliarities of the Chinese character, and the position of the Chinese in relation 
to western civilisation. He waa of opinion that the adoption of western ideas by the 



Chinese would bring with it no injury to Europe, as they would be able to do nothini; 
without Europeans. China, moreover, is not so rich a country as generally supposed, 
proof of which is afforded by the facts that a family can live there very comfortably 
for 30 dollars a month, and that the Viceroy of Canton, for example, has an estab- 
lishment far inferior to that of many private persons in Europe. He believes it to 
he incorrect to attribute the emigration from China [to over-population. China, on 
the avera;2:e, was not so over-populated a country as the as^ject of its large cities and 
coast districts has led observers to assume. Captain Henning added that Peking, 
with 50 square kilometers of area, has only 600,000 inhabitants, whilst Berlin with 
63 square kilometers has 1,400,000, and Loudon with 320 square kilometers has 
4,000,000.— Dr. Stapff (formerly geologist to the St. Gothard Railway), then read a 
paper on the geology of the neighbourhood of Walfish Bay and the Kuisip Valley, 
from which he had returned a few months ago, and of which he had constructed an 
exoellent geological map. He laid stress on the great influence exercised by the loose 
sand in connection with the wind on the configuration of the ground and on the 
rocks. At first sight one would suppose the great quantity of polished and rounded 
stones encumbering the ground in many places were due to water action, whereas, in 
fact, the rounding and polishing have been effected by the wind-driven sand. The 
periodical mortality of fishes in Walfish Bay he attributed to the occasional sub- 
marine eruption of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, of which he perceived traces at the 
southern entrance to the bay. 

(By J. ScoiT Keltie, Librarian b.g.s.) 


Essays on the Street Be-alignment, Be-oonstruction, and Sanitation of Central 
London, and on the Be-housing of the Poorer Classes ; to which Prizes offered by 
William Westgarth were awarded by the Society of Arts, 1885. London, G. Bell 
and Sons, 1886 : 8vo., pp. vi. and 276, plans. [Presented by the Council of the 
Society of Arts.] 

CPranceJ — Voies Navigables. Manuel des distances comprises entre les principaux 
points de chaque voie. Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1882: 12mo., pp. 352. 
[Presented by the French Minister of Public Works.] 

This is useful as a reference book for the lengths of French rivers and the 
distances between the leading positions thereon. 

Lebonr, G. A. — Outlines of the Geology of Northumberland and Durham. 2nd 
edition as regards Northumberland. Newcastle, Lambert & Co., 1886. [Presented 
by the Author.] 

VerSfientlichung des Eonigl. Preussischen Geodatischen Instituts. Lothabweich- 
ungen. Helt L Fonneln und Tafeln sowie einige Numerische Ergebnisse fiir 
Norddeutschland. Der Allgemeinen Konferenz der intemationalen Erdmesaung 
im Oktober 1886 zu Berlin gewidmet Berlin, P. Stankiewicz, 1886: 4to., pp. x., 
d4, and 26, plates. 

[Cobham, C. Delaval.]— An attempt at a Bibliography of Cyprus. Nicosia, 1886 : 
12mo, pp. 12. 

The author states, in a note, that he has here attempted to register the titles 
of books treating of Cyprus, its people, history, numismatics, epigraphy, and 
language, of which he dm found any trace. 




BeEtley, [EevJ W* Holman-— "Dictionary and Grammar of the Kongo Langna^jp, 
as spoken at San Salva^lor, the Ancient Capital of tbe Old Kongo Empire, West 
Africa. Compiled and Prepared for the Baptist Mijision on the Kongo River, 
West Africa. London, publlj^hei by the Baptist Missionary Society, and 
Trubner & Co., 1886 : 8m, pp, 244, plate. [Presented by R. N, Gust, Esq.] 

Hore, Annie R. — To Lake Tanganyika in a Bath Chair. LondoE, Sampson Low 
& Co., 1886 ; 8vo., pp. x. and 217* Price 7s, 6ri. [Presented by the Publishers.] 
There is^ of course, nothing new to the geographer in Mrs. Hore's interestincj 
little volume. She endured with pluck tho well-known hardships of African 
travel, though one rejirets that it was considered necessary to aubject her infant 
child to the fevera and other trials which a01icted the poor little fellow. The 
book is nseful as showing that Kuro]X!an women as well as men can live and 
fiourish in Home fxirts of Atrica ; though it slionld be remembered that the sit© 
of Mrs. Hore'a home is unusually healthy. Captain More has built bis house 
on the island of Kavala, off tbe we«t side of the lake, near tbe Loudon Missionary 
Society's station of Mtowa, Mrs. Hore gives some interesting details concern! og 
her own and her husband's work among the natives. There is a route map and 
a map of Lake Tanganyika. 

Law St [Rev* Br.] and Mr a- — The Tsbiguoda Language of the Lower Zambesi 
Region, Kast Africa. Vocabularies by Bev. Dr, and Mrs. Laws, Free Church of 
Scotland Mission. Privately printed by the Liviugstonia Mission Committee, 
188G. Edinburgh, James Thin : 12mo,, pp. 64. 

Laws, [Sev.] Robert^^Table of Concords and Pamdigm of Verb of the Chin- 
yanja Lauguage, as spoken at Lake Nyasa. Edinburgh, James Thio, 1885, 

Silos, A- — A Vocabulary of the Kiteko, as spoken by tbe Batekc (Batio) and 
kindred tribes oo the Upper Congo. English-Kiteke. London, Hodder & 
Stoughton, 1886 : 12mo,, pp. xii. and 190. [Presented by H. G. Guinness, 


[America, United States.] — Department of the Interior. Tloited States Geological 
Survey. J. AV, Powell, Director. Bulletins of tho United States Geological 
Survey, Nos, 27-29. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1886 : 8vo^ map 
and plates. [Presented by the Director of the U*S. Geological Survey.] 

No. 27. Report of Work done in the Division of Chemistry and Physics 
mainly during; the Fiscal Year 1884-85.-'No, 28. The Gabhros and Associated 
Hornblende Kcxiks occurring in the Neighbourhood of Baltimore, Md. By 
G^rge Huntington Williams, ph.d. — No. 29. On the Presh*w»ler Inverte- 
brates of the North American Jurassic. By Charles A, White, m.d. 

[Tenth Census of the United States, 1880,] Vols. xvi. and xx. Washington, 

GorernmeDt Priutitig Office^ 1885-1886 : 4to., maps and illustrations. 

Bancroft, H, H,— The Works of Hubert Howe Bancmft. VoK XXI 1. History 
of California. Vol. V., 1846-1848.— Vol. XXIX. History of Oregon, Vol h 
1834-1848. San Francisco, The History Company, 1886 : 8vo., pp, (Vol. XXIL) 
XV. and 784 (Vol. XXLX.), xxxix, and 789, maps, 

Harrower; Henry B. — Captain Glazier and his Lake. An inquiry into the history 
and progress of exploration at the liead-waters of the Mississippi since the discovery 
of Lake Itaiica. New York, Ivison & Co. [1886] : 8vo., pp. 58. 

Although we cannot admire the spirit of personality in which this pamphlet 
is written, it must be admitted that the author baa brought together much 
useful information with reference to explomtiopK at the source of the Mississippi 
previous to Captain Glazier*s expedition. Mr. Harrower maintains tho identity 


of Lake Glazier with tbe well-kDown Lake Elk. With reference to the source 
of tbe Mississippi, Mr. Harrower contends that the main thing to do is to 
determine and locate tbe watershed which separates the Itasca l^in from the 
sources of the Bed River of the north on tbe one band, and from the head- 
springs of tributaries of the Mississippi on tbe other. Having definitely outlined 
the drainage basin to the south of Itasca, it is wortb while to trace the principal 
feeders of the lake to their springs, to determine the area drained by each, the 
volume of their flow, and tbe rapidity of their currents, to measure the elevation 
of their extreme sources above the level of Lake Itasca, and to find how far they 
are perennial, and how much of their currents dry during a portion of the year. 
Otber points will also be solved, such as changes in the water-supply of tbe 
region, alterations in levels and dimension of lakes and pcmds, and also whether 
any time Elk Lake and Itasca Lake were a continuous body of water. Indeed, 
at the date of issuing Mr. Harrower's paper (Oct. 1886), he states that his 
publishers bad themselves sent out an expedition ** fully equipped with instru- 
ments for the complete survey and delineation of the region which supplies the 
cbief feeders of Lake Itasca." 

[Jamaica.] — The Handbook of Jamaica for 1886-87 : containing historical, 
statistical, and general information concerning the island. Published by authority. 
By A. C. Sinclair and Laurence R. Fyfe. London, Stanford, 1886 : 8vo., pp. xii. 
and 548. 

This is one of tbe most useful and exhaustive of colonial handbooks^ con- 
taiuing a good deal of information useful to geographers. 

QneenslancL — Report on the Greology and Mineral Resources of the Districts of 
Eilkivan and Black Snake. (By the Assistant Government Geologist.) Brisbane, 
J. C. Beal, Groverument Printer : folio, pp. 8, maps and plans. 

RobillBOn, [Sir] W. C. F. — ^The Physical Geography of the South-west of Western 
Australia : a Paper read before the South Australian Branch of the Geographical 
Society of Australia, on tbe 27th September, 1886. Adelaide, E. Spiller, 
Government Printer, 1886 : 8vo., pp. 18, map. 


Browilf LEcvJ G., and Danks* B.— A Dictionary of the Duke of York Island 
Language, New Britain Group ; also, a Grammar of the same, and an Introduction. 
By Rev. G. Brown, f.r.o.s., &c. [hi manuscript] Sydney, 1882, 8vo., pp. vi., 
Ixx. and 328. [Presented by tbe Rev. G. Brown.] 

GabeleiltZ,[Prof.lGeorg vender.— The Languages of Melanesia. [From the 
• Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland,' vol. xviii, 
Part 4.] 8vo., pp. 7. [Presented by R. N. Gust, Esq.] 

Helanesian Mission.— The Island Voyage, 1885. Ludlow, C. A. Partridge, 
1885 : 8vo., pp. 53, map. [Presented by R. N. Oust, Esq.] 


Andr^y Sichard. — Ethnograpbische Earten. In ' Mittheilungen des Yereins fur 
Erdkunde zu Leipzig,' 1885, pp. 175-240. 

This is a serviceable list, with critical remarks, of 170 ethnographical maps 
relating to various parts of the world. 

Clark, Latimer.— IVansit Tables for 1887. Giving Mean Time of Transit of tbe 
Sun and of certain Clock Stars for every day in the year. Compiled from the 
•Nautical Almanac' for popular use. London, Spon, 1887[6]. 



Bollen, W^ — Zeitstem-Fphemeriden auf das Jahr 1886 fur die Zeitbcstimmirafr 
vennittekt dcB Trjif;barea Durchgangsmslmments im Yerticale des Polaraterm>. 
St.-Fetersburg, 18S6 ; large 8vo.» pp. xxiii* and 27. 

Izvestiya TmperatorBkago Rusakago geo;Trapliiclieskago obahestva. Tom. xxiu 
Vypu&k 3. St* Petersburg, 188G : pp, 225-352, with map. 

This lumiber of tiie * PrLKJcedinjrs * of the linssian Gcogmpbical Societj' 
contains the fuliawing articles: — Tiie iDflueiiee of Piussian colonisation on the 
character of the Stavropol region, D* Ivauof. Information on the Northern Ural, 
with map, E. Feodorol and P* Ivanof. Geodetic and cartographical works of 
the corfss of military tojxigraphcrs in 1885, besides nott'S and reports of the 
expeditions. Under the last-named heading are three letters from the well- 
known scientific trEivelkr and explorer N. Potanin, dated from Sining, Tonkir, 
and Gavlai the 22Dd March, 2(14) Aprd, and 11(23) June, 1886. 

M. Potanin writes these letters on his way back to Itiisaia from the north- 
eastern borders of Tihet. His |jarty consisUd of M. Skassy, to|"iographeT, and M. 
B^rdzofsky, natnralist. Besides tliese Mr. Parker of the China Inland Missioa 
joined the party and was to accompany them to Su-c!iau. Potauin'a last 
letter describes their march acrotts the Nan-tbau mountain range ae^iarating the 
basin of the Yellow Eiver from the plains of Sonthern Mongolia* The pasAca 
were 13,000 feet high, and the valleys not much klow 10,000 feet. At the end 
of April they found Lake Koko-nor still covered with ice though Prejevalsky m 
1873 saw it oj^on a month earlier, M. Potanin mentions extensive goldniiggiiiga 
seen by hiui in the valley of the BardoDj and outcrops of coal in this and the adja- 
cent valley of Lontiir, He came across a people called Yegnri living in the 
northern mrta of the Kau-ahan range between Kan-chau and Sii-chau, and 
believes that he is the first to make tlieir exiKtence known in Europe* They 
suffered severly during the late Muhommedan rising in Western China, and their 
numbers were reduced to some SOO families. They speak the Mongolian 
language, and are subject to the governor of Kan-su. The Chinese call them 
Hwang-fan ; their ancient tribal names liave disappeared, having given place 
to Chinese names referring to the number of horses each tribe had to pay as 
tribute to the Emperor of China. The Yeguri are all Lamaists by religion 
and |X)sseas seven monasteries. They are ruled by elders appointed by the 
Chinese authorities. 

A route survey of M, Potanin's journey based on 4G astronomically deter- 
mined poaiiioDs has been executed by M. ISkassl, M. Bereiwfsky remains in 
Kan-su till ISBT, to bant and collect s|>ecimens of natural history. 

Borne interesting particulars of an ex|^ition to Klmu Tengri, furnished by 
A- N. Krnsnuf, arc in the same number of the Ixvestiya. — [E^ D, M.] 

Jahresbericht am 25 Mai 188Gdem Comity der Nicolai-Ilauptstemwarle abgestattet 

vom Director der Sterawarte. 8t* Petersburg, 1B8(S : 8vo., pp. 52, 
IianeEiaili J.-I,— L'Expansion Coloniale de la France. Avec 10 Cartes hors 
teste. Paris, P^lix Alcan, 1886 ; 8vo., pp. ixiii. and lOlG. Price 10*. 

There have been a good many books recently on the French colonies ; that 
of M. Lanesaan ia one of the most carefully written aud complete. It includes 
Algfria, Tunis, and Aladagascar, aud in the case of each colony gives a fairly 
satisfactory account of the geography and ethnology, followed by sections on 
the history of the colony, its expansion, its induatries, its trade, and its adminis- 
tration. M. Lanessan in his introduction discusses the subject of colonisation 
from what he calls a natural history point of view. The modern migration is 
simply the continuation of the movements which have prevailed among restless 
humanity from the first, movements which have led to the peopling of the 
earth, to the mixture of races, to the suppression of the weaker by the stronger, 
to those conditions which we recognise as civilisfttion. **Thi8 colonial exf>an- 
sion, which at the present time impels the greatest nations of Europe towards 
the most distant and wildest regions of our globe, api>ears to be aimply tho 
destineii and necessary manifestation of the life of these nations. Like Athens 
and fc>i>arta in Asia, like Rome in Gaul, France, England, and Germany seek 



in India, Oceania, the extreme East, the riches necessary for the satisfaction of 
their wants. In exchange they carry with them into distant regions, with the 
prodocts of their industries, the genius which animates them. If you ask 
me to strike in millions the balance of this double operation, I would make 
reply that it matters little to me to know what the conquest of Gaul cost the 
Roman people ; I am satis6ed to know that France of the present day is the 
result of the colonial expansion of Rome, as the Algeria, Indo-China, Mada- 
gascar, Tunis of the future will be the result of the colonial expansion of 

FhilippsoXL, Alfred. — Studien iiber Wasserscheiden. In * Mittheilungen des 
Vereins ftir Erdkunde zu Leipzig,' 1885, pp. 243-402. 

This is one of those thorough studies in scientific geography, so common in 
Germany, and hitherto so rare here. Prefixed is a long and useful list of 
authorities which the writer has consulted on the subject. The monograph is 
divided into four sections. In the first the author deals with what he calls the 
first or original positions of water-partings. Under this head he endeavours 
to show the importance for its history of the last emergence of a laud from the 
sea ; the connection of water-partings with the relief of the land at the time 
of this occurrence ; the preparation of a relief suitable for a water-parting (1) 
by the forces at work during the submergence of the land, (2) by the forces at 
work under the sea, (3) by those at work at the time of emergence. He then 
goes on to sketch the position of water-partings after the emergence of various 
types of land-surface— surfaces of abrasion, stratified plateaus, soft lands, 
regions of foldincr^ or crumpling, regions of upheaval. In the second section 
the author deals with the displacement of water-partings under the heads of 
the fall of water-partings to a position of stability ; factors which can efi^ect 
changes in water-partings; and the obliteration and re-formation of water- 
partings. In the third section he deals with the topographical morphology of 
water-partings under the heads of peculiarities of the vertical cross-section, 
the vertical longitudinal section, the horizontal projection. In the fourth sec- 
tion the author treats of the course of water-partings in various regions of the 
globe, arranged under his previous classification of types of surface. The 
author endeavours to arrive at a satisfactory definition of a water-parting. The 
definition of water-parting as the boundary between river-basins he con- 
siders too v&eue. The definition of a water-parting as the boundary line 
between two directions of drainage he considers too wide. He ofiers the lollow- 
ing as more satisfactory than either: — A water-parting is that line which 
divides two difierent directions of surface drainage from each other. Finally, 
he divides water-partings into two great groups : — 1. Those which stand in 
approximately complete relations with the present arrangement of their sub- 
structure ; these he designates Concordant Water-partings. 2. Those which 
do not stand in any such relation, and which the author designates as Dis- 
cordant Water-partings. 

The following works have also been added to the Library :— 

Carlyle, [EevJ J. E. — South Africa and its Mission Fieldg. London, J. NisLet 

& Co., 1878 : 8vo., pp. viii. and 325. 
Mitchell, [Mrs.] Murray.— A Missionary's Wife among the Wild T.ibes of 

South Bengal. Extracts from the Journal of Mrs. Murray Mitchell. Witli 

Introduction and Supplement by Dr. George Smith. Edinburgh, John Maclarcn ; 

London, J. Kisbet & Co., 1871 : 12mo., pp. viii. and 70. 

Mullens, Joseph. — Missions in South India, visited and described. London, W. 
H. Dal ton, 1854 : 8vo., pp. vii. and 191, map. 

Proceedings of the General Conference on Foreign Missions, held at the Conference 
Hall in Mildmay Park, London, in October 1878. Edited by the Secretaries to 
the Conference. London, J. F. Shaw & Co., 1879 : 8vo., pp. viiL and 434. 



Smith, George.— Fifty Years of Foreign Mifiaions; or tKe Foreign Missions of the 
Free Church of Scotland in their Year of JubilCT, 1879-80. Fourteenlb edition, 
Edinburgh, J, Maclaren & Son, 1880 : 8fo., pp. 79, maps and ill us t rations. 

Wilson, [the late] John- — Indian Caste. Bombay, Times of India Office ; Edin- 
bnr^ti and London, W. Blackwood & Sod», 1877 : 8vo., pp. 450, 228, and xxil 
[The above six works were presented by Dr. George Smith,] 


(By J. Coles, Map Curator^ b,g,s.) 

BiberOt BiegO- — The 2nd Borgiao Map by , Geogn^pher to His Majesty, In 

iSeville, 1529, Reprodnced by W. Griggs in Photo-chromolithograpby from the 
original in the Mu&enm of the "Propaganda" in Rome. W. Griggs, Peckbam, 
S,E., 188G, Price II. Is. 

This is a very well executed facsimile reproduction of the second Borgian 
map by Diego Ribero, which through the kindness of His Holiness Pope 
Leo XIIL was permitted to l>e sent from the Archives of the Propar^anda, 
Rome, to the West India Section of the Colonial Exhibition, all previous 
applications to the predecessors of the Snprtime Poiitifi^ for permission to copy 
this map having been refused, though on ono occasion ih^ request was made at 
the instance of the Unitetd StHtes Government. It is presumed that the 
original of this map must liave been commenced about 1494, and finished 1529, 
poisibly for Charles Y*, in order to settle some difficuities with the Portuguese, 
relative to the vexed question of j^ossesaion of the newly discovered lands^ and 
it forms part of the valuable collection left to the Sacred Congrej^ation of 
Propaganda by Cardinal Bori^ia^ the last of the family, who died 1830. On 
the upper margin thert^ is an iot^ription in Spanish, in which it is stated that 
the map contains all that has hitherto been discovered of the world, made by 
Diego Ribero, geographer to His Majesty, in SeviUe, 1529, and contiauee along 
the lower margin as follows: — '* Which is divided into two parts according to 
the agreement made by their Catholic Majesties of Spaiij and King John of 
Portugal in Fontesilla, a.d. 1494." The line of divibion as made by Alex- 
ander Vi, is shown on this map, with the addition of a flagstaiT on each side, 
at the foot cf the map, one of which carries the Spanish, and the other the 
Portuguese fla^. The names of the principal towns in each country are given, 
I those in England being Bristo), York, and I^on ires. ^1 he Irish towns are 

' written in Celtic; Jenisaleni is placed about 1500 miles distant from where it 

really exists, and has three crosses to indicate Calvary. Russia is covered with 
representations of men, trees, and beasts, as indeefi (after the manner of the 
early cartographers) are all countries in those placf^s where the geography was 
little known. The delineation of tlie oonsta of North and South America is 
I interesting as showing how little of the west coast was known at the time the 

map was produced^ Labrador is the farthest northern limit of America laid 
down, and a note is made that it is a country found by the English, and of no 
use. In one corner cf the mai> is a quadrant, witli directions for its use, and fn 
the other an astrolabe. The work of reproduction has been beautifully 
executed by Mr. Griggs, and tlie lettering is particularly sharp and clear. 

Fetermann'a *Geographische Mitteilungen.' 3te^ Indexheft. Ubersicht dcr 
Karten 1875-1884. 4 sheels. Justus Perthes, Gotha, 1886. {Dulau,) 

These are a most valuable set of indices of all the maps published in 
Petermann^fi * Geographische Mitteilungen * for ten years (1875-1884). The 
Bystem is that which is us^ially adopted in index maps, with, the addition of the 



use of different colours in the lines, by whicb the scales of the maps referred to 
can be ascertained ; dotted lines indicating physical or statistical maps. The 
number of maps given in this well-known geographical work is so great, 
that the periodical publication of such indices as these has become almost a 
Decessity, and will be duly appreciated by all who have to refer to the back 
numbers of Petermann*s * Mitteilungen.' 


Central Enropa. — Earte von Central Europa zur Ubersicht der Eisenbahnen, 
einschliesslich der projectirten Linien, der Gewasser u. hauptsachlichsten Strassen. 
Kach amtlichen Quellen bearbeitet von W. Liebenow, Greheimer Rechn : Hath im 
££l: Preuss: Ministerium der ofifentl. Arbeiten. Scale 1:1,250,000 or 17*2 
geographical miles to an inch. Berlin, 1886. Verlag, Stich und Druck des 
Berliner lithogr. Instituts. Price 10«. {G. Philip & Son.) 

Deutschen Reiches. — Karte des — . Scale 1:100,000 or 1*3 geographical 
miles to an inch. Herausgegeben von der Kartogr. Abtheilung der EOnigl. 
Preuss. Landes-Aufnahme 1886. Sheets : 120, Anklam ; 452, Ereuzburg ; 586, 
Pfalzburg; 602, Strassburg i. E. ; 604, Calw. Price 1«. 6fL each. (Dulau.) 

Paris. — Nouveau Plan de , 1887. Scale 1420 feet to an inch. Lan^e, 

Editeor G^ographe, Paris. Grav^ et imprim6 par Erhard. Price 25. (DtUau.) 


Pablications iisiied during the month of November 1886. 
l-lneh— General Mape : — 

SooTuan> : 121 (OatUne), 73 (HIIIb), U. 9d. each. 

8-inch— Comitj Map8>-> 

EaQLAVD AVD Walb8 : Brecknookshire : 26 N.E., SJ:., 32 N.E., S.E. ; it. each. Oambxldve- 
Shire: S S.W., 23 S.W.. 36 N.W., S.W., 36 N.W.. 63 N.W., &W.. 8.E.. 67 S.E.; U. eSch. 
Cardiganshire : 6 N.W.. lo M.W.. u S.E. ; u. each. Carmarthenahire : 26 X.E., S.W.. 
&E. ; l«. eadi. Devonshire : 30 N.W.. N.E., 89 N. W., 113 S.E., 119 N.W.. N.E., 8.W. ; u. each. 
Dorsetshire : 7 S.W.. 8.E.. 8 N E., 19 N.E. ; u. each, aionoestershire : 29 S,E., 38 S.W., 
54 N.E., 66 N.E. S.E., 57 S.W., 68 S.W., 63 N.E., 64 S.W., 67 S.E, 68 N.E., 69 N.W., 72 N.E. 
73 &E. ; u. each. Herefordshire : is S.B., 28 S.E.. 29 S.W., 3i N.E, S.E., 32 N.W., 34 S. W.. 

36 8.W., S.El; If. each. Leicestershire: 43 S.W., S.E.. 48 N.W, N.E., S.W.; u. each. 
Lincolnshire : 7 N.E., 8 N.E.. 12 N.K., S.W., S.E., 28 N.W.. 37 8.W.. 63 8.W.. 77 N.W., 86 
N.W.. N.E.. S.W., 96 N.W., 8.W. ; i«. each. Merionethshire : 16 N. W., 23 N.W., N.E ; u. oa. h. 
Xonmonthshire : 14, 2«. 6cl.; 16,26; 2«. each. Montjromeryshire : 4 N.W., 13 N.W.. 
&W.; U. each. Norfolk: 2 S.W., 4 8.W., 21 8.W, 32 N.W., K.E., S.W.. 44 S.E. 51 N.E. 
56 N.W.. N.E., 8.W., S.E., 69 N.W.. S.W., 81 N.W.. 91 S.W.; If. each. Nottinghamshire : 

37 S.\V. ; If. Oxfordshire : 40 ; 2f . 6d. Somersetshire : I6 N.E., 41 S.E., 8I S.\\\ 8s N. w. 
N.E.. S.W., 92 N.E. ; If. each. Suffolk : 31 N. W.. 89 N.E., S.E. ; If. each. Warwickshire • 
12 S. W., 18 N.W, 8.W.. 19 S.E., 26 N.E., S.E., 26 N.W., 28 8. W. ; If. each. Wiltshire : 3 S.W.' 

. 18 SX; If. each. 

25-inoh— Ftfiah Mape:— 

EvoLA» AKD Walbs: Cambridgeshire: XLIX. 2, 3f. ; LV. 14, 4f. Devonshire: XIV. a. 
14 ; CXXXVIIL 8. 3f . each. Area Booka : Bradstone, Ooryton, Kelly, If. each ; Lifton, If. 6d. ; 
StA»wford, If. ; Thruahelton, If. 6d. aioucestershire : LXV. 11. 3f.; LXV. 14, 4f, ; LXV. 16, 
3f. Area Booka: Admingtun, Chipping Campden, Clopton, Cow Honeyboume, Doraington. 
Hidooie Bartrim, IlmiDgton, Kemerton, Long Marston, Mickleton. Ouinton, Tewkesbury, 
Twyning. Walton Cardiff; If. each. Herefordshire : VII. 10, XIV. 9, XX. 8, 3f. each. 
Hnntinffdonshire : XX. 4, 3f. Leicestershire: XXIX. 10, 3f.; XXIX. i&. 4f . : 

XUV. 10, 3f.; XUV. 13, XLV. 10, 4f.; XLVI. 10. 3f.; L. 8, 6f. 6d.; LL 6. LIII. 14, 
3f. each. Area Books: Bottesford, If. Lincolnshire: IX. 7, 10, 14. 3f. each; IX. 16. 
XVL 16, 4#. each; XVII. 2, 7. 8, 10, 11, 3f. each; XXVI. 9. 4f.; XXVL 10, 11, 13, 14. 
3t. each; XXVI. 16. 4f.; XXVI. 16. XXXIV. 3. 3f. each; XXXIV. 4, 4f.; XXXI V. 6. 

6, 3f. each; XXXIV. 8, 4f.; XXXFV. 11, 6f.; XXXIV. 16, 4f.; XXXIV. 16. 3f.; XXXV. 
1, 8, 4, 6, 8, 12, 13, 16, 3f. each; XLII. 4, 16, 4f. each; XLIII. 14, XLIV. 1, 2, 3. 6, 6. 

7, 8. 9. 10, 11, 12. 13, 14. 16, LI. 6, 3f. each; LI. 6, 4f.; LII. 1. 2. 3. 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13. 14. 
16, 16. 3f. each; LX. 9. 4f.; LX. 11. 13. 3f. each; LX. 16. 4f.; LXL 1. 6. CXIV. 13. 14. CXXIIL 1 
3f.each. Montgomeryshire : XIV. 11. XXI. 4. 7, 8, 16. XXII. 6, XXVIII. 14, XLU. 1. 9. 
XUIL 3, 3f. ea^. Norfolk: XIU. 4. XVIII. 2. 3f. each; XIX. t. 4f.; XIX. 6, 11. 15, 16. 
XXXIX. 9, XL. 11, 3f.; XL. 12. 4f. Area Books: Ashby with Oby. Billlngfonl. Bio Norton. Brea- 
•iDgham, Borgh St. Margaret, Mautly. Postwick (detached). 8andringham, 8oath Lopbam, 8ioket»by 
with HerriDgby. Swanton. Morley. Toft Monks (detached Noa. 1 and 2) ; TottenhiU, Upton with 
flshley. West Newton. If. each; Northamptonshire: X. 10, 3f.; XV. s, et. Sd.; XVI. 6. 
XXU. 14, 3f. atch ; XXIX. 13, 4f. Nottinghamshire : UI. 11, 4f. ; III. 12. I6. IV. 6. 6. 9. 3f. 
each : IV. 10, 4#. ; IV. 11, 6f . ; IV. 14, 3f. ; IV. 16. VII. 4, 7, 16. 4f. each ; VHI. 14, 3f . ; X. 9, XI. 9. 
4t. ; XIV. 3, XTL 13, 3f. each. Area Books : Averham, Bradmore, Epperstone, Kirlingtoo. Lodge oa 



IbB WoWd. IJ. each; Biulford Saint Mary, kc, 2*. fiJ. ; Sonthwell, U.6<2. ; Slaojiton. Upton, If. ench,' 
Shropshire: Area Books: Cortelfy. Frtrlow, Hopton ' Waf^r*. li. cawch. So zners«t shire : 
LI. 4, LI. 1, 4f. e»ch ; LU. T, 6*. 6«i ; LIL 13» U,it. rich ; LIU. 11 IB, LXV., 10. 3f. c»ch. AroA 
Boolu: BedniiuHter (part of), Uumett, Chelidfood, Clu^w Stoke, Churcbitl. Coogreabury, Corston^ 
Keyiuib«iD, KatlfteA, Prlatdii, Sultrord. Siimion r>rew, Staiiton Prior, Wbitcburch, Ijr. eAch; Wloford* 
li.6d,e*cb. Sulfolk: LXL n. 34.; LXXIVIL 7. bt. Area Book^: Kaititironl, Boxled, Burgh 
OuUe, Onrltoa Culv^Ule^ CbermRitou, Creeling St. ^vj, Fllxton, Fiim-tDJi.Guuiua, Harbeat, HontuD 
fnetf Bote^dttJH), Keuiuti. Kirlcky, Little Smnham, Loweittoft, ^[Icicfkld, NettS^fltead. Oulton* 
SonMsralum, 8om#non, ^Unioij. u. c&ch. Warwickshire : XXX. 7, fii.; XLV. 4, a, XLVL &, 
3t. cacb. Are4 Boot: Tatufttnlh, 2*. WiltBhire I Vll. 11, 3*. ; VlL II. At. ; VII. VB» XXVJIJ. 
3, XXIX. I, d, fi, XXXIV, 6, a*. e»cb; XaXIV. 13, 5». Worcestershire: XXIII. 7. fit; 
XXVITL J6, 16, XXXllI 11. IB, XLII, 19. 4i. cacb ; XLIX. a, 6*. fid. Arva Book* : Bcugewortb. 
Bentk-y, Pouoctfixil, Ctoplbom*'. Donriiiton, Hjunpton Lav«U, HoldfitHt, li.cAch; Inkberrow, 1*. 6<J.; 
KIOKttjn, Nortb nnd Middle Uuleton, OITeohiinj, Sftiiit NtchoUa, Soutb Littleton, Stock md Bradley, 
We»iwood P&rk, U, encb. 

Town Plans — nJ-ft*t«caJe: — 

LliGLAi^D ANi> Walks'; : Cambridge, XL. 14, H, 13, 1^ 1< IT, IS, 19. 30; XL. 15* e. tl, It. 21, 2f. 
eftcb. D<?vl*eii. XXXIV. IS, fi, fl* 15, lio; XXXIV, 14,1.2.7,12. Ifl. 2f. emch, KctterinB. XXV. 
10, fl. t, 11, 12, 1 6. IT, n, 21, 22. 23, 24 ; XXV. 14» 1, 3, 7, 8. 1 1, 12, 13, 17, It. ench Leicester, XXXL 

15, 6, 17, 21. t&ch. PtU^rborougb, VI IL 7» l^Ji VIIL 11. H, la, U ; VilL 16. ». 13. 16,19,; VUL 

16, e ; *J*. ewA, SbcpUwi M*J1H. XLL 8, 23; XLL 12t 3, fi. 7, 8, 12, 13, U, iT* 1«, 19. 30, 31, 22, 
23, 24, 25; 2». MCli. WelU, XLL 1, 24 ; XLl. 6*3, 4, B. 8, % I'i. 13, 17 ; 2i. tttuh. West BroiDwkh, 
LXVUL 6, 20» aa, 23, 24; LXVIlL 10. -2* ^, 7, 9, 13, 17, 24. 25 ; 2$. ftkch. Wolrerhamptoa, LXIL 
6, 6. 9. 10 11, 12, 13, 14, J5, n, 18. 10. 30, 23, 24; LXIL IQ. 4. B, ^, t, 10, 14. IB. 19, 2U« 
2S: LXIL 14> 6; 2t. eacb, YcctII, LXXXIIL 13^ 10, IB, 34; LXXXllL 14, 32; XC,2, I i aj. 

iSta^ford, Agmt.) 


AbeisinieB* — Utersiclatskarte der Reiseroulen des Knpitans A. Ceccliio und des 

lugcnieurs G, Cliiarini iin Bt\dlichen ■, 1S7(> bis 1881. Scale 1 1 4,000,000 

or 55* 5 geograpbicat milea to au inch. Peterniaon's * G^ograpkisclie MitteilungeD,' 
1886, TafeL 15, Justus Perthes, Gotha. (Bidau,) 

Aequatorialen Ost-Afrika.— VorliiuGge Skizxe von Dr. G, A, Fiecber's 3ter Reise 

im ; 3. August 1885 hh 14 Juni 188G, Scale 1:4,000,000 or 55*5 gco- 

graphical miles to au iach. reternjauQ^s * Geographificho Mitteilungen,' Jahrgaug 
1886, Taf, 19. Justus Perthes, Gothft, 1886. (Duiau.) 

Afrika. — Kartc von , mit besondere Beriicksicbt der deutscben Eolonion. 

Scale 1 : lO.OOO^OfX) or 133 '3 geographical miles ,«to an inch. W, Liebenow. 
Berlin, Berliner Lithographiscbe Institute 4 Blatt. Price 6s. (Dulau^) 

'KQtkgQ' — l^io Nebenfiiiaae dea mittlern , Lulongo, Tacbuapi, Mobangi u. a. 

Nach den Aufuahmen von Prcmierleut, Curt v, FraticQis nnd Reverend George 
Grenfell im englischen Misaionsdampfer "Peace," 1884 und 1885, Scale 
1 : 2,000,000 or 27 geographical miles to au inch. Pet«nuaun*s * Geograpbische 
Mitteilungen,* Jabrgang 1886, Tafel 16. Justus Perthes, Gotha, {Duiau.)- 

Madagascar.— A|Map of (M^aga8kim),by Captain S^Paafield Oliver, f.b,1,, 

F.B,G.s,, late Royal Artillery, Scale 1 : 2,661,120 or 36*5 geographical miles 
to an inch, London : Macmillan Sc Go« 

This 18 a very nicely drawn amp, on which the present fitate of our geo- 
graphical knowledge of Madagascar is well representt^d. The coast-line is taken 
from the Admiralty charts, and the interior from the explorations and surveys 
of the most recent and reliable travellers. The hill shading is based on that of 
the map of the French War Department, compiled hy CoL Regnauld de Lannoy 
de Biaay, and the noraeuchUure is from Graudidier's Geographic, with corrections 
and accents hy Richardson and PickorsgilL Towns, tbrts, and villages are iodi- 
cated by symbols, 

OBt-AMka.^ — Originalkarte von Joachim Graf Pfeil's Reisen in . Okt. 1885 

bia Fehr, 1886. Scale 1:1,750,000 or 23*9 geographical niiies to an inch. 
Petermann'a * Geographische Mitteilungen,* Jahrgang 1886, Taf. 18. Justus 
Perthes, Gotha. (Dulau,) 



Canada^ — M^ckinlay's Map of the Maritime Provinces of the Dominion of , 

ooiapiled from recent surveys. Scale 1 : 480,000 or 6*5 geographical miles to an 
inch. 4 sheets. Puhlished hy 6. Philip & Son, London and LiverpooL 

In this map^ which is carefully drawn, and has been brought up to date, all 
county boundaries, townships, railways and Tx>ads are laid down, and all the 
prindpal heights are given in feet. The work has been neatly executed, but it 
is somewhat over coloured ; this is very apparent in the N.E. sheets many of 
the names of places in King County, Prince Edward Island, being quite obscured, 
and the smaller indentations on the coast quite hidden ; this is so perceptible 
that it is to be hoped in any future editions of this map that may be published,, 
a lighter shade of transparent colour may replace the dark and opaque shades 
which go so (ar to mar its utility. 

Puerto Bico. — Mapa Topogrdfico de la Isia de , Publicado por G. W. & 

C. B. Colton y Comp^ Nueva York, 1886. Scale 1 : 250,000 or 3*4 geographi- 
cal miles to an inch. Price 9s. (G, Philip & Son,) 

Though this map gives a considerable amount of detail as regards the interior 
of the island of Puerto Rico, it is greatly wanting in the manner in which the 
physical features are illustrated ; the hill-shading, which has been done in chalk, 
is so confused that it would be difiScult to trace the valleys, or even the direc- 
tion of the mountain ranges. The limits of departments and roads are laid 
down, and the comparative importance of the towns is indicated by symbols ; the 
heights of the mountains are not given. 

Vereinigten Staaten und yon Canada^ Landwirtschaftskarte dcr fur 

das Zensusjahr 1880 bez. 1881. Von A. Supan. Scale 1 : 7,600,000 or 102*7 
geographical miles to an inch. Nebenkarte, Verbreitung der Weizenkultur nach 
Brewer. 1 : 30,000,000. Petermann's * Geographische Mitteilungen,'Eiganzung8- 
heft Nr. 84, Tat 1. Justus Perthes, Gotha. (Dulau.) 

Industriekarte der fiir das Zensusjahr 1880 bez. 1881. Von 

A. Supan. Scale 1 : 7,600,000 or 102 • 7 geographical miles to an inch. Neben- 
karten : Verbreitung der Tabakkultur im Jahre 1879 ; 1 : 30,000,000. Verbrei- 
tung der Baumwollkultur nach Hilgard ; 1 : 11,000,000. Petermann's • Geo- 
graphische Mitteilungen,' Erganzungsheft Nr. 84, Taf. 2. Justus Perthes, 
Gotha. iDulau.) 


Few South Wales.— Map of . Scale 1 : 2,100,000 or 29 geographical mile* 

to an inch. E. Stanford, London, 1886. Price 3x. 
(Queensland. — ^Map of . Scale 1 : 4,000,000 or 55-5 geographical miles to an 

inch. E. Stanford, London, 1886. Price 3«. 

South Australia.— Map of . Scale 1:4,000,000 or 65-6 geographical miles 

to an inch. E. Stanford, London, 1886. Price 38. 

T^ctoria.— Map of . Scale 1 : 2,100,000 or 29 geographical miles to an inch. 

E. Stanford, London, 1886. Price 35. 


Admiralty. — Charts and Plans published by the Hydrographic Department, 
Admiralty, in September and October 1886. 
No. Inches. 

298 m = 8-8 Newfoundland :— St. John's harbour, 1«. 6(/. 

956 m = O'll West Indies: — Guadeloupe to Trinidad. 2». Grf. 
924 m = 1-0 Bay of Bengal :— Tavoy river. 2«. 6c?. 
No. I— Tak. 1887] F 


No. Jnch(>s. 

218 m = 4'0 Bay of Bengal, Mergui archipelago : — Mergui harbour. 


^55 m = 2*0 Borneo, north-west coast: — Loutnt point to Graya head, 
including Ga3ra and Sapangar bays. Is. 6(/. 

925 m = 1.5 Australia, north-coast :— Port Darwin. 2«. 6i. 

926 / "^ ~ ^'0\ New Guinea, north-east coast: — ^Ward Hunt strait. 
I m = 6*0/ Yasaiasa anchorage. Luther anchorage. ls,Qd. 

604 Africa, west coast: — Plans added. Olongubuna point anchorage. Femand 
Vaz entrance. Cape Lopez bay and entrance of Ogow^ river. 
1807 Australia, Carpentaria gulf: — Plan added, Norman river entrance. 
{Potter^ agent,) 


No.' Cancelled bj Xo. 

^98 St. John's harbour New plan, St. John's harbour .. 298 

603 Cape Lopez bay New plans on 604 

835 Plan of Tavoy river on this sheet .. New plan, Tavoy river .. .. 924 

218 Mergui harbour New plan, Mergui harbour .. .. 218 


No. 2593. North sea : — Ameland to Jade river. 2291. Norway, west coast : — 
Bergen to Stav fiord. 121. Baltic sea: — Koster islands and approaches to 
Stromstad. 2346. Baltic sea, Sweden: — ^Winga sound or Gotheborg Skargard. 
2664, France, west coast: — D'Arcachon point to Coubre point. 178. Africa, 
north coast: — Stora and Philippville anchorages, &c. 2480. North America, east 
coast : — Block island to Great Egg harbour. 35oa. North America, east coast : — 
Chesapeake bay. 456. Jamaica : — Port Royal and Kingston harbours. 2004. South 
America, east coast : — Colonia roads. 561. South America, west coast : — Magellan 
strait to gulf of Penas. 1229. Africa, west coast: — Santa Cruz to cape Bajador. 
1877. Africa, west coast: — Gaboon river. 679. Madagascar: — Look^, Leven, 
Andrava, and Vohemar bays. 920. Indian Ocean: — ^Diego Garcia. 453. Red 
sea : — Islands in southern portion of Red sea. 835. Bay of Bengal :— Bentinck 
sound. Port Owen. 2056. Eastern archipelago: — Sunda strait. 2111. Borneo, 
west coast : — Nosong point to Ambong bay. 949. Eastern archipelago : — Ports in 
Philippine islands. 930. Eastern archipelago :— Anchorages between Borneo and 
New Guinea. 2875. Japan: — Setouchi or Inland sea. 2351. Australia, north- 
• east coast :— Cape Tribulation to cape Flattery. 2421, South Pacific ocean : — 
Tonga or Friendly islands. {Potter^ agent.) 

North Atlantic Ocean. — Pilot Chart of the , October, November, December, 

1886. Published at the Hydrographic Office, Navy Department, Washington, D.C. 
J. R. Bartlett, Commander u.s.n., Hydrographer to the Bureau of Navigation. 


Australia. — The New Atlas of . The complete work containing over ono 

hundred maps, and full descriptive geography of New South Wales, Victoria, 
Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia, tosjether with numerous 
illustrations and copious indices. Sydney, John Sands. Price 21, 2s, (this part). 

This is the first part of an atlas of Australia, which, when complete, will con- 
sist of one hundred large maps of the divisions, districts, and counties of the 
Australian colonics. The present issue contains a large amount of letterpress, 
in which a general description of the physical geography, geology, natural 
history, means of communication, aborigines, &;c, of Australia is given ; this is 
followed by a more detailed account of New South Wales which contains much 
useful statistical information. With the exception of five maps, consisting of 

citf tf aevmec v jcr^ wetM iok» rf txif f^irrtTMiK ^ Nev ScuxL Wjlic^ ^z. 
'viiia. aie aoanoKas oE T^nt^^x n sbc*«x, sue w laif pKisCMS iSNCBff^nK ky 
'^rvmF -vis. a Trmr'iin^ }^ -w^ Ur ^ii^ iz -^ index iiif aisiie rsL V jMoirsKxiAl. 

Ib n - 'Viirg xi IV CW«r I>roae. I>e. Geocr <5«Ei«ii. I>r. Jrirw Htim , IV. G, 
Hirr'iKTK De. TT. Mi-iffw", Dt GaoEx: XfcniyBr, X3»d I>r. Karl t. Ssm^, berxEi^ 

oer Tree: L S«2aB* Laefercsr. libili: Xr, ^ W«ta«faffwc:c3>d 2qcs5r»«c^ 
Xr. 4S. ATOjt ssffiFvillter C»r2iiTn;|rsE. Xr. Sci, T tali: t Ci.*x g oer V^ad IL 
GisLiL. JnstBf Ferttao, lSc*f>. Pxioe **. cad piru (^I>««a«.) 

Mat. Xo. 25 sbcnre tie lycraziiiiT « tbe Xcnii S«k tbe Btliacw xie 
EncSs^CiiioiBu, jou: -m B»t ci ^«t ; liew j« aiso io(Qn«a i»rt '^^^ ^ 

Xvi. ^ ptTB tbe isccbenss azui isShus xr Eziicf^ i:i the racQihs of IVoescKer 

lie ^MOibntioQ oc tool, Ciias Xo. 1, ilroogjicict the '■•orii Jfljd «a k»5 laip* 
ct a Twx TBduoBfl leak, is civeu fiawiisc tSe dirtribcti^ of Jtaimtl K* acKVCv> 
izc w P^cdeaKc WaLaoe. Xc«. S5 » a wwtber *od wii>d aian. Xa 4:^ s^^«^ 
tie &snbcDOQ of trpcal j^acts. aac Xcv. ^ the cistrilctJoai of l&i^ CUss 
Xo. 2. Aii the ina|» are beainifcilT diairn, the leiwiiiig i* cl«r, and li^' 
srmbotf and oooocis veiU chowo. 

dtlA Eqire.— The Qoeec's Jnlslee Atlas of the ^ with rVscrin^ve arsl 

Tfittrnral Xoc« azxi Stanstical Tables. Br J. Fxaaom Williams r^ 
LcDdoc, Georre Ptilip & Sc«i, 1SS7. Price 1*^ «• K«aDd in doth S«. 

TrJB ai^as, in aAiiikBi to the nafs, ooctuns thirty-ioar pages of cxrfau^oTx 
Dous, i^ wLidi a liief sketch c«f the histoiy azxi geography of e«i Brit::^i 
Cc»J:cy is given. A valiishie ftatistical tal4e of the form of GovemnKr.i^ 
pcj^QlanaosT areas, imports, exports. Ac, will be focod at the begixmins: and eno 
of the boc^k. The maps are lairly drawn, and are not o^rrcrowxk^i w::h 

Fmee. — ^Albcin de Statistiqne Gimj^iiqne de l^SS, Miaister\e des Travaux 
PuKics. Paris, Imprimerie XatSoosle, ld8& (ZMoau) 

This atlas cnntains statisticsl informatkn of gneat Tslne with it^ftid t.> 
Hieans of oommnnicatioQ, and the tnnspon of merchandise by tail and m A:ex 
in France. The maps are twccty-one in nmnber; the first eleven have nefcrenoe 
I J railway enterprise in I$S3,*then ibUow seven maps giving statistics with 
lecard to internal navigrtion, one iUnstrsting the pivpartions <rf the m«ctntile 
Diinnc of the pdncip^ coontries in IdSS, and condndes with two diagrams 
jiaving reference to the tramways and other means of comn^unicatK^n in Pans 
from 1660 to 1884. llie system adopted in these maps is ample and ossily 
tmderstood, in additi(»i to which ejich sheet contains explanatory xh>tes. 

FritBChe, O. E. — Xoovo Atlante Geografico ad uao del!e Scoole Xormali o 
Secocdarie disegoato Mto la direzione dell' Ingegnere Dottore Lnigi Hugnes da 
G. E. Fritrsche. Fascicolo Secooda 8 carte. Torino: Dita G. B. Pftiavia c 
Comp. 1887. (Dtt/au,) 

This is the second issue of an atlas intended for the use of schools. After 
some introductory remarks, there follow thirteen pages con tuning statistics 


witli reference to populations, areas, and physical geography. The maps aK» 
eight in number, and are vreW calculated lor the purpose for which they were 


Moon. — Tho Handy Map of the . T. K. Mellor, f.r.a.s., del. Home, Thom- 

thwaito, & Wood, Opticians, London. Price Ss. 

Though there are many published maps of the moon, they are, for the mosfc 
|)art, drawn on too iBTge a scale to be of much service to the student of seleno- 
graphy, who may oiUy be possessed of a teloscoi^ of small aperture, and 
who may desire, in the first place, rather to study tho moon aa a whole 
than any particular portion of its surface. For the use of such begirmers 
as these this map is well suited; it is handy in size, gives the names of 
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are named on terrestrial maps, and not as is frequently the case with 
maps of tho moon, by numbers which require reference to an index. This 
is a great advantage for tho student when it is remembered that his 
work is almost always carried on by the light of a lantern, and often in winter 
nights when tho fingers are cold and it is extremely inconvenient to torn 
over the leaves of books of reference. In the matter of price this map has the 
advantage of being cheaper than any other of the same class. It snows the 
positions of the different objects of interest without professing to bo pictures of 
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with the principal features of the moon*s surface, when he could carry his> 
studies farther with the aid of more elaborate maps ; but until then, this map 
will be quite sufficient for all his wants. 

Planispliere. — Philips' Kevolving , showing the principal stars visible for every 

hour in the year. G. Philip Se Son, London. Price 2«. 

This planisphere is an improvement on those previously constructed, as it 
revolves in a frame instead of a centre-pin, which in the older form soon worked 
loose ; it is also smaller, more handy, and the constellations are clearly shown 
in white on a dark ground, without pictures, which only tend to confusion. As 
the aspect of the heavens, in tho latitude of London, with regard to the principal 
fixed stars, can be exhibited with this planisphere for every hour in the year, il 
should be useful to those who, having no previous knowledge, desire to study 





The Dragon Lake ofPdmlr. 

By Major-Greneral Sir Henby G. Bawlinson, k.o.b. 

I DESIRE to draw attention to the excellent geographical work performed 
by Mr. Ney Elias in his recent journey of 360 miles across the Pamir 
Plateau, from the vicinity of Tengi-Hissar to ShignAn. When Major 
Trotter, some years back, first brought this Central Pdmfr track to 
the notice of geographers, in the Appendix to Sir D. Forsyth's Turki- 
«tan Report (p. 457, Ronte XXVII.), I ventured to suggest to the 
Society * that it represented the famous trade-route of antiquity, by 
which the caravans of Home passed from Bactria along the ''Yallis 
Oomedarum " to the famous Stone Tower on the border of the Chinese 
territory ; and I farther undertook to show from a reference to various 
liistorical notices, that it had been used as a military road io compara- 
tively modem times; but I had not then sufficient evidence to prove 
that Hwang-Tsang, the Chinese traveller of the seventh century, had 
followed the same track, or that the famous Dragon Lake, the central 
point of Jambu-dwipa, and the holiest spot in the whole Buddhist 
cosmogony, which he had assigned to this region, was really to be 
identified on the line between Eashgar and Shigndti. Mr. Ney Elias's 
journey has thrown an unexpected light on this subject. We now find 
that the Bang-Eul, which occurs at the seventh stage from the eastern 
horder of the PAmfr Plateau, and which, with the exception of the great 
Eara-Eul Lake, lying far away to the northward, is the largest expanse 
of water throughout this mountain region, answers very closely to the 
description of the Buddhist pilgrim. The Si-yu-ki says that the soil is 
impregnated with salt, yet that the waters of the lake are sweet. 
Mr. Ney Elias found that the banks of the lake were covered with 
efflorescent and incrusted salts, while the water was considered to be 
fresh. The colour is stated by both authorities to be a deep clear blue, 
and the multitude of wild fowl which cover its surface and swarm 
around its banks, attracted the special notice, both of the older and 
♦ • Proceedings R.a.S.,' vol. vi. p. 502. 
No. XL— Feb. 1887.] o 



more moderti travellers. But tlie most curious proof of identity is to ho 
foond in the Dragon mytli whicli attached to the lake. The Buddhists 
of Central Asia, confounding this northern basin with the Miinasarowar 
lake of Tibet, gave it the mystical name of Anava (or Anavatatta) 
and supposed it to be presided over by a dragon, whence the title of 
Nagahrada or EavanahrAda ; and ]^Ir. Nej Elias waa able to trace the 
same belief among the Kirghiz of Raug-Kul at the present time. The 
following extract from bis report will show, indeed, that the Dragon 
King reigns SBpreme in PAmir to*day. Just aa he did in the time of 
Hwang-Tsang, or perhaps 1000 years preTionsly. 

'* In following the track down the south shore of the Eang-Knl a 
rock or cliff is passed, standing about 100 yards from the water's edge, 
and presenting a sheer front of about 100 feet in height towards the 
lake. This is called the Cheragh-Tasb, or *' lamp rock," famous over 
these regions for a light which always bums in a cave, near the top of 
tho cliff, and is the object of a good deal of superstitious a wo on the 
part of all Kirghiz, Shignis, and others who know the locality. To all 
appearance a steady white iame burns within the cave, but even with a 
powerful field-glass I could make out nothing more. My impression 
was that there must be some phosphorescent suhstance far back in the 
cave, bnt this, I was assured, was quite an erroneous view, tho real fact 
being that vast treasures ai*e stored in it, which are guarded by a 
dragon with a large diamond set in hia forehead, and it is this diamond 
which shines hy day and night. The cliff did not appear difficult to 
Bcale, but no native of these parts would ever venture to pry so closely 
into the secret of the light as to attempt to enter the cave." 

In the real Buddhist cosmogony the fonr rivers of Paradise are 
supposed to jseuo from the Dragon Lake, but Hwang-Tsang merely 
notices the two principal streams^ the Sita to the east and tho Po-taon 
or Oxus to the west, and of these it is ip reality only the western outlet 
which by an nnderground course of nine miles is said to communicate 
with the Ak-Beitdl, and thus to fall into the !^Iurghabi, which joins the 
Penj at Waraar, on the confines, as Hwang-Tsang says^ of Ta-mo-si-tie-ti, 
or Darwaz, His derivation of the Sita or Kashgar river from an eastern 
opening in the lake, as well as the enormous dimensions which he gives 
to the lake (three days' jonmey from east to west, and five days* journey 
from north to south), are due to tho usual proneness of Orientals to 
exaggeration, bnt do not affect the general accuracy of his notice. 

I may add that Mr. Ney Elias, in two positions, on the Little 
Kara Knl and tho Yeshil Kul, discovered memorials of the passage 
of the Chinese troops, who in 1759 pursued the fugitive Khojas as far 
as the latter point in their flight to Badakhshan, and also found a 
Persian inscription in Shign^n, said to be 600 years old, relating to a 
local b<3undary. The improvements which his survey operations intro- 
duce into tho map of Pamir, as laid down by recent Euasian topographers. 


are Important, but cannot be duly appreciated or discussed until the 
Government of India finds it in conformity with the public interests to 
publish Mr. Ney Elias's Report for general information. 

Explorations in South-Easiern New Guinea. 
By Eev. J. Chalmers. 

(Bead at the Eyening Meeting, January 17tb, 1887.) 
liap, p. 140. 

To a Fellow of this Society, the Rev. W. G. Lawes, belongs the high 
honour, I think, of being cidled the father of New Guinea travel. Before 
him little had been done in penetrating into the interior of the island, and 
no name has been more used by after travellers, as a password to known 
and unknown tribes, than that of ** Misi Lao," the well-known missionary. 
My first travel began with his infiuence and the frequent use of his 
name, and through him my first tramp was made easy by the confidence 
natives had in him. Under this influenoe they accompanied us as far as 
white man had then got. 

You will forgive me if I run hurriedly over my first travels before 
giving a detailed account of a trip I made two years ago to the district 
around Bald Head. 

I first landed in New Guinea in 1877, but it was not until 1878 that 
I began my travels in unknown regions. I am a missionary of the 
London Missionary Society, and as such, in carrying out the wishes of 
the Direotors, it fell to my lot to seek for healthy localities for the 
settlement of native teachers. These native Christian teachers with 
their wives were introduced from the South Sea Islands. They are the 
true pioneers in New Guinea, and to them travellers of all kinds, scien- 
tists, and explorers, as well as Christian missionaries, owe much. Permit 
me to say that these South Sea Islands teachers must be credited 
with the greater part of the success attending the peaceable proclama- 
tion of the British Protectorate ; and the gallant commodore, whose high 
honour it was to proclaim that protectorate, thoroughly recognised this 
fact. Since then, the late Major-General Sir Peter Scratchley again 
and again said to me how much he wished he could get such men and 
women to assist him. They are, though Polynesians, true Britons to 
the backbone, and swear by Queen Victoria and her officers ; and where- 
ever they go the Queen is one of their great subjects of conversation, a 
kind of fairy tale, with which to charm ; and often have I seen uncouth 
savages listen with starting eyes and open mouth when " Victoria's " 
greatness and goodness have been told. 

In the beginning of 1878, my wife and I, on board the mission 
steamer Ellengowan^ visited the whole coast from China Straits to Hall 

a 2 



Sound. Previoua to this trip very little had been known of all that 

On referring to any old charts yon will find that between Heath 
Island and the Leocadie, there is a part of the coast entirely unexplored. 
This was visited by ns. It was a large bay, which we named *' Inverary 
Bay," and sailing through it, landing at two places, we passed into a 
Yery good harbour between the Leocadie and the mainland. Wo were 
soon on friendly terms with the natives, who were very anxious we 
ahould come and live with them. They gave the largest island of the 
small group in perpetuity to the London Missionary Society, on con- 
dition that a teacher was placed amongst them. There are no natives 
living on the islands, and there are only small villages on the mainland 
near by. On the island passed over to the Society, is a tree rent from 
top to bottom by lightning, A poor woman t<x>k refuge under it in a 
storm, and sat on the roots and was killed ; the only case I have known 
in the tropics of any one killed by lightning. From there yon pass on 
to Catamaran Bay, where there are numerous villages, and, with the ei- 
oeption of Tano Sina, as fine a lot of natives as are to be found anywhere. 
We entered this bay near to South Cape on Suau or Stacy Island, 
where it opens into what it has been proposed to call **Port Erakine,'' 
after the gallant commodore who proclaimed the Protectorate. 

Passing on from Port Erskine, round Kugged Head, is EossBay, and 
beyond it is Farm Bay, at the head of which is Baxter Harbour, 
Beyond Tree Point is Lawes Bay, followed by Fyfe Bay, just inside the 
Boux Islands, where wo came near leaving ourselves for good. 

From this wo went west to Meikle Bay, where I landed, and crossed 
with an interesting crowd to a great lagoon, called Poroai ('* piggish 
water'*), and then to Ellengowau Bay, Port Dudtield, Argyle Bay^ 
through what we wished named Port Scratchley, and in to Mullens 
Harbour. We then tried to navigate Poroai, but found it piggish 
indeed^ a very shallow lagoon, with a strong current running out* After 
explorations showed that this current was caused by two largo streams 
running in to the lagoon : the ** Herena " and the Jones ; one from the 
east, the other from the west. At Dufaure Island, on travelling round 
it, I was greatly interested in the view tlie natives took of me after 
exchanging names with the pleasant littlo chief Meandi* 

Wo found Orangerie Bay a sickly hole, and so kept on still west, 
visiting those splendid harbours. Port Milport and Port Glasgow, dis- 
covered by Ooldie, and then we anchored in Mayri Bay. The following 
morning we visited Mailinkolo or Toulon Island, 

Spending a few days in Amazon Bay we kept westward, and dia- 
oovered Baxter Bay, and passing the bay of clouds and rain. Cloudy 
Bay, discovered Sandbank Bay, Domara, and the river, and then on by 
a splendid passage inside of the reef to " Cheshunt Bay," just beyond 
Capo Eodney, and went up what we called " Reynolds Eiver." Tho 


following day we went in and ont amongst the nnmerons islands called 
"The Brethren," and on to McFarlane Harbour, where I saw the mouth 
of what has since proved a good large stream, ascended by the late 
Mr. Beswick, and named by him the " Clara." Here begins the great 
Aroma district, which I afterwards travelled though with some danger. 
Behind this are the districts of Animarupu and Quaipo. In the former 
we found the people suffering from famine ; they were afraid to descend 
to the plains because of the Aroma tribe, and on the hills a long drought 
had killed off their food. They had much the appearance of Dahuni 
natives, and were different from those of the Aroma district. 

The Quaipo natives are of the Hood Bay tribe, that is Eerepunu, 
Kalo, Eamali, Babaga, and Hula, and I think Palauai and Sara belong 
to them also. Saroa is a very fine district behind Bound Head, with a 
large population. 

Along the coast ridges of Mount Astrolabe are several villages of 
natives belonging to the inland tribe of Koiari. On their first meeting 
with us they were somewhat troubled, but after a little, tobacco smoke 
had a wonderful effect in assuring them we were friends. 

To the west of Port Moresby I ascended the Edith river to beyond 
Doura. Since then that tribe has been nearly decimated, and the few 
lemaining seek shelter with Mr. Page, an excellent gentleman, who has 
had a large quantity of cedar cut in the neighbourhood, and who, where- 
ever he has been on New Ouinea, has shown himself a true Mend of the 
natives. Along the banks of the Edith there is very fine country which 
I believe the Protectorate Oovemment professes to have secured. I 
have at Doura met with natives from the western spurs of Mount Owen 
Stanley, and I once hoped through them to have ascended that moun- 
tain before I came to England. I deeply regret that your Mr. Forbes, 
for lack of money, has not been able to accomplish the ascent of Mount 
Owen Stanley, and I do hope he will not return to England until he 
has had the mountain under his feet. He is the only real explorer we 
have had. He has already done splendid service by his carefully prepared 
charts, and with his courageous wife, deserves the support and sympathy 
of all societies interested in science. I feel sure our great Australian 
colonies will assist him, and already Victoria has taken the initiative. 

West of Doura is Eabadi, the district that supplies Port Moresby 
with food during the months of scarcity. I ascended the Aroa river to 
the villages, and, after visiting them all, proceeded inland towards the 
Yule Bange, crossing various streams, which, when followed down, may 
be found to be the affluents of the Coombe's river that falls into the bay, 
just beyond Jokea. We passed through well wooded country, and, in 
some parts, large sago plantations. The women wear very little clothing, 
but the men are respectably covered. Like all inland natives, we found 
them very fond of salt. They were greatly delighted when, on my 
return to the coast, I left with them about 10 lbs. They are light- 



coloured, mncli like the Mekeo uativeB, who live at the back of HaU 
Sound, Between Kabadi and Hall Sound is Kaara^ a difitiiot of nine 
villageSi On my first appearance in one of their villages they were 
having a dance, so that we wore in their midst before we were noticed, 
I caused great constematioD, and the largo feather head-dreaaea wore 
thrown aside, and speara and clubs quickly Bought* We laughed at 
tliem, and just walked to a platform and sat down. We were soon 
friends, and well acquainted with one another through the pipe. 

The largo district of Mekeo Btretches from behind Hall Sound, and 
away towards Mount Yule. The Lolo district lies around Hall Sound, 
Maiva and Kivori lie between Hall Sound and Cape FosBession, and 
from that cape to Orokolo is what is called the Elema diBtrict. Tbeso 
have all been travelled through and friendly relations begun and con- 
tinued for some years. 

My first real inland trip was from Catamaran Bay to Discovery Bay, 
in Milne Bay, when I was accompanied by Mr. Chester, bo well known 
in connection with the Queensland annexation of the then unannexed 
part of New Guinea. We were everywhere well received. The range 
of mountains from the head of Milne Bay to China Straits, Cloudy 
Mountain, and on to Argyle Bay, have no connection with the great 
Owen Stjinley Kange, and I proposed Cidling tliis whole range th© 
** Lome Range/* 

At other times I have travelled inland from Port Moresby. In 
starting from this point I took what isj I suppose, the longest tramp yet 
mado in New Guinea. We went in by Munikahiia to Eikiri and Kupere^ 
and then turning east we travelled to Sogeri, thi'ough Moroka and 
Favere, and on to the McGillivray range, following the Kemp-Welch 
river, and cam© out at Kalo, in Hood Bay, Once an attempt was made 
to take us, but it failed. 

The country was very rough, and the travelling difficult, more so 
from having our own swags to c&rry. Frequently, when travelling in- 
land in new country, we have each had to carry our loads, and often from 
Bunris© to sunset. Natives refused to assist us, saying they were afraid 
to go to other places. The real motive for such refysal usually is the 
desire to prevent the traveller going on to others, who might thus share 
in the advantages of his barter goods. There is also the childish 
pleasure of being able to tell others they had seen a white man who 
is their friend and that he had given thorn prestints. 

I have several times been inland since, and my last trip was with 
Mr. Forbes, just before leaving New Guinea last May. We hoped to 
get natives to assist us to make a dash for Mount Owen Stanley, All 
was arranged, but when the mormog of the start broke, lo I our native 
friends had vanished; they started during the night for their owti 
villages, and we bad to return. Forbes had then to break up his camp 
and return to the coast. 




I have frequently revisited many of the plaoes whose names I have 
mentioned, and at not a few there are mission stations. Travelling 
slowly from tribe to tribe, and making friends ahead, I believe to be the 
best and safest plan for exploring New Guinea. The country will be 
better known, and the natives become real friends. After the first 
meeting with natives it does not do to be over familiar, as it is true in 
New Guinea as well as elsewhere that " familiarity breeds contempt." 
Kindness with firmness, and a good pinch of common sense will always 
help a man along and open up his way before him. 

I was long anxious to take a trip to the west in one of the trading 
canoes from Port Moresby. Yearly the lakatois, as they are called, 
leave port in. September or October, and go as far west as Elema, and 
]S^amau, the district lying around Cape Blackwood and Bald Head. 
They remain there until after the north-west monsoon sets well in, when 
they return with their cargoes of sago. 

At last an opportunity offered, and I took a passage in the Kevaubaday 
a lakatoi, made of three very large dug-out canoes. These are strongly 
lashed together, bulwarks ai*e built on, and at each end is a covered 
place for the captains and mates to sleep. In the centre was a raised 
place like a crate, and placing a plank on the top covered with a mat, I 
made that my berth. The last few days before sailing were devoted by 
the owners of the lakatois to sailing about the harbour and racing with 
one another. There wera altogether six lakatois to leave port that 
season. I selected the Kevauhada, because it was commanded by two 
men I felt greatly interested in ; Yaaburi, the great story-teller, and 
Aruako, the once robber chief of the Motu tribe. 

Two days before the fleet sailed, the place was all bustle, and men, 
women, and children were all alive, getting the pottery packed on board, 
and selecting from the accumulated stores of barter several articles most 
valuable for trading in the Elema district. When the morning had come 
the lakatois all start across the bay. Tears flow freely, and the wailing 
is loud and long, but becomes worse when the small canoes, mostly- 
occupied by wives and sweethearts, leave at Kohu, about two miles from 
port. Anchors — large, heavy stones — are taken on board, fiire wells are 
looked and said, and we are away for the west. A few men who havo 
played the part of pilots, leap into the sea at Idler's Bay and swim 
ashore, and so with a good fair breeze we soon come into Caution 
Bay. We had two large crab-toe shaped sails, and after seeing these 
all right, tears were dried and hehanas, their sea songs, were begun with 
the beating of gongs. Eemarking that we seemed to be going very 
slowly, I was answered, " Bemember we have just left, and all the friends 
are still holding on to us, wait until to-morrow and you will see." At 
midnight we anchored between Cape Suckling and Hall Sound, and in 
the early morning all were busy getting firewood and water on board. 
Little cooking had been done up till now. The captains had their food 




oooked in their own pots and on fires close to my quarters. Two men 
were speciallj^ told off to attend on tliem» "VVlien off particular parta of the- 
coast only certain kinds of food can be eaten, and not until we passed Yule 
Island were yams produced. Crossing the €d trance to Hall Sound several 
bunches of bananas were placed at each mast as an offering to the spirits 
who might hinder progress; and standing forward was our robber chief, 
shaking a bunch of cassowary feathers, and appealing for a good run< 
Tho tide runs with considorablo streugth into Hail Sonnd^ hence th& 
difficulty of keeping well out, and crossing safely. When we approached 
the Yule Island side, the chief went aft with his feathers, and went 
through the siime performance. Safely across the Soundj the siDgingt 
which had been stoppedj began again, and a number set to preparing' 
food, taking the bananas from the masts, and getting them ready for 

During the voyage, nothing was allowed to be thrown overboard. 
Fires were soon blazing on the platform running round the lakatoi, jiist 
outside the bulwarks, and general happine^^s prevailed. On the evening- 
of the fifth day, we were off the mouth of the Annie river, and just after 
sunset, crossed the bar in a terrific sea. When getting inside the- 
breakers, we were boarded by a noisy crowd of natives, who threatened 
to sink ns. In the dark the confusion was terrible, and it was not 
remarkably pleasant to ha%*e big dark savages throwing their arms 
round us to embrace. When it was reported I was on board, there was _ 
a terrific shout, and every one must come and make friends. I had with fl 
me a native lad from China Straits, and he too became an object of in- 
terest. On getting up to the village of Tailala, I landed and made 
friends with a chief, who gladly gave me accommodation in his diibu or 
temple. Many came to visit me from all parts during the few days I 
stayed* I was very anxious to visit Namau, the cannibal district around 
Bald Head, but could not move on until I had seen the two Orokolo 
chiefs, as I wanted thera to assist me. I found Orokolo and Namau 
were at enmity with ono another, and the Orokolo chiefs could only 
accompany me part of the way- 

When the two chiefs came in I gave them presents, which mj ho«t 
thought was wrong, and he became terribly vexed and expressed him- 
self in strong language, saying, no one had any business to come there 
and get presents from his white man, I too became vexed and ex- 
pressed myself in strong terms, saying, I must see my friends, and that 
all must come and see me, and no one must interfere ; that I cx^uld do 
what I liked with my own, and that seeing my host was angiy with my 
fritnds I should return to the lakatoi and remain on hoard until I left 
for tbe west, I went out on to the platform and called two of the crew, 
who came, when I told them in a loud voice to pick up my tilings and 
take them on boiird. Several had armed, and to a stranger to savages* 
affairs would have looked serious. When the lads were picking up my 


iion box the old chief came, threw his arms round me, and tears rolling 
down his cheeks, begged me to stay, that he was sorry, was my friend, 
and I conld always have my friends to see me. I gave him a small 
present, and he at once started, and got me some cooked sago. Many 
times in my travels I have had to take the same decided action. 

Arrangements were made with some natives who would all go as far 
as Orokolo, but only two would risk going further. Aruako, the robber 
chief, was to be my interpreter, and another Motuan, Aruadaera, to go 
as my friend. The night before, in the dark, Johnnie and I got some 
food and barter out so as to be ready for an early start in the morning. 
I left the greater part of my things in charge of the old chief, who 
proved faithful, for on our return everything was as we had left it. 

Johnnie had an old musket with him, of which he was proud, and 
for which I was thankful, as several times he supplied our larder 
with fresh meat. We travelled along the beach to Orokolo, and 
when some distance from the first village we saw a crowd of natives 
approaching, and at their head my friend Apohe the chief. The 
welcome was great, and we wore led up to a coco-nut plantation, 
where we were regaled with young coco-nuts that all enjoyed. After 
resting some time we continued our journey to Apohe's dubu, where we 
had again to rest, and had a supply of cooked sago and coco-nuts brought 
and laid before us. In the afternoon Apohe led us on to Mama, the 
other chiefs dubu. The old fellow, dressed with a small coloured 
bag I had given him on his head, and standing on the front platform of 
his dubu, called on us to come and take possession, and on ascending 
Apohe handed us over to him. 

The next morning, after breakfast we started, and were accompanied 
as far as the Alele, the mouth of a large river now seen for the first 
time. Seven years ago I sailed along the coast and saw the openings 
marked on the chart, and named them with the note that they were 
reported to be the mouths of a very large river. 

Our Orokolo friends returned, and natives from Maipua, one of the 
numerous large villages around Bald Head, to whom I had sent word 
a day or two ahead, came across in canoes and took us over. The 
canoes were different from all I have seen anywhere else ; a large log- 
of wood dug out, open at both ends, so that in a sea the water could 
wash right through, carved, and no outrigger. At first, being without 
an outrigger, and twenty-three restless excited natives on board, some 
standing, some sitting on the gunwales, and a few on small pieces of 
wood at the bottom, I felt dubious of our not being upset, but pulling 
well up the stream, because of the strong current, it being ebb tide, we 
safely crossed on to the other side. Beyond several small islands we 
saw the main stream, which by-and-by we were to cross. On the 
Ufamau side we were joined by a number of other canoes, and then 
proceeded along various winding creeks, which form islands, along the 



edges of which grows the nipa palm in graat abuudauce. In districts 
where the sago does not grow, and whore the nipa can "be had, the 
leaves are used for thatching* Passing through a large creek, wo camo 
to a wide opening into what proved to be a large river, and which 
1 named in honour of a friend the " Wickbam.'* We paddled up Bomo 
diistance* and saw where the Aide branches oi!*, and I feci very hopefnl 
that thiB discovery will he of use to us in future tmvels* I had not 
gone prepared to a^scend the river any great distance, so for the present 
contented niyaelf with what I had seen, and crossed over, descending 
on the other side to a creek, along which wo went. 

We were certainly a very merry company. My interpreter was in 
bis glory with old friends and an abundant supply of areca-nut. My 
friend was einging my praiees, and, altogether, I was certainly a 
wonderful being to these savago cannibals. A heartier, jollier lot of 
fellows I never want to bo amongst. They would paddle a little, then 
they would stop to inspect my feet, having persuaded m© to take my 
boots off, and all must come along and feel them. To exhibit my chest, 
I must stand up, throw my shirt aside, all must feel, and then they all 
gave one terrific shout. \V'hen wo iii'st went to the East End, I often 
exhibited mj' chest, until an old chief, who became much attached 
to Mrs. Chalmers, brought in to her a present of a man*s breast, saying 
it was the best piece, and she must have it. After that I was a little 
chary, and very seldom exhibited my chest. Now, although amongst a 
thorough-going lot of cannibals, I felt we were such good friends that 
I willingly did it. 

It was now evident we were noaring a village from the number 
of canoes al»ut, and at last I was asked to stand up in the 
canoe, orders given to all others to sit down, and all other canoes 
ordered out of the way. My new-made friend, the chief, Tpaivaitani, 
sat near me, and when we entered the village, called out raj name, and 
intimated I was his friend. Accustomed though I had been for years to 
native towns and villages, this was certainly quite a new experience. 
Everywhere people standing on the bank of the creek, all noisy, but not 
a weapon to be seen. Large and av ell-built houses, with great figures in 
front painted on native cloth. Streets formed by laying logs of trees 
along the swamp in front of the houses ; everywhere small creeks in- 
tersecting the town, over which bridges of wotxl were built ; and, as we 
paddled along, crowds ran on to meet us at my friend's wharf. 

Never before had I seen a town or village built in a swamp that at every 
high tide was covei-ed. Everybody appeared well, hearty, and really 
happy, I landed on a tolerably well-built wharf, and walked along a 
kind of bridge to a very large platform in frout of Ipaivaitani's dubu. He 
himself led me by the hand, women and children remaiuing behind, 
men and youths preceding and following, until we came to the dubu 
itself, where I was met by a number of old men, who waved their 



hands and bade me welcome. Inside and on each side of the long 
beaatifnl aisle, were seated yonng men, legs crossed and arms folded, 
not speaking a word, whilst I was led down the aisle by the 
chief, followed by the old men, mitil we came to near the end, where 
we stayed a few minutes, and I was then told to return, on doing 
which, all the seated ones rose, followed me out, and general conversation 
went on. That I was presented to the gods I have no doubt, and that I 
was received in a friendly spirit was just as sure. The temple, for a native 
building, was really good. In front was the large platform, and imme- 
diately under the great high peak in front was a large verandah, on 
which the men sat, sheltered from the sun and rain. Eising from the 
verandah were three large posts, supporting what I have called the 
peak, about 80 feet high. Standing just inside these posts, I looked 
down an aisle nearly 200 feet in length. All down either side was hang 
with what looked like splendid silk cui-tains, and these were made from 
the young frond of the sago palm split up when quite new. The flooring 
of the aisle, two feet broad, appeared to be a dark-stained highly polished 
wood, and carved with figures of men, crocodiles, and cassowaries ; this 
was made from the skin of the sago palm, and received its high polish 
from the blood of victims dragged along to the end where the most 
sacred place was, and the constant tread of numerous feet. Inside, the 
whole plaoe was divided into compartments, in each of which were fires, 
where the owners spent much time in eating and sleeping. In a large 
open space near to the sacred place were pins to hang skulls on. These 
during our visit were down, being cleaned and dressed ; and, having a 
compartment dose by, I had a good opportunity of seeing them — in fact, 
some being too new, I found a difficulty in getting through my light 
dinner prepared by Johnnie. The skulls were all carved^ and done 
over with many colours. A feast would soon bo on, and the heaps of 
skulls would disappear, because all would find their places on the 
skullery pins. That head-gear once belonged to inland natives, who 
were killed, brought into the dubu, presented to the gods, then cooked 
and eaten. 

The length of the temple was, as I have said nearly 200 feet. The 
floor was quite level, but the roof tapered from the high peak until at 
the farther end it was not more than nine feet high. At that end 
there was an enclosure which no natives went near, and I was anxious 
to know what was inside. I was told not to go near, as it was very 
sacred, and death would be the fate of any who attempted to enter, 
except those whose duty it was. My interpreter and my friend would not 
come near, and I begged the chief to allow me to enter. He kept some 
distance off, and begged me to remain outside. My interpreter, seeing 
my great anxiety to enter, told them I was a queer fellow, went every- 
where, saw everything, and no harm came to me, and perhaps it would 
be so now. I was allowed on that to enter, but no one would accompany 



me» When my eyes became accustomed to tlie darkness I saw six wicker- 
made gods with the mouth of a frog, enormously large and open, the body 
of a dugong, iBeastiring about nine feet in length and seven feet high. 
Altogether they were hideous looking things. I put my hand into the 
mouth of one, and was somewhat startled when out flew dozens of 
email bai^, which disturbed those in the other images, and soon the 
whole place was full. Outside they were in great consternation and 
begged me to retreat, as I would certainly die. I told them I was all 
right, and when I had seen a little more I should return to them. The 
following morning J again entered with on© of the sorcerers whose duty 
it was to attend therein. My interpreter was just outside, coming 
nearer than the day before, and the old man who accompanied mo told 
me they, the images, were very sacred, and called Kanibu. Before 
going to fight they were consulted, and also in sickness, death, or 
trouble. Bo<lie8 of the slain, pigs, armsheUs, and other Taluables were 
presented to them. Bodies of the slain were dragged down the long 
aisle, and placed just outside, near to the partition, where they w^ere left 
for some time, then dragged to the outside and disposed of. The idols 
were greatly feared, and no one even spoke disrespectfully of them. 

The peak or cap resting on the long posts over the verandah at the 
entrance was thickly studded with arrows. When the tribe have made 
a successful raid on their inland enemies, each warrior on his return to 
the dubu shoots an arrow into the cap in honour of Kaniba. 

There were several other dubns in the place, larger and smaller than 
the one I have described. 

My interpreter and friend spent the evening and on until I retired 
to re«t about midnight, telling what they heard at Port Moresby, and 
what they conld remember of the teaching. I spread my blanket on 
the platform^ and with my few clothes and boots for a pillow I was 
soon asleep. The morning sun shining straight upon me, roused me, and 
I was astonished to hear the robber chief still holding forth but very 
hoarse. All night through he was telling them all he oonld remember 
and answering questions. Polygamy is very prevalent, and many of 
their customs are, to say the least, very peculiar. 

The natives live chiefly on sago, and have only very small planta- 
tions. In the creek were rafts of sago palms ready for sago preparation, 
and along the banks of all the creeks were women beating and squeezJDg 
the pith. 

Wishing to visit the whole district, I was decidedly, though good- 
humouredly, given to understand I must not. They wanted the great 
honour of first reporting my visit, and then, when I returned to see 
them again, I shonld be taken everywhere as their friend. 

My return was the occasion of a kind of holiday. Men, women, and 
children accompanied us in their canoes. Having tried tu interest them 
the night before by singing a song, they got me to sing again, to the 



great delight and amus©moDt of alL It is au aocompliahment I became 
4iware of possessing only after my arrival in New Guinea. Often have 
I seen hundreds of tiavages wild %vith delight when " Auld Lang Syne** 
was snng, and the enthusiasm passed describable bounds when the 
joining of hands took place, and then all would seek to do the same, 
and imitate our singing with shouting, 

I parted from these cannibal children of nature, hoping to return, 
ind I still hopo that soon after my arrival in New Guinea I shall be 
able to revisit Namau, and from there do something more to open 
tip that great and interefiting island* 

OapUin W, B, Kendelbson, iun., said that his knowledge of New Guinea was very 
afiglii iodeed, compared with that poABessed by Mr. Chalmers. He was Gommaader 
of the Nelson and wai ia New Guinea for about ^vq weeks during the proclamation 
of the Protectorate; he had brought to the meeting a collection of weapons at the re- 
questor the Secretary. The only two occasions ou which he went inland were when 
be went a day*s cruise from Port Moresby, when ho attempted to ascend the Cloudy 
MoQQtainB from Cape South. He succeeded in getting op the moimtaiu, about 3000 
feet above the level of the sea, and there spent the night. Oe had a very liard climb 
A?w steep precipices, aod when he reached that elevation he could see nothing, because 
ef the thick bosh. People who had never been to New Guinea had not the faintest 
COQoeptioQ of the state in which the natives existed. They lived in what were 
known aa village communities, not having yet reached the tribal state. Along the 
QQUt he believed there were ahout eight distinct languages, and these included a 
nry large number of dialects, but there was no chief who had supreme power, or, so 
far as he waa aware, any power beyond two or three villages. For the purposes of 
Cnde, the inhabitants of diflerent districts paid visits along the coasts, hut their 
fights and their quarrels were between themselves, one village having a feud with 
mother speaking the same language. A person who wanted to travel there could 
iu>t ^t portera to take him from one village to another^ because the natives were 
tfrild to go on account of these feuds. Their religion was a form of ancestor wor- 
skip; they appUed to the witch, or sorcerer, or spiritist, about everything that went 
wmng. They had not tho slightest knowledge of any natural cause, and every ill 
(hat happened to them was put down as being caused by the spirit of some dec-eosed 
snoestor, or probably by the spirit of some one in a neighhouring village. If a death 
happened, naturally, accidentally, or in 6ght, it was a case of blood for blood ; and 
when an illness t<Jok place, the sorcerer said, *" It is somebody, or tho spirit of some- 
body, in a neighbouring village who has caused this," and then the friends were bound 
to have blood for blood. It did not matter much whether it was a man, a woman, or 
a child, as long as they snooeeded in killing some one belonging to the village with 
which for the time being they had a feud. With regard to the weapons, from 
i^nrt Moresby as far east as Elema, they used bows and arrows, samples of which 
be exhihited to the meeting* but to the westward of Port Moresby there was a strong 
dividing line beyond which only si>ears and clubs were used. All their spears 
were made of coco-nut wood, with no metal at all. Like all savages, if they could 
take an adversary unawares they would do so, and if they could surprise a vilhige 
or a canoe they would put the occupants to death ; but if they actually met in 
fi^t, they threw their spears at one another from a distance, challenging one 
mother to personal combat. On one of the iCillcrton Islands two neighbouring 
▼Ulages had had a 6ght the day previously to his visit. Three men had been 

Uy wounded with flesh wounds from spoarsy and they came to tl^ie native 



teacher's house to bo dressed. These spears inflict very serious wounds, tearing 
the flesh. A stoce club simply consisted of a ronnd wooden handle with a sharp 
areolar piece of Btone at (he end* The wooden clubs would stun a man, but 
the stone onea would cut his head open. The natives lived in a stete of abject 
fear, life being abeolutely uncertato. They never knew when a mid might be 
made tipon them* When they went to their barter or t4> cultivate their plantations, 
tliey did not know but what an attack might be maile Ufion them. One of their 
weapons was a man-catcher. If when two tribes were fighting one put the other to 
flight, the pursuers lassoed their enemies with tlie man -catcher over the head, and ft 
sharp point behind piked them in the back of the neck. He was told that that weapon 
was also ti&ed in the Malay Archipelago, The people had no knowledge of metal, 
and were living in a stone age. The large canoes were hollowed out with stone 
aOzcs. The natives were beginning to know the value of iron now, hut they had 
no means of working iL For ornaments, about Port Moresby and to the 
westward, they wore large bones through their noses, from six to nine inches long. 
A more valuable form was a piece cut out from a large shell and ground down. 
Their ears hung down and had tremendous gaahea in them in which they put 
rough tortoise-shell earrings. Wives were purchased with din^^o and wallaby teeth 
and shell necklaces, these latter being ground down with great labour, and armlets 
cut out from shells. Throughout the whole length of the coast the natives chewed 
the betel-nut, using with it lime. Every native carried with him a gourd with lime 
made from burnt sheila, and when they were chewing the betel-nut they put their 
wooden knives into the gourd and then sucked them. They grew tobacco of their 
own, though they much preferred European tobacco ; their manner of smoking was 
very peculiar, they sat down in a circle, a small cigarette was wrapped up in a leaf 
and put in what might be called their pipe— a piece of bamboo open at one end ; on© 
man then applied hia mouth to the end and drew as hard as be could till he had 
filled the tube with smoke ; then he removed the cigarette and handed the pipe to 
the senior man present, who, putting his mouth to the small hole, drew out as much 
smoke as be could at one inspiration, the process being repeated for No. 2 and so on. 
They made armlets and necklaces from different kinds of teeth. Their shields were 
of primitive form, made of wood ornamented with matting and feathers. He greatly 
regretted that New Guinea and the Western Pacific had not been studied by some 
student of primitive culture, for yery soon the present customs of the people would 
disappear. He believed an immense amount of information might be obtained by 
those who were capable of tracing out primitive customs. To the west of Fort 
Moresby the canoes were hollowed out from big trees. A large mat sail was used, 
and they could only sail with wind free, but further to the east the form of the 
canoe was different, the sides were built up of boards, which were fjecured to one 
another with fibre, the holes made to pass the laehing through being caulked 
with gum from a tree to prevent leakage. These canoes sailed very well on a wind, 
but the natives were not what might he called skilful sailors^ even in the arrange- 
ment of thefr own canoes. The houses were everywhere built on piles from six to 
eight feet out of the ground, in some places very substantially. In Port Moresby and 
district^ which was the centre of the Protectorate, the houses were built in the sea 
and in lagoons, and were esactlj' similar to the lake dwellings of prehistoric times. 
For eight months of the year the south-east trad© wind blew, and of course the 
mountains on the south-eastern peninsula condensed the vapour winch it brought, 
so that part of the country was exceedingly wet, while the western part was dry. 
The iseason changed in October or No¥ember, and from the beginning of the year the 
north-west monsoon blew in an opposite direction until April ; this was the wet 
season in the west. On the whole, the eastern end of New Guinea was exceedingly 




wtl Many people imagiDed New Guinea was a place adapted for ooloDtsatioii, but 
tlKsewho thought so forgot the conditions. The climate was unhealtby, the popu- 
litioD 9CAnty> the amount of knd used for cnltitation exceedingly small, anti 
IIk satires were in a state unfitted for labour. They coutd not be depended ui)nn 
fcr labotir, and in a country situated between the Equator and ICP south it was 
impossible for Europeans to undertake outdoor labour ; thert!rore colonisation meant 
the introduction of cooUes or of some race that could labour in the tropics, which 
wrold inevitably lead to the extermination of the natives. It should also be born© 
in misd that the amount of tropical products required for the civilised countries 
of the world was very gmalT, the necessities of life came from temperate regions, 
TC^ little besides spices and coffee came from cltmeu such as New Gninea. The 
D*tiTes of New Guinea no more understood what contimioua labour meant than 
bmr to fly; they were simply accustomed to live from day to day, to getting 
jtifit tbe amonnt of food they wanted, building their houses and making tbeir 
weapoDB and ornaments; generations must pass ^^efore they would have the slightest 
biowledge of the relations between masters and servants as understood in civilised 
OMtntrie!S. To soddenly change their condition from the primitive state in which 
ifceyst prtssent exist would mean exterminrition for them. The London Miasiooarj^ 
Socjfty, through Mr. Lawes and Mr, Chalmers, have rendered New Guintsa accessible 
to EoTOpemna. Their mode of operations is as follows i — they put Polynesian 
tucben, who are superior to the Papuans by several degrees, into selected stations 
tloDg the ooMt ; being bom Christians^ and being able to read and write, they very 
•OCQ leafn the languages of the natives amongst whom they dwell. These native 
taehtiB were left alone, a small cottage hewing bui!t for them, and as they were 
wpcrior beings they soon acquired great power and influence among the natives, who 
Wfflit to them in their troubles, and whose chiefs looked up to them. In his opinion 
it if only by working on these Imes that improvement can take plBCe, that is, by 
introducing people from the Western Pacific, who were akin to tlio&e in New 
Goinea, who sympathised with them and understood their feelings, but did not 
oind their childishness, and could gra<lually teach them to cultivate the land and to 
iwk. He was sure that any other form of colonisation would work mischiefs Of 
cottne one other thing should be done, namely, to conFolidate the jx)wer of the most 
Jiromising chiefs : if the Wv^h. CommiBsiotJcr pelectcd the most jxiwerful chief in 
My district,, and was able to consolidate his power, it must tend to the advantage of 
tbe natives generally. There was plenty of room for eiploration. Nothing was 
really known of the interior; there might be valuable land and minemls, when 
rewttTces of that sort were found it would be tim«* etiODgh to think of permitting and 
controlling colonisation by whites. There was one case in which a chieftaineas 
wielded power, but she was the only woman in New Guinea known to do so* 

Mr. G. R. AsKWtTH said he went with Sir Peter Scratchley on his lato expedl- 
to New Guinea, and he could speak to the tnith of the descriptions given by 
aimers and Captain FIender?on, Mr, Chalmers was a most wonderful man in 
t to exploration in South-eastern New Guinea, He had seen far more there than 
lay other white man, and had travelled over country as different as the barren land 
Tooud Port Moresby is fmm the tropical region of Dufaure Island, He had mighty 
mfiaence with the natives whether as arbitrator, or friend, or rellgloiis teacher^ or 
toroerer^ or as all of these, and it might be that he had taught some to believe in one 
Supreme Being who«e influence was for good, rather than in the host of devils and 
ghosts of the dead by whom they were wont to believe that they were oppressed. 
In New Guinea, as in other savage countries, pioneers had a very difficult task 
before ihenu One difficulty was the want of chiefs, and another the lack of carriage. 
'i\e want of chiefs made it almost imix>ssible for a traveller to go far from a friendly 

J viddet! 

H^ to 



village, because no chief had suflident power to give convoy for defence, but 
Sir Peter Scratchley hoped that in time be might be able to raise the importance 
of the head-men. In Burnm the mtTno difficulty arose. The Buddhist priesU there, 
to a certain extent, took llie place of the chiefs, but in New Guinea the sorcerers 
had not ao much power as the priests in Bnrma« One way of spreading British in- 
fluence in the bland would be to establkh Commissioners at various points along 
the coast, especially if these CommiBsioners should have aome knowledge of medicine. 
Fever, skin diseases, and leprosy opened up a vast field there, through which men 
with some medical knowledge oouM gain influence amongst the natives. With 
regard to the carriage of goods, of course^ a European could not carry ranch in such j 
SL tropic-al climate, and in addition to that, the means of barter were extremely 
reetricted. Tobacco was of the greatest imijortance. At Port Moresby the mission 
house really lived by tobacco, but he would be afraid to say that a traveller could 
cross New Guinea by means of tobaoco. At the mission house no service could be 
secured without imyment in tobacco, which was really the current coin of the 
country. The worst of it was that the demand for tobacco was small. The 
natives were very soon satisfied, and then they would not do any more work till their 
supply ran out. Mr, Forbes found at his camp that that was the chief difficulty, and 
so he tried to use rice, a great quantity of which he had brought for his Malay ser- 
vants. The natives liked it far better than their yamsj and would soon do anything 
for rice. 

The Rev. Dr. WrI'^ht said that New Guinea was first sighted by d*Abreu, but 
the principal exploration there had taken place during the last ten years. From 
what he had just heard, he believed there was ho|>e for the future. Thanks to the 
London Missionary Society, there were men along the coast who now bad friendly 
rektions with the people, and were able safely to pass in and out among them. 
Four of the Gospels were now printed in the language of Port Moresby, m that 
those interested in philology and comjmrative gmmmar could study the language. 
There was a large mixture of Malay as well as Papuan in the language, and there 
was evidently a Unguiatic relationship between all the islands of those seas. The 
language of the little island of Saliai also had been reduced to a written form, and 
one Gospel had been printed in the language of South Cape* From the languages, it 
might be possible to find what the people themselves were, and what position they 
occupied in the history of the world, 

Mr. K. N. CusT said it was more than 1CK> years ago that Captain Cook dis* 
covered the islands of the South Sea. Within a few years afterwards the London 
Missionary Society was formed, and that society had led to most marvellous dis- 
coveries in geography and philology. They started at Tahiti, spread on towards the 
Loyalty Islafids in the direction of New Caledonia, and when the time came moved 
forward to New Guinea, Mr. Chalmera belonged to that society. From island to 
island their agents went, spreading civilisation and carrying the greatest blessings 
that could be receiTed by the human race. All the great Continental scholars had 
received with astonishment the communications which came from the South Seas, 
Four languages had already been discovered by Mr. Lawes and Mr. Chalmers, and 
many more were in process of being discovered. They and other men of the same 
stamp had exposed themselves to i>eril and danger, carrying their lives in their 
hands, and had contributed to Science in the most marvellous way. 

Captain Weaeton (Hydrographer to the Admiralty) wished to give bis testi- 
mony to the great utility of missionaries not only in New Guinea but in other t>arts 
of the world. This had been brought home to him very practically in Ids position 
as 8Ui»ervising the surveying ships of Her Majesty's Navy. Some forty years ago, 
when Captain Owen Stanley made the first survey of South New Gumea in the 



BoHUsnake^ he met with very great difiBculties everywhere on account of the hoe- 
tili^ of the natives. There were now, however, two surveying vessels there, and 
their laboors had been very much lightened by the missionaries. He was glad to 
have this opportunity of thanking Mr. Chalmers for the great assistance he had 
been to those vessels. He had just received a letter from the commander of one of 
the ships, who owed his life, indirectly, to the missionaries. The latter said : " I had 
a narrow escape myself last month, if native report is true. I had taken a station 
near the coast-line about two months before, and on passing it I landed for a few 
minntes to get a few more angles. I had the son of the native teacher of Dinner 
Island with me as interpreter, and took one blue-jacket, and — I suppose for the only 
time I ever landed in New Guinea — I omitted to take our pistols from the boat. It 
appears that the natives, supposing I should revisit the spot I had marked, had 
decided to tomahawk us, and had laid their plans. These matters are invariably 
talked over first, and seldom is a murder committed without consultation. They 
then discovered I had the native boy with me, whose father has considerable influ- 
ence everywhere, and while they were discussing this new phase we had landed and 
cleared off again before they had done their talking. This information came to 
Mr. Forbes, and he warned me." 

Dr. DoTLB Geakyille, in response to a request to address the meeting, said 
he was quite unprepared to say anything at present, but he hoped to have an 
opportunity on sL future occasion of laying before the Society an account of his 
jonmeys in New Guinea, supplemented by some sketches. 

Sir Rawson Rawson said that of course climate was an exceedingly important 
matter when colonisation had to be considered. About three years ago he had 
occasion to make inquiry into the climate of New Guinea, and he found that the 
whole of the south coast was scarcely habitable by Europeans, that there was only 
one pcnnt, Port Moresby, at which any Europeans were living, and that even Port 
Moresby itself was very unhealthy. He wished to ask Mr. Chalmers what infor- 
mation he could give with regard to the climate on the coast, and as to any 
improvement as the interior was penetrated? Did he think the coast would 
become more healthy by means of clearing and drainage? Captain Henderson 
considered that the natives were so indisposed to labour that nothing could be 
made out of them, but Mr. Chalmers at the Colonial Institute said they were 
prepared to labour for the purpose of barter, and that they carried the fruits of 
their labour to the western part of the island in order to purchase sago and other 
commodities. If this were so, all that was needed was that they should be 
educated to work, and then they might become an able and useful class of labourers- 
in their own interest. 

Mr. Ejebbt Nichols said that he visited New Guinea some ten years ago, and 
had always been of opinion that there were two races there, — the Papuan extending 
along the western coast, the southern portion of the Gulf of Papua, and the Malayan 
in the eastern portion of the island, while further still the Papuans were found in 
the New Hebrides, and as far south as New Caledonia. He wished to ask Mr. Chal- 
mers whether he had been able to trace the distribution of races to any considerable 

Rev. J. Chalmubs in reply said that the climate of New Guinea, not only on the 
coast, but inland, was very unhealthy. For some time teachers resided close to the 
Owen Stanley range, and their experience was that it was just as unhealthy as the 
coast A few years ago the Melbourne Argus expedition failed because all the party 
got sick, and several of them had to be carried back to the coast by the natives. With 
reference to labour, he would say that the New Guineans would not work as 
between master and servant, but if they were left to plant and raise what they could 

No. n.— Feb. 1887.] h 



barter foT themselves they would do it. They would work for three days and then 
aifc atill for a day : on the fifth day they might come to work again for two daya, 
hut then there would ho another day set apart for trade. He looked upon them as 
a hard-working lot of natives, doing a great deal more plant ing than the islanders of 
the South Pacific ; but if a capitalist went there and roquir^ them to work from 
dtx to BIX, and from Monday bo Saturi5ay, he would not get them to do it^ He did 
not see the necessity of taking the laud from the natives when they could be en- 
couraged to plant that which would be of use to Europeans. Why should Java and 
the islands in the eastern seas alone supply our spice^ when it could be grown by 
the natives of New Guinea? He believed that the western part of the island 
down to Cape Possession was inbabited by the Papuans. From Cape Posaeaaion to 
Hall Sound there was a meeting of races, words of both the Malay and Papuan 
language being spoken. The Malays were, ho believed, fighting their way from 
the far west on the north coast, and had come down to Huon Gulf. He coosidGred 
that the Papuans were in possession of the country from Goodenough Bay to Huon 
Gulf. He had been three times on that coaat^ and had paid many visits to the shore, 
and the natives there were pure Papuans, while from Goodenough Bay round to Cape 
Piissesaion they were of Malay origin. 

Captain H^kdersdn said he considered the natives were in such a state that they 
did not understand labour in the European sense ; tbey worked hard for themselves, 
but it was spasmodic work. 

The Chairman offered to Mr, ChalmerB the thanks of the Society for Ms ex- 
tremely interesting paper, which had given rise to so inatmctive a diecussion. He 
was quite sure the members would join him in congratulating themselves on haviDg 
had present with them a gentleman whose reputation waa so celebrated among 
geographers as one of the forerunners of civilisation in a very distant part of the 
earth. Thoy must all hoi>e that he would return to the scene of his past labours, 
and that the Society would receive the advantage of those labours, and that the 
people among whom he worked would have the very great benefit of his a8siBta.nce 
Jn the paths of civilisation* 

T}te Physical Geografky of Japan^ with EemarJcs on the Peuph, 

By Dr. Edmukd Naomann. 

Hap, p. 140. 

In 1875 I entered into an agreement with the Japanese Government, 
accepting the position of professor of geology at the School of Mines at 
Tokio. On my arrival in Japan I fonnd that the school had been broken 
up, and in consequence a new engagement was signed, entrusting me 
with a professorship of geology, mineralogy, and mining at the TJni- 
versity of Tokio. In 1878 and 1879 I submitted to the Japanese 
Government a memoir on the adrisability of a geological survey being 
undertaken, with special reference to the economical requirements of 
the country* My proposals were accepted, and I was ©ntruated with the 
general direction and control of the survey, a yearly sum of abont 10,OOOZ. 
heing allotted for its cost ; and after the necessary preparations had been 
made, field work was commenced in September 1880* At the outset the 
staff consisted of four foreigners and twenty-two Japanese asBiBtants. 


The nnmber of foreigners was however soon reduced, and I was 
obliged to take the entire burden of conducting the topographical and 
the geological suryeys upon myself. Owing also to deficiencies in the 
staff, the lack of funds, and the generally unsettled state of the country, 
the surveys could not be carried out in so perfect a fashion as I 
<x>uld have wished. It may be mentioned that aU the assistants and 
•draughtsmen had to be trained to their work, before the surveys could be 
carried on systematicaUy. A further obtacle of some magnitude was 
encountered when the question of publication arose. Many experiments 
had to be made before the method which has been employed for the pro- 
duction of the printed maps could be perfected. That most of the diffi- 
culties mentioned have been happily overcome is a circumstance, in a 
great measure, due to the intelligence and zeal of my Japanese co- 

The Japanese islands are no other than the most elevated portions of 
an enormous chain of mountains, rising from the ocean bed, the deepest 
that has ever yet been fathomed. An idea of the considerable differences 
of level existing in this region may be formed by conceiving that two 
mountains like Fujinoyama, whose summit, the highest in the Japanese 
archipelago, attains an altitude of 12,425 feet, could be placed one upon 
the other in the deepest part of the Tuscarora basin without projecting 
above the surface of the sea. In fact, the summit of Figinoyama rises 
no less than 39,853 feet above the deepest part of the neighbouring 
ocean. In no part of the world does an area of such comparatively 
narrow extent as that comprising the Fujisan and the Tuscarora basin 
show such enormous differences of level. Considering the Japanese 
chain as one continuous mass, the lowest parts of which are submerged, 
this great wave of the earth's surface bears the same relation to the 
Pacific basin as the Himalaya mass does to the Indian peninsula. The 
dimensions of these two colossal earth-waves are almost equaL The 
figures given might lead to the erroneous supposition that a very steep 
slope exists on the Pacific side. On the contrary, the ocean-bed on that 
side rises very gradually to the coast-line, making an angle of not more 
than about 3*^, whilst on the opposite side'the inclination is very slight 
indeed. The general character of the Japanese earth-wave establishes 
its close relation to the Asiatic continent. In fact, it is nothing else 
than the advanced frontier of Asia, and not a chain of volcanic ejections 
accumulated over a fissure in the ocean-bed, as certain famous geographers 
of past periods conjectured. 

Examining the chain more closely, we find that innumerable 
excavations have been made in its surface by erosion ; that it shows a 
peculiarly furrowed aspect ; and that certain extensive depressions and 
cuttings are in accordance with the laws of orographic configuration. 
To understand its formation we are under the necessity of uncovering 
the surface, and of consulting the geological structure of the chain. It 

11 2 



woTild have be<in impossible for any'slcillecl topographer to have arrivedT 
at such an uixdorBtanding of the orography aa to ©atahlieh the natural 
divisions of the mountain maes as a whole, even after many years* more 
Biirvej'ing than I have devoted to the subject, without Btndying it» 
geology. So my explanations wonhl be quite unintelligible if IJ 
neglected to point out the fundamental laws of geological structure, ^ 

According to recent investigations, the formation of mountain chains 
is due to the continnal contraction of the earth through secular cooling. 
Strata deposited by the great water-basins in a horizontal position are- 
pushed and raised into folds. In connection with the folding action due 
to lateral pressure, the strata often split into a number of sections, and 
through the fissures igneous niaases rising from greater depths find their 
way. Observation proves the Japnneee chain to consist of a long series 
of foldsj and these folds run as a rule in the same direction iis the island 
chain itself In some places, however, they are diverted from their nor- 
mal course. The greatest regidarity of structure is met with in the 
southern part of the chain, where three diflerently shaped and differently 
constructed zones, indicated by Shikokn, the Inland Sea, and Chugoku, 
can be diBtingiiished. Here the folds are strictly parallel to the general 
direction of the chain* But if we fidlow them in an eastward direction, wo 
find that they all curve upwards, and this the more intensely the nearer 
we get to a large transversal depression, a kind of cleft or fisHUre in 
which a number of volcanoes have sprung up. Fujinoyama, for instance, 
is situated in this cross fissxii*6. On the other side of the cleft the folds 
describe a still more decidedly abnormal curvature. They imitate the 
shape of a hook, with its inner side turned towards the Japan Sea, 
Northward from the cleft as far as the latitude of Sado and Bondai, the 
folds run for the most part transversely to the island chain. Undoubtedly 
the disturbance in the regular folding is more marked in Northern 
than in Southern Japan. Still further northward, however, they resume 
a normal direction. All the phenomena of geological structure hitherto 
observed tend to show that a pushing or thrusting movement acting 
from the side of tho Sea of Japan has caused the folds to rise and to 
advance in the direction of the Pacific Ocean. This advance could not 
however, take place regularly everywhere. The horijBontal forward 
movement was checked at the point where at present the chain is fonnd 
to be split by an enormouB fissure. According to my view, this great 
and most interesting disturbance was caused by the close appro*ich of 
another largo chain of mountains stretching from the Tokio Bay down 
to the Benin Islands, and styled the Shichito chain. This opinion is 
principally supported by the fact of the two chains being connected just 
where the disturbance occurs. 

The irregularity just deRcribed is not tho only one met with. It 
must be remarked that the folds, besides Ixsing disturbed bv the great 
transversal cleft, are not continuous throughout, even where a regular 





course is obeerved* Tkbi in oa account of the oliain baving been tora 
into a number of sections, wkich have then atlvauood unequally. The 
island of Yesso is furthest advanced, and the nurthern portion of the 
main island more so than the section lying between the cleft and the 
latitude of Sendai. I have indicated thtt approximate lines of dislocation 
in the accompanying map. Another dLslocatlon of this kind, though of 
smaller extent, ia shown by the disconnection between the crystal schists 
of the Kii peninsula and the band of the same system in Mikawa. 

In addition to the foregoing general remarks on the geological 
structure of the Japane&e ittlands, attention may bo called to the exist- 
ence of extensive longitudinal hssurc^ through which igneous masses 
have issued during past ages. Volcanoes and volcanic action play a 
rery humble part in the Idstory of this development. If we compare, 
as has been dune by old geographers, the Japanese chain and the other 
chains girding Eaatem Asia to garlands of flowers, then the volcanoes 
might l>e likened to small pearls tbi^caded among these garlands* In the 
mountains of Japan fossils of the remotest periods are met with» and no 
doubt can prevail but that those homontal movements described above 
commenced at a very early date, and have continued with varying foroo 
down to our own day. One of the most interesting of the fosBil-yieldiug 
rockfi is that which I have oalled ** Kadiolarian slate," a rock filled with 
^autifuUy shaped microscopicid skeletons of animal life of a low order. 
These slates are of great geological age and of marked interest, in- 
asmuch ae tlieir composition proves them to be of a formation corre- 
Bponding to that of the mud from the deepest part of the ocean bed. 
We learn from these slates that the Japanese chain, or a large pai't of 
it, was submerged deep beneath the ocean surface during some portion 
of the PalsBOKoic em. The Eadiolarian slate is a deep-sea sediment, 
and perhaps the oldest sediment of this kind known. 

I wish to draw attention to the magnetic map of the Japanese 
islands. It will be perceived that there is a most remarkable corre- 
spondence between the lines of equal declination (the Trogones) and the 
leading lines of geological structui-e abuvc described. In general the 
magnetic lines exhibit very striking and quite unexpected irregularities, 
and these irregularities are found to be in most intimate connection 
with the abnormal curvatures of the folds. The serious discussion 
which followed the reading of a paper of mine before the Seismological 
fiociety of Japan in 1882 showed how far these irregularities were un- 
expected. For my own part, I was convinced from the very beginning 
of the geological survey, at a time when the magnetic data were still 
scanty, that there must bo a connection between those phenomena which 
AT© caused by the magnetic force of our globe and the internal condition 
of the earth's crust or of the earth itself. With this point in view I 
started the magnetic investigations. In a comparatively short time the 
general magnetic survey, comprising no leas than two hundred complete 



observatioDB at a liie numljer of stations, was aocompliBhed Lj Mr. 
Sekin^j, one of my former topographical assistants. The reaiilts aro 
oxtremely sat i.s factory*. It will bo observed that the magnetic lines aro 
influenced in their course by the great transveraal cleft just in tlie 8ame 
manner as the folds. Wo might even say that the deviations of tho 
linet^ of equal declination and the fold lines coincide to a certain extent. 
Where ono of the great lines of horizontal dislocation, separating two 
unequally advanced eections of the Japanese Archipelago^ crosses the 
chain, the trogones describe bends and sinuo^iities of a moat pecnltar 
character. These rosnlte open an entirely new field of research, and I 
hope that they may be an inducement to a continuation of similar 
investigations, bo that some light may be thrown npon those still very 
obscure pages relating to the causes of magnetism and to the internal 
condition of the earth. 

Among the two hundred declination values obtained by Mr, Sekino^ 
the highest was obtained for a plate near 3ilorioka, in Northern Japan, 
where the declination amounted to over 7^, which is considerably more 
than in any other part of the country. This proves the existence of 
some local abnormity, a fact stipported by resulta of another kind which 
I will mention. At the beginning of the present century a Japanese 
astronomer named Ino Tadayoshi undertook by order of the Government 
a survey of the whole country, in course of which the coast and a few of 
the more important roads were laid down pretty accurately. This work 
is of the highest historical and flciontific iiitorc^t^ and would well deserve 
to bo dealt with in a si)eoial paper. Ino Tadayoshi had heard and read 
in foreign books of the variation of the comjias-^. Nevertheless he denied 
its existence. He even went so far as to attribute the declination ob- 
served by Europeans to an error in the oompaeses used by them, and to 
maintain that the fact of his own compass-needles constantly pointing 
due north was owing to the superiority of his instruments^ which he 
always constructed himself. Now we know that the variation is at 
present increasing in Japan about 4' per annum, and that it has l^een 
increasing for a considerablo time past. This furnishes an explanation 
of Ino*B obstinacy. Because the zero meridian, the meridian of no 
declination, passed through Japan in his day, he was led into the belief 
that anything like variation of the compass did not exist, and that 
Europeans were seriously mistaken in agsuming such a phenomenon. 
Ino neglected the declination, which really existed except along tha fl 
line of the zero meridian, and as ho has gi%'en the direction of a great ™ 
many peaks bylines and figures in his map we are enabled to determine 
the change of variation for the last eighty-five years. X have made an 
attempt to establish the syBtem of trogones for Ino's time, following the 
method indicated, and the results of this investigation are laid down in 
the above-mentioned paper. The most interesting result is that I 
arrived at the discovery of a very remarkable magnetio disturbance > 


which mtust have existed at the date when Ino made his observations, 
near a volcanic mountain in the neighbourhood of Morioka, in the same 
region where Mr. Sekino found the highest declination value amongst his 
two hundred observations. Perhaps this discovery of a great magnetic 
irregularity existing not less than eighty years back may be worthy of 
attention, as it was established a long time before anything could be 
known concerning the exceptionally large declination of the present 

On one of my maps I have laid down the boundaries of the area over 
which the great earthquake of 1854 extended. This boundary line 
again closely approximates to the lines of geological structure. The 
curve describes two great waves rising from a common base that lies 
in Southern Japan and strikes with the folds of Southern Jax)an. From 
a more minute inspection of this earthquake curve it can be seen that 
the oscillations were finally arrested by the great transversal deft. It 
is nearly eight years ago that I determined the course of this line at a 
time when my knowledge of the geology of Japan was very limited 
indeed, and when I had not the slightest idea that almost every detail 
of the curve could be accounted for by laws of internal structure, as 
established by later investigations. 

The study of geology is just as indispensable to the orographer as 
the study of anatomy is to the sculptor. No clever artist would think of 
representing the beauties of the human form as those of a hollow figure. 
The physical features of Japan present a fine example for the verifica- 
tion of the intimate and mutual dependence of those sciences whose object 
is our globe. After having made ourselves acquainted v. ith the general 
laws of geological structure we shall be better enabled to understand 
the language of the external features of that part of the surface we are 
at present dealing with. I have already stated that the Japanese chain 
is composed of three bands or zones. The outer zone situated on the side 
of the open ocean consists of mountain land presenting the appearance 
of an originally flat mass modified by erosion. The upper parts of the 
mountainB are flat and but slightly rounded, the numerous and sinuous 
valley cuttings steep-sided and narrow. Very distinctly marked appears 
the inner boundary of this outer zone, corresponding to the inner border 
of a narrow continuous belt of crystalline schists and indicated by very 
regularly developed "longitudinal" valleys. This boundary plainly 
shows tiie course of the leading lines of the folds already spoken of. 
The greatest height attained by it on the island of Shikoku is about 
7726 feet. Near the great transversal cleft, for which I have proposed 
the name " Fossa Magna," it gradually thins, and in oonsequence of 
being strongly compressed, its summits in this region reach heights 
of about 10,000 feet. It may be recommendable to adopt the name 
Akaishi Sphenoid for this colossal triangular mass of mountains. To 
the right of the Fossa Magna lies the mountain land of Quanto, still 



furtier north the Abiikuma mountain-land, and again lioyond tliis the 
Kitakami mountain-land, all of them belonging to the outer zone* 
The median zoo© is a depresaion in Southern Japan filled by the Inland 
Sea. In Northern Japan we meet with a median range of high pealis 
of abont 6000 feet, set with many volcanoes* The median zono is the 
zon© of highest volcanic activity as far as Northern Japan and Kiushiu 
are concerned. A longitudinal fissure is indicated by the enormous 
masees of erupted rock accumulated in tlus zone. Concerning the inner 
zone, its most characteristic features are shown in the occurrence of 
isolated volcanoes rising out of circular basins formed by sudden de- 
pressions. Such basins are, commencing from the south and continuing 
northward, the Sanpei basin, the Daisen basin, the Gasaan basin, the 
Chokai basin, tbe Moriyoshi basin, and the Twaki basin. The median 
zone of Southern Japan passes by transition into the inner zone. Cross- 
ing from the Inland Sea to the Sea of Japan we first pass through hilly 
countiy which gradually rises until the broken range of elevations 
running along the coast is reached. This range, though fairly high, 
appears hut low in comparison with tho mountains of the outer zone. 
It will be of tlio utmost satisfaction to me if my endeavours to explain 
by tho foregoing brief remarks the general physical conformation of 
Japan have proved suGSciently clear and intelligible. 

My travels and surveys extended over the whole country, with tho 
exception of Yesso and the smaller islands. The total length of the 
routes travelled over and shown in the sketch-map amounts to about 
COOO miles, of which 3000 miles were actually surveyed. The surveys 
were plotted on the spot, a plan I consider to offer such considerable 
advantages that I recommend it to any traveller who establishes his 
routes by constant measurements. Sume field sketches I have made 
show the method of working, and will possibly prove of interest to 
surveying travellers. One of tliese sketches shows a route 21 miles in 
length leading right across the mountains, and laid down in one day 
during the hottest period of the year. I am convinced that this is about 
the maximum amoimt of this kind of work achiovable. On an average, 
I have accomplished about I2i miles per day. From 1881 to 1885 my 
travels and survejs wore undertaken with the object of establishing in 
the shortest possible time the general laws of configuration and of 
structure governing the mountains of Japan. These reconnaissance 
surveys, in which I was assisted by a few topographers and geologists, 
have only just been accomplished, and their results are laid down in the 
eztenaive series of maps which I have brought homo. 

The character of the country is mountainous, and the variety of 
mountain forms, the luxuriance of vegetation, the abundance of fiowers 
in spring and the beauties of foliage in autumn, the clearness of the 
atmosphercj which seems to bring distant objects nearer to the eye, and 
the numerous streams of rushing water make it one of the most charming 



^ts in the world. The island mountain-chain is interspersed with a 
large number of Tolcanic cones, many of which have been the scone of 
destructive eruptions within historical times. At present hardlj any of 
them are really active, and an eruption is an exceptional event. Nine 
years ago, however, I witnessed a magnificent eruption on the island of 
Oshima, situated at the entrance to the Gulf of Tokio. A column of fire, 
caused by masses of molten lava which were thrown into the air to a 
height of sometimes 1000 feet, issued from a small cone built up on the 
bottom of an enormous circular crater. We were so close to this igneous 
fountain, that when taking our lunch at the edge of the large crater, we 
felt as warm as if sitting near a good fire. On the return journey to 
Tokio, our little steamer, which, as a rule, only made the trip between 
Yokohama and Yokosuka, and was certainly not built to face the open 
sea, encountered a typhoon, and it certainly appeared as if after having 
escaped the fire we were to be swallowed up by the waters. The storm 
had at the same time been raging with such violence at Tokio, that our 
friends there were astonished at our unexpected return. 

By far the greater number of the loftiest summits are volcanoes, and 
very fine views are obtained from these. I cannot imagine any subject 
worthier of the brush of an artist, than sunrise as seen from the top of 
Fujinoyama. When during the summer months night flies away and 
morning approaches, crowds of pilgrims in white dresses and large flat 
hats collect under the waving flags of the huts on the summit and wait 
upon the wild and rugged lava plains for the first rays of the sun. They 
are all strong and well made men, whose faces tell stories of severe hard- 
ahip. The play of colour in the sky is of indescribable loveliness, whilst 
down below, the mountains seem to rise slowly from one vast sea of 
shadows. Suddenly, like lightning, the sunlight floods the highest crags 
of lava on the summit of Fujinoyama, the stone huts, and the crowds of 
humbly praying pilgrims. 

Still more fascinating than the view from the top of Fujinoyama is 
that from Chokaisan, a volcano on the north-western coast of the main 
island. From the bottom of a huge circular crater rises an obelisk- 
shaped mass of lava, much broken and furrowed, and surrounded at its 
base by vast snow-fields. It is extremely steep, and looks as if formed 
of enormous blocks artificially heaped up by giant hands. The highest 
part consists of a broad plate of lava, which is somewhat difficult to 
dimb, and which looks as if it would fieill at any moment. Standing at 
the edge of this plate one enjoys an entirely unbroken view all around. 
At sunrise the triangular shadow of the volcano is seen thrown in sharp 
outline upon the surface of the neighbouring sea. As the sun rises the 
salient angle of this shadow becomes gradually more obtuse, and the 
shadow itself diminishes and finally disappears. I have seen here the 
play of colours in still greater perfection than at Fujinoyama. Like a 
gay greeting to the mom, the long reverberating notes of the trumpet 


ehells blown bj the pilgrims who have arrived at the edge of tho crateTjJ 
re-ecbo amoDgst tho steep and rugged precipices. Beyond a few hot- ' 
apringB at the foot of the Diouiitain» there are no traces of volcanic action. 
Bat the priestfl t^all ns that centuries ago two enormous fiery snakes 
iaaued from the mountain side and crept into the sea, where they at last 
disappeared amidst steam and foam. 

One of the largest and wildest mountain masses in Japan, having 
many peaks of nearly 10,000 feet in height, extends in the vicinity of 
the western ooast of tb© main island where the latter baa its greatest 
breadth* It is commonly styled the Shin an o Hida range. The 
Tateyama is the most interesting of all the giants in this range. Of quite 
a different shape from that of its southern brethren Noriknra, On take, 
&c., it also conaifits of different material. The sharp wedge-shaped ridge 
called Tateyama, adorned with white bands of snow between green 
patches, is separated from a range to the eastward by an extremely 
Bteep and deep ravine. This ravine a little ftirther do^vn is roofed over 
by lava, so that the stream flowing through it appears to empty itself 
into the bowels of the earth. On the western side are extensive slopes 
on which the largest and most interesting solfatara in the whole of 
Japan is situated* The Japanese call it Figoku which means Hell, and 
indeed no place in the whole world could remind one more of tho 
infernal regions. From hundreds of openings steam is emitted with 
a shrill hissing noise, and sulphurous vapours belch forth in largo 
volumes. At the edge of the solfatara I found some small mud 
volcanoes in regular action. On some of the openings grew graceful 
flower-like cups of a beautiful yellow colour formed of minute and 
glittering crystals of sulphur. These cups w^ei'e in one case about six 
feet in height, I tried to sccuro one of these lifeless yet delicate 
flowers^ with the help of some long rods, but found it imposaiblo on 
acconnt of the unbearable beat. Tatejmma is one of those famous 
mountains^ which like Fujinoyama, Chokaisan, and others, are yearly 
visited by crowds of pilgrims. The rocky wedge-shaped back of the 
ridge is reached by scaling the southern flank. Having ascended the 
ridge the traveller finds himself on a kind of small platform and enjoys 
a siiperb view extending over the deeply-serrated, rugged and jagged 
Shinano Hida range to the south. Like a huge needle, the Yarigadake 
projects from the confused mass of ridges. To the east, a fascinating 
picture unveils itself like a vision. There the smoking Asamayama 
rises as if swimming on silver clouds, surrounded by faint blue mngee 
of hills. To the far west tho surface of the Japanese Sea reflects the 
sunlight. At sunrise a Buddhist priest, clad in rich garments, takes his 
stand on a small platform further to tbo middle of tho ridge, where a 
minature temple is erected, and celebmtes scrv^ice. It is a picture full 
of life and colour when hundreds of pilgrims move along tho narrow 
path winding between deep precipices, to reach the temple high above 
them, where the priest ia praying. 


Nearly ten years ago I ascended Tateyama in company with large 
crowdB of pilgrims. Amongst them was an old man of seventy, with 
weary eyes and feeble limbs, who was accompanied by a tall handsome 
lad of abont fifteen, bis grandson. The old man looked as if he were on 
the point of death. Four coolies had to work hard to help him up the 
steep and rocky flank of the ridge, and I would never have believed that 
a mountain like Tateyama oould have been ascended by a man in his 
condition if I had not seen it with my own eyes. What energy must 
be requisite to accomplish a pilgrimage under such circumstances. His 
young companion troubled himself but little about his sick grandfather. 
He bounded from block to block, gazed at the woods and flowers and 
appeared to have eyes for anything but the poor old man at his side. 
I shall never forget the contrast presented by the two pilgrims, the 
contrast between youth and i^, between life and death. 

When I arrived at the sea-shore after my Tateyama journey, on 
which some of my students accompanied me, I was well received at the 
house of a Japanese officer, a relative of one of my companions. Here, 
at Namerikawa, I took a few days' rest, and then engaged a junk for 
Niigata, which lies about 120 miles further north. The captain of the 
junk assured me that it would not take more than three days to get to 
Niigata. We started at night, because, as the captain said, we should 
not catch the breeze from the mountains during the day. When I went 
on board I had occasion to witness a very strange spectacle. Far out 
in the open sea I saw a huge fire. Bed and yellow flames rose from 
the surface of the water. At intervals the sound of voices travelled 
shorewards, and as I stood, too intent on what I was witnessing to ask 
for an explanation, the riddle appeared to develop itself into a perfect 
miracle. Shrieks, yells, and fragments of wild songs were distinguish- . 
able ; the flames drew nearer and nearer, and I could make out amongst 
them human figures which rose from the waves for a moment or so, but 
only to dive back into the waters again. It was like a dance of devils. 
Bat the flames gradually lost their brightness, and finally died away 
with the songs and cries of the demons until nothing gleamed through 
the darkness of the night, save the lights of the lanterns on shore and 
the stars in the sky, and nothing was heard but the slow movements of 
the waves and the exclamations of the boatmen. Then a huge mass 
propelled by numerous fins, like a swimming myriapod, approached the 
shore. When this miraculous sea-monster touched land I went to view 
it, and found it to be a large raft moved by a crowd of swimming boys. 
These were the dancing devils, who had taken the raft, heaped up with 
straw, wood, and like combustibles, out to sea, in order to amuse them- 
selves in a kind of sham fight by the firelight. Those who succeeded 
in mounting into the raft strove to prevent the rest from getting into 
it, but were at the same time assailed by their comrades, who sought to 
pull them back into the water. 



Tlie journey on board the junk was the most nxiueralile une I ever 
maiie in my life. I isnYied the JapaneBe, who couH sleep in any postare 
whatsoever, M'hilbt I tried in vain to arrange my aching hones in a 
horizontal position on the very uneven surface of the rice- bags with 
whieh the junk was laden. During the day the mountains, basking in 
the bi ight summer sunBhioe, did not lend any breeze to swell our sails, 
and so wq cam|>ed on the sandy shore, which wa^i at any rata clean, 
and therefore preferable to the dirty lii?h©r-huta, but where we w^ere 
nearly roasted by the sun. After wo had travelled in this way for a 
couple of days, I decided to leave the junk, and was fortunate enough 
to disGover a very nice temple, with a hospitable pricat. Here I settled 
down, and as it waa evening, soon fell asleep. But I had scarcely slept 
an hour, when my Japanese servant aroused me, and announced a 
splendid wind. Hoping to got to Niigata by the aid of the newly- 
risen breeze, I hurried hack to the shore and got on board again after 
some serious difficulties, m the junk ivas rolling heavily. Now* came 
the worst part of the journey. When morning broke the wand fell, to 
my satisfaotion, though certainly not to that of the sailors. I had had 
anough of it. We bad spent four days in getting half-way to Niigata, 
and I continued the journey overland in a sedan chair, on horsebaok, 
and lastly by boat, arriving at my destination at two o'clock in the 
mornings with a stomach as empty as a vacuum. I was, however, 
fortunate enough to be taken for the German ambas^sador, in consetiuenco 
of the similarity of the Japanese words Ilushi and Riyoshi, one of which 
means ambassador and the other professor. An ambassador may expect 
to be supplied wnth sardines, ham, steak, and anything else, even at 
two o'clock in the morning ; a professor, as a rule, n«jt. 

Some 30 miles north of Niigata the Miyomotegawa flows into the 
Sea of Japan, This is one of the most romantic rivers in the whole 
country. Following its course we soon enter a naiTOW gorge, with sides 
so steep that it is for some distance quite impossible to keep close to the 
water. Further up we saw the river with its confluents descending from 
an enormous mass of mountiiin, amidst which two peaks, Asashi and 
Ide, appeared especially prominent. The Miyomotegawa abounds in fish, 
especially in the lower part of its course. The Japanese have a multitude 
of methods of catchiug fish, upon which it is scarcely necessary to enter, 
as most of them have been shown in the Fisheries Exhibition. I will, 
nevertheless, refer to one plan which I have l>cen told is also in use in 
Scotland. A small platform is erected at the river side afc a point where 
the water rushes over foaming rapids. Here a man takes his stand with 
a harpoon* Thi'ce or four others entering the water, occupy themselves 
in trying to drive the fish towards the platform. I have seen young 
lads working up a rapid where anybody not accustomed to this kind of 
sport would have been swept away by the tremendous force of tlie 
current. These fellows, however, were moving through the foaming 


waters like the fish themselves. The man on the platform throws his 
harpoon as soon as a fish comes near enough, and very seldom misses 
one. Should a fish succeed in passing the platform, a man a little higher 
up stream prevents it from escaping.* Another interesting method of 
fishing, chiefly practised in Southern Japan, is by means of cormorants. 
This is pursued as a sport by many people of the higher classes. In 
some places it is practised at night by the aid of fires. 

Let us return to the wild mountain mass near Niigata, which, as I 
kave mentioned, is crowned by the peaks Asashi and Ido. The upper 
valleys of these mountains are extremely steep. Ascending a ridge 
means rough and difficult climbing, and moving along it is commonly 
just as dangerous. So deep and steep-sided are they that blocks from the 
weathered granite surface, when set in motion, roll down to the bottom 
with tremendous velocity. Many parts of this mountain region are not 
accessible in summer-time. But in the early months of the year, when 
snow fills the chasms and the surface is hardened all over by the constant 
change of temperature from thawing during the day to freezing during 
the night, it is possible to cross them without difficulty. Then the 
farmers leave their smoky huts and set out bear hunting, leading a 
rough life amidst the snowy mountains. They sleep in small pits sunk 
into the snow by means of fires kindled upon it and fed by boughs from 
the tops of the trees projecting above the surface. The masses of snow 
which accumulate in the mountainous regions and even on the west 
coast of Northern Japan are enormous. There are villages which 
frequently experience a fall of over 20 feet of snow. In an ordinary 
farmhouse you will find, at any hour of the day, the whole family gathered 
round the open fire, which is also used for cooking purposes. The smoke 
of this fire is supposed to escape through a hole in the roof right above 
it, but it sometimes fills the whole house and causes much pain to the 
eyes. I have had to spend many a night in such a shelter when the 
winter storm was raging without. As I was obliged to carry on my 
surveys as late in the year as possible I was surpiised several times 
by the first snows when trying to get across a mountain pass. In such 
cases retreat was a necessity. Once I had started earlier than my 
Japanese companions and being quite alone, lost my way. It took me 
a long time to discover a cluster of houses, but even then it was difficult 
to obtain access to them. People had already settled down for the 
winter and the outer gates were fastened up all round. During the 
winter people in the mountains, of course, do very little work. I know 
a village in the north of the main island, called Eiriake, where the 
inhabitants after their breakfast go to the baths, which are fed by hot 
springs, and remain in them for the whole of the day enjoying the heat. 
The extent of the Japanese islands in a north and south direction, 
and the mountainous character of the country, are the causes that any 
* I saw this method of fishlDg in the Mijakogawa valley, Northern Japan. 



variety uf climate can he £ound within their limitB. Climate changes 
with tlie level as well as with the latitude. On the CK>ean side of 
Southern Japan the palm treOj the orange tree, and the camphor tree 
flourish. Some small ialauds near this coast may be found covered with 
flowers at the beginning of February, when the lake of Suwa in the 
interior of the main island is frozen over so firmly that fairs are held 
upon it. A decided diierence of climate prevails between the con- 
tinental Bide and the ocean side. That of the latter is more equable, 
being warmer in winter and cooler in summer. Once at the end of 
Ifovember, when crossing the Miknni pass on ray way from Niigata, 
I saw all the mountains white with snow behind me, whilst the country 
on the Tokio side was f»till wholly covered with verdure. On the 
Pacific side the climate is a normal insular climate, and from the South 
Cape of Kiufihiu up to the neighbourhood of the capital Tokio the warm 
current known a» the Knroshiwo, the Gulf Stream of the Pacino, has a 
considerable influence upon the temperature. 

Those parts of Japan which have not to aufler from snow or cold, are 
of course of greater importance in respect to agricTilture. Moreover the 
character of the coast and the number of good harbours afford facilities 
of communication which give Southern Japan a further economical 
advantage over the northern parts of the countiy- In former times 
when the empire was split up into a number of domimona ruled by 
the 60-called daimios, who were feudal chiefs with a certain military 
power, the three provinceB of Satsuma, Tosa, and C bosh in were the most 
power fnh Up to the time of the recent restoration of the Mikado's 
government they used to play the most important part, and even at the 
present day the ministry is, with hut few exceptions, composed of natives 
of Satsuma and Choshiu. This further shows how the intellectual power 
also remained with Southern Japan. Yery remarkable is the geo- 
graphical situation of these three provinces, a circumBtanoe which has 
no doubt had a great deal to do with their political importance, Eaoh 
of them was easily defensible on account of its natural boundaries, sea on 
the one side and high mountains on the other, and each had a good and 
important port, Choshiu is situated on the narrow straits of Shimo- 
noseki, the inlet to the inland sea, one of the most important gates to 
the whole of Japan. Here the military claMS are always on the alert, 
and as, owing to the number of vessels constantly passing by, informa- 
tion waB easily procured, not only from all parts of Japan but also from 
abroad, measures could be concerted accordingly. The Choshiu-Samurai 
was always considered to be a good sol(3ier, but more on account of his 
strategical qualities than in consequence of his bravery in open battle. 
The Satsuma man is a soldier who is seen to the best advantage when 
fighting, a eoldier to the core^ full of energy and eamestness, and 
straightforward in his sayings and doings. 

Tosa is a rich country, and its people are renowned for their honesty 


and tmthfalneas. Heie I met with true friendly feeling, and I enjoy 
the remembianoe of the days spent in a village of this province. At 
the beginiung of 1885 I revisited the island of Shikoku to perfect some 
details of my previous surveys and explorations. After crossing the 
mountain chain extending between Eawanoye and the Namto Straits, I 
entered the valley of the Yosbinogawa, and engaged a boat to go up the 
river in order to observe the geological formation at the part where the 
stream crosses the main mass of the mountains of the island. We had to 
ascend the rapids, and this was a most interesting journey. Several times 
the boat had to be attached to ropes secured to some projecting rock further 
up stream, in order to let it swing from the rocky to the flat shore. 
The Yoshinogawa valley, where it crosses the mountains is of extreme 
beauty. Nowhere could one see a more beautiful deep emerald green 
than that of the water, while the mica schists appear like silver in the 
sunshine, offering a strong contrast to the black shadows of the nume- 
rous fissures and caves. Unfortunately I met with an accident to my 
foot when jumping across a stream, and became unable to walk. When 
I got to Eawanoye, beyond which place the boatmen refused to go on 
account of the dangers, I had a sedan-chair made of bamboo, with a 
board for a seat, for which I paid the undoubtedly small sum of lOd. 
Ouried by two coolies, and kept in a position by no means comfDrtable, 
I tracked the course of the Yoshinogawa, some time passing along steep 
precipices with the river some hundred feet below. We had to cross a 
number of tributaries of the Yoshinogawa, which were bridged over by 
tree-trunks, connecting huge blocks of stone lying in the bed of the 
river. I confess that I sometimes felt a little uneasy when I found 
myself amidst the raging waters. But my coolies were to be relied on. 
They delivered me at Biosekimura, where I was well received by my 
friends, in as sound a condition as could have been expected. 

It was at the beginning of January that I started from Hiteyoshi, 
one of the old castle towns of the province of Higo, to proceed to 
Eagoshima, the capital of Satsuma. Much snow had fallen on the 
previous day, and it was bitterly cold. The road soon led up a small 
valley, and not very long afterwards I found myself on a kind of 
slightly rising plateau, nearly covered with snow. My servant and a 
Japanese draughtsman who accompanied me were behind with the 
luggage, and I pursued my way quite alone. The plateau appeared 
endless, and it was not until I had gone a distance of about six miles 
that I reached its edge. Here at the frontier of Satsuma this plateau 
ends in steep clifb, and I found myself on the edge of an enormous 
crater surrounding the famous volcanic group of Eirishimayama. The 
view from the edge of the plateau, after seeing nothing but slightly 
undulating country was fascinating. Down below extended tracts of 
fertile and highly cultivated country, along the crater cliff flowed a 
broad winding river, from out the crater rose a mass of mountains 



crowned by a number of lofty pealts, and far away in the background 
towered the gracefiil couesi of Sakuraekinia and Kaimondake. 

The greater portion of the province of Satsnma consists of a low 
tableland of white volanio tuflF with mnch pumice. This tableland i& 
very sterile. The northern parts of the province, which are hilly, and 
where the valleys are highly cultivated, are of greater value. The 
southern section of the Satsuma peninsula deservea to be praised as one 
of the finest spots in the whole country. There are some charming 
lakes, situated very close to the aea-shore, which have been craters in 
former times. The summits of the hills offer beautiful views over the 
bay of Kagoshima, the neighbouring coast, and the volcanic ifilands 
of the Liukiu-cbain. Kaimondake» a fine conical mountain, stands like 
an outpostj being onlj^ connected with the mainland by a narrow neck. 

The recent hiatoiy of Japan has been praised by some writers, 
blamed by others* I may be allowed to submit some opinions derived 
from a long intercourse with all sections of the Japanese people. My 
duties and my travels brought me into close contact with farmers, 
merchants, manufacturers, and others, in different parts of the country, 
an advantage which only the travelling observer has occasion to enjoy. 

Japan is an agricultnral conntry. Nearly half the people are tillers 
of the soil. The number of inhabitants exceeds that of England ; the 
average density of population being about the same as in this country. 
Among the crops grown, rice takes the foremost place; but can only be 
grown in those parts of the country which are capable of irrigation, such 
as plains and valleys. Hillsides and dry tracts of land are chiefly sown 
with barley and wheat, with the addition of beans, peas, millet, Indian 
com, potatoes, &c. The cultivation of tea is very important^ notably 
for e^tport, as is that of the mulberry-tree in connection witli the 
manufacture of bilk. In Northern Japan we meet with the lacquer 
tree; in the southern part of the countiy with cotton, with certain plants 
from which paper is manufactured, the tobacco plant, &c. The style of 
living is simple, modest, and devoid of luxury. In addition to rice, 
which forms the staple of the daily food, fish and vegetables are 
commonly eaten. Comparing our dwelling-houses with those of the 
Japanese we might say that the former are distinguished by substantial 
and lasting qualities, while the Japanes structures are light, airy, and 
perishable. Even a Japanese of the first-class does not require roomy 
lodgings ; be feels more at home in a email place ; often living without 
any other furniture than the charceal braziers^ A small garden, gs^j 
with flowers in the spring, and commonly attached to the best room in 
the house, is hardly ever wanting, and is frequently supplemented by 
some stone lanterns, and perhaps also a mi nature pond with gold fish. 
Should the house be in a place from whence a fine view can be obtained, 
the owner will be justly proud of this circumstance. In one of tho 
places which I visited, the beauties of the scenery and the wide view 


were alluded to in a Chinese poem hung upon the wall,1^cv approximate 
translation being : ** Thousand miles — one glance." 

One of the great obstacles to progress is offered by thej^^pendence 
upon the Chinese language. Only the spoken language isV^panese, 
and even in this the use of Chinese words is regarded as a signjof 
education. Public documents, scientific books, newspapers, <&c., ard all 
written in a mixture of Chinese and Japanese. There is another 's^le- 
of writing, called Hirakana, quite independent of the Chinese, which* i^' 
chiefly used by women, and another known as the Earakana, a system of/ 
phonetical characters chiefly used in combination with Chinese. A 
Chinese character stands as the symbol of a conception. The number 
of these characters is enormous. If you ask a Japanese to read off the 
name of a certain town or of a certain mountain from a map he will be 
found unable to do so if he be not acquainted with the locality in ques- 
tion. These names can commonly be read both in the Japanese and in 
the Chinese way, and it is always doubtful which transliteration is the 
one in use. Another example may serve to show how obstructive the 
use of Chinese must be. Suppose a military force be sent to a certain 
part of the interior to suppress a riot or to encounter any enemy. The 
officers in command may be provided with excellent maps on which 
the names are given in Chinese. In such a case much difficulty is sure 
to be met with in reading the maps. Or take the reverse case. A 
surveyor working amongst the mountains leams from the inhabitants, 
the name of a certain peak, or of a certain locality. To write it down 
in Chinese he must ask the people for the necessary character. But 
perhaps they do not know this. In such a case he cannot write it, and 
perhaps drops it altogether, making the very common remark, " Shikata- 
go-nai," which means " It cannot be helped." A Chinese and an edu- 
cated Japanese could exchange ideas in writing, but not by speech. The 
employment of Chinese as a generally adopted means for the transmission 
of thoughts, nevertheless offers certain advantages. The inoculation, so 
to say, of the brain with Chinese characters which has been in practice 
for a thousand years has tended wonderfully to develop the faculties of 
memory. In this way we may account for the cleverness commonly 
shown by Japanese students in the branches of elementary learning. 
The use of Chinese as a written language, by necessitating the constant 
employment of the brush, has also been an important factor in the 
development of art. For drawing, the soft brush is certainly much 
more suitable than the hard pencil. Merely by his lessons in writing 
the Japanese pupil early obtained a certain facility of touch, a certain 
command over the representation of form by lines. 

When, some thirty years ago, western civilisation, equipped with its 
imposing armour of science and its technical appliances, drew near Japan, 
it was just at the most favourable moment for forcing its way into the 
country. Internal struggles had broken down the feudal system, the 

No. IL— Feb. 1887.] I 



old rights* of * the Mikado were restored, ami after years of civil war 

the worW, of .peace began. CiTilisation was the word. What could have 

been nfgri^ convenient in Bticb a case than to apply the foreign pattern 

to tte new organisation of public order? For the administrative B^'stem 

fo/ the* navy, the army, the post, the telegraph, &c., foreign models were 

spe^?dily adapted. It must be remarked that those changes did not take 

'**jh*ce fipontaneously. The ends aimed at by the Imperial party during 

' Hho civil war were of a political character^ the civilising refoi-ms were 

. not anticipated. Had those civilising reforms been the direct resnlt of 

internal development, no doubt they would have been undertaken with 

H great deal more moderation, steadiness, and perseverance. 

The acquisitions made up to the present are commonly looked upon 
with admiration. Certainly the Jnpaneae desei*ve our ftill sympathy 
for their endeavours, and it cannot be denied that they have been in 
some degree successful. We hope that the final result will be favourable 
to them. The rate of advance deairable depends, in my opinion, alto- 
gether upon the opening up of the country* And the country must be 
opened np some time or other, in consequence of the constant pressure 
acting from without. When it is so oiiened up, it will be shown how 
far the power of the Japanese has been developed to become an agent in 
inteniational struggles. The power of the peoplo should be strengthened 
both intellectually and materially. In the latter direction the Geological 
Survey was expected to become an important aid to progress. The chief 
object of this suiTey was the systematic investigation of the local and 
physical conditions of the coiintry and the dependence of the population 
ui>on these conditions. From the result of these investigations pro- 
posals were to l>6 drawn up for the utilisation of the country's resources. 
The entire work was therefore a species of applied geography. I am 
extremely sorry at not having been able to convince the Japanese 
Government of the high importance, nay, of the necessity of the under- 
taking, and the surveys are consequently being continued Avi thou t much 
attention being paid to the practical aims with special reference to which 
they were originally started. I may he allowed to express the hope that 
the Geological Survey of Japan may still become what it was intended 
to be» namely, a mediator between science and the economical require- 
ments of the country. 

Captain Maitland'B and Captain TaJhoCs Journeys in Afffhamsian. 

A VERY interesting piece of exploration was completed in Afghanistan 
in the autumn and winter of 1885 by Captain P. J, Maitland and Captain 
the Hun. M. G. Talbot, These two officers ascended the valley of the 
Ileri-rud, past Obeh (visited hj Khanikotf) ai* far as Daulatyar. Here 
the party struck upon the route followed in 1837 by Captain Arthur 


Conolly in his adventarons journey from Cabul to Khiva, of which 
anfortnnately no complete record exists, though there are some inter- 
esting extracts in the * Calcutta Eeview' for 1851. At Badghah, where 
Conolly must have probably turned off northwards over the mountains 
to Maimanah, Captain Maitland was shown a certificate in Persian 
from Colonel Conolly, stating that he had received important services 
^m Muhammad Azim, the late Ataluk or petty chief of the district. 
The story told to Captain Maitland was, that the Ataluk and his men 
had beaten off an attack made on Conolly, but from the latter's diary it 
would seem that matters did not come to actual fighting, though on one 
occasion, at least, things were very near to it. Crossing the water- 
parting between the two head streams of the Heri-rud, the Sar-i-jangal 
and the Lai streams, Captain Maitland ascended the course of the latter, 
through a well populated and cultivated valley. Large flocks of sheep and 
goats were seen, the former of which supply the skins for a large number 
of posttns or woollen coats made at Kabul. The winter is severe, and 
snow closes all the roads from the middle of November till the middle 
of February, and for forty or sixty days after that the country is said 
to be absolutely impassable even for pedestrians, the clayey roads being 
very deep and slippery, and every little stream a raging torrent. The 
Hazarahs appeared to be a simple, good-natured, industrious people, but 
of no value for fighting. The women did not seem to merit the character 
for immorality ascribed to them. There is a welcome absence of crime 
in the Hazarajat, which is no doubt due to the comparatively tractable 
nature of the people. Captain Maitland's route from the upper valley 
of the Heri-rud into the Yaikolang or Yak Walang valley is diflScult to 
trace, owing to the unsatisfactory nature of the existing maps,* but it 
lies probably along the same line as that taken in reverse direction by 
Captain Conolly. The pass over which they crossed, descending upon 
Zari in the Yak Walang valley, is called the Bakkak Kotal, and Captain 
Maitland says it is the only real difficulty on the whole road between 
Herat and Bamian, and much worse, so far as he knows, than anythiDg 
on the Besud road between Herat and Kabul. This latter road was 
examined by Dafadar Muhammad Akbar Khan, who had instructions to 
follow the main Kabul road through Besud to Cardan Diwal, and con- 
tinuing along the Kabul-Bamian road to cross the Irak pass and join 
Captain Maitland at Zubak in Bamian. This was carried out by the 
Dafadar, and his topography has furnished a reliable knowledge of the 
remainder of the main road from Kabul to Herat. The point where 
the Besud and the Bamian routes diverge is a small deserted fort, called 
Kala Sofarak, between the Lai and Kerman valleys, and forty-one miles 
from Daulatyar. 

The Yak Walang stream comes from a watershed to the east, on the 

* The most trustworthy of the old mapa is the large one prepared by Eldred 
PoMmger in 1840, on the a^e of eight milea to the inch. 

I 2 



other side of which the drainage is io Bam i an. Its principal courae is al 

the Band* i- Amir or Baiid-i*Barbar, a eeriea of curious natui^ dams 

forming seven narrow and deep kkee. It fomiB the upper course of the 

river called Balkh Ao or sti^am of Balkh, along the course of which runs 

the ancient road from Bamian to Balkh* Part of this road was examined 

by Captain Maitland, and en route he visited the ruins of Chahilburj 

and Khana Yahudi. On a high scarped hill between the two are the 

niiuH of Shabar-i-Barbar, which according to tradition was once the 

capital of kiugs who luled over a country most of which is now 

included in the Hazarajat. The people are said to have been called 

Barl>ar, and to have l>een in posscBsion of the country, when the Tartars 

or Mugbals, from whom the Hazarahs are said to have sprnng, first 

invaded it. Captain Maitland considers that they may have been Tajiks 

of the same stock as those now living in Badakhehan. An excursion 

was made to the celebrated Band-i-Amir lakes, which are mentioned 

by tbe poet Moore under tho name of '* Bendemeer's gtream*" From 

thence there are roads to Kamard and to Mazar-i«Sharif by Dara-i- 

Tufluf, Tbe former is very difficult, and the latter by no means easy 

in certain places, but nevertheless important. On crossing the high 

flat watershed of the Yak Walang [and Bamian streams the main 

features of the country became apparent. On the north side of tho^fll 

main range stretches a vast broken phiteau diversified by small ranges 

and scored by deep valleys and raviDcs, but there is a tolerably well 

defined elevated tract lying between the Rud-i-Band-i-Amir on the 

w^est, and the Ghori or Kundnz river on the east. It thus fills up^ w^ith 

tbe exception of the narrow valley of these rivers, the whole space 

between the Hindu Eiish and the high mountains about tbe sources of 

the Hari*nid and Murghab. The plateau slopes gently to the north 

and parts of it are fairly level. It comes to an end about the latitude of 

Haibak, but between it and the plain of Afghan Turkistan is another 

range or narrow irregular plateau rising to a considerable height above 

the latter, and sharply defining the boundary between the valley of the 

Oxus and the Kohietan. This range runs east and west at a distance of 

five to twelve miles from the towns of Tashkurgan, Mazar-i-Shanf^ and 

Balkh, and appears to extend from near Shibarghan on the west to not 

far from Knnduz on the east. This feature w^as a great surprise, for it is 

liardly indicated on tbe map» and is not mentioned by previous travellers. 

The main plateau is intersected by three very deep parallel valleys, 

iiinning from west to east and draining to the Kundiiz river. Tho fii-st 

is that of Bamian near the main range, tho next that of Saighan, and the 

thii'd Kamard. North of Kamard is the rather high ridge which the road 

crosses by the Kara Kotal, and from its farther side the long deep defile 

of tbe Tashknrghan stream runs north through tho whole remaining 

leogths of the plateau to that town. 

At Bamian, which is about 380 milos from Herat, and 132 from 


DftDlatyar, the ofiSoers stayed several days and examined the famous 
idols— a detailed account of which was written by Captain Talbot — the 
caves and ruins. To see Bamian alone, Captain Maitland remarks, was 
worth all the trouble of the journey. Full details were obtained 
respecting the three passes over the main range from the lower end of 
Bamian, viz. the Panjfilan, the Irak, and the Shibar or Sbabar. Bamian 
is a deep valley bounded on the south by spurs of the main range, here 
known as the Koh-i-baba. On the north side is a long mountain over 
which there are only one or two indifferent tracks. The main road goes 
up the valley westward, and for some miles through a defile from which 
two parallel roads lead to Saighan, the population of which, as of 
Bamian, is Tajik with a certain admixture of Hazarahs. The valleys, 
though narrow, are well cultivated, and there is abundance of fruit. 
The hiUsy however, are too high and rocky for the daima cultivation so 
universal in the Hazarajat, and grain is imported. All the way along 
the route Captain Maitland found a constant stream of people migrating 
from the country about Kabul to Afghan Turkistan, a movement which 
is always proceeding more or less, but which was at that time more 
marked than usual on account of the scarcity at Kabul. To the valley 
of Kamard, which is just beyond Saighan, there are three roads, the 
Maidanak, the celebrated Dandan Shikan or ** tooth-breaker," and the 
Dosht-i-Sufed, which appears to be the best of the three, as well as the 
shortest line to Bajgah. The lofty cliffs inclosing the valley of 
Kamard are very striking, and the land is excellently cultivated, but 
there is not much of it. Passing through Bajgah, the farthest British 
poet occupied in 1839, and Bui, Khuram was reached, whither Ferrier 
claims to have come from Balkh, and from thence to have turned off 
eastward to the Eud-i-Band-i-Amir. The opinion, however, of both 
Captain Maitland and Captain Talbot is that Ferrier*s travels were 
drawn up from hearsay information and that he probably never left 

At Haibak the two officers parted company, Captain Talbot pro- 
ceeding into the valley of the Ghori, while Captain Maitland prepared to 
continue the journey vi& Mazar-i-Sharif and Sar-i-Pul, to rejoin the 
British Commissioner, Sir Joseph West Eidgeway, on the Murghab. 
Accompanied by a Mehmandar from Sardar Ishak Khan, the Governor- 
General of Afghan Turkistan, Captain Maitland proceeded to Taskhur- 
ghan, a large town embedded in fruit-trees, and possessing a fine 
covered bazaar of 450 or 500 shops. Some distance out on the plain to 
the north are mounds marking the site of Khulm, the capital of the 
former Khan. It was abandoned by one of the last Khans, as the water 
supply was liable to be cut off, and Tashkurghan built instead nearer to 
the hills. The Governor, a learned Ghilzai named Purdil Khan, called 
on Captain Maitland and personally accompanied him through the 
citadel and over the bazaar. He had known Sir Herbert Edwards at 



MultAn in past years, and had aLso lived at Lahore. The friendly 
hebavionr of the Afghans was here very strikint^, and the i>eople oon- 
tinuallj assured Captain Maitlantl that the English and the Afghans 
were now one» and that he was to coneider himself in his own country. 

Ilero the plain of Afghan Tnrkistan is bounded on the south by the 
high range already mentioned. Its epnrs are ineigniticant and the 
great level expanse stretches almost from the base of the bilia away 
north to the OxuSj the nearest point of which is somewhat less than 
thirty mOes from Taahkurghan. The plain is an alluvial flat, resembles 
p Di-tioBS of the Pan jab, and is w^atered here by the Taahkurghan stream 
run off into irrigation canals, but the cultivation does not extend very 
far. To the west the plain is fertilised by the water of the Band-i-Amir 
which supplies eighteen canals (nahar) through the whole tmct from 
Akcha nearly to Tashkurghan. On the way to Mazar-i -Sharif one 
crosses the Abadu Kotal, where Sardar Muhammad Jan and two others 
were put to death by the Amir's ordere a few years since. Captain 
Maitland was honourably received at Mazar-i-Sbarif, and the day after 
his arrival he took a ride outside the town, the country about which 
is very well cultivated, and is intersected with numerous irrigation 
ditches. The to\vn is now thoroiighly established as the capital of 
Afghan Turkistan, Balkh being at the present day a comparatively 
insignificant place, quite unworthy of the prominent place it occupies on 
most maps. Mazar-i*Sharif is not so large as Tashkurghan, but is 
increasing rapidly in size and has (juite outgrown its walls, which were 
never more than sufficient to protect the place from marauding Turco- 
mans. It possesBes a citadel bnilt, as usual, on a mound, and contains an 
arsenal moved from Takhtapul, the military cantonment six miles west. 

The Sardar, or Governor-General, received Captain Maitland and 
later on Captai^n Talbot with great friendliness. He is a rather stout, 
good-natured looking man of seven or eight and thirty, is very hand* 
Bomely dressed, and affects all the state of a royal personage. lie is said 
to be a hard* working administrator, to keep everything in good order, 
to be popular with the Afghans, and is everywhere spoken of as a 
humane niter. 

Captain Talbot quitted Mazar by the road going south up the Band- 
i-Amir river, which enters the plain through a gap in tho hill S.S.W. of 
Mazar, the regular road going in a different direction through Balkh 
and Akcha to Shibarghan, and thence to Sar-i-Pul and MaimanaL The 
country traversed along the fonner route consists entirely of low grassy, 
but often steep-sided ridges, running from the high hills on the south 
to the outer range on the north. There are many fertile and well 
cultivated valleys in this tract all draining to the Sar-i*Pul stream. 
The low ridges, hills, and hillocks of light sandy soil, covered with 
grass in spring and summer, are characteristic of Afghan Turlcistan, 
and cover a great part of its surface. They extend also west of tho 


Mnrgliab, and merge into the rolling downs of Badgbi& Dafadar 
Sthibdad Khan ascended the Band-i-Amir stream some three marches 
berond Tnkar, whidi was readied by Captain Maitland. Some fifty 
BiikB of the oonrse ci the river therefore remain unexplored, but 
reliable infcmnation about the road has been acquired. 

At Sar-i-Pul Captain Maitland was very hospitably received by the 
GovenKflr-Oeneral. The town itself is a mass of orchards, something 
Hba Tashkoighan, but in a wide valley, surrounded by low hills. The 
Hamanah valley is well cultivated and populated ; the town is perhaps 
two-thirds the mxe of Herat, and stands in an open, cultivated plain ; 
thers is a large covered basaar, but the houses of the iovra are vert 
poor, and irr^;olarly distributed within the area enclosed by the walls. 
Fiom Maimanah Captain Maitland marched 53 miles to Chahar Sbamba, 
arriving there on the 16th of December, exactly three months since 
leaving the headquarters of the Mission at Deh Afghan, in the Herat 

Captain Talbot in his notes remarks that the Balkh Ao runs in a 
narrow, deep valley, closely shut in by precipitous hills several thousand 
feet higher* North and east of it there is a plateau rising gently north- 
wards for many miles, and culminating in rounded knolls about 11,000 
or 12,000 feet high. The edge of the plateau fetcing the river is 
abruptly precipitous, while beyond the culminating knolls there is 
probably a pretty steep drop to the north. The whole of the region 
is uninhabited, except where the plateau is intersected by the Dara Isuf. 

The general results of the expedition are that the Herat triangulation 
has been carried to Bamian, and connected with points in the immediate 
neighbourhood of those fixed by the Kabul triangulation. It is possible 
that some point may be found to be common to both surveys, and so afford 
a check on the work. From Bamian triangulations have been carried 
northward to Tashkurghan and the immediate neighbourhood of Ma/ar, 
while points have been fixed north of the Oxns and east of Kunduz. 
The heads of the Hari-rud and Balkh Ao rivers have been surveyed, not 
completely, but all the main features have been obtained. The road 
from Daulatjar to Bamian has been surveyed, as also that from Biiuiian 
to Haibak and Tashkurghan, and from Haibak vi& Ghori to within two 
marches of the Chahardar Pass. All the country overlooked on either 
side the route has been sketched, a total area of about 9000 square miles 
having been surveyed and reconnoitred on the one-eighth inch scale, and 
sufficient points fixed trigonometrically to determine the greater part of 
the Helmand valley, a large portion of the country between the Balkh 
Ao and Tashkurghan rivers, and the unsurveyed portion south of the 
OxuB from the meridian of Tashkurghan to that of Khanabad. 



A Journey in the Provinee of San Paulo, Brazil, 






Any interest which an account of this trip, made in the long vacation 
of 1885, may have for memhei^ of theEoyal Geographical ScKJiety, will 
conftist not so mnch in any new factia which it may bring to lights as 
in showing that, however much the science of geography may be 
neglected by the jiiuior members of the IlniverHity of Oxford bm a stndy, 
yet the practical application of the scienc^e finds some devotees- The 
primary objects of the expedition were import, and the unequalled excite- 
ment to be produced by penetration into unknown lands. When we 
started, we had no idea to what part of Brazil wo were actually direct- 
ing our steps, nor could we get any definite information from books or 
from persons who had been to Brazil, as to what kiud of adventures we 
might expect to encounter. To theae facts may be attributed the paucity 
of results, from the scientific explorer's point of view, that wo have 
attained. Wo had no scientific instruments whatever with us, except a 
compass and a field glasa^ We had thought of taking a photographic 
camera^ bnt the discouraging remarks of an advisor, who assured us 
that we should never reach country that was not Avell known, coupled 
with motives of economy and a desire to reduce our baggage in bulk as 
much aa possiblcj made us change onr minds ; and we have never ceased 
to regret it. The banks of the Piracicaba below the town, and those of 
the Tiet^ have never been painted or photogi-aphed. 

On reaching Eio, we found that our friends there could give us no 
better advice than the discouraging people at home : so we shook the 
dust off our feet, and at 5 a.m. on July 2Bth left Eio by train. The fares 
w^ere rathc^r heavy, l>ecau&e they charged for all luggage that went in 
the van* But after this first journey we learnt by experience, and put 
nearly all onr baggage under the seats of the carriage. We bad a con- 
siderable amount of baggage, for wo had brought a tent and canteen and 
other requisites for camping-out from England, and had purchased a 
large amount of ammunition in lUo. The price of hm first class tickets 
to San Paulo was 58,800 reis : and our baggage was charged 24,700 reis. 
The price of one second class ticket to San Paulo is 15,500. The ex- . 
change was rather low then, making about 50 reis go to the penny, or 
la, 8d* to the niilreis, or thousand reis, whereas the milreis ought to be 2«., 
its par value. On leaving Kio wo had 752,000 reis with us, or about 60/< 

We reached San Paulo soon after 6 p.m. It was here that wo first 
succeeded in getting practical information about the interior, which 
decided us to go to Piracicaba on the river of the same name* The 
journey from Son Pnulo to Piracicaba cost us altogether 34,000 reis 



iirlifc»s Ittggmge. Hie aeoond cUai £u« &om San Ftulo to Pincicftbik 

Hxacacafaa is a louiBhiiig town, mostl j bnOt of blue, one-€tomd 
hornet on ti>e top and stdes of a steep hill bek)w wbidi flows tbe 
Anions nrcr KmcMmfas. Tliere are two £uil j good liotels^ a Roman 
CktiioSic cinizfsil, a Protestant c^nrck, a sngar mill on the north side of 
tke zirec, and a cotton mill on tbo sonth mde. Tliere are no buildings 
m tim nortk side exo^ tlie sngar milL There is a ytacj laige per* 
ffBtsgf^ of Gennans in the town ; in htct nearly eveiy shop is kept by a 
Gcnmn. Hie si^ar mill is managed by a Brazilian ; the ootton mill is 
■snaged by an Englishman, assisted by a United States Ameiioan* 
This was the only Englifdiman we disooTered in the town, except two 
Xanchester men who worked in the ootton milL They had been there 
aome years, and sud they liked the country Tory mnch, as it was never 

At Ksscicaba is a magnificent water£alL From here the riTers are 
naTigafale far canoes all the way to the Farani, with the exception of 
two portages^ said to be Tery easy, on the lower Tiele. 

There are some small steamers whidi ran from Hraoioaba to Porto 
de Len^oes on the Tiet6 when the water is high enough, to convey ooffide 
mp the river. When the water is too low, their place is taken by small 
iron barges, whidi are punted along at a fine pace by about twelve men. 
At intervals down the river there are four or five ** stations," where 
wood is stored for the steamers, and where people living near the river 
can bring their coffee to be taken on board the steamers. The stations 
are mostly in charge of a solitary man. 

At Itapura, the junction of the Tiet6 and Parani, is a colony ot 
Bugres ICansos, or tame Indians, under a Brazilian governor. Twice in 
the 3rear a canoe is sent &om Itapura to Piracicaba conveying a despatch 
femi the governor, and returning with stores for his consumption. The 
journey takes about a month each way. We met this canoe on its way 
when we were down the river. 

Besides the steamers and barges, there is no other kind of craft on 
the river except '* canoes," which are dug out of solid trees, and vary 
&om about twelve feet to thirty feet long. These they punt up stream, 
and generally paddle down stream. 

The south bank of the river at Piracicaba is lined for about half a 
mile with negresses of all sizes, in various degrees of nudity, washing 
clothes. With the exception of the river men, who are engaged on the 
steamers and barges, none of the inhabitants, it appeared, had ever been 
down the river. Along the south bank is a row of houses occupied by 
these river men. The houses, consisting of two or three rooms, were 
clean and sweet, and generally painted some bright colour inside, but 
totally destitute of famiture or ornament, save for a small table, a ohair 
or two, and a hammock. The people seemed to prefer sitting on the 


floor. With tlio help of a Germ an shopkeeper, named Gottlob, who 
actctl as iuterprctcr* we engaged a Brazilian of the name of Candido 
Camargo to be the captain of the expedition, Gottlob was snch a very 
bad inteipreter, that our arrangementa with Candido were of a most 
indefinite kind, and we started not qmitc knowing what agreement had 
been come to. We paid 100,000 rcis down, antl finally started on August 
4th, with four men and a boy, some doga, and three canoes, two of which 
were tied together, the thii-d going separate. On otir return on September 
4th, wo paid tbem 272,000 reis more. For this they provisioned us, though 
we took extra stores on our own account to the value of about 30,000 reis, 
and tbey also provided ammunition or anything else which they required 
for their own use. The provieions which they brought were sacks of 
beans, farinlia de mais, salt, sugar, rice, coffee, salt pork, and jerked beef. 
Our meale really consisted of what wo shot or catight. 

Wo reached the juncture of the Piracicalia and Tiete on August lOth, 
and Porto de Leoi^oea on the 12th. 1 may remark that in the map ot 
San l^aulo which I recently sent to the Royal Geographical tSociety, the 
Pixacicaba river is made to join the Tiete too high up. It really joins 
the Tiete considerably lower down, i. e. nearer to Porto de Lcn9oes. We 
spent ten days down the Tiete, and started back from Porto de Len^oes 
on August 23rd, reaching Piracieaba on September 3rd. 

The camarctdos were very pleasant, light-hearted men, and were ver^^ 
kind to us. Though we started without knowing a word of Portuguese, 
they took such trouble with us, that wo were soon able to say and under- 
stand as much as ever we wanted. Wo bad a dictionary with us. They 
were all Koman Catholics. They worked very fairly bard at punting 
and paddling* though hard work was obviously not natural to them, 

Three of them, including Candido, said they worked at Piracica 
for a few months in the year as brick makers, and spent the rest of th 
time hunting and fishing on the river. They had all boon as far as 
Lengoes, except the boy : it was the first time be had gone far down 
the river. 

The fifth man was a regular backwoods huntsman, who lived in the 
forest some miles from Piracieaba. He was the owner of the dogs. He was 
a good shot, a wonderful ventriloquitit, imitating the noises of various birds 
with remarkable ability, and was very agile in making his way through 
the tangled forest. Ho used flint ami steel in profereucc h) matches. 

They were all keen upon sport, though their g^ms, of French or 
German make, were of the most miserable description. The men all 
smoked cigarettes; the boy smoked a pipe. They brought some rum, 
but seldom appeared to drink any, and were always 8ober< They had 
very poor appetites, and after a long day's work Avould frequently eat 
nothiDg more than a plateful of rice and farinha. 

As to the rivers, their general character may well Ije compared with 
portions of the estuary of the Dart, notably that part called Shai'pham 


Woods ; or a still better idea may be got from parts of the Teifi, between 
Eilgerran Castle and Cardigan. The denseness of the forest will be 
miderstood when I say that we almost invariably had to cut dowQ a 
nnmber of trees to make room for our tents, and that we seldom had 
occasion to use onr tent-pegs, but merely tied the tent-ropes to trees. 

At a rough estimate I should put the average width of the Piracicaba 
at about 120 yards, and that of the TietS at about double. They are, 
with occasional exceptions, shallow enough to permit of punting. 

There are ten rapids between Piracicaba and Lengoes ; none of them 
cause any trouble in going down stream, but five of them are difficult to 
punt a loaded canoe against. There are [five lakes adjoining the river, 
three on the north bank, and two on the south. Three of these are 
little more than marshes; but two of those on the north bank are 
magnificent sheets of water, one of them being about two miles long. 

The two large lakes are clearly portions of the river which have at 
some former time been cut off by a new bank silting up. They all teem 
with birds and alligators. 

A few miles below Piracicaba there are some lofty peaked hills : be- 
yond these there is no high land to be seen all the way to Len^oes, with 
the exception of the high banks, which run along nearly the whole way. 

On the first day's journey down stream from Piracicaba we passed 
three rapids, including the two worst ones on the river. 

While near to Piracicaba we passed occasional cottages on the bank ; 
but after the first few miles we saw no more signs of life until we came 
to a small house, on which we encamped. 

On the second day the banks were especially high, and the forest 
especially thick. A few miles from the river was a farmhouse, which 
was empty and deserted, the former occupant being dead. On that day 
we saw no other houses. 

On the third day we encamped by a hut which had been erected by 
some hunters and deserted. 

On the fourth day the banks were lower, but the forest was less 
dense. We saw one cottage during that afternoon. 

On the fifth day the banks were high again, but with beautiful sandy 
beaches every mile or so ; and for about a mile in the middle of that 
day's journey they were of steep rock running sheer into the water. 
That day we passed one of the steamer stations, and three lakes — ^two 
on the north bank, and one on the south. 

On the sixth day we passed two lakes— one on the south bank and 
one on the north, the latter being the largest of all the lakes. We 
passed no houses that day, but stopped at night by a deserted cottage. 

On the seventh day we saw no houses, and reached the mouth of 
the Piracicaba during the afternoon. On that day we passed two fierce 
rapids, the Piracicaba fiowing into the Tiete with a rapid of about a 
mile in length. 



On the eighth day we passed five rapids, one only being of any 
importance^ On that day we passed two or three cottages, and on the 
ninth day reached Porto de Len^oes. Below Porto de Len^oes we passed 
several rapids, but none of any importanoe. 

The sport consists of tapir, deer, cjapibara^ and peccary, all of which 
we got We were nnable to get dogs for tigers (as they call pumas and 
jaguars), but one night a puma chased one of the dogs, and once, while 
we were peccary hunting, one of our dogs was killed by a puma. There 
are also ocelots, ant-eaters, bngios, monkeys, armadillos, coatis, pacas, 
hares, alligators. A prepared tapir- or deer-Bkin can be bought for about 
2000, a capibara skin for about 500. The birds appear innumerable, but 
I may mention the pomba, bigiia, uru, macuque, Jabu, wild geese and 
ducks, toucans of various species, parrots, parroquets, humming-birds. 
We saw three or four snakes only, for in winter thoy mostly hibernat*;, 
and for the same reason insects were no great plague. There were, it is 
true, carrapatos (ticks), mosquitos, and ** jiggers," but not in sufficiently 
large numbers to be a serious trouble. Among the numerous fishes 
that we caught I may mention the dourado, or Brazilian salmon, the 
maudif a scaleless fish with long feelers, and the cascudot which ie per* 
fectly black, and which the men cooked, using its own skin as a pot to 
oook it in, 

Jnst below Len<^008 was a specially deep hole, where there were to 
be caught to any extent large fish called snruhim^ not nnlike maudi, hot 
weighing on the average about 20 lbs. We also caught one Jacu, an 
enormous brute of the same kind, about 5 feet long. The jacu was too 
coarse to eat, but all the other fish were excellent. The sunibim were, 
however, better dried than fresh. So we dried in the sun all that wo 
caught, and ate some on the voyage up stream, selling what we had over 
at 1000 a piece. 

At the village of Porto de Len^oes dwells a Brazilian of the name of 
Cardia, with his wife and sister-in-law, who insisted on lodging and 
feeding us while we were there. They were well-to-do and well-educated 
people, speaking French fairly well. Senhor Cardia keeps a shop, at 
which everything imaginable can be bought. The house is one-storied, 
and there is no glass in the windows, which are closed at night with 
shutters. Higher up the bank was a larger house, half built, belonging 
to a brother of Cardials. There were only two other houses in the place. 
One belonged to a man colled Louis, whose father had been a Swiss, and 
who was a professional i>eecary hunter. The other house belonged to a 
blacksmith called Francisco, a married man, who made little else than 
horseshoes s^ml ftmces (instruments for cutting down the brushwood in 
the fureat). Ho had made his anvil himself, but his vice had come from 

On approaching Piracicaba I went to see the house where the parents 
of Pedro, our cafadoTf lived. It stood about two miles away from tho 



north bank of the river. Three huts stood in a clearing; two were 
bams, the third was the house, which was built of posts stuck into the 
ground at intervals of four or five inches, without any plaster or other 
covering, so that we could stand at one end of the house and look right 
through it into the country beyond. It was, in fact, a cage, not a house. 
It consisted of three rooms — a kitchen, a bedroom, and a sitting-room — 
which only differed from one another in containing respectively a 
stove, a bedstead, and a couple of benches. The roof was tiiatch ; the 
floor, mud; doors there were none, not even in the outer walls, but 
merely gaps. 

The various other cottages which we passed on the river were of 
much the same description, except that most of them had a certain 
amount of mud plaster on the walls. It must have been very cold in 
Pedro's house on winter nights, for there was generally a slight frost. 
The days were hot, but not as a rule oppressively so. As far as the day 
is concerned, we gathered that there is little difference in temperature 
between summer and winter. The difference is felt in the nights, which 
are cold in winter and hot in summer. 

The rapid change of temperature at about 9 a.m. and 6 p.m. was verj- 
striking. There was at night generally a thick mist, which often did 
not lift until about 9 a.m. 

The only product of the district in which any large trade is done is 
coffee. The country people bring this, unground, in sacks containing 
five arrobas each. 

They were paid 20,000 per sack. There is also a certain amount of 
maize, sugar, and cotton produced ; and bananas and oranges grow in 
profusion where once planted, and are for the most part allowed to rot 
on the trees, or are given to the pigs. 

It is unfortunate for the district that the rivers flow, so to speak, the 
wrong way. For this reason, I apprehend, it can never become a timber- 
producing country. But for conveyance of other products it is very 
conveniently situated, a few days' voyage up the river bringing the 
product to Piracicaba, which is only two days by railway from Kio, or 
one day from Santos. 

It is only at the rapids that the adverse stream becomes a diffi- 
culty, and this may bo largely remedied by simple appliances. On 
the bank just above the worst rapid there is already placed a large 
windlass, by which boats coming up can be hauled over the diffi- 
culty. Windlasses placed at all the rapids would remove the only 
obstructions to the navigation of hundreds of miles of those magnifioent 

We saw, no doubt, the sunny side of the country, when the cold nights 
kept down the insects and the snakes. The malaria, which generally 
finds some victims during the summer months, can be avoided by the 
simplest remedies. It is only the poverty, ignorance, and slovenliness 



of tbe resitletits that gives it its opportuiii ty. For the sportsman the 
count ry i» a jmradise ; and wliether the colonist would find it different, 
I cannot Bay, 


Tlie Emin Paaka Eelief Expeditioii. — Since our last issue the plans 
of this important expedition have l:>een completed. It is managed by a 
committco of private individuals sitting in London, and its coMmander, 
3Ir. Stanley, left England on the 21st of January en route for the East 
Coast of Africa* Mr* Stanley's staff will include six or seven EnropeAns^ 
and the route is finally decided to be via the Cougo from the West 
Coast, But as the large native force of guards and porters has to be 
engaged in Egypt and Eastern Africa, the expedition will be formed at 
Tj^xmh&x^ and conveyed thenee in a fine steamer of 2000 tons round 
the Capo of Good Hope to the mouth of the Congo. The party includes 
an accomplishetl surveyor and a naturalist* and tbe interests of science 
will be sedulously cared for. Our Council have subscribed the sum of 
1000^. towards the expenses, with a view to that sum being applied in 
aid of tbe geographical exploration of the country to bo travoi-sed^ and in 
hope that the results of sucli exploration may be communicated for 
publication by the Socio t3\ 

Dr* Oscar LeEZ has arrived at Zanzibar, and ia now on his way to 
Europe. In the new number (12 of Band xxix.) of tbe ' Mitteilungen * 
of the Vienna Geographical Society, we find his map of the Congo 
between Stanley Falls and Kasonge, the stretch which, it will be 
remembered, he took fifty days to traverse. This map contains much 
information as to the nature of the banks and the people who inhabit 
them. As Dr. Lenz*s last letter was dated from the Upper Congo, just 
six months ago, and as he has no doubt stopped at various points on the 
route, his journey has been comparatively rapid. But, as an instance of 
the great advance in this respect in recent years, we may state that the 
London Missionary Society has established a uionthly mail from Zan- 
zibar to their stations on Lake Tanganyika. The mail caravan consists 
of eight men, who perforin the journey bo rapidly that letters from 
Mr, Here, at Lake Tanganyika, are received in England in about three 
months after they are sent off. Through delays in the transmission of 
certain parts of the machinery Mr. Ho re has not yet been able to com- 
plete the steamer be has had on the stocks for about three years* 

The Mang^anja and Yao.— According to a letter of tbe Eev. A. Hether* 
wick, of Blantyre, the Maog'anja (a Mang'anja), otherwise Maravi, are 
split up into a nnmher of tribes, speaking distinct dialects. The tribes 

with whoso languages the wnter is ucqnaintcd are the following : 

1, The Mang^anja proper, at the foot of the Sbire Falls, to tbe west of 
the Shire. 2, The Mbewe, on the lower Shir^> near the Ruo, 3. The 



Shirwa, sometinies called Ngnra or Nyanja, on the ifilands of Lake Shirwa 
and in a few scattered villages on Mount Zomba. These are the people 
among whom the first Universities' Mission was planted, at Magomero, 
but who were scattered by the great Tao invasion of 1860-67. 4. The 
Mbo, who once lived to the west of the Shir6 cataracts, but were driven 
from their homes by the Mangoni. Only a remnant of them preserves 
its independence by intrenching itself among the rocks, and keeping a 
strict watch on all suspicious parties of the Mangoni people. 6. The 
Chipeta, who once lived to the south-west of Nyassa, but who have been 
destroyed or scattered by the Mangoni. Many of them live at Blantyre 
as slaves of the Yao, who bought them of the Mangoni. 6. The Chewa, 
of the Tumbuka, both to the west of the lake. Their dialect much 
resembles that of the Chipeta. — According to the Eev. W. P. Johnson 
there are four dialects of Yao, viz. Masaninga, Machinga, Amakali, and 
Mwembe. To this the writer would add Mangoche, thus named after 
the Mangoche Hill, to the south-east of the lake, whence the tribe were 
driven in 1860 by the Machinga. Many of them live now near Blantyre. 
Tlie Machinga now occupy Zomba, Chikata, Mponda's, and Mkata's on 
Mangoche mountain. The Lomwe appear to be a sub-tribe of the Makua, 
and the Anguru, on the eastern shore of Lake Shirwa, and the Takhwani, 
on the road to Quilimane, are akin to them. The language of the Quili- 
mane people is known as Chuabo. The tribes in the Zambezi delta speak 
languages which seem to be akin both to the Makua and Mang'anja. 
Of one of these, the Kwaga, the writer has prepared a vocabulary and a 
grammatical sketch. 

Exploration of the Lokeiy'e. — In the new number (10 of Band xiii.) of 
the * Verhandlungen,' of the Berlin Geographical Society, Lieut. Tappen- 
heck describes his journey down the Lokenje river, the great river which, 
after joining the Kassai, flows into the Congo from the south. Lieut. 
Tappenbeck takes up the story after Lieut. Kund was prostrated froin 
his wound. His people had to make their own canoes, and run the 
gauntlet of hostile natives most of the way down the river. In its 
central course it varies from 300 to 500 yards inr width, sometimes 
getting narrower, and flowing between thickly wooded banks. As it 
approaches the Eassai, the forests recede, the river widens, and its 
hanks become marshy. It is studded with muddy islands, and in its 
lower course swarms with hippopotami, its banks abounding in bird- 
life— geese, storks, pelican, flanungoes, ibises, and many other varieties. 
The language of the people met with was quite unintelligible to the 
natives who accompanied Lieut. Tappenbeck. 

Deep-sea Soundings off the Horwegian Coast. — In consequence of the 
continuous stormy weather prevailing last summer and autumn on 
the west coast of Norway, the deep-sea soundings carried on there were 
somewhat curtailed. However, last year a triangle, extending from 



Skoinvaer ninety Norwegian geographical miles to f^ea and up under tho 
Lofuclen Islands, was Bounded, and it waa found that the ** bank ** 
referred to in tho 'Proceedings/ 1386, p, 724, approaches, as was 
anticipated, tlie shore further northward, so that west of SkomA'a^r it 
lies ninety Norwegian geographical miles from the shore, but west of 
AndensBs only 30 to 36 nxilee. An it was impossible to extend the 
fionndings so far norths the bank has therefore not 3'et been charted. 
But from previous sonndings it appears that at Andenttjs it lies only 
a few mOes off the shore, and that the depth sinks from some seventy 
fathoms, somewhat abruptly, to about 400 fathoms. West of Skomvaer 
the depth falls Bnddenly from 150 to some 300 fathoms. It appears, 
therefore, that a bank far larger than the so-Galled " Storeg " by 
Aalesnnd has been discovered, andj it is anticipated, one which will be 
equally important to the cod fisheries. Captain Fabritius, the leader 
of the expedition, intends provisionally to make an addendum to the 
existing charts, on which will be drawn that part of the bank which 
has been measured* About aix miles west of SkomTaar, a shoal was 
found where the depth was only 30 feet of water. 

Laie BalkasL— The foUowiDg notes on some of the geographical re- 
sults of explorations of MM. Krasnoff and Ignatief in the neighbourhood 
of Lake Balkash are taken from the current number of Petermann's 
* Mitteilungen,* The river Kara-esu marked on existing maps does not 
exist ; it has been confounded with the river-bed of the Kara-ssai, which 
is dry throughout the year. The streams of the At-Lessken range 
have long been dry. The most important points of the Chu-Ili chain 
are the Andrakai and E an -Tan, from which other spurs shoot off. The 
water of the river Hi is being diverted to the eastern arms of the delta ; 
the westeni channels have become mere pools of standing water. For 
three years the water in the main stream has not overflowed, while the 
Kuril arm of the delta is becoming filled. The Kamau country is rich 
in woods and reed-banks. The Kirghises sow millet when the Hi over- 
flows; where the lakes have receded they sow wheat. Between the 
desert of Kurgan-Kum and the mountains lies a level steppe. The 
desert of Tau-Kura can be traversed in all directions. Many routes are 
known to the Kirghises, along which in the spring good water can be 
found. MM, Krasnofi* and Ignatief have recently discovered in the 
Khan-Tengri group a now glacier called the Mushketof, Tvhich exceeds 
in size the well-known Ssmenof glacier. 

Indian Survey Frogramme of Current Seaaon.— The work of the Survey 
of India during the present field season cotiHista of the folio wing operations i- — 

Trigonomxtn(M Branch. — Owing to tlie paucity of officers available for field 
jiartiea, the electro- tclftgraphic oiTerationa for determination of longitudes carried on 
last year are anspendedj and one officer h being employed instead to take astra- 
nomical observations for latitudes from Jubbalpore to Matlras, A party iire 
extending a aeries of iecondary triangles along the Madrid coast from the Eistna 







rirer aouihward, aod crectiBg bratcong, &c, for the marine surveyors. Tidal obser. 
vitiaiu «r« being token at tigliteen ports, aad linens of spirit-levels will be carried 
fitna aerenil ports connecting them with tnansulation stations, so as to get as correct 
a vtfiie as possible for tbe heights of the latter. 

Topographical SuiTcys.^The party which bas 6ni&hed the survey of the 
Andamans was under ordera for Upper Burma, but owing to the disturbed Btata 
of that country hap proceeded to survey the Nicobar Islands, a task which it is 
iDticipttted will occupy one field season. The Baluchistan party wa.i considerably 
strengtliened during last season, owing to urgent demands of the military autho- 
filie* for ipedal large scale surveys, and was employed on surveys on the two*mch 
scale in the Kwaja Amran range and neighbourhood of Quetta. It is now resuming 
the general survey of Baluchistan on the half-inch scale in continuation oi 
preriotjs work. Another enrvej now completed is that of Cutch, and the jiarty 
Iat«ly engaged there, as well as that recently eniijloyed in South Deccan, will bo 
traosferred to revenue survey work in the Central Provinces. The Gujerat iwrty 
will be split up into two, one to continue the Gujerat survey on the two-inch scale, 
and the other to survey the forest reserves in the Thana Collectorate on the eight- 
inch scale. During the autumn and early summer mouths the Oimalayaii party 
were to operate in the Knlu and other hill States about Simla, and in Kangra during 
the winter and spring, returning to recess quarters for the monsoon months. Captain 
Hobday, who has lieea surveying the Andamans, has joined the trooj^s in Upper 
Burma, and with the aid of an assistant superintendent and a few European 
aurveyora, is engaged on such survey work as the militarj- movements will 
render feasible. The completion of the Mysore survey enables the imrty which has 
been working there for many years to undertake the topographical survey of the 
Madras Presidency, an important task, to which reference was made in a previous 
nnmber of the * Proceedings,' Raj pu tana is still far from completed, but the 
presMng needs of the Baluchistan survey have necessitated the former party being 
transferred to the latter region, where it will co-operate with Baluchiatan party No. 1. 
The South Mahmtta survey party will be divided into two sections, one for forest 
rcMTvea and the other for topography, of which an area of more than 25,000 squoro 
mikst Including Qaa, avvaltn completion. For the im|K)rtant, but technical class of 
"work known as Eevenue surveys, which include in some instances cadastral or field 
hy field surveys, thirteen parties are assigned to the following localities: — Akyab, 
Baati, Btlaapur, Gorakhpur^ Jubhulpore, Kamrup, Miizaffarpur, Punjab (Guidaspur, 
Amritsar, and Shahpur districts), Kaipur, Sambalpur, Saugor, Seoui, aud Ghind- 

JVW Survetf <f Calcutta, — This much needed want is shortly to be undertaken. 
The last survey was made by Mr. Simma, c.e., ia the years 1847-49. It was 
purely topographical, aud not only was no register of owners or occupiers prepared > 
but no demarcation of the Government holdings was attempted, and nothing was 
then done to ascertain the jiarties responsible to Govtrnmeot for the revenue. This 
vaa subsequently done by Mr. Hey sham in 1851, and took five years to accomplish, 
but during the past thirty years many changes have taken place and the wurk 
requirea revision. The new stirvoy is also necessary for municipal purposcB, for 
Mr. Simms^a survey was plotted on the scale of 100 feet to an inch, which in too 
iraaall. The new survey is to be on the scale of 50 fet- 1 to the inch, and will include 
all road% footpaths, build in ga, and drainage works, and other necessary details, 

Biuaian Expedition to tlie New Siberian Islands.— We learn that a 
telegram has recently been received by the Ru&dan Acaderaj of 
Science annonncing the complete success of tbig expeditioCj under the 

No. n.— Fkb. 1887.] s 



leadership of Bn Bunge and Baron von Toll, and the retnm of the 
travellers to the mainland about the end of October last. The news 
at present to hand is very meagre, but it appears that operations were 
commenced in the spring by the deapatch of a stock of provisions and a 
boat to the island of Kotelny, the outward journey being accomplished 
in thirteen days and the return in three. On 2S)th April Baron von Toll 
set out for the island of Ljaohow, with the object of examining the 
island before the arrival of the bulk of the party, who followed later, 
under the superinti&ndence of Dr. Bunge. In the summer the two 
leaders separated, Baron von Toll spending the greater portion of his time 
on the island of Kotelny, wliile his eompanion made a thorough explora- 
tion of the island of Ljachow* Earlier in the year they had explored in 
company five islands. In view of the very important result s which 
may confidently be expected from this expedition, we await witli 
interest the pnblication of fuller details. 

The Muir Glacier, Alaska. — To the * American Jotinaal of Science * for 
January, Mr. G. Frederick Wright contributes an account of his own 
investigations of the Muir Glacier of Alaska, one of the largest glaciers 
in the world. It enters an inlet of the same name at the head of 
Glacier Bay. Alaska, in lat. 58° 50' N., long. 136° 40' W. Glacier Bay 
is a body of water about 30 miles long and from 8 to 12 miles wide (but 
narrowing to about three miles at its upper end) projecting in a north- 
west direction from the east shore of Cross Sound. Near the mouth of 
Glacier Baj is a cluster of low islands, named Beardslee, twenty-five to 
thirty of them, compoaed of loose material, evidently glacial debris, and 
in striking contrast to most of the islands* and shores in gonth-eastom 
Alaska. These, like the other land to the south, are covered with 
forest, whereas the islands and shores in the upper part of the bay are 
entirely devoid of forest, having no doubt recently been covered with 
glacial ice. The upper end of the bay is divided into two inlets of 
unequal length, the eastern one being Mnir Inlet, a little over three 
miles wide at its month, and extending to the north about the same 
distance, narrowing at the upper end to a little over one mile, where it 
is interrupted by the front of the Muir Glaoier. The monntain on the 
east side of Muir Inlet is 2900 feet high, that on the west 3150, 
lieing to about 5000 two or three miles baek» The base of those moun- 
tains, metamorphic slate, is so much contorted, that Mr. Wright found 
it impossible to ascertain their system of folds. The width of the ico 
where the glacier breaks though between the mountains is 10,C64 feet, 
a little over two miles, though the actual water-front is only one mile. 
This front terminates in an angle projecting about a c^uarter of a mile 
below the north-east and north-west corner of the inlet. The depth of 
the w*ater 300 yards aotith of the ice-front is 516 feet, and the height of 
the ice at the extremity of the angle in the middle of the inlet 250 feet, 
with perpendicular front. Further back it rises to 300 aud 400 feet, the 


sarfaoe of the glacier rising to the east and north-east about 100 feet to 
the mile. On going ont in that direction on the ice, seven miles, Mr. 
Wright fonnd himself 1050 feet above the bay. The main body of the 
glaoier oconpies a vast amphitheatre with diameters ranging from thirty 
to forty miles. Nine main streams of ice unite to form the grand trunk, 
ooming from all directions, and no less than seventeen sub-branches were 
seen coming in to join the main streams from the mountains near the rim 
of the amphitheatre. Numerous rocky eminences rise above the surface 
of the ice, their surfaces smoothed and scored, and glacial debris deposited 
everywhere upon them, showing they have been recently covered by ice. 
On the side from which the ice approached these islands, it rose like 
breakers from the sea-shore, several hundred feet higher than it was on 
the lee side. The lee side of these islands seemed to be the beginning of 
important sub-glacial streams of water, brooks running into the de- 
pression as into a funnel, and causing a backward movement of ice and 
moraine. The ice in the eastern half of the amphitheatre is moving 
much more slowly than in the western half. Here and there the sur- 
face is interrupted by superficial streams of water, occupying narrow 
ahaUow channels, running for a short distance and then plunging down 
into moultns to swell the larger current. From the front there is a 
constant succession of falls of ice into the water. From the measure- 
ments and observations made by Mr. Wright, it would seem to follow 
that a stream of ice presenting a cross section of about 3,500,000 square 
feet (5000 feet wide by about 700 feet deep) is entering the inlet at an 
average rate of forty feet per day, making about 140,000,000 cubic feet 
per day during the month of August. The indications that the Muir 
Glacier is receding, and that its volume is diminishing, are indubitable 
and numerous. On the other hand, near the south-west comer of the 
glacier, the streams are uncovering a forest of cedar trees in perfect 
preservation, standing upright in the soil as they grew, with the humus 
all about their roots. 

Sources of the Mississippi. — In connection with the notice, in our last 
month's issue, of Mr. Harrower's pamphlet on Captain Glazier and his 
lake, it deserves notice that in tracing the history of the exploration 
of the sources of the river, he altogether omits to mention the visit of 
Mr. Featherstonehugh in 1835, as described in his ' Canoe-voyage on the 
Minnay Soter,' what was then named the Minnesota being regarded as 
the main stream of the Mississippi. Featherstonehugh spent some time 
in the district, visiting Lake Travers or Pamidji, which he wrongly 
thought sent its waters northwards. While wandering about the ridge, 
or rather plateau, called the Coteau de Prairie, Featherstonehugh 
looked down upon, but could not approach what, from his map, was 
evidently Lake Itasca, which is recognised as at least the approximate 
source of the river. Of course he was not the first to visit this lake, 
which was seen and surveyed by Lieut. Allen in 1832, 

K 2 



German New Guiuea,^The opcniog up of Kaiser Wilhelm's Land 
will l>e greatly facilitated by a journey made by Admiral von Schleiaitz 
and Dr. Schrader up the Empress Augusta riven This iraj>ortant water- 
way» Bituated close to tlie western border of the country under the Gorman 
Protectorate, was navigated by the Admiral in the steamer Otiilie for < 
a distance of 224 nailes. Further progress could not be madoj owing 
to the shallowness of the river, the journey having been undertaken 
during the dry season. Tho ship*s steam launch, however, proceeded 
112 miles furtlier to a point situated in 4' 16' S, lat. and 141'* 50' E, 
long* Judging from the quantity of water in the river, the voyage 
could have been continued for another 50 miles, but fuel ran short. 
For over 200 miles from its mouth the river flows through extensive 
plains ; then ite course suddenly ehangeS;, and it assumes the character 
of a mountain stream, forcing its w^ay through hills of gneiss, mica- 
slate, and quartz, but the velocity of its current remains uniform. 
Thirty miles further up, tho river again resumes its peaceful course. 
The settlements on its banta were only found at long intervals. The 
level plains of the country offer great facility for pasture and for the 
cultivation of rice, sugar-cane, itc. Fuller details of thit* interesting 
voyage will be found in part Xo. 4 of the * Naohrichten liber Kaiser 
Wilhelm's Laud' (188(5> 

The longest Rivers in the World* — The latest contribution on this 
controversial subject is a communication made to * Petermann's Mittei- 
lungen,' by Major-General A, von Tillo, of the Russian Staff* He gives in 
a table, with notes, the following estimates of the eight longest rivers of 
the world— (1) Missouri-Mississippi, 4104 miles; (2) Nile, 4020; (3) 
Yang-tsze-Kiang,:3l58 ; (4) Amazons, 30C3 ; (5) Yenisei-Selenga, 2950 ; 
(6) Amur, 2920 ; (7) Congo, 2883 ; (8) Mackenzie, 2868. He takes the 
length of the Missouri -Mississippi from the ' Beport upon tho Physics and 
Hydraidics of the Mississippi River,* by Captain A. S. IIumphreyH and 
Lieutenant H. A. Abbot, and the measurement of the Nile from Perthes* 
new map of Africa. General Tillo*8 data for the length of the AmaEona 
is the map of South America, published by njin in St. Petersburg, and 
prepared by General N. Kaulbara, on scale 1 : 6,300,000 ; the length being 
reckoned from the source of the Maranon to the island of Bailikwe. 
The length of the Yenesei-Selenga is calculated from the llussian Staff 
raiip, on scale 1 : 4,200,000, of the Russian dominiona in Asia. The prin- 
cipal difference l^etween the above list and that of M. C. A, v. Eloders, 
published in the sixth part of the *Zeit8chrift ' of the Geographical 
Society of Berlin, is the length of the Missouri-Mississippi, which the 
latter gives as 3658 miles. 

The British Association Committee on Geographical Education. — It 
will be remembered that at the Binningham meeting of the British 
AsBOciati'on, a committee was appointed ** for the purpose of co-operating 


with the Boyal Geographical Society in endeavouring to bring before 
the authorities of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge the advisar 
bility of promoting the study of geography by establishing special 
chairs for the purpose." A meeting of the committee was recently held, 
at which were present Mr. Yemen Harcourt and Professor Moseley from 
Oxford, Professor Hughes from Cambridge, the Rev. Canon Carver, the 
Eev. E. F. M. McCarthy (Birmingham), and Mr. E. G. Ravenstein. We 
are happy to say that the members of the committee fully recognised 
the educational value of the scientific study of geography, and are 
agreed in thinking that geography should occupy a place among the 
subjects of study in our national universities. They resolved to request 
the Council of the Association to give their support to the representa- 
tions and o£fers which have been made by the Council of the Society. 
The members of the committee not present concur, we believe, in the 
resolutions come to. They are Prof. A. Newton, Professor Bonney, Canon 
Tristram, Rev. H. B. George, Rev. A. R. Vardy, Rev. H. W. Watson, 
Captain Douglas Galton. 

Aaran Oeographical Society.— Under the title of ' Femschau,' we have 
received the first number of the • Jahrbuch ' of the Aarau Qeographico- 
Commercial Society. It contains, among other matter, two original 
papers of some interest ; one describing the visit of a Basel missionary 
to Kumassi in Ashanti, in 1881, and the other a brief paper advocating 
reform in geographical education, by Dr. Hermann Braunhofer. 


On the Teaching of Geoffraphy. 

Hayikq lately read with very great interest the Educational Eeport of the Koyal 
Geographical Society, 1 am inclined to think that a few remarks by one who has 
had considerable experience in teaching this subject may not be unwelcome. My 
remarks will apply principally to provincial grammar schools and others of that 

First, as to the faults to be found in the present system. I consider the greatest 
of these to be the too great importance attached to what is usually called political 
geography, which, in reality, is nothing but the learning by heart of the positions 
of a great number of towns, the larger proportion of which are of very little general 
interest, and those things for which they are celebrated, the most worthless trash 
often being included in this latter category. No reason is ever given for the accumu- 
lation of towns in certain districts, or for the greater richness and prosperity of one 
town more than another, matters which are generally within the comprehension of 
any child. 

Then, a^in, the physical features of a country, on which everything else 
depends, and which are therefore the most important, are really scarcely touched on 
atalL The more conspicuous headlands, inlets, mountains, and rivers are just 
mentioned, and no general idea of the lie of the land or of the nature of the surface 
soil is given. The description of perhaps the most important factor of all— rclimate — 


i« given in a few big-sou Bxling words beyond Uie comprelicnsion of most cliildren> 
and 110 ruGDtioQ is made of tbo why or wherefore, which is just what the childkh 
mind is constaotly inquiring after. 

But perhnpH the greate»t fault of all in the modem system h leRrning by heart 
all tbat is in the usually very bad text-book without the doe use of the atlas. Most 
teachers will probably tell their pupils to refer constaotly to the atlas, but how 
many pupiis do so refer to it? UnJess the lesson is prepared under keen superviaion 
I fear in the majority of caaea the atlas is never looked at. And why? Simply 
because the [>upil does not know how to read a map, and it therefore becomes a very 
uninteresting object to him. And very naturally so. We could none of us feel 
interested in a book placed liefore ns if it were written in an unintelligible language, 
! think it would be a very good thing if, in the caee of younger children, tlio text- 
Ixjok were abolished altogether, and they were taught solely by lectures, or rather 

I would in every case li>egtn with a course of physical geography, together with 
a certain amount of mathemalical, explaining everything by references to phenomena 
of local occurrence, so far as is possible. The physical geography should be largely 
illustrated by experiments, the simpler and more homely the better, and it would 
be a very good thing to give a few lessons in physics, illustrating the general pro- 
sier tics of solids, liquids, and gases** 

Instea*] of large and expensive wall-maps, generally of a very inferior description, 
outline maps, drawn on the blackboard and filkd in as the lesson proceeds, would 
be better. If it is object^jd to this, that it takes up too much of the teacher's time 
in drawing ati outline before those lessons in which the outline is not treated of can 
start — then have perm^mcnt outlines drawn in |>aint on American cloth. These can 
be rolled up, and then occupy little space when put away. The clotli takes chalk 
exceedingly well. With this and a supply of coloured chalks much really valuable 
work can be done st very little cost. As the teacher goes from one subject to 
another, the pupil can follow, filling in a blank map on i^aper placed before him* It 
will keep him attentive and interested from beginning to end, and the lesion will he 
a source of pleasure to teacher and pupil alike — at least, so I have found it, I should 
Ktart first wnth the outline, and fill in the mountains and rivers, not forgetting to 
draw sections in various directions across the country. Then take the meteorology, 
next the forest, arable, pasture, and waste lands, and the distribution of minerals. 
Finally, the distribution of industries, bringing in the most important towns, 
followed by the ethnology and political divisions. 

In tlie next place there ought to be large numbers of pictures. If the class is 
large the lantern should be used, but if small, woodcuts and photographs would do* 
In this province I think the Society might do most useful work by publishing illns- 
trations typical of the scenery, inhabitants, animals, and plants of various districts, 
and if in addition actual specimens of the products could be obtained » it would 
indeed be teaching in clover. At present it is only possiblo tooblai^n illustrationa 
from a vast number of books, and these have then to be photographed, or copied in 
son>e other way, if a permanent coilectlon is desiroii, and the cost becomes consider- 
able even when the teacher can copy them himself. Where space can be procured a 
room ought to be set apart for these collections* In large towns specimens might 
13erhai>8 to a large extent be lx>rrowed from the local musoums. 

I am inclined to think that it is a national disgraco that we have not a museum, 


* I should, if the Society thought fit^ be glad to communicate a series of papers on 
Pliysicfl and Chemistry as applied to Geography, using in all cases the simplest possiblo 


or even a department of one, entirely devoted to geography, in which models, maps, 
aectionf, photographs, and specimens are all exhibited under the hesuSis of their own 
particalar districts. If such could be formed — ^and ours certainly ought to be the 
aation to do it, considering we have colonies and settlements in every quarter of 
the globe — it would vastly further the cause of geographical education. 

With r^ard to mathematical geography, so-called, it is usually taught in a 
most slipshod manner, and I believe there is a generally prevailing impression that 
it is too hard for children of nine and ten. My experience shows me that it is per- 
fectly possible— even with no apparatus except a rough home-made blank globe — to 
get them to understand latitude and longitude, the seasons, and phenomena of day 
and night thoroughly. Then map projections can generally be explained by the aid 
of diagrams. As to the correct reading of a map — so far as the parallels and 
meridians go— why should the pupil not be made to draw a map on a blank projec- 
tion from a copy made on another? He certainly ought to fix the position of places 
accurately on a blank map when only the latitude and longitude are given. 

In conclusion, it seems to me a great pity that geography, as a school subject, is 
not taught as a science by the science master, rather than by classical men, who 
larely have any aptitude for the work, except perhaps willingness. It must bo 
g^erally admitted that physical geography, or physiography, dealing as it does 
with all those natural phenomena which come most generally under everyday 
observation, is well calculated to develope the observing and thinking faculties of 
the youthful mind, much more so than the very meagre smattering of chemistry 
or physics which a boy or girl generally acquires at school, and therefore let it be 
the child's first introduction to the study of nature. 

W. Hheam, B.80., 
University College, Liverpool, late Assistant Master in Queen Elizabeth's 

January 18th. Grammar School^ Wimbame, 

Sir T. Donglas Forsyth, KC.S.I., C.B.*— The late Sir Thomas Douglas 
Forsyth, whose recent death, at the age of fifty-nine, has been deeply felt and deplored 
bjavery wide circle of relatives and friends, and who was so well known as a distin- 
guished member of the Civil Service in India, whom we shall speak of in this brief 
memoir as Sir Douglas, was bom at Birkenhead in 1827 — the tenth child and third 
son of his parents. He went to Sherborne School, in Dorsetshire, where he remained 
only a short time, and then proceeded to Rugby, of which school Dr. Arnold was 
Head Master, succeeded soon afterwards by Dr. Tait, who became Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and under whose tuition Sir Douglas remained until he went to 
Haileybury College, having obtained a writership in the Bengal Presidency from 
Mr. Lyall, formerly M.P. for London. The Principal of Haileybury College was 
the late Bev. William Melvill, and here he greatly distinguished himself, gaining 
five gold medals for proficiency in Oriental languages and law. In 1848 he sailed 
for India, and at Fort William College, in Calcutta, he obtained a gold medal and 
three prizes for " high proficiency." About this time the Punjab, after the second 
Sikh war, was annexed to British India, and Sir Douglas was appointed 
Assistant Magistrate at Saharunpore, and next year Joint Magistrate and Deputy 
Collector at Simla. In 1851 he was Assistant Commissioner of Kangra, and in 

By W. Forsyth, Esq., Q.O., LL.D. 



1856 Deputy Commissi oner of Ufiiballa{ the Commissioner being tlie kt« Mr, George 
Baines), when the mutiny broke out. While holding these various apiKJintroents, 
hlagi-eat ability and devotion to duty gained bira the full confidence and approval 
of hia EUiieriorp, and no one of the young civil servants gave brighter promise of an 
eminent career. Nothing couM exceed the enei^y and courage shown by him at 
the momentous crisis of the mutiny. He called upon the Maharaja of Puttiala to 
assist us, and secured bis loyalty to the British side^ which example was followed 
by the adhesjon of the Kajas of Jheend aod Nabba. The chief duly that devolved 
upon him waa to provide the means of transport for the troops on their march to 
Delhi, then held by the rebels and besieged by ua, and to his active exertions it 
"Was greatly owing that the Punjab regiments were able to accomplish their difficult 
march. He raised a police force for the defence of Umballa, and protected the road 
leading from that place to KumanL 

In 1858 he was promoted to the office of flecretary to Sir Robert Montgomery, 
the Chief Commissicmer of Oudh, and a warm and affectionate friendship grew up 
between them w^hich lasted until the end of his life. We may mention that one of 
bis daughters married a son of Sir Robert, who had the highest appreciation of his 
cbamcter and ability, and frequently sought his advice, which he always found to 
be wise and judicious^ In 1860 he became Officiating Commissioner in the Punjab, 
and received the order of C.B, for his services in the mutiuy. In 1863 he was ^ 
Commissioner of Lahore^ and in 1865 Commissioner of Julluudur, H 

Having in 1869 come to England on furlough, a signal proof was given of the 
confidence reposed in his judgment and thorough knowledge of Indian politics, by 
his being entrusted by Lord Clarendon with the responsible duty of going on a 
mission to Russia for the purpose of coming to an understanding with the Russian 
Government on the vexed question of the north- western frontier of Afghanistan, so 
as to define it, and thus afford no pretext for Ru8s:an aggression in that quarter. 
He proceeded to Russia by way of Constantinople, and had several interviews with 
Prince GortchakofiT, and one with the Emperor Alexander \L He received the most 
distinct aud pobitive assurances on these occasions that the Russian Government 
acknowledged the frontier pin ted out by him to be the true boundary ^ and a 
declaration that there was no intention on the part of Russia to disturb it. More- 
over, that Afghanistan was considered to be out of the sphere of Russia's policy. 
It was the strong opinion of Sir Douglas, and we believe that he repeatedly gave the 
advice, that a boundary line should then be drawn and formally accepted by Russia,, 
which, if done, would have obviated subsequent misunderstandings and conduct on 
the part of Russia which recently brought us to the brink of war with that country. 
He had always a rooted distrust of the policy and good faith of Russia, and thought 
that the only course to be adopted towards that power was to say to her, " Tbus 
far shait thou go and no farther, or the alternative is war.** 

Sir Dougbs had always taken a warm interest in the question of trade between 
India and Central Asia^ and as one proof of this we may mention that the village of 
Palampore, in tho Kangra Valley, was created by him to facilitate the- transi^ort 
of merchandise between the two countries. 

After his return to India, and while he was Commiasioner of Umballa, a serious 
disturbance broke out at Kouka in his district, which he with great promptitude and 
energy suppressed. Several executions took place, by the order of the Deputy Com- 
missioner, in the absence of Sir Douglas at Delhi, and he approved of his conduct. 
For this he was censured by Lord Napier aud Ettrick, theu acting provisionally as 
Governor-General, but it was subsequently acknowledged that his action was right, 
and it is generally admitted that he had saved the Punjab from what might havo 
been a very grave disaster. 




Iq 1870 he was selected by the Governor-General, Lord Mayo, to coEduct a 
mission to Kashgaria, then an almost unkuown region, and previously visited by 
only one EngiishmaOp Mr. Shaw. The ruler of the conotry was the Eoiir Yakoob 
Beg, otherwise known by the name of the Atalik Ghazi, and the object of the 
mifision was to negotiate a treaty of commerce between India and his territory. 
The access to Kashgaria was very difficult, owing to the chain of lofty mountains 
that intervene, some of them attaining the altitude of 18,000 feet, and the whole of 
the complicated arrangements for the journey devolved upon him. Unfortunately, 
the Emirwaa absent on an expedition, and as the instructions of Sir Douglaa 
required him to return to Indiii before the commencement of the winter, he was 
unable to obtain an interview, so that on this occasion the mission was abortive. 

Id 1872 Sir Douglas was tnuiBferred to Oudh, and became Conimissioner of 
Fyzabad, and next year. Lord Mayo having determined to seud a second misdon to 
KashgariJi, was appointed Envoy, and this time he was more suocessfuh He stayed 
£ome time at Yarkand and Kasbgar, and had eeverai meetings with the Emir, discus- 
sing with Mm not only the terms of a treaty of commerce, hut also the nature of the 
reUtiona between Russia and Kashgaria, which seemed threatened with the possi- 
bility of Russian aggression. A report of this mission was printed in a bulky 
volume, which contains a large mass of useful information on the |jolitics, natural 
history, and condition of Eastern Turkistan. Kext year Sir Douglas was mode a 
K-C.S.L, an honour conferred u|ion him by the express desire of Her Majesty, 
ilthough the number of the members of the order was then complete, and there w*as 
no actual vacancy. 

He was appointed additional member of the Lep;islfttive Council of India, and 
in 1876 was sent to Burma by Lord Nortlibrook as envoy to settle a question of 
disputed boundary, which he successfully accompliBhed, having an audience of the 
King at Mandalay. 

isext year, 1876, he resigned the Indian service, and came to England, where 
he resided until his death, occupying himself by taking a prominent part in the 
diiection of several Indian railways. He was director of the East India and Sclnde 
and Punjab Railways and chairman of the Southern Mahralta and the West of 
India Portuguese Guaranteed Railway Companies, the formation of which was 
mainly due to his exertions. He also became Member of Council of the Royal 
Geographical Society, and took a warm interest In its proceedings, having by his 
extensive travels — in which he had visited Cbina and Japan, and crossed the 
American Continent— made himself acquainted with tiie chief parts of the globe. 
He was also much interested in the promotion of tea cultivation in India, and while 
in England took an active jmrt in the direction of two tea companies, whoso property 
is situated in the Kangra Valley. 

Sir Douglas had the art of winning the attachment of the natives of India in 
an extraordinary degree. He was endtared to them by his uniform courtesy and 
kindness, and he was alwHys anxious to me them ailvanced to [x>.its which they 
were fitted to fill He was emphatically their friend, and they knew it, A striking 
proof of their feeling towards him was shown on the occasion of a visit he paid to 
India three years ago, accompanied by his elder brother. When in the districts of 
the Punjab which had been under his authority great numbers of natives came 
from distant parts to welcome him, and testified in the most unmistakable manuer 
the affection wnth which his memory was treasured in their hearts. He w^as 
iode^ one of the roost generous and unselfish of men, and never so happy as when 
he had the opportunity of doing acts of kindness to others. As was truly said 
in one of the very numerous letters received on his death, he was ** tbe ideal of 
an English gentleman."^ 



He married Alice, daughter of the kte Mr, Thomas Ball Plumer, of Cauoui ' 
Park, and graDddaugbter of Sir Thomas Flnmer, Master of the Rolls, and has lofl 
hifl widow and three daughters to mourn his loss. 

Captain C. George, E.lf . — Tlic former well-known and universally esteemed 
Caratur of the Map Department of our Society, SiaflT-Commaoder ChriBtoplier 
George, died on the 2nd of January, at tlie age of 77 ye^irs. He was in the 
Society's service for a period of 20 years, namely, from Juno 18GT to Juno 1877, 
at which latter date he resigned, owing to the fftiiure of his eyesight, an infirmity 
which was quickly followed by nearly total blindnesij. In his earlier life Captain 
George had seen much active service in the Navy, chiefly in the scientific branch. 
Ho was born at Limehouse on the 14th September, 180D, and entered the Navy as 
Beooiid-clas.H volunteer in January, 1828, From master^s assiatant on* the Britomart 
(1828 to 1S30), the Savage and Ntmrod (1831 to 1835), and the Sulphur (to 1837), 
he rose to be second master in the SuljJtur (1837-1842), and Fisgard (1842-^), 
acting-master and master in the Tarturm (1843-1846), and senior assistant-sur- 
veyor on the Fkgard (1846-1854). As naval surveyor during the last 19 years of 
his service he was engaged successively under Captains Deecbey, Kellett, CoHiuson, 
and Sir Edward Belcher, on the west coast of America, among the islands of the 
Pacific, and od the coast of China, and afterwards on the south-west coast of IrelancL 
During the whole term of his service, 2G years 4 months, he was only 10 months 
without a ship, that interval being in the first seven years. He obtained the rank 
of conmiissioned officer in Noveml)er 1843. In the China war of 1841, be waa 
in action at the taking of the forts on the Canton river up to the city of Canton, 
surveying in advance for the fleet to proceed, and 0|>erating with the Naval Brigade, 
with the troops in rear of the city. For this service he received the China sOver 

Captain George invented tbe spiral cord method of filling the mercurial baro- 
meter, and two instrunjents now bearing his name, viz. the double sextant and the 
artificial horizon. For these he received a medal at tbe International Geographical 
Congress of Paris, 1875. His knowledge and skill as a surveyor and mapper were 
employed, whilst connected with our Society, in computing the observations of 
travellers, and in instructing them prior to their undertaking their explorationa. 
Amongst bis pupils were some of our most re u owned travellers, including Du 
Chaillu (for bis second journey), Thomas Baines, Captain Burton, and Sir C. Baker. 


Fmrtk Meeting, Januartf llthj, 1887. — General E. Stracuey, r.e., f,r.s,, 
Vice-PreBident, in the Cbain 
Elkctions. — Edward C. Admna^ Esq. ; IhiiTy Akxander, Esq.^ b.a. ; Geo, H. 
Biirday, E&q. ; AJfrtd IL Burton^ Esq. ; Vhas, Chewings^ E$q, ; Jas, (/, Fraz€i\ 
Enq,; J as. EodoJph Gl&ver, E$q, ; Fhilip IL GrahamyEsq,; Jiohert Kilpatrick, 
Esq. ; Willmm Martin , E^, ; M, II, M, I\ de la MurHuikre ; T. W. MouUon, 
Esq, ; Major Wm. Nort&n P^rsse^ E*A. ; D* Macdonald Mohertson'MacdojiaM, £iy, ; 
LieuL Waiier Ileniy Simpson {Bengal Staff Corps); Edward Stall iifrasaf Esq.; 
Ilmis Sloane Stanley^ E»q* ; CUnUm Brazil van Tuyl^ Esq, 

Thb Emin Pasha Belief Expedition, 
Previous to the reading of the paper, the Chaikman announced that tbe Council 
of the Society bad thai day passed the following Resolution ; — 

" An expedition to be conducted by Mr. H, M. Stanley having been organised for 


the relief of Emin Pasha, under the coDtrol of a Committee formed in London, and 
the Council of the Royal Geographical Society being satisfied that valuable new 
geographical data are likely to be obtained by whichever route the expedition pro- 
ceeds, resolves that a grant of lOOOZ. be made to the managing committee of the 
expedition with a view to that sum being applied in aid of the geographical explora- 
tion of the country to be traversed, and in hope that the results of the exploration 
may be communicated for publication by the Society/ 

The Chaibmak added that he hoped the Resolution would receive the approba- 
tion of the members. The announcement was received with applause by the 

Sir Rawson Rawson mentioned Ihat he had just learnt from Mr. Stanley that 
be proposed to start for Egypt and Zanzibar on Friday, the 2l8t. 

The following paper was then read : — 

•* Explorations in South- Elastem New Guinea," By the Rev. J. Chalmers. See 
ante, p. 71. 


C^graphical Society of Paris. — December 3rd, 1886 : M. A. Germain in the 
chair. — A communication was read by the Secretary from the Commercial Geo- 
graphical Society of Havre, with reference to the appointment of a Permanent 
Commission to carry into eSact the resolutions of the Annual Congress of the Geo- 
graphical Societies of Frauce ; the opinion of the Society was invited as to the scope 
and composition of this committee. — A letter was read from M. Ch. Toret confirming 
the conclusions of Comte de Bellanger, announced at the last meeting, upon the pre- 
cise locality of Tavernier's grave. — M. Hangsen Blangsted informed the Society 
that the delegates appointed by the governments of Sweden and Denmark to 
advise upon the proposed submarine tunnel between the island of Zealand and 
Sweden, had issued a report unfavourable to the scheme. — A letter dated 30th August 
was read from Vicomte E. de la Panouse, giving a short account of his travels in 
SSouth Africa. Since 1882, he had traversed the country between the Cape of Good 
Ilope and the Zambesi, but being unprovided with astronomical instruments he had 
be^ unable to take observations for verifying existing maps. He was then to the 
north of the Zambesi, and it was his intention to proceed to Lake Bangweolo, de- 
scend the Loangwe to Zumbo, and then crossing the Zambesi to make his way to 
Mangwe, a village about 200 miles east of the Falls. He would return to Tete through 
the country of the Mashonas. He requested the Society to lend him the necessary 
instruments for taking observations. He was defraying the cost of his journey by 
elephant hunting. — M. H. Duveyrier called the attention of the Society to an ex- 
cellent map of the Freuch possessions in Senegal, which was exhibited in the halL 
This map had, he said, been carefully prepared by Captain Monteil, and embodied 
all the results of the most recent explorations in the country. — M. Germond de 
Lavigne gave an account of the excursion recently made by him through Portugal 
to Cape Vincent and Cape Sagres. An interesting resum^ of his mission to Iceland 
was given by Dr. Henry Labonne.* — The General Secretary then read a letter dated 
2l8t October, 1886, from Dr. Neis, who wrote from the hospital of HanoL His party 
bad sufiered from the attacks of pirates, and also from political complications which 
had only recently been solved. However he had succeeded in collecting a large 
amount of valuable geographical information regarding the district between the Black 

• * Proceedings B.G.S.,' 1887, p. 52. 



River ap<l tlio Mekong. He int<?nded to rest fcr some weeks before rccorameDcing 
the wioter campaiga on the froii tiers of the two Kuaags. — la cooclusioQ the Chair- 
man announced that the Second General Meeting of the year, to be held on the 17th 
Deeember, would be presided orer bj M. Ferd. de Lessepa, who would also take the 
chair at the Annual Banquet 

—December 17th, 1886 : M. Ferdinand de Lebseps, President of the 

Society, in the Chair* — This waa the second General Meeting of the year. After 
the Chairman^d opening remarks, M. Maunoir, the General Secretary, read aome 
extracts from hiB Annual Eeport, on the operations of the Society, and on the 
progreaa of geography during the year. The Report will be published as usual in 
the Quarterly Bulletin of the Society. — The Chairman then called upon M, D^ir^ 
Charnay to read a paper on his miaaioa in Yucatan, with which he had been charged 
by the Minister of Public Instmctioa, This was, M. Charnay said, his fourth 
voyage to the peninsula. He had again visited the town of Izamal to search for the 
bas-reliefs mentioned by Lauda the historian, as existing on the base of certain 
pyramids. He had discovered a few, and also eome wall paintings, which gave him 
the key to the decorative style of the ancient mhabitants< He had been prevented 
from visiting an Indian villsge called Kol>a, in consequence of a raid through the 
country by this savage tribe ; but he had found to the north of Valladulid an Indian 
towu, hitherto unknown, named Ek-balam, or *' the Black Tiger," which also belonged 
to the third epoch of Toltec civilisation. He made some interesting archieological 
discoveries at this place and aho at an old Maya cemeiery in the island of Taina, 
about 24 milea north of Campeche, on the other side of the peninsula. The Chair- 
man after thanking M. Charnay for his intereBiing paper, and referring to the award 
of the Logerot prizo made to him two years ago by the Society, stated that the 
Central Commission had just decided that M. Charnay should be the first travelier 
to benefit by the Poirier bequest, which, it would be remembered, was to be given to 
travellers of French origin, whose travels and works were considered to be most 
valuable to science and commerce. — Lesseps presented an album of photographs 
representing the present state of the works of the Panama Canal, 

GaoprapMcaL Society of Berlin* — January 8th, 1887 : Herr W, Reibs in 
the chair,— The Chairman, at the commencement of the meeting, gave an account 
of the prograas of I he Society during 1886, Nineteen paj>or3 by travellers had been 
read at ten meetings, of which ten papers related to Africa, sir to Asia, and three to 
South America. The number of ordinary members iLcreased from S*4r> to 976. The 
library reccivetl the addition of 456 volumes, the map collection 68 sheets of maps. 
The Council have decided on printing a catalogue of the library, and it will appear 
in the course of 1888. For the proposed monument at Cape Palm as to Dr, Nachtigal^ 
the amount of 11,347 marks had been subscribed in consequence of the appeal of the 
German Geographical Societies ; but as this sum is inaufliclenti a fresh appeal would 
shortly be made. — Dr. van Bijckevorsel of Rotterdam, who in 1874-1877 travelled 
through the East Indian Archipelago to study the magnetic phenomena of the 
region, and afterwards (in 1881-1884) travelled in North-eastern Brazil with the 
same object, determining the magnetic elements at 135 isointa from Para to Rio 
Janeiro, read a paper on his journey in Sumatra, He travelled from Bencoolen vi4 
Taba Penandjung to Kepajaog, crossing with a caravan of porters the extraordinarily 
rugged and volcanically-disturbed Barisan mountains. The river- valleys in thia 
region are very deep, and form in places, otherwise level, deep gorges with very steep 
escarpments. From Tebing Tinggi the traveller passed in a travelling car through 
a barren district of bamboo wooils to Muara Bliti ou the Klingi. Here a raft was 
built, and on this the Klingi and afterwards the Musi were navigated, Palembang 



bemg reached after a journey of three weeks. Tho popalatioii of Palembaog is upon 
the whole mach more indastrious and active than the rest of the Sumatra people. 
A great obstacle to the rapid dcTelopment of the island is the slow increase of 
popalationy which in this respect offers a strong contrast to Java, which since the 
Datch OMiqnest has increased to nearly 30 million sonls. One cause of the small 
increase in Sumatra is the circumstance that wives must be bought and are very 
dear, many men in consequence remaining single. The immorality of the people, 
besides, is very great, and abortion is elevated into a science.— Staff-Surgeon Dr. 
Wolf, member of the Wissmann Kasai expedition, gave the meeting an account of 
his travels and discoveries in the Southern Congo Basin. From Makenge, the chief 
town of the Baluba kingdom, he visited the Bakete tribe living more northerly on 
the Lulua, and the Bakuba, who dwell between the Sankuru and the Lulua, being 
the first European who has reached those regions. Returning thence to Luluaburg, 
Dr. Wolf took part in the exploration of the Kasai, and returned then alone from 
Stanley Pool to Mukenge. From here he undertook, with the help of the steamer 
En Avant, lent to him by the Congo State, the exploration of the Sankuru and 
Lomami, from which journey he returned in July 1886 to the mouth of the Congo. 


(By J. SooiT Keltie, Ltbrartan r.o.s.) 

Ben Vonke-Vordhavs Expedition 1876-1878. — [The Norwegian North- 
Atlantic Expedition 1876-1878.] XVI. Zoologi. Mollusca. II, Ved Her- 
man Friele. Christiania, Gr^ndahl & S^na, 1886 : imp. 4to., pp. 44, 6 plates. 
[Presented hy the Editorial Committee of the Norwegian North-Atlantic Ex- 
Du Fief [J.]— La Density de la Population en Belgique et dans les autres Pays du 
Monde. Bruxelles, Vanderauwera, 1887 : 8vo., pp. 53. [Presented by the Author.] 
This a useful iuTestigation on the density of the population of Belgium 
with special reference to the means of subsistence. The author does not seem 
to think that at present there is any reason to be alarmed at the increase of the 
population. He gives comparative statistics of the population of other countries 
from the same point of view. 

[Geographical lIemoirs.>-Die Vergletscherang des Salzachgebietes, nebst 
Beobachtungen ttber die Eiszeit in der Schweiz. Von Dr. Eduard Briickner. — 
Orometrie des Schwarzwaldes. Von Dr. Ludwig Neumann. — Hefte 1 and 2 
of Geographische Abhandlungen, herausgegebon von Prof. Dr. Albrecht Penck 
in Wien. Wien, Eduard Holzel, 1886 : 8vo., Heft 1, pp. x. and 183; Heft 2, 
pp. 185-238. Price 20s. per vol. of 30 sheets with supplements. [Presented by 
Professor Penck.] 

These two first parts of this new geographical serial publication bear out the 
promise of the prospectus, already referred to in the • Proceedings,' and are 
creditable to the enterprise of tho publisher. It is not meant as a rival to any 
existing serial, but as a means of giving to the world memoirs in scienti6c geo- 
graphy which it would be difficult to find a place for in any existing medium. 
Both memoirs are good examples of exhaustive studies in local geography. 
The particular region investigated by Dr. Briickner is the south-east borderland 
of Bavaria and Austria, with Salzburg as the centre. He has worked out every 
trace of the efifects of past glaciation on the geographical features of the region, 
and in the concluding chapter deals with the LaKe of Geneva and its former 



extension, and with the ioe-period on the northern s\o\ye9 of the Alps. The 
second memoir, by Dr. Newmann, is as thorough a study of the orometry of the 
Black Forest as is Dr. BnicknerB of the Sahhtirj: re;;iun* Both are fully 
illustrated with maps and diagrams, and may be tAken as good examples of the 
valuable and instructive results to be obtained by thorough and competent 
research in local gecgraphy* 

[SwitzeiflaEd'] — A Handbook for Travellers m Switzerland, the Alps of Savoy 
and PicdQiont, the Italian Lakes, and part of Daupbine. 17th edition, revised. 
London, Murray, 1886 : two vols. 8vo. j vol. i. pp. Ixxxviii. and 295, vol ii. 
pp. 297-5G9. Price lOs. 

This new edition has been brought up to date as far as possible with regarti 
to railways, population of towns, inns, and general information, from personal 
knowledge, the best Swiss atuhoriiies, and the notes with which the editor has 
been favoured by traTellers. 


[Illdi&,]^Tho Dawn of British Trade to the East Indies, as recorded in the Court 
Minutes of the East India Company, 1599-1G03 ; containing an account of the 
furaiation of the Cbmi>aDy, the Firat Adventure, and Way mouth's Voyage in 
search of the Korth-west Passage* Now first printed from the origiual manuscript, 
by Henry Stevena, of Ycrmont, with an Introduction by Sir George Birdwood, kt. 
CBj., M.D, Henry Stevens and Son, London, 1886 : 8vo., pp. xxiv, and 331. 
Price 21s, [Presented by the Publishers.] 

The late Mr. Henry Stevens did excellent service in reproducing, at great 
ex|)ense, these records of our earliest commercial connectli.>n with India. Tiie 
original manuscript had found its way to the Public Record Office, where it fell 
nnder the notice of Mr. Stevens. He had it most carefully copied, a task of 
great difticulty, owing to the decayed state of some of the itianuscript, aud the 
difficulty of deciphering some of the writing* The ret^ult is whnt may be 
regarded as an absolutely faithful copy of these curious records, with all their 
interlineations and obliterations. For anyone desirous of tmcing the history of 
our connections with India, the volume will be of great value. To the geo- 
grapher, the records connected with Way month's first abortive voyage in search 
of a North'West Passage, the preliminary meetings of the committee, the outfit 
of the vessels, and the evidence taken as to the results, will be of interest. True, 
a good deal of this has already appeared in the lilth volume of the Ilakluyt 
i5ociety*s publications. Sir George Bixdwood's introduction is interesting; 
while Mr. Henry N, Stevens has supplied a most copious index. 

Izvestiya Yostotchno-Sibirskago Otdiela Imperatorskago Ilusskago Geographiches- 
kago Obshestva. Tom. xvi., Nos. 4-5. Irkutsk, 1887 i pp. 196. 

This number of the proceedings of the East SilKrian Section of the Husaian 
Geogra| Society is almost wholly taken up with the affairs of the Section, 
its tiDances, [>rotocols of meetings, &c., &c. There is a letter from M. D. Butiii 
to Count Ignatiefl' on the subjc>ct of the projxjsed canal to unite the Ob and 
Yenisei, some particnlars uf Dr. Bunjie's expedition, and a report by MM. 
Vagin and Bobrovnikoflf on the statistical work to be undertaken in Easterjs 
Siberia, It is pointed out that there is a great want of agricultural statistics 
for this i^art of the Empire, whureos European Kussia has been thoroughly 
surveyed in this sense.— [E. D, H.] 

Bein [Professor J* J,]— Jajvan nach Reisen und Studien, im Auftrage der K. 

PreussiBchcn Eegienmg dargestellt, 2tes Band, Land- uud Forstwirtschaft,. 

Industrie und Handel. Leipzig: Engelmann, 1886. [Presented by the Author.] 

The readers of the first volume of Dr. Rein's very careful study of Japan in 

its various aspects will welcome the conclusion of the work. The i I lustra tionti- 

to the present volume are specially note worthy for their tmth and beauty. 

Upwards of 300 pages of this volume are devoted to forestry and agriculture. 





ftnd the information thua collected, carefully arranged and bronght up to date, 
will be foimd of great service to students desirous of study log man and his 
enTirontnent in Japan, A chapter is devoted to the mineral industry of the 
cocmtry, in which Dr. Hein dispels some erroDeoiis eoDceptioos as to the mineral 
wealth of Japan. Some 200 {tages deal with the art manufactures of Japan and 
the industries connected therewith, and it ia to this section that we fiod the 
numerous remarkahle illustrations refened to. The leading industrieB treated 
of are those in wood, in lacquer, iu tex^tiles, paper, motalsj cemmic, and enamcL 
The fourth chapter deals with trade and oommcrce, and appended is a series of 
eight extremely useful statistical tables. The whole work does Dr. Rein the 
highest credit, and it is to be hoped that the second volume, like its predecessor^ 
will be translated into English. 

Siberien, Geographische, ethnographischeund historische Studien von N, ladrinzew, 
Mit BewilUgung des Verfaijsers nach dem Russischen bearbeitet nnd vervollstiindigt 
von Dr. Ed, Petri, Jena, 1886 ; pp. zviii, and 589, with twelve plates, 

Siberia, says Dr. Petri in his preface, ia a land of the future. Prejudices 
which have hitherto misled people concertiiug it must disappear before the light 
which science can throw over tins Eireat north land, destined to fell a great part 
in the world— the border land of European Russin, Ct^ntial Aaia, China, Cort-a^ 
ind Japan. To the worthy object of removing some of the ignorance j^revailing 
in Western Europe about Siberia, M. Nicholai YadrintBelf, a native of Siberia, 
fired with a noble ambition and a real love of hm country, lias devoted himself. 
l*he present writer remembers with pleasure an evening spent in his society at 
Omsk, in 1880, when the subjecta discussed were those contained in the work 
before us. 

Our author begins with a study of the Siberian of tbe present day and the 
changes produced in the original Slav type, by different conditions of life in the 
new country beyond the Urals (chaps. I and 2) ; this is followed by a treatise 
on the sad fate and present posilioQ of the natives (Chaps. 3 and 4). From 
theae weighty ethnographical problems, the author turns to the consideration of 
actual questions of the day : emigration (chap. 5), deportation (Chap. 6), and 
the general economic status of SiWia (Chaps. 7 and 8). The section on the 
ftdministmlion of Siberia (Chap. 9), and the lunging of the Siberian for a higher 
culture (Chap. 10), besides fiup[ilyiag valuable historical material, enables uh to 
form some idea of the future of the country, to which a special chapter (11) 
is devoted. Some statistical tables conclude M. Yadrintseff*8 ivork. Tho 
original work apiMiare<l in Russian in 1882, and Dr. Petri, professor of geography 
ana anthropology at the University of Bern, has translated and brought it up to 
date by interpolating the text a«id adding notes, besides an entirely new chapter 
(12). De has also, out of regard for his European reader, abridgeid parts of the 
text, and omitted details, especially in Chapter 10, where the history of the 
Univereity question has been compressed into a few pages, and the whole section 
on modem culture has been recast. With reference to these and other alterations 
Dr. Petri has availed himself of the opixjrtuoity afforded of close, friendly 
intercourse with M. Yadnntseff, during a visit jwid by him to Switzerland, 

M, Yadrintseff has not only given the results of his own observations, hut 
has strengthened his case for the urgent need of reforms in the adminiBtmtion 
of Siberia, by numerous quofations from other authorities both past and present, 
whose works, owing to their being written in Russian, are more or less iDacces- 
slble to the European public. It is irnpossible, wif kin the limittKl ajmce allotted 
lo these noticoj*, to give more than a bare outline of M. YadrintsefTs book, which 
must take its place among standard works on Siberia, or to do justice to the 
sound judgment shown by Dr. Petri in his notea and additious. It would be 
impossible to give extracts where so much calls for notice.-^[E. D- MJ 

WiIIb, C. J, — Persia As It Is. Being Sketches of Modem Persian Life and Cha- 
racter. London, Sampson Low Sc Co., 1886 : 8vo., pp. xix, and 32G. Price 85. 6d, 
[Presented by the Publishers.] 


This volume may be regarded as a supplement to the Author*g previous 
k, 'The Land of tho Lion and Sunj or Modem Persia/ published m 1883. 


Dr. Wills went out to Persia as a medicftl officer of H.M.'s Telegraph Depart- 
ment In Persia, and resided for fifteen yeArs, 1866-1881, in varioua part 8 of tlie 
country, during which time he had exceptional opportunitieB affonltfd him for 
Btndyingt Persian life and character. The present vokime abounds with inter- 
esting sketches of the people m their various ^ihasea of life, some of which 
have already appeared in Tm If'orW, the SL Jamfs's Gazette, and 77te Globe, 
&a 'llie following chapter-headings will indicate a few of the aubjects treated 
of: — ^I'he Shah of Persia; the ilagistrate in Persia; Marriage; Dervishes; 
Persian Art and Artists; Judicial Punishments; the Great Fast of Kamazan ; 
the Annual Persit^n Religious Drama ; the Taziyiih ; in a Bazaar ; the Jews in 
Persia; Persian Horses; the Engliahraan in Per^iia; Progress in Persia in 

Zapiaki Yostochno^Sibirskago Otdl^a Irapcratorskago Eusskago Geographicheskago 
Obahestya. Tom. xiL Irkutsk, 188G : pp. xxix« and 405, five plates of 
geological sections. 

The w^holc of this volume of the Zapiffki of the East Siberinn section of the 
Bussian Geographical Society is devoted to the first part of a detailed geolojjical 
study of Lake Baikal, by J. D* Chersky, Lake Baikal the ** Holy Sea'* of the local 
Bussian inhahitantsi, the Dalai or Dalai'nor of the Buriats, is the largest alpine 
lake in the world, and the largest sweet-water basin of Asia, Its area, 12,441 
English square miles, may be connpared with the great lakes of North America 
and Africa, while its majcimum depth, 4504 feet» exceeds that of Lake Superior, 
the deepest of the encloeed lacustrine basiua of the New World. Besides tbe^e 
claims to be treated as a special subject of study, Lake Baikal presents phenomena 
of recent active vulcanicily ; earthquakes are to this day of frequent occurrence oa 
its shores^ snd a stream of lava which has issued from one of the extinct craters 
situated in the neigh bourhood> has a length of not less than twelve miles (Rectus, 
' Nouvelle G^ographie Univeraelle— Asie Russe; p. 732). The first results of 
M.Chersky's survey 8,cont in ued from 1877 to 1881, were published in the Ifvestit/a 
of the Ea«t Siberian section. His collections were mostly destroyed by the 
great fire of Irkutsk, in 1878, but his observations now appearing in detail can- 
not fail ti> be of interest. They show that tbe whole of the Traas-Baikalian 
and Maritime ranges are mainly composed of Laurentian rocks; while the 
Onotsk range, raised in tbe period immediately preceding the Jurassic, is formed 
of Pal«;oaoic deposits, which also fill the rifts in the Maritime range, and dip 
below the level of the lake- The author was further able to found a theory of 
the formatioh of l^ake Baikal, and present in more or less detail, and with eomo 
degree of probability, certain phages of the gritdual development of this basin 
and its severance from a uarthem Silurian oa^ari.— [E. B* M.] 


Bennett^ B. E.— Seven Years amotig the Fjort j being an English Trader's Experi- 
ences in the Ckingo District. London, Sampson Low & Co., 1887: cr. Svo. 
pp. xvL and 240. Price la. 6<?. [Presented by the Publishers,] 

This liitle volume is the result of seven years' caroful observatioD and 
experience among the natives of the South-west Coa^tt of Africa. Its object 
is to better acqusint those tnteresled in the nej;ro, with his home-life, habits 
and customs. Tlic author visited Cabenda, Kinscmbo, Amhdzette, and* 
Chiloango. There are twenty-three full-pnge illustrations from photographs 
and the autbor*8 own sketchea, and a map of tmde routes never before 

Felkin, Eobert W.— Notes on the Waganda Tribe of Central Africa. (Reprinted 
from the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Ediubui^h, YoL Xltl.) Ediubui^b, 
printed by Neill & Co, 1886; 8vo., plates. [Presented by the Author.] 



Sjob, a. — ^A Yocabolary of EibaDgi as spoken by the Babangi (commonly called 
Bayanai) on the Upper Congo, from K\?a Mouth (Easai) to Liboko (Bangala). 
Engliah-Eibangi. London, East London Institute^ for Home and Foreign Mis« 
rions, 1886 : 12mo., pp. xi. and 111. [Presented by B. N, Cust, Esq.] 


[America, United State8.>-[Tenth Census of the United States, 1880.] 
VoL XV m. Beport on, the Social Statistics of Cities, compiled by George E. 
Waring, Jun., Expert and Special Agent. Part I. The New England and the 
Middle States. Part IL The Southern and the Western States. Part I. 
Washington, Government Printing OflBce, 1886 : 4to., pp. 915, phins. 

Elliotty Henry W. — An Arctic Province : Alaska and the Seal Islands. Illus- 
trated by many drawings from nature, and maps. London, Sampson Low & Co., 
1886 : 8vo., pp. xv. and 473. Price 16«. [Presented by the Publishers.] 

This is one of the most complete and scientific of the numerous works 
which have been recently published on Alaska. The interest of the book 
centres round the tiny Pribyloff group, on the 170th meridian west, and some 
200 miles north of the Aleutian island Nikolsky. Here, main ly on the islands of 
St. Paul and St. George, every summer assemble hundreds of thousands of the 
fur-seal (Cdllorhintis wninus) for breeding purposes, and Mr. Elliott's account 
of the life of the animals, their battles and domestic arrangements, from his own 
observations some twelve years ago, forms a fascinating contribution to natural 
history. He also tells us much about the other animal life of these regions, and 
especially of the Aleutian Islands, and of the results which have followed the 
advent of the white hunter both on these and on the native population. But 
around this as a nucleus we have a valuable account of the physical conditions 
of Alaska and its islands, and much useful information on the ethnology of 
the region. The author gives a sketch of the history of the country from its 
discovery down to the present time, bringing together into handy form a great 
deal of information concerning the doings of the Kussians until, about twenty 
years ago, they sold the country to the United States. Mr. Elliott's account 
of Alaska takes the form of a voyage around its coasts and islands, 
with a series of pictures or descriptions of the different regions, as well 
as of the interior so far as is known. A chapter is devoted to the special 
features of the Sitkan region and another to the aboriginal life of the Sitkans. 
The alpine region around Mount St. Elias is dealt with in another chapter, 
and there is a long and instructive chapter on Eadiak Island, and a shorter one 
on Cook's Inlet and its people. The great Aleutian group is treated in consider- 
able detail, each leading island, its people, their settlements, and their life, 
receiving special notice. Another long chaper is devoted to the Yukon, "the 
Mississippi of Alaska," from its source to the sea ; all this in addition to the 
chapters which deal with animal life. Mr. Elliott speaks to a large extent 
from his own personal investigations, but has also taken the trouble to digest 
and bring together the work of others who have explored a land of great 
geographical interest. There are numerous good illustrations, maps of St. Paul 
and St. George's islands, and a fair map of Alaska on the scale of 75 miles 
to an inch. 

Eappler, Angnst. — Surinam, sein Land, seine Natur, Bevolkerung imd seine 
Kultur-Verhaltnisse, mir Bezug auf Eolonisation. Stuttgart, Cotta, 1887 : 8vo., 
pp. 384. Price St. [Presented by the author.] 

Mr. Eappler, who was formerly an oflBcial in Dutch Guiana, presents in this 
little volume a succinct and well-arranged account of its geographical and 
industrial conditions. He deals first with the country and its configuration 
then follow chapters on its plant and animal life, its climatic condition, the 
various inhabitants and the social condition of the colony, the town of Para- 
No. IL— Fbb. 1887.] L 



maribo, on European ooloQisation, and oa colonial f^riculture. Tbe author has 
Bome useful pages on the subject of colonisation of tropical countries by Euro* 
jieaos, and on this subject ho takes a more than usualiy hopeful viow, and at 
the same time gives som^ useful practical advice. There is a small sketcb-map 
which shows how little we really know of the country^ 

OhtTf Frederick A.^ — CampHiu theCarribbees; The Adventures of a Naturalist 
ill the Lcs.scr Antilles. Edmburghj Douglas, 188G; 8vo., pp. xviii. and 366* 
Price 12«. 

This is one of the best authorities wo liave on the geography and* natural 
history of the group of islands which stretch between Porto Rico and Trinidad, 

Bosny, LuciaE de^^Lea Antilles, Iiltude d*ethnographie et d'arcbeologie Amdri- 
caines, [Memoires do la Societ(5 d'Ethnogmphie. Nouvelle Scrie. — Tonio 
Second.] Paris, Maiaonneuvo FrCres & Charles Leclerc, 188*j: 4to., pp. 152, 
Price 6». Bd. 


Fortescue, G* K, — A Subject Index of tbe Modem Works added to the Library of 
the British Museum in the years 1880-85. Printed by order of tlie Trustees. 
^ Sold at the British Museum ; and by Longmans & Co., Quaritch, Asber Sc Co., 
and Triibner & Co, London, 188G : imp. 8vo,, pp. [4J and 1014. Price 42s, 

This index is mainly designe^l to assist those who uso the reading room of 
the British Museum, but it is well calculated to fulfil a wider purpose. The 
index is arranged alphabetically according to subjects, and oontaius works in all 
literary languages except Slavonic, Hungarian, and the Oriental languages, Tho 
compiler would have found it useful in some cases to have had the assistance 
of spcciilists^thoUji^h so far as the geographical subjects are concerned they seem 
to us Biitis factory, and hi tins respect the Index wull be found (jf much servict*. 

Hauaer, [Capt.] Pa'Ql.--Die Aeqator-DurchgliEge dea Mondes, Eine Unter- 
auchungs-Probe des Mond-EinGussea auf die Wittenmg. Buccari bai Flume, 
Dmck von Rudolf Desselbrunner, 1886 : tsm, 8vo,, pp. 15, tables. 

Lawrence I Edwin-^The Progress of a Century ; or, the Age of Iron and Steam, 
London, IL Vickers & John Hey wood, 188(J : square 8vo., pp. 30. [Presented 
by the Author.] 

Fetherick, Edwin Aug^ustas.— Catalogue of the York Gate Library formed by 
Mr, S. William Silver, an Index to the Literature of Geography, Maritime and 
loland Discovery, Commerce, and Colonisation. 2ud edition. London, John 
Murray : imp. 8?o., pp. cxxxii. and 333. Price 42*. [Presented by S* W. Silver, 

The new edition of the catalogue of Mn Silvers well knowTi York Gate 
Library is at least four times tho size of the first edition published in 1882. 
Mr. Petherick has performed his arduous and dilljcult task very creditably, and 
the result is a catalogue which will be of great service for reference. lu some 
respects Mr, Silver's library is unique aa a private colloction, esj^ecially Ida 
inre and valuable ** Collections." In colonial literature it is particularly strong. 
Mr, Petherick has taken great pains in the arrangement of the catalogue. We 
have first a catalogue of subjects, and then a long catalogue of authors, followed 
by the general catalogue- The first two sections of this last are devoted to 
general geography, and Transactions and Collections, followed by geneml voyages 
imd travels arranged geographically. The two concluding sections are devoted 
to Christian missions, and to bibliography and catalogues. An attractive feature 
is the reproduction of the illustratol title-pages and other illustrations from the 
old collections and other classical works, beautifully and faithfully executed. 
Afl a collection of standard and rare geographical works, Mr. SUver'a collection 
is a valuable one, and it .should be known that he places it freely at the service 
of any one desirous of making serious use of it. 




Beiter« [Dr.] Hanns*— Die Siidpolarfragc und ibre BedeutUDg fiir die genetiBolie 
GlJedenmg der Erdoberflaclie. Weimar, Geo^ftpliischcs Institute 188G : imp, 8vo», 
pp. 34* [Presented by the author.] 

Dr. Reiter's dissertation is of special importance at tlie present lime, seeing 
that the question of tlie renewal of Antarctic exploration ia in the air. Tho 
author not only gives a rtsume of all that has been done» but very forcibly 
shows the value of the knowledge to be acquired /or tlie solution of certain 
questions in physical geograpliy. 

Scherzer, [Br.] Karl [von].-- Die Wirthachafllicho Leben der Yolker. Ein 
Haudbuch tiber Production und Cousum. Leipzig, A Iphons Diirr, 1885: 8vo., 
pp, x\. and 756. Price IBs. Grf. [Presented by the Author.] 

llic name of our Honorary Fellow, Dr. von Scherzer, is well known, among 
other things, in connection with the pnblications on the Kffvara voyage, tho 
8tatistico>oominercial resnlti? of which were issued b}^ him twenty years ago* 
The preseDt work was originally intended to be an expansion of tlie former; 
but Dr. von Scherzer soon found that progress had been so great, and the addi- 
tional data so abundant, that an entirely new book was necessary if the field 
were to be adequatjcly covered. We have tlms a large and valuable collection 
of facts and figures illustrating the industrial refiulls of man's action on his 
geographical surroundings, results which may he of service to those who are 
cultivating the new geogiaphy. The Author deals in successive chapters with 
materials from tho vegetable, animal, and inineral kingdoms, in their various 
applications by humanity. A separate chapter deals with chemical industries, 
and another with mechanical inventions. A specially interesting chapter is 
that which deals with the share taken by different races in tho trade of tho 
world. Other chapters deal with money and credit, and means of communi- 
cation, and his final cbapterH with " industry !vs an organism," tarifTs, con- 
sulates, exhibitions, and what the author calls " international exchange of 
ideas/' and with emigration and eolonigation. 

Behick, [Capt.1 A^^Beobachtungen der Misswcisung, JnklJnation und Schwing- 
ungszeit der ilagnetuadel auf der Kllm und der Nordsee xwischen Hamburg und 
Eouen 1884 und 1885, London und Hamburg 1S8G. Scparat-Abdruck aus don 
Abhandlungen des Natnr\^isscnschartlichen Yereins von Hamburg, Band ix. 
Heft 2, 1886 : 4to,, pp. 40, tables, [Preaented by the Author.] 

Stephen, LeBlie.^Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. IX, Canute — Chaloner 
Lotjcion, Smith, Elder ife Co., 1B87 t 8vo., pj.. vi. and 460. Price I2s. GfL 

ffoeikoff, [Br J A. — Die Klimatc der Erde. Nacb dem Rusiiischen. Yom Ycr- 
ksser besorgte, bedeutend veriinderte deutschc Bearbeitung. Jena, Gostonoble; 
2 vols. 8vo,; voh i. pp. 39€, vol. ii. pp. xxiii, and 422. Price 20s, 

The name of Dr, Woeikoff must be known to most meteorologists as that 
of one who in recent years lias done much gocnl work in his own department of 
science. He has tmvelled over most of the world, with a special view to the 
collection of meteorological data. The results of his own observations and of 
those of other writers ia the same department, he lias emlK>dicd in these two 
volumes, which wc are sure will be Jbund of great ser^'icc to the physical 
geographer; and it should be remembered that Dr, W<xikolT is Professor of 
Physical Geography in St. Petersburg University. It covers a wider field 
than the works of either Hanu or Scott, and we regret to say tliat the long- 
promised new edition of Buchan*s Metei»rulugy has not yet made its appearance. 
The German edition is nut a mere tranylatiou of the Russian edition published 
four years ago ; there have been many improveraenta and addiUous, The first 
part of the work deals with general meteorology, discussing temperatures and 
air-currents ; moisture* clouds, and deposition ; rivers and hakes as the results 
of climate ; the inftuence of a snow-covering on climate, and the climatic 
conditions of permanent snow and glaciers; watcr-temfKiraturca ; variations in 
the distribution uf tempemture on land and water, and their iofluenee on the 
temperature of the earth ; daily and yearly variations in the temi)erature of 

L 2 



the air, of moisture, of atmospheric preMure and wiotls; vamtion of tern- 
|>eratiire with altitude in mountaiDoiLS countries^ and in. the free atmosphere; 
influence of climate on vegetation, and of vegetation on climate ; non-periodical 
variatiouB of tem|>eraturc and rainfall ; daily variations of temperature ; general 
remarks on the distrihution of temperature, presHurc, winofl, and moisture. 
The second volume deals in a Beries of chapters with the special meteorology 
of different redona and countries, and the whole is illuatrated by a series of cart;- 
fully exccutefdiagrams. ITie work will certainly become a standard reference 
work on an important subject, though probably some of Dr. WocikofFs theories 
will not cum maud universal assent among meteorologists. Wc should have liked 
an alphabetical index in addition to the full table of contents wMch is given* 

The following works have also been added to the Library :— 

Oape Oolouy* Correapoudenco respecting the Affairs of Poodolaud. London, 
printed by Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1885 : folio^ pp. iv. and 25. Price 4<i. [Pre- 
sented by Lord Arthur KusselL] 

Oentral Asia. Ko. 4 (1885).-^Further CorresjMndonoe concerning Central Aaia* 
[In coutinuation of ** Central Asia Ko. 2 ; 1885.'*] London, printed by Harrison 
& Sons : folio, pp. vi, and 76, maps* Price 3s. 2d, [Presented by Lord Arthur 

Greea^ John Bichard^ and Alice Stopford.^A Short Geography of the British 
Islauds. With maps. London, Hacmillan & Co., 1884 : 12mo., pp. xix. 
and 41G. 

New Guinea and the Western Pacific Islands- Further Correspondcnco 
respecting New Guinea and other Islands in the Western PaciBc Ocean. (In 
continuation of [C— 4217] Ocfcl^er 1884.) Ix)ndoD, printed by Eyro and 
Spottiswoode, 1885: folio, pp. xx. and 106. Price 2». [Presented by lA>rd 
Arthur llussclL] 

~ Ditto. (In continuation of [C— 4273] February 1885.) London, printed 

by Eyre and SpottiewotKle, 1885 ; folio, pp. xv, and 20G. Price 2s. id, [Pre* i 
st'nted by Lord Arthur lUiswilL] 

Transvaal. Further Correspondcnco respecting the AfTairs of the Transvaal and 
Adjacent Territories. (In continuation of [C. — ^i432] of May 1885.) London, 
priutt^d by Eyre & Si>ottiawoodc, 1885 t folio, pp. vii, and 120. Price 2jj. U, 
[Presented by Lord Arthur Hussell] 



(By J. Coles, Map Curator, r.q.s.) 



Attika^^Karten von ™, Auf Vcrankasuug dea Kaiscrlich Deutschen Archiolo- 
gischen Jnstitiits und mit UnterstUtzung dcs Kuniglich Prcussischeu Ministoriiims 
dor Gtjistlichen, Unterrichts- und MedicioaUAngelegenheiten. Aufgenommcn 
durch Offiziere und Heamto des k. Preussischen Grossen Geo erals tabes, niit 
erlautcradem Text hcraus^etjjebcu von E. Curtins nnd J, A. Kaui)ert, Heft IV", 
Yicr Bliitter, Scale 1 : 25,000 or 2'L^ inches to a geo^aphical nule. 

BL XIL — Pcntelikou. Aufgenommcn und gezeichnet Ton R, Wolff, 

Bl. XIII.— Markopulo. Aufj^enoramen und gezeichnet von R. AVolff. 

Bl X 1 v.— Cap Sunion (West). An fgcnommen und gezeichnet von v. Bemhardi. 

HI XV,— Ce^p Sunion ((>st). Aufgenommen und gezeichnet von \\ Bemhardi. 
Berlin 1886. Dietrich Reimer. (^Dtdau,) 

These are moat beautifully executed maps ; the hilUwork, which ia shown 

NEW MAPS. 187 

by a combination of hatching and contonr lines, is coloured in sepia. Ancient 
names and positions are marked in rcxi, and the heights of the mountains are 
given in metres, the contours of the hills being for differences of 20 metres 
in level. This issue, as also the previous one (III.)* is i^o^ accompanied by 
explanatory letterpress, but a notice is printed on the cover informing the 
public that these will be published when the map is complete. 

Prankreich. — Uebersichts-Earte von Nordostlichen, nebst Grenzlandern mit Be- 
festigungen der I. franzos. Vertheidigungslinie. A. Front der Maaslinie. — B. Front 
der MoBsllinie. — C. Front von Belfort Scale 1 : 1,000,000 or 13 '6 geographical 
miles to an inch. G. O'Grady. Kassell, Theodor Fischer. Price 2«. (Dtdau,) 

Italiane. — Carta dclle Strade Ferrate in esercizio, in costruzione, in progetto 

ed alio studio tramways a vapore, scali marittimi e stazioni lacuali corredata delle 
distanze chilometriche, indici alfabetici delle stazioni, zone di vigilanza dogaoale 
ed altre indicazioni e compilata in base al nuovo ordinamento suUa scorta di 
documenti nfficiali da Enrico Gambillo e Cesare Piattoli, applicati all' Ufficio 
ControUo Veicoli delle Strade Ferrate Meridionali. Bologna, 1886. Four sheets. 
Price 4s. ed. (Dulau,) 

Ke^'erda. — ^Das Deltaland des , und die Landschaft von Tunis, Karthago, 

UUca und Biserta. Qez. von Th. Fischer. Scale 1 : 400,000 or 5*5 geographical 
miles to an inch. With sections. Petermann's * Geographische MitteiluYigen,' 
Jahrgang 1887,.Taf. 1. Justus Perthes, Gotha. (Dulau,) 

Oesterreich. — Sprachen-Karte der Westlichen Kronlander von . Nach dem 

Zenzus von 1880, entworfen von F. Held auf C. Vogers Karte von Oesterreich- 
Ungam. Scale 1: 1,500,000 or 20*4 geographical miles to an inch. Petermann's 
'Geographische Mitt«ilungen,' Jahrgang 1887, Taf. 2. Justus Perthes, Grotha. 

Polen. — Handkartcn von Russisch , und den angrenzendcn Gouvemments von 

O'Grady. Scale 1:1,750,000 or 23* 9 geographical miles to an inch. Price Is. 

Tubingen. — Umgebungs-Karte fur die Gamisonstadt. 1 : 25,000 or 2*9 inches to 
a geographical mile. Tiibingen, Fues. Price Ss. {Dulau.) 


Pablicatlotu Itsned dnrlng the month of December 188e. 
l-inch— Oenerml M«ps :— 

£kqla2(d akd Wales : Sheet 274, Kew Series (Hill Shaded), U. 

SooTLASTD : 127 (OatUne), 90 (Hilli). 1«. 9d. each. 
O-inoh— Comity Maps:— 

£voLAin> AKD Walxb: Bedfordshire: 23 S.W., 25 N.E., 28 S.E.; i«. each. Brecknock- 
shire : 35 N.W.. S.E. ; U. each. Buckinflrliainshire : 31. 2«. ^d. Oambridsreshire : 12 
N.W, N.E., 13 N.W.. aw., 17 N.W..8.W:. 8.E., 18 S.W.. 21 N.R. 22 N.W.. n!e. S.W., 8.E.. 
23 N.W., 25 N.W.. N.E.. S.W.. 31 S.W., 36 N.E, S.E., 39 N.W., N.E.. 8.W.. S.E., 40 N.W..N.E.. 
46 N.W., N.R, S.W.. 8.E., 62 N.E.. RE., 63 N.E. ; l#. each. Oardiflranshire : 7 N.E., S.E.. 
9 S.E., 11 N.E.. 14 S.W. ; 1*. each. Oarmarthensllire : 16 N.W.. N.E., S.W.. S.E. ; l#. each. 
Bevonshire : 99 8.W.. 119 S.E., 125 N.W., S.W.. 126 NJi, S.E., 127 S.W. ; 1«. each. Dorset- 
shire: 8 N,\\V S.W, S.i;., Ji. \,\\., Uf, .iLiu Glout-tfritertiiiire; 62 N.E., S.E., 63 S.E., 
64 N.W., 71 N.E., 7a N,IL, 7fl N,E. ; I*, pach. Herefordsliire t -^4 N.W., 32 S.E., 33 S.W.. 
36 N.W., 41 N.E. ; It. tacU. i^idesterahire i M S.i:., ;ic s,i:„ 4J N.W., N.E, 48 S.E., 60 N.E., 
S.E.; 1*. each. Ltncoteshlre : 4 S;VV, arxi S,E. Di] ouu ebtei, 7 N-\V^.. S.W., S.E., 8 N.W., S.W., 
SJi.l2 N.W., 20 N,W.. iN.t., 63 N.W., N.t:,S.IL. VI N.W., S.W., 77 85 S.E.. 96 N.E.. 

. S.E., 122 N.i:. ; ]r {-nch. Moiimouthshlre : >^t I9, 26; It. 64. CAirh. Montiroznery- 
shire: 4 N.E.. S.K., 26 N.W., H.K^ S.W., S.E., 34 N.W.; If. each. Norfolk : 21 SJEL, 67 N.E., 
68 N.W., N,K., aw., S.E., »0 K.W., N.E., &W., S>J'l. a I S.^V^. DI N.W.; 1#. each. North- 
amptonshire : ^ ^^^^ 21 s^E., 'ist i^,E, ; tjr. «idj. Oxfprdflklrd \ :u ; 2«. ed. Somerset- 
shire : 37 N.W.. N.E., 8.W., S.E.. 38 N.W.. S.W.. S.E., 81 N.W.. 89 S.W., 92 N.W., 93 N.W. ; 
U. each. Suffolk : 30 S.E., 83 N.E., 90 N.W. and S.W. on one sheet ; U. each. Warwick- 
shire: 18 aE.. 19 N.K. 20 N.W., S.E.. 22 N.E., 8.E.. 23 N.E.. S.E., 24 N.E., S.E., 26 S.W., 

28 S.E, 44 N.W. ; i». each. Wiltshire : 18 N.E. ; u. Worcestershire : 11 N.E. ; 1*. 
85-inch— Pariah Maps :* 

EvoLAKD Ain> Walks: Oambridflreshire : XLI. 9, XLVil. 9. 10. 11. 12, 13. 14. 16, 16. XI.VIII. 
2. 31. each ; XLVUI. 6. 4#. ; XLVIU. 6, XLDL 6. 6. LIV. 3, 4, 6, 9. 10, 12, 3». each ; LI V. 13. 4». ; 
LIV. 14, LV. 9, LVill. 2, 3t. each ; LYIU. 5, At. ; LYIIL 6, LIX. 3, 3, 6, 10, 11, L2LI. 6, U. each. 



Carmartlienfliire : XX VII. 9, lo, ii. 3*. f&th \ \XXUL is. 4*. Cornwall : Atti Mki 
KUlcbmiiptou, 2*. Derbjrahire : X^- 5t 3^. BevonsMre : IV. a, :;, g, lo, C. T, ll,0?T 
16. CVIJI. («, 12, IW CXIV. 6. CXXVL H, CXXXH. 4, 7, CXXXIlI.i. 3*. eneli. Area B 
AubwAtert 3«, 6c^> ^ Bradloni If. 6ti.; Bridntowe, It. (kL; Oookbary, It.; UuUijcomb^ m. ; Ifcile- 
wortliy, U«. M, ; Mtjlton JJamefel, K. Cd. j Paiicniawt«k, It, (kL ? SoiirtoDf It. 6(i.| 8«tcombo. It. 
Olouceatershire I XIT. 10» 3t. Area Hooka: AshcTmrch, CliarUon Abbots, lUdbrook, l^i'i- 
martL't), yunhainnTon, Haflos, TodenhnTii, Upper JSUughter, Is. «aclk Herefordshire: 11. I&t 
VJ. JO, Vli y, illL la, 3J. imb; XI. 7. -**.; XIII. 1, 6. li. XIV. 10. U, XVIIL 2, 3#. racli; 
XV^JiL 3. 4x.; XVIII. 4, 5, e, 7. «. XIX. 11, 15» IG. XX. 12. 15, XXL X 7. 3J. ertcb. Huntinffdon- 
sblre : XVIil. o. lo, XXll. i, 5, 6,3t. emch, L&noaBhire : XLVU. 4, at, I«elc«flteraiiLre: 
XXXL L 4t.; XXXI. 'J, 6, XXXV. I. at. c*ch; XLTV. U, 4i ; XLlV. 12, IS, 3«. cncb; XLV. L% 
4t. ; XLLX« 7, 12. L. », 10, 3*. eacb ; L. 13, 4a. ; LI 11. i>, 13, 3t. OAcb. Are* Hix»fca : Breedon on llic 
HtlU lb*t<<k» NrthoT ADd Over Seal, Swcfatonc : 1 s, cacb. I^incolnslllre : V. 12, X. 1 , 3*. cjwb ; 
X- a, 4t. ; X. tt, », 11, 12, 13, 16. XVI. 12 and XVJ!, fl on (jne ebeel ; XVIJ. 5, iS, 3*. each; XVJL 
JB, XXVJ. 1, 4t. each ; XXVJ. 2, 3*. ; XXVI. 3. 4*, ; XXVL 4» 6. S. 7, S^, 13, XXXIU. ». XXXl V. 1 , 

2, 3, 7, 12, XLTV. 4, 3t. each; XLIV. 16,4*.; LI. 6, k, LiLfi. 1L 1S» LI. 2, 3. LXl. 8, 3,4. 7.8» 
CXU'. 0, 10. CXXHI, 2, 6, 6. CL. 12. 3*. each. MontKomeryaMrB : XIV. U, XXL 15. XXII. 
3,^ B. 13. H, XXJII. 6. XXIV. 1. XXVIIL 3, 5. XXX IV. U. XXXV. 2. II. XLL L S. «, 13, XLIJ. 

3, 0, 6. XLVIL 5, e. 13, LL 2, c, 3#. cacb. Norfolk; XUI. 12, St. ; XIII. ic. XIV. 2, 4. 4i. e*cb ; 

XIV. 6, fl, 12, 13, XV. 1, 2. 3, 4. 6. 6, 7, 9, 10. 11, I'i. 13. 14, XV. 15, XVL 4, IJ, XVII. 2,3, 
XVIL 4, a. 6, y, n. 12. 13, XVIIl. 1. 3. 4,6. 6.3*. each; XVllI. 7, 5t.; XVIIL 8, 9. 10, 11, 13, 13. 
XVIII, 14.15, 16, XIX. 2.3, 6, 7, t*. 9, 12. 13. XX. 2»5,3j.eadij XX, 7, 10. 4t, eacb; XI. 11, 12, 
13. 14, 16. XX,A. 13, at. eocb^ XXVIIL 14, fit. ; XXXLX. 10, 3#.; XXXIX. 11. 12, XL. 16, 3*. each ; 
XL. 16, LXVI. 11, 41. cadi; LXXVIL L a* 3t. lacli ; LXXVIL 9. 14, o. <?acli; LXXXVIll. 2, 3», 
LXXXVML3, 4t.i LXXXVIU. D. 3#.; IJeXXVHl. 8, It.; LXXXIX. I, 3jr. ; CX. 1, fl. 4i. etob. 
Area IJookii: Ilablngicv, tTiedgnive (detacbcd No«. I and 2). Dickkburgb, Tilbj, GorboklUbaDi, 
Oooderstorir, Setnilton, kbouklbam, Sbonldbam Tbijrpe, 8'naLk Pickenhacn, 8<.«iith Euncton, Stanfonl, 
Tunftiill, WalUngton cum Ttiorpirtiwi, It. each. NorthamptonBhlre: I. 12, ^U.; L 15, 16. 
4i. eadj; VllL 1. 2, fi, 0, 10. 13, XV. fl, 10. 3t. each; XV. 13, 4j.; XV. 14, XXIL 13, XXVII. 
a, 4, 7, H. &, 11, 13, 14, XXXIX. 6. XLVIII, 4, «, 3t. fJMfb. Area Bwik*: Abiborpe, ApplrtTet', 
liadbye ciittiosby, (Tfiarwi'ltnn. tlilppbig Waalen, Ci^igroi*', Crou^^ktoD, Eo-stort Alciudlt. £v<?ub.'y, 
FiirthlnBljoe, Fawnley, Fnrtho, Grcatwrirtli, Hifllidon, Kinpi'a Suit/jn with Newl^rtlc, Ma^i^tjui 
-I^L TjLwreDee, Mlddleton Cheney, p4u*eiihaiH. Itmlerspury (ruiterftpiiiTy. roitir^pury 1^ lu- 1 .vm 
and Wliltllcfrood Forest), Silventtone, Staverion, 8l<?ane, Stnchbury, Syreflnm. 1 linrp^ M .;, i. ■- i I , 
Wappenbam. Warkwortb, Wbltilt^burr, Wickfn, Yardk'y <ir>bloii. It. ^m-Yu NottiiiKham- 
»hir«: HL B. IV. 1,7, 12, 13, VIII. is, XL 5. XilL l, 4, 5. «, w, XIV. 4. 3*, earb. Area tlo<>ka : 
JSIlstljorpp. Culwick, Klttwboroiigb, Wirickliurn, li. e<ii:b. Rutland: X. 12, 3*.; X. 1ft. 4». 
Shropabire; Area Bucks: t'leobnry MortiiniT, It. tkj.; Luiij^kiorv, Middleton Scriven, SUbury, 
1*. rael], SosieriietBlilre ; XIV. 3 and 4 on one »bpet, XXXIX. in, 13, 4t. «»ch; LI. 6, Jl*. ; 
LL 6, 4*. ; LL 1^, UK :i*. each; LL 14, LIL 6. LIH. ft, LX1H, 1, 4t, ejidi ; LXllL 2, 3, 3t. eacli ; 
1JCIIL4, 6, 41. I'tirh; LXIIL 7. t*, LXIV. L 2, 3. 6. 7. 3*. eacb; LXIV. 14, 4f. ; LXV. 11, St.: 
LXV. 13, 4a. ; LXVL 2. LWl. 3. fl. and 1 on one Bhett, 13. 3t. cacb. Area Boctk*: I>Tmdry,Klii|rrt"n 
SeynMmf, Mttrik*i'ur\', Nurth 8tok<% Norlon Hawk bo Id, Publiw, gueen Charlton, Wr-Htou inGordAm>» 
It. cacli; Staff or dab ire : LXIIL U^t^ Aira Ikxk ■ ShertIT Ualcs (part ufX It. Smffolk: XXV, 
J, 4»,; XXV. 6, 3*.; XXV. 6, 4t.; XLIL 9, 31.; LVL 4, 4«. ; LVL 7, *i^. t,d.; LVI. fl. LXXIL 6, 
1JCXL6, LXXIL U, 3<i. ettdi; LXXIL 15. 5t. ; LXXIV. 3. 11, IS. LXXXI. ir>. 3t. Area Itooks : 
Miirkt^t Wei«t*ni and IHUo (diftached), OITi'iii, It. eacii. WarwickBhir©: XXIII.a, 13, XLIIL 2, 
nt. each. XLFV. 7, 4t.i XLV. 3, 6, 7. XLVI. 1, 2. 3, 4, 0, », 9. 10, 13. 13^ LI. B, 3#. tach ; LL 

12, a*.; LIL L 2. 3, C. 7, f. LIV. i. S, 6. 1 *, 3t, *45tkj. Area Book: I'rlcra Mi*rston, Itj Wilt- 
ahlre: XIIL L3t.; XXV. 13, 4t,; XXVIIL S, 8,iJ. 10, VI, 13, 10, XXIX. 4, 7, 8, 11. 12, 13, I4, 
IB. 16, XXXIX. 3, 4, e, at. each; XXXIX, 7. 8, 4t.ea<:bi XXXIX. 10, 11. 12. 13. 14. IS. 1«, XL. 

13. 16, 3t. eacb. Worooeterahlre : XXVIIL 12, 4f.; xxxiiL 12, I6, XLIV. 4, LIL 1, fi, 
LV. 10, 3jr. ejiils. Arra Book: Bftmw, Bmbley, Cbarttoti, IKtv^rdftlc, KlnibritlBC, iirimley, Hwilcy 
Child, Ilanlt'y Wltliiun, Iloll, Martin H UFetinprtree, It, rjw:b ; Amberlcy, 2t. ; Ktjiihuck, It,; Tenbury, 
It. 6tt J 'IV hrkbanifurd. It. TorkBhire : CIJLXXll. 7. lU, It, eaeb. 

Town Plans— lO-fcel pcale;— 

Ekolasd ami WALKii : CarobiiJfTP, XL. 14^ 15, Ifl, 2t. eadi. Crewkerne, LXXXVIIL 16. -5; 
LXXXIX, 13. 2. e, 12. 13. 23; XCIIL 1, 2,3; 2t. each. I>evi»e8, XXXIV. 13, 1". XXXIV, 14, 
6, II, Si. eat:b» UmnUuim, CXUL;16, 14. 2^, Kellerin^, XXV. 14. 2, 2t, Ufcestcr. XXXI. 15, 
12, 2f. Sbepton Mallet. XLi. 12. U, IG, 2t. cack. Stratfurd-oti-Avon, XLIV. 2, 23,24; XLIV. 
e. 8, IT, 19, 2t. <'^itb. Wells, XLL 5, 7, 2t, Wert Bromwlcb, LXVllL 10, iw, 19. 20, 2:1, 2t. each ; 
W0lverliHinj>loii. LXIL 6. », 2S. 2*. each. YeovH, LXXXIJL 13, 4, 9, 12, 13, H. 18, 20, 2S j 
LXXXili. 14. II, li. 13. Hi XC, 1, 6. >, 10, 13, 2t. trtcb, 


Indian Govenimeiit Surveys :^ 

Indian Atlaa : Quarter iShects, 12 S,W» Parts of Districta Halkr and Oklio* 
Timndal (Kuthiawiir, Bombay Prceidcricy). 35 N.W, Parts of Oodevfiore, Gwalior, 
Tonk and Jndore (Native Stales, Rnjputana, nod Central India Agencies). 35 S.E. 
Parts of Gwalior, Oodeyporo, Partxibgarh, Indorc, Jhallawar, Dewas, Joara, and 
BariBwara (Native States), 37 8.E. Parts of Kliaodtsb (Bombay Presidency) and 
Indorc (Central Indian Agency). 49 N.E. Parts of Distncti? llomdabad, Meenit, 
Miizaffarnagar and Bijnor (N.W. Provinces), Delbi, and Kamal (PiinjabX — 
Skeleton Map of India, 128 miles to an incb^ 188G,— India, sliowiug tbe progress 
of the Iraperial Surveys to October Ipt, 1885. 128 miles to an inch. — ^The 
External Trade Boutos of India, 1886. 80 milea to an iDch. — Skeleton Map of 
India, Ci miles to nn inch, 1886, 2 sheets,— India^ without hills, 64 milea to 





an mcli. 4 ^eoU, aJilitioiiiJ to 1880* — India, witli hills, 64 miles to an mch, 
4 sheets, additions to 188G, — Pun j ah Survey, 1 mile to an inch. Sheet No. 174^ 
I>i8tnct Montgomery. Seaaons 1^54-5ri-nG.--Ondh Revenue Survey, 1 mile to 
jui iJicb. Seasons 18^2-3-4 and 5. Sheet No. 163, Districts Fyzabiul and Sul- 
tanpur, Xo. 176, District Fyxahad, No. 177, Districts FyzalKul and SulLinpur. — 
Xocib West Provinces Survey, 1 mile to an inch. Seasons 1873-74-75-82-83-S4. 
SbeeU No. 22, Districts Aligarh, Muttm, and Gurgaon. Nos. I8C, 1«7, 202, 
riistrict Mirzapur. — Ilyderahod Survey, 1 mile to an inch. Sheets Nos. 30, 31, 32, 
54. 55, 50, 57 (33 and 58), 80, 81, 83, 84 (82 and 108). Mt>odg:ul Circar, 
Beaion 1816-17. Nos. 151, 152, Daverkondah Circar (Isolated Porlion), Seasons 
1B21 ami 1824-5.— Cutch, RedncUon of Sheets 3, 4, 10 and 11 (2nd edition) 
2 mdes to an inch. Seasons 1880-81 and 1883-84. Reduction of Sheets 17, 18, 
24 and 25* 2 miles to an inch. Seasons 1881-2 and 1883-4. Sheets Nos. 20 
27, 28, 20 of Cutch. 1 mile to an inch. Season 1883-4.— Hooghly Hiver 
SuiTdy. 1 mile to an inch. Sheets Nos, 1 and 2. Seasons 1881-82-83. — Bengal 
Survey. 1 mile to an inch. Sheet No. 172. District Durbhnnga. Seasons 1847 
to 40. Nos. 270, 271, 272^ District Jalpaio;uri. Season 1868-5^— The Province of 
AfliaiD, under the jurisdiction of the Chief Commisgioner, 24 mi If s to an inch. 1886. 
— The Garo Hills, Lower Assam, 4 miles to an inch. Seasons 1870-71 and 1872 
IQ 71. — Map of the District of Bareilly, compiled and revised from shoots of tlie 
new Revenue Survey, 2 miles to an inch. Seasons 1866 to 72. 2 sheeta.^ — 
Map of Kathia war, reduced from the G. T. Survey Sheets, 16 miles to an inch, 
IfiSO, — The Patna Division, compriHing the Districts of Chumpiirun, SArun, Jlo- 
xuffcrpore, Durhhunga, Shilbiibid, Patna, and Gyii, showing the Tirhoot State 
Kailway, and connocte*! railways under the jurisdiction L*f the Lieut. Govr. 
of Bengal. 16 miles to an inch, l&86.^^District Midnap*)ie, 4 miles to an 
mch» 1886, — Sketch of tho Country roun<l Mandale, 2 milc^ to an incb, 188*». 
^SUMM/ord, agent,} 
ialay, or East Indian ArcMpelago, witli Burmah, Siam, &c., by Wm. Shawc, 

r-iLO-S. Scale 1 : 8,700,000 or 120 geographical milea to an inch. G. Philip & Son, 
Lonilon and Liverpool, 1887. Price Is., or mouutcil on cloth and in case, 2s. 


Antananarivo (Madagascar). — The Environs of , hy Pere Desire Rohlet, s.j. 

(1862-1882). Stanford's Geographical Establishment, London ; Macmillan & Co. 

Admiralty, — Ohartg and Plana published by 
Admiralty, in November and December 1886. 

the Uydrographic De|iartment, 


















Entrance to the Baltic:— The Sound (Plans, Copen- 
hagen, Ilelsingor harbour, Flint channel) 28. 6<f. 
Italy, west coast ;— Genoa. It. 6d, 

Gulf of St Lawrence, New Brunswick, Shediao bay 
and harbour. Is. 6<i. 

South America : — Anchorarjes in Tiorra del Fuego — 
Burnt island anchorage, Baleines bay, Fleuriais bay, 
Awaiakirrh cove, liinncr cove, Packaaddlo bay, 
Good Success bay, Lennox cove, Townshend har- 
bour, Doris oove, Romanche bay, Uahuwaia Sliaaion 
Station, Orange bay, Goroe road, March harbour, 
Voilier oove, Indian hay, Coralie cove, Middle cove, 
Adventure cove, I^pamVa bay, Lort bay, Otter, 
Seagull, and Romanche anchorages, Stewart har- 
bour, St Martin oove. Port Maxsvelf» ScourfleW 
and Hately bays. 2s, G^f. 


\ -^ 



JMUHB NAUMAinrS ptper 
noeocniidiy of Japan." 

etic DecUfMtU in red. 

isk Mfl«a 

Pub* 4 



■ ' ..*:-»-;-■•-'■. i-CflK.;. ■ h^'-HiW 







On t}i6 Scope and Methods of Geoymphif, 
By H, J. Mackindeb, b.a. 

(Ao Address delivered nt tlie Evening^ Meeting, jAnuDry 31 et, 1S$7.) 

What is geography? This seoius a strange question to addresa to a 
beographical Society, yet there arc at least two reasons why it tih<inhl 
he answered, and answered now. In the first place geographers have 
''^11 active of late in prttssing tlie claims of their science to a more 
honoured position in the currit;ulum of oiirflchools and Universities. The 
^orld, and especially the teaching world, replies with the tpiestioii, 
"What is geography?'* There is a touch of irony in the tone. The 
^ucational battle now being fonght will turn on the answer which e^n 
h© given to this question. Can geography he rendered a discipline instead 
*^* a mere body of information? This is but a rider on the larger 
^xiBcstion of the scope and methods of oar science. 

The other reason for now^ pressing this matter on your notice 
<^me8 from within. For half a century several societies, and most 
^^ all our owii» have been active in promoting the exploration of 
Ae uvorld. The natural result is that we are now near the end of the 
^U of great discoveries. The Polar regions are the only large blanks 
remaining on our maps. A Stanley can never again reveal a Congo 
^ the delighted world, For a time gootl work will be done in New 
Guinea, in Africa, in Central Asia, and along the boundaries of the 
*^*en regions. For a time a Greely wull now and again receive the 
^*^ ringing welcome, and will prove that it is not heroes that are 
^^.nting. But as tales of adventure grow fewer and fewer, as their 
P^ace ig more and more taken by the details of Ordnance Surveys, even 
^ allows of Geographical Societies will deepondently ask, "What is 

It is needless to say tliat this paper would not be written were it n\y 
**^*i^f that the Eoyal Geographical Society must shortly close its 
history — a corporate Alexander weeping because it has no more worlda 
^^ Conquer, Our future wxirk is foreshadowed by papers such as those 
Ko. HI.— Maech 1887.] m 



hy Mr< Wells on Brazil, Mr. Buolianan on the OceaoB, and Mr. Bryce on V 
the Eelation of History and Geography* Navertheless, there will be 
^eat advantages in guiding our way into the new groove with our eyea 
to somo extent, at any rate, open. A discussion of the question at tho 
present moment will probably have the further incidental advantage of 
giving US new weapons in our educational struggle. 

The first inquiry to which we must turn our attention is this : Is 
geography one, or is it several subjects ? More precisely. Are physical 
and political geography two stages of on© investigation, or ate they 
separate subjects to be studied by different me tliods, the one an appendix 
of geology, the other of history ? Great prominonce has recently been 
given to this question by tho President of the Geographical Section of 
the British Association. In his address at Birniingham he took up a 
very definite position. He said, — > 

" It is difficult to reconcile the amalgamation of what may bo con- 
sidered ' scientific * geography with hiatorj^ One is as thoroughly 
apart from the other as geology is from astronomy." 

It is with great reluctance and diflSdence that I venture to oppose so 
justly esteemed an authority as Sir Frederic Goldsmid* I do so only 
because it is my film conviction that tho position taken tip at Birming- 
ham is fatal to the beat prospects of geography. I take notice, more- 
ovjer, of Sir Frederic Goldsmid's declaration that he is quite ready to 
abandon the conclusion at which be has arrived, before the arguments 
-of sounder reason. In so difficult a discussion it would be extremely 
presumptuous, were I to assume that mme are arguments of sounder 
reason. I put them forward only because so far as I can sec, they have 
not been met and overthrown in the address in qnestion. Perhaps Sir 
Frederic Guldsniid has but expressed the vague views of tho subject 
-current in most men's minds. This is the more probable, because in his 
own statement he has used arguments going to support a view opposed 
<o that which he himself formulates.* ^ 

On the same page as that from which our quotation is taken will b© V 
found a paragraph expressiog the highest approval of Mr. Bryce's 
** Geogniphy in its relation to History.'' The central proposition of 
Mr, Biyee's lecture is that man is largely *' the creature of Ms environ- 
ment," The function of political geography is to trace the interaction 
between man and his environment. Sir Frederic Goklsmid requires of 
political geography that it shall impart to our future statesmen a *' fiill 
grasp " of " geographical conditions,*' So far no exception can be taken 
to his views. But ho seems to imagine that the " full grasp " of which 

* Sir Frederic Goldsmid ha» written a very courbeoufi AiiBwer to this pnragcraph. 
From ifc I givther thiit I hure not attached the meBnitjg to his wortls wliich he intended. 
For that I am Borry, I leav«' tlic^ ffftragrapU Htanding, however, as I believe that mine 
ii not ftu imimtural nieauiuj; to iittach to the words. They might easily he quotetl 
ftfaiost the geogrnpliejn, and with the mgre weight became they como from a known 
friead of geography. 





be speaks may be obtained from -what remains after *' physical and 
Hcientific ** geography have been eliminated. 

Before proceeding fiirtlier, it will be well to see whether we cannot 
refine on our definition with advantage, Phjeiology would answer to 
the definition of the science which traces the interaction of man and his 
environment. It is the function of physiology, of physics, and of 
chemistry to trace the action of forces irrespective for the most part of 
precis© locality* It is especially characteristic of geography that it 
traces the influence of locality, that is, of environment varying locally. 
So far as it does not do this it is merely physiography, and the essential 
topographical element has been omitted. I propose therefore to define 
geography as the science whose main function is to trace the interaction 
of man in society and so much of his environment as varies locally.* 

Before the interaction can be cont-idered, the elements which are to 
interact must be analysed. One of these elements! is the varying 
environment, and the analysis of this is, I hold, the function of physical 
geography. Thus we are driven to a position in direct antagonism to 
current notions. We hold that no rational political geography can exist 
which is not built upon and subsequent to physical geography. At the 
present moment we are suffering under the effects of an irrational 
political geography, one, tliat is, whose main function is not to trace 
causal relations, and which must therefore remain a body of isolated 
tlata to be committed to memory. Such a geography can never be a 
discipline, can never, therefore, be honoured by the teacher, and must 
always fail to attract minds of an amplitude fitting them to be rulers 
of men* 

But it may be i^etorted- — ^For the purposes of political geography 
cannot you rest satisfied with a more superficial and more easily learned 
analysis than that furnished by physical geography? In reply^ we 
take up our lowest position. Such analyses have been tried, and havo 
l)een found wanting. It is practically easier to learn the profound 
analysis of science, raising and satisfying as it does at every point the 
instincts which drive us for ever to ask the question ** why ? " than to 
acquire a sufficient amount of information from the name-lists of the old 
Bchool-books or the descriptions of so-called descriptive geography. 
Topography, which is geography with the " reasons why " eliminated, 
is almost unanimously rejected both by masters and pupils. 

There are other reasons for our position of even higher importance 
than practical convenience in teaching* I will mention three. The 

• For anotlicr definition from a mtlier different standpoint see my speech in openiDg- 
the dijcvsaion, m/ra, p. 160. 

t The other element is, of course, man in nodety. Tbo unalyaia of this will be 
ihorter tliAii tlint of the enviroumcnL It may beat he conddeped on the? linca of 
B^^ehot'3 * Physic* and Politics/ The communities of men should bo looked oo an 
milts in the etmg^gle for existence, more or lesa fuvotircd by their ferernl environmeat*. 
8m p, 11 for deflnitioii of *^ community - * nnd " euTironment.'' 

H 2 



first is this. If you learn what tlie old geographers term ** the physical 
features ^* in their causal relations, advance becomes ever easier and 
easier. New facts fit in an orderly way into the general scheme. They 
throw a new light on to all previously obtained knowledge, and that 
knowledge in turn illuminates them from many points* When, how- 
ever, the method of description has l>een adopted^ and still more that of 
enumeratioD, each additional fact addw an ever-inoreaaing amount to the 
burden to be Ijorne by the memory. It is like throwing: another pebble 
on to a heap of gravtl. It is like learning mathemaiics by trying to_^ 
remember formulae instead of grasping principiee. ^M 

Our second reason is shortly this. A superficial atialjsia is likely to 
lead into error : on the one hand by failing to go beneath the superiicial 
similarity of things essentially dilfering ; on the other hand by failing 
to detect the essential sin^ilarity of things superficially unlike. 

The third reason is this. The mind which has vividly grasped in 
their true relations the factors of the environment is likely to be fertile 
in the suggestion of new relations between the environment and man. 
Even if there be no design of advancing the science, the same conditions 
will lead to a rapid, a ^dvid, and therefore a lasting appreciation of the 
relations which have been detected by others* ^ 

It will be well here to pause and to sum up our position in a serie6^| 
of propositions* 

n 1. It is agreed that the function of political geography is to detect 
and demonstrate the relations subsisting between man in society and 
so much of his environment as varies locally, 

2. As a preliminary to this the two factors must be analysed, 

3. It is the function of physical geography to analyse one of the 
factors, the varying cUTironment. 

4. Nothing else can adequately perform this function. 
Because — 

No other analysis can exhibit the facts in their causal relation^ 
and in their true perspective. 

No other analysis will — 

Firstly, Serve the teacher as a discipline ; 
Secondly, Attract the higher minds among the pupils ; 
Thirdly, Economise the limited power of memory ; 
Fourthly, Be equally trustworthy ; and 
Fifthly, Be equally suggestive. 
Here we must expect the observation that, granting the desirability 
of what we ask, we are none the less asking what is impossible* Our 
reply will be that it has not been tried. Physical geography has 
usually been undertaken by those already burdened with geology, 
political geography by those laden with history. Wo have yet to see 
the man who taking np the central, the geographical position, shall look 




equally on such parta of science anJ sncb parts of liietory as are p^r* 
liaent to his inquir}'. Knowledge ifl» after all, one, but the extreme 
Bpecialism of the present day seems to hide the fact from a eertain class 
of minds. The more we specialise the more room and the more necessity 
is there for students whose constant aim it shall be to bring out the 
relations of the special subjects* One of the greatest of all gaps lies 
Mwcen the natural sciences and iht^ study of humanity. It is the duty 
of the geographer to build one bridge over an abyss which in the 
opinion of many is upsetting the equilibrium of our culture. Lop off 
either limb of geography and you maim it in its noblest part. 

In speaking thus wo are not blind to the necessity of specialism 
within geography itself* If you would do original work in the science 
you must specialise. But for this purpose either physical or political 
geography would be as unwieldy as the entire subject* Moreover, your 
special subject need not fall entirely within the re^lm of one or other 
branch ; it may lie across the frontier. Geography is like a tree which 
tarly divides into two great bi-anches, whose twigs may none the loss 
be inextricably interwoven. You select a few adjacent tw^igs, but they 
may spring from different branches. As a subject of education, how* 
ever, and as a basis for all fruitful specialigra within the subject, we 
insist on the teaching and the grasping of geography as a whole. 

This question of possibility leads us naturally into an inquiry as to 
the relations of geography to its neighbour sciences. Wo cannot do 
better than adopt Mr. Br^'ce'a rough classification of the environment. 
Firsts we have the influences due to the configuration of the earth*a 
surface ; secondly, those belonging to meteorology and climate ; and 
thirdly, the products which a country oflTers to human industry. 

First, then, as to the configuration of the earth's surface. We have 
her© a bone of contention between the geographers and the geologists. 
The latter hold that the causes which have determined the form of the 
lithosphere arc dealt with by their science, and that there is neither 
room nor necessity for the physical geographer. The geographer has 
in consequence damaged his science by refusing to include among his 
data any hut the barest results of geology. The rivalry must be well 
known to all here present* It has been productive of nothing but evil 
to geography. Two sciences ma.y have data in part identical, yet there 
ought to be no bickering in consequence, for the data, though identical, 
aie looked at from different points of view. They are grouped 
differently. Least of all should the geologist exhibit such weakness. 
At every step in his own department ho U diM»«>ndeiit on hifl ioieiilif 
brethren. Palaeontology ib the J 
ifl irrational apart from 1 
physics and chemistry 
for instance, the oau 
attempt to find a coinmC'^ 



in Br, Croll's astronomical interpretation of recurrent glacial epodis. 
But enough of thia. The true distinction between geology and 
geography seems to me to lie in this : the geologist looks at the 
present that ho may interpret the past; the geographer looks at the 
past that he may intei*pret the present. This lino has already been 
traced for us by one of the greatest of the geologiBts, 

In his * Text-hook of Geology/ Dr. Archibald Geikio gives the 
following lucid determination of it : *^- M 

*'An investigation of the geological history of a country involves V 
two distinct lines of inquiry* We may first consider the nature and 
arrangement of the rocks that underlie the surface^ with a view to 
ascertaining from them the succeesive changes in physical geography 
and in plant and animal life which they chronicle. But besides thafl 
story of the rocks, we may try to trace that of the surface itaelf, the 
origin and vicissitudes of the monntains and plains, valleys and ravines, 
peaks, passes, and lake basins, which have been formed out of tlie rocks. 
The two inquiries traced backwards merge into each otherj but they 
become more and more distinct as they are pin-sned towards later times. 
It is obvious, for instance, that a mass of marine limestone which rides 
into groups of hills, trenclied by river gorges and trnversed by valleye^ 
presents two sharply contrasted pictures to the mind* Looked at from 
the side of its origin, the rock brings before us a 8ea-l>ottom over which 
the relics of generations of a luxuriant marine calcareous fauna accumu- 
lated. We may be able to trace every bed, to mark with precision its fl 
organic coBtents, and to establish the zoological succession of which 
these fiuperimposed sea-bottomB are the rocoids. But we may be quiie 
unable to explain how such sea-formed limestone came to staud as it 
now does, here towering into hills, and there sinking into valleys* The 
rocks and their contents form one sutiject of study, the history of their 
present scenery another/' fl 

The same idea is indoi-sed by Professor Moseley in his lecture on 
*^ The Scientific Aspects of Geographical Education." We qnote the 
following passage from among many others in the same strain : I— | 

*' Regarding physical geography as a part of geology to be separated 
from it : — The reason w^hy such a separation should be eflfected is that 
there is thus formed and brought together for special treatment a subject 
which is far more necessaiy and suitablo for general educational purposes 
than the whole of geology itself, which w^ill atti-act far more students 
and act as a lever for promoting the study of other branches of scienoo 
as special studies, and certainly of geologj^ itself 

•* The principal argnment that is always brought against the estab- 
lishment of professorships of physical geogra]>hy at the Universities is 
that the subject is already covered by the professors of geology ; but 

• Arcbibold Geikie, * Toxt^book of Geology,* 1882, p. 910. 

t *U.G. S. E<liicttttoTiid Rc'ixirts/ ISSC. \\ 22^S, Froftwor Moeelcy. 



Frof. Geikie evidently does not take that view, and pointit out In hin 
letter already referred to, * Geology is every day increasing in its soop^; 
which is already too vast for the physical powers of even the m(Mt 
isde&tigable teacher.' " 

In this passage Frof. Moseley advocates the establishment of a chair 
of physical geography. It must not be concluded from this that he is 
q^osed to the unity of geography. This is made clear by oth';r [K/rtions 
of his lecture. 

** PossiUy, although at the pxesent moment it may not be jKtmlhhy 
to secne the representation jof geography as a whole, because </f the 
tpparent vmgoeneas of its bounds and the attacks on all si#les to which' 
it is in ooDsequence liable, there may be a chance of nnctyHm if the attemfrt 
be made to press the claims of i^ysical geography .'* 

And again: — 

'^Ou^t not pkvBcal geography to form part of every liberal edocai^ 
tian as being a subject specially adapted for pu rposes of general l«knriik|r, 
aad as the only true batis on which can be founded a knowledge of wfaaC 
ii iumol political geography?" 

Pobapa nowhere is the damage done to geography by the tW/rr 
vhick denies ita unity better seen than in the case of pbysicid geofp'4(pby . 
The sshyecc has been ahaadooed to the geologists, and has in ^mmf^^n^iw^t 
\ rxicjcieal bias. Pbcn o mepa such as rc^canoei, hfX spring]*, %mA 
^brjpim, have been grouped into cfaapt^fn, irrw^Tetire ^>f th^ rit$pf0tm tn 
vkidt Jaej wcmr, Frcm the geologist s poiiit ^d vi<rsr thai is mdkff^^i* 
—he is ki&kiBg as his BoKtta ntnut ; to*: Tc^i^ntKC^ifz^g ^A U^ mAU 
litei kiecwy^tfia if ^A great isLX/^x^xK:^^^ \0gt <tjh tx^^a&fikg *A the 
cB3zr« fssasge^ ^e aeiKv^s ^A tbsr efvec^ r^^^^ied, if. if^r tEie ytrymi <Y 
er z^xfx^^ T?rT:-portart, Brt swa a seseav^ is lux 
rwgssMj. «Bri Dr^ ArsLfbsld G^skie tells -wr flsMl 7 i«i 
IB ■TLrmnris «f Fkjwa2 G-ec^^Taccj ' * t^skt l« is «ses^ tiuf; wf^Hb m 
viBviias «• ycvmjcx^crr, TrK xoTwai ^^^^grs^fify ^bm «^ V^'^% 
i» a fBBBik ^■.^".^. tMt ^tf '2^ ^fi^zxrnrarjiL ^f ta«& 5»KSn:r»« ^^ t>u^ *att*^% 
tK&B^ Tit uidEa snuc 2* rt^rnrjwii en * ^^j^/j^xrja^jfi^ '-Am-Jk^ It I 

i£ a ^TfssL iacasfe- * ^^T » i * "" T^TOspacoj- * Wii*r:% » r, ''* FarTe>^ 
sscigirj. -^ ^*^ ^ =^ taiEc* - '^ Pic3»^ ^jT^t^-j^ ^ IH^jw {^^.^^ jn «? 

m 3080. it MiSBBC*-- SOtC in«W fll«i J*»r JUSUR VL 55 '* ^'jt^M'JJTJ ««» *- Vi4^ 

psmii 11 'ae ^fiiiios: nut ^suk ^rj^sM^e^ Tb^ ins: >vi*/ t^Hv/^t^j^ w^, 
"j^ 3^m i£ -iif!: rsficizcaaieL T!k crofiicraui tiun«% xl ^^r^'wseuv^ T^n 
imj sin mMsn of laj mur if 'Zuen^ \vr x is irj tfteit%arjta ^iwi<^ ;»vt 

^jisat -nijdL TzraoMt x^ S^i-ijimi^ ifrifj^t it Jie «riv: ieaj«: Jt vapi0^>smf!a' ^ 



We will give two illustrations of tho inadequacy for geographical 
pnrpoBes of the present (geological) physical geographies even wheu 
considered as physiographies. 

The iirst is the undue prominence given to sueh subjects as volcanoes 
and glaciers. To this my attention has been several times drawn by 
your Assistant-Secretary, Mr. Bates. It is perfectly natural in books 
>vTitten by geologists* Volcanoes and glaciers are phenomena which 
leave most market! and charact eristic traces behind them. Therefore, 
from a geological point of view they are niutit important, and are worthy- 
of special study. But the result resembles a book o]i biology written 
l>y a palteontologist. In it we should ex|>ect to find the snail's shell, for 
instance, described in the greatest detail, but to the comparative neglect 
of tho far more important soft parts vdthin. 

My other illustration is a practical one, which must appeal to the 
exi>erience of all thoughtful travellers. Let us say that you go for a 
trip up the Ehine ; you must be strangely wanting in curiosity if you do 
not ask yourself such questions as the following :— Why is it that after 
passing over many miles of flat land through which the Ehine meanders 
almost on a level with the surrounding country, we com© suddenly to a 
part of its course in which it passes through a gorge ? Why, when wo 
reach Bingen, does that gorge still more suddenly cease» its place taken 
by a lake-like valley bounded hy parallel ranges of mountains? No 
ordinary physical geography that I have seen adequately anawera such 
questions as these. If 3'ou happen to have a special knowledge of the 
subject, you may know that if you look into tho * Journal of the 
Geological Society * ' you will find a delightful paper on this subject 
by Sir Andrew Ramsay. But this implies the time and opportunity for 
research among original authorities, and even then your reward will be 
slight. It is only a few isolated regions which have been so treated. 

I will close tliis portion of the subject with a constmctive attempt, 
I shall select a region familiar to all, that your attention may be con- 
centrated on the method rather than the matter. Let us take the south- 
east of Enghmd. The usual method of treating the geography of such 
a region would he to describe from a physical point of view first the 
coast and then the surface. The cajves and inlets of the one and the 
hills and valleys of the other would be enumerated in order. You 
w-ould then have a list of the political divisions, and a further list of 
tho chief tow^uH, stating the rivers on whose banks they stand. In some 
eases a few interesting but isolated facts would be added, menial pegs 
on which to hang the names. The political portion of such a work 
even at best rises no higher than to the muk of a good system of 
mnemonics. As for the ph^'sical portion, all the text-bcx>k8 agree in 
commilting what is, from my point of view, a fundamental error. They 
separate the descriptions of the coast and the surface. This is fatal to 

• 1874. 





the demonBiration in due perspective of the chain of caiuses and effoota. 
The accidents of the surface and of the coast are alike the results of the 
interaction of two forces, the Tarying resistance of the rock strata and 
the varying erosive powers of atmosphere and sea. The erosive powers, 
whether superficial or marginal, act on one and the same set of rocks. 
Why should there be a Flamborough Head ? Why should there be a 
Torkshire Wold ? They are but two edges of the rim of one and the 
flame maas of uptilted chalk-strata. 

Let U8 try to construct a geography of South-eastern England which 
shall exhibit a continuous series of causal relations. Imagine thrown 
over the land like a white tablecloth over a table, a great sheet of chalk. 
Let the sheet be creased with a few simple folds, like a tablecloth laid 
hy a careless hand. A line of furrow * runs down the Kennet Vf 
Reading, and then follows the Thames out to sea. A line of ridgo 
pMses eastward through Salisbury Plain and then down the centre of 
the Weald. A second line of furrow follows the valley of the Frome 
aad its sabmarine continuations, the Solent and Spithead. Finally, yet 
anoond Hne of ridge is carried through the Isle of Porbeck and its 
BOW detached member the Isle of Wight. Imi^ine these ridges and 
knows untouched by the erosive forces. The curves of the strata 
vuald be parallel with the curves of the sur&ce. The ridges would 
he flat-topped and broad. The fur row s would be flat-ljr/ttomed 
aad btoad. The Kmnet-Thames farrow would be characterised l^y 
Jafirasinft width as it advanced eastward. The slopes joining the 
terow-botftaaa to the ridge-top would vary in steepness. It is not 
fielended that the land ever exhibited sudi a picture. The upheaving 
aad tiae c msiie foroes have always acted simultaneously. As with the 
Emses of Fartianimt, the p roces s of ruin commenced before the bvUdlng 
vaa i^m^i^^ The eJimination of eronon is merely an expedient to 
ihsw ^e sifliple amngeaaent of the rocks, whidh aimpKeity is iwaslrrd 
W dw afiyaicnt ci mf naion of the ruin. Add one more £act, thai above 
and bdow ^e hard dialk lie strata of soft dsj, aad we have drawn fMt 
^nic^ flv aD thst we require. 

IVe mamldtx^m wmrk is eoaplete ; the dnsel snst ni9w Ue sfppli^ 
IW fii BUS of aira»dgea tear o«r cloth to tattetm. Bait m thfMj^ tibe 
seB stzftiMd wi^ stared as it lay emasd on iht tabi^ A^ 
[ lid^es we kavit deseriliied hare not faOen in. Their rsnK»l 
■& fK^eet sdfiy as lull TMmgfsm and eapss. The Uavm- 
I ^he sqiedBeaaBhcatt elay , pr>lnee Hn^ ef valkj 
e liMBBs lB*»tftesr>ft<iaf ^eseahsMi 
gTHS inka of ^e TWwa saMl^ aad tike Mrr9w«»T 
I wki(£& exscftd fe«L P'xie Har^#;i«r tibsj^aif^ 

W andEaX^r ijj^ini'nmmi Jm -mmbej wad. lalL T^ tm\ mat Ut«m. fiiaiiT/ mi^Ufi, 




the Solent to Spithead, and vvMch ramify into Southampton Water and 
Portsmoiitli, Langstone, aud (.'hichester Harbours. The upturned edgu 
of the clialk-sheet produces th© long range of liills, which, under the 
various names of Berkshire Downs, ChUtem, and Gogmagog Hills, and 
East Anglian Heights, bounds the Kennet-Thamea basin to the north- 
west. The North and South Downs stand up facing each other, tho 
springs of an arch from which the key-stone has been removed. 
The same arch fonns Salisbury Plain, and its eastward prolongation in 
the chalk uplands of Hampshire ; but hero the key-stone, though damaged, 
has not been completely worn through. Beachy Head and the North and 
South Forelands are but the seaward projections of the Down ranges. 
The fact that the North Downs end not in a single promontory, like 
Beachy Head, but in a long lino of cliff, the two ends of which aro 
marked by the North and South Forelands, may servo to draw attention 
to a relation which frequently exists between the slope of the surface- 
and the dip of tho strata. A few sentences back, we mentioned the 
fact, that if our simple ridge and furrow system really obtained, the 
slopes connecting the ridge-topa and tho furrow bottoms would vary in ■ 
bteepness. By remembering the position of a hill-range in the ** restored " 
i*uin, wo shall remember not merely its direction, but also the relative 
steepness of its two faces. One will bo prmlnc^ed by the dipping strata, ■ 
the other will bo tho escarpment where tho strata have been cut short. 
On the dip of the strata will depend very much whether when we havo 
climbed the escarpment, we soo in front of us a sharp descent or an 
undulating upland. Contrast in this respect the two ehjilk uplands 
which form tho broad projections of lilast Anglia and Kent with the 
narrow ridges, the Chilterns and the Hog*8 Back. The north-west 
escarpment of the Chilterns is continuous with the western scarped face 
of East Anglia, The south-eaBtem dip-slope of the Chilterns is con- 
tinuous with the dip-slope which forms tho broad uplands of Norfolk, 
The dip is steep in the case of the Chilterns, slight in that of Norfolk, 
Similarly the Kentish uplands are a prolongation of the Hog's Back. 
Tho southern scarped faces differ but little, whereas the northern dip- 
slope of the Hog's Back is steep, though its continuation in Kent is only 
gently inclined. This terminal expansion of the hill^ranges has been 
of great importance in English history, as wiU be seen presently. The 
expansions may bo considered as dependent on the eastward widen- 
ing of the Eennet-Thames Imsin* It will be noticed that the shores of 
the Thames estuary are on the whole parallel with the hill-ranges 
which mark the lipa of the basin, the northern shore parallel with the 
curve traced by tho hills from Hunstanton Point to tho Chiltems, the 
southern parallel with the straighter range of the North Downs. 

Tho rivers of the district fall naturally into three classes. First, we 
have those which flow down the dip-slope of East Anglia, As a eon- 
aequence, they aro numerous and roughly parallel. They do not combine 



to form ono large stre^hm presenting a tree-like appearanco on the map. 
Secondly, we liave those which flow down the great furrows, tho Rennet 
*ijd tho Thames below Beading on the one hand, tho Frome with itij 
submarine prolongation by the Solent and Spitbead on the other. The 
many tributaries of the Thamee are obvious, but the tree-like character 
of the Fromo is not ohvioue unleBs its Bubmarine continuation be taken 
into account. Then the Frome, tho vStour, the Avon, the Teat, the 
I token, and the Medina, would combine to form one great stream, 
baving its mouth east of the Isle of Wight. Such a river may very 
probably have actually existed. Lastly, there are the Btreams which 
pftfis by ravines right through the chalk ranges, tho Thames above 
Beading, and the various small rivers of the Weald. This circumstance 
is incomprehensible, unless wo suppose that tho strata arches were 
formerly complete. Then these streams would flow down the even 
slope of the ridge, following tho ordinary hydrostatic laws. Tho only 
prominent feature of our area which would require a special explanation 
apart from the flexure of tho rocks is the shingle hank which forms 

This being the general anatomy of the land, what has been its 
influence on man? In the midst of forest and marsh three broad 
uplands stood out in early days^ great openings in which man could 
establish himself with the letist resistance fiom nature. In the language 
of the Celts they were known as '* Gwents," a name corrupted by tho 
Imim conquerors into " Ventro." Thoy were tho chalk uplands with 
which we were familiar, the arch*top of Salisbury Plain and Hampshire, 
imd the terminal expansions of the chalk ranges in East Anglia and 
Kent. In East Anglia was Yenta leenorum i in Kent and Canterbury f 
we still have relics of another G went. The first syllahlo of Winchester { 
a>mpletes the triplet. In later, but still early times, they were the 
first nests of the three races which composed the German host. The 
Angles settled in Norfolk and Suffolk, the Jutes in Kent, the Saxons in 
Hampshire. In still later England, Winchester, Canterbury, and 
Norwich were among the chief of medifeval cities. To this day the 
isolation of two of these regions at least has left its traces in the marked 
diaraoteristics of their populations. Tho Fens cut off Norfolk, tho Weald 
forests shut in Keut. Their people have taken distinct positions in our 
history. Tho *' men of Norfolk *' and the " men of Kent " have Ijeen of 
a remarkably rebellious disposition. 

• I haT© omitted in this eketoh to account for Leith Uill and 
ex. They, too, d»?pend on the flexiUG of tlie rocka; but to 
[ take up too muck e;paco id a pai>er wbich puiporta otdjr to 
t to exhamt ita topic. 
t 80 J. K. Green would hftfe it, 'JlaMng of Eugi 
Taylor derivefi Kent from Centty a G&dhelio form of the C 
je<jtioii'-' Words and Places,' 1885, p. 148. 
I Venta BeJgaram. 




There were four gi*eat citieB in tlie east and fioutli ; we have 
i^ientiooed three. The fourth was Lotjdon, Geographical conditions 
liave determined the greatness of the metropolis. The map %vill make 
it clear at once, that the Fens and the AVeald would compel the lines of 
communication from Norfolk and Kent on the one hand, and the rest of 
England on the other to pass in the general direction of London. Kent 
lies nearest to the Continent, and hence Watling Street was not merely 
the Kentish road, but also the road to Flanders. Whero the hills 
narrow the Thames marshes most there is the natural crossing of 
Watling Street, first a ferry, then a bridge. This point lies between 
Tower Eill and the heights of Dnl wit h and Sydeobam. Bermondsey, 
the iele of Bermoud, was a dry spot, lising like a etepping-stonc from 
among the sijrrounding marshes. The existence of solid ground on the 
immediate banks of the deep water, which is necessary, as the " take-off'* 
for a bridge or ferry, is also necessary for a landing-place. Here then 
we have a crossing of natural ways on a tipot which is a natural 
halting-placo for both, hence a point at which a city is certain to rise. 
That cit}^ will bo the more imjwrtant if one way is by land and the 
other by water, for it is then a place of transhipment. It will be still 
more important if it is the necessary meeting-point of river and sea 
traffic. Even more pregnant with meaning is the position of the Thames 
month relatively to that of the Scheldt. It determines the linked great- 
ness of London and Antwerp, and also much of the Continental policy of 
England. Thus many causes conspire to maintain the greatness of 
London. This is a fact to be marked. It is the secret of its persistent 
growth from the earliest times. The iniportanoe of a given geographi- 
cal feature varies with the degree of man's civilisation. A city which 
depends on one pliysical advantage may fall at any moment. A single 
mechanical discovery may effect the change.* 

So ranch for the cities. Lastly as to the political divisionsp Therc^ 
are two tj^tes of political divisiona, natural and arbitrary. The contrast 
presented by the old division of France into provinces and the revo- 
lutionary division into departments will serve to indicate the distinction. 
The one is the reenlt of an unconscious process » such as the accretion 
of smaller states to a larger state. The other is the product of conscious 
legislation. In Euglund we have the two kinds side by side. In the 
midlands we have arbitrary divisions, counties named after their chief 
towns, and supposed to have originated from the partition of Mercia.t 
In the east and south, on the other hand, the counties are of natural 
growth^ and bear names indicating their distinct origin. In the case of 


* In tills a<?couiit of Ibo ** greatness " of LoqJod I Liivc not inilicated Ike full sigriii- 
ficcmce of Tower Hill. The *' tluu '* or liill-fort no doubt decided the prtciiw locnUty 
of London * but othor cauflM, as given alxive^ have detenniued its grcatne&a. 

t Cbndder J. K. Greet), *Con4ii«'>t of Engloud/ 1S&3, p. 141, note. But compare 
Isaac Taylor, * Wortla and Pbct-a,' 1^85, p. 179, 


QCtf or 


fnn a tecc*:. «aier VKSzI ^oisj 3Xi0K fftjwal 
id lacj ai€i» ^vi^ ^e <cf«tM& ^ ^CBier ti£ftsn5i^^ 
b "sam sf^m. ^vsr «» ^JrfMwg w^ol w>% mat msm ~ 

ii^aK «K&5^ tatfor n^TKuti&t ^ne^ aiec a loit 

\f 'a^iiiSai^ii ia» namJk mid i€ 3ai( 

of Q*9BUL. 15ut 
't*- jt li* inzm. of 1 



data* just as meteorology itself accepts the resulta of ph3raics. It is a 
mifltake, especially of the GermanB, that thoy include too mnch in 
geography* Geography has bearings on many subjects, but it does not 
bodily include those subjects, E%'eii the great Pescliel includes in his 
' Phyaische Erdkunde ' ♦ a discussion on the barometer and a demonstration fl 
of the formnlfc needed in barometric corrections. Such digressions are ™ 
the CAUse of the often repeated charge that geographers are merely 
dabblei*s in all the sciences. It is our contention that geography has a 
separate sphere of work. Its data may overlap those of other sciences, 
but its function is to point out certain new relations between those data. 
Geography must be a continuous argument, and the test of whether a 
given point is to be included or not must be this — la it pertinent to the 
main line of argument ? How far digressionB with the view of proving ■ 
data are allowable must of course bo a practical question. As a mlc 
they should be excluded if it is the function of any other science to 
prove them, 

Mr, Bryce's last category includes the productions of a region* The 
distribution of minerals is obviously incidental to the rock-structure, 
and wo need refer to it only to give another tap to the nail at which 
we have been hammering previously. As regards the distribution of 
animals and plants, we must apply the test to which we referred in the 
last paragraph— How far is it pertinent to the main line of geographical 
argument? So far as the animals and plants in question form an ap- 
preciable factor in man's environment, so far their distribution is veiy 
pertinent. So far also as that distribution gives evidence of geogra- 
phical changes, suoli as the separation of islands from continents or a 
retirement of the snow-line, so far it is also pertinent. But the study 
of flie distribution of animals and plants in detail and as an aid to the 
understanding of the evolution of those beings^ is in no souse a part of 
geography. It ia a part of zoology or botany, for the proper study of 
which a preliminary study of geography is necessary* 

The truth of the matter ts that the bounds of all the sciences must 
naturally be compromifies* Knowledgo, as we have said before, is one. 
Its division into 8ul>ject8 is a concession to human weakness. As a final 
example of this we will deal with the relation of geography to history. 
In their elementary stages they must obviously go hand in hand. In 
their higher stages they diverge* The historian finds full occupation 
in the critical and comparative study of original docximents. He hat* 
neither the time nor usually the turn of mind to scan science for him- 
self with a view to selecting the facts and ideas which be requires. It 
18 the function of the geographer to do this for him. On the other hand, 
the geographer must go to history for tho verification of the relation n 
which he suggests. The body of laws governing those relations, which 
might in time be evolved, would render possible the writing of much 
♦ Y<Sl, ii, pp. 118-127, 2iid edit. 




'* preliistorio ** hi&toiy. Jolvn Kieiiard Green's * Making of England ' is 
largely a deduction from geographical conditions of ^-hat mtist have 
been the course of history. 

It remains that I should eet ont what I conoeiT© to be tho main line 
of geographical argument. 1 "v^ill do tliiB in two stages. The first will 
be general, such as might be gathered from the syllabus of a university 
course of lectures or from the table of contents at the beginning of a 
text-book* The second will be a special application of this to the solution 
of a defnite problem — the reasons why Delhi and Calcutta should have 
been respectively the old and the new capitals of India, 

We presuppose a knowledge of physiography. We would then start 
from the idea of a landless globe, and l^uild up a conception of the earth 
on the analogy of mechanics. First, the laws of Newton are demonstrated 
in their ideal simplicity on the hypothesis of absolute rigiditj\ It is not 
tintil those are fixed in tlie mind tlmt the counteracting tendencies of 
elasticity and friction are introduced. So would we attack the study of 
geography. Imagine our globe in a landless condition, composed that 
i» of three concentric spheroids — atmosphere, hydrosphere, and litho- 
sphere. Two great world-wide forces would be in action^-the sun^s 
heat and the earth's rotation on its axis* Obviously the trade-wind 
Bystem would have unimpeded sway. Next introduce the third set of 
world-wide forces — ^tho inclination of the earth's axis to the plane of its 
orbit and the revolution of the earth round the sun* The result would 
be an annual march from tropic to tropic of the calm zone separating 
the trades. The fourth and last of the causes which we have termed 
world-wide would be the secular variation in the elliptioity of the 
earth's orbit and in the obliquity of its axis. This would produce similar 
variationfi in the annual march and in the intensity of the trade-wind 

Thus far we have steered clear of longittidinal variations. Given 
the latitude, the altitude, the season of year, and the year in the secular 
period, and the climatic conditions are deducible from very few data, 
Xow we abandon our priman^' hypothesis. Conceive the world as it is, 
ai heated, aa cooling, as shrinking, as wrinkling. It was heated, it is 
cooling, therefore it is shrinking, and the outer more chiUed crust is in 
Ponsequence wrinkling- The lithosphere is no longer concentric with 
the atmosphere and tho hy*lroBphere. The betl of the ocean is thrown 
into ridges and furrows. The ridges project into the hydrosphere, and 
tbrongh the hydrosphere into the atmosphere. They act as obstacles in 
111© way of the world-currents. The}* may bo compared to the stones in 
the bed of a rapid stream on which the currents impinge and are diverted, 
lliey either leap over them or are ^plit upon them. This purely mecha- 
nical action is well seen^ in the splitting of the Southern E>}uatoriiil 
Drift on Cape San Ho<[ue. Cape San Boque has a distinct influenco on 
tho climate of England, The " leaping-over " action 10 visiblo i 




case of wiads rising over mountain-cliams, and as a conacqtienc© ooveriiig 
their slopes with moiBtiire. Btit» in atldition to the lueclmmcal, there 
are thermal causes of variation, duo mainly to the different specific heats 
of land and water — hence the monaoonfl^ The lie of tbo gre^t wrinkles 
has a special meaning. Were the ccmtinonts extended east and west 
instead of in three great bands across the Eqtiator, climate would be 
approximately indexed by latitude. ■ 

Thus may we Bteadil3^ progress in the analysis of the world s sur- 
face. Conceive the world as Ian J less, and you will see the motor-powers 
of air- and water-circulation. Replace your conception by one of a 
wrinkled w^orld, and yuu will grasp how by mechanical obstruction 
and thermal irregularity your simple cuiTents are differentiated into 
currents of almost infinite but still orderly complexity. 

But we must advance a stage further. The form of the lithospher© 
is not fixed. The shrinkage is still in progress. Old wrinkles are 
raised and new wrinkles come into existence. As they rise their 
destruction commences. The currents ever work at the removal of the 
obstacles which obstruct their course. They tend to achieve the ideal 
simplicity of circulation. Thus the features of the earth's surface are 
constantly changing. Their precise form is determined by their past 
history as well aj9 by their present conditions, Becent changes are the 
subject of one of the most fascinating chapters in geography. Plains 
are built by the accumulation of debris. Continents give birth to 
islands. The evidence is drawn from a hundred sonrces — from the lines 
of migration of birds, the distribution of animals, or the depths of then 
neighbouring seas. ^ 

Each successive chapter postulates what has gone before. The 
sequence of argument is nnbroken. From the position of the obstacles 
and the course of the winds may be deduced the distribution of rain. 
From the form and distribution of the wTinkle-slopes and from the dis- 
tribution of the rainfall follows the explanation of the diainage-system. 
The distribution of soils is mainly dependent on the rock-structure, and 
on a consideration of soil and climate follows the diirision of the world 
into natural regions based on vegetation. 1 am not here referring to the 
dlstribntion of botanical species, but to that of the broad types of whalfli 
may be called the vegetable clothing of the world — the polar and tropical 
deserts, the temperate and tropical forests^ and the regions which may 
be grouped together as grass-plains* ^d 

Passing now to the second stage of the investigation, it will be well ' 
to make nsc of two technical terms. ** An environment '* is a natural 
region. The smaller the area included the greater tends to be the 
number of conditions uniform or nearly uniform throughont Iho area. 
Thus we have environments of difierent orders, whose extension and 
intension, to borrow a logical phrase, vary inversely. So with communi- 
ties, ** A community " is a gioup of men having certain characteristics 


Tike SBiller ikt oommnnitT, tbe greater teads to be the 
of eoauMB dtaracteristics^ GiniiBiimiues are of different 
ordets — rftces. natiotR, |stnrincefi, towns — the last two expreaaoMiB used 
n tfe fiCBse of cQipsKmte S^^o^P" <^ bmb. Bt iht use of thfose two tenns 

i cui be giTCB to sack disrassKHis as the effects of erpadng two 
; to one CBTiroiiBent, and ooe cxanmnnitT to two eiiTiroii> 

For iBstaikce. this — ^How have geograpbical conditicits diff^- 
a^ed the Eagiisk race in the thi>ee cnTiionmentB, Britain, America, 

Eiiei»»b egp political qaertiops will depend on the reediltB of Utie 
ph jmeal inqnirr. Certain oonditiaDS of climate and soil are needed for 
^t a ggi e ga tkn of dense popalatioD&. A certain density of population 
seems pj ^ r n M a t u to the developaient of civilisation. In the ligbt of SBcb 
principles wosld be discnased sndi problems as the contrast between 
the aBcient iqiland cirilisatianB of tlie New Worid, Peni and MexicQ, and 
the SDcaent lowland QvilJsatinns of the Old World, ^rp^ ^^nd Babjkm. 
Again, eanqisxmtxTelT nndistwrbed strata nsnallT nnd^lie wide plains, 
and wide plains seem ^wciall j favoaraUe to the dend^^Nnoit of homo- 
geaecws neea, like the Bnssians and the Chinese. Yet agaia, the dis- 
tnbatian of animal, regetable, and mineral prodncts has done much to 
detenaine the local diaiacteristicB of ctrilisation. Consider in this 
reject the saies {H^sented bj the OH World, the New World, and 
Aastralia in the matter of comparative irealth in cereals and beasts of 

One of the most interesting copters would deal with the reaction of 
■an on nature. Man alters his aivinHunent, and the action of that oi- 
Tiionm»it <m his posterity is dianged in consequence. The relative im- 
portanoe of physical features varies &om age to age according to the state 
of knowledge and of material civilisation. The improvement of artificial 
lifting has rendered posslUe the eristence of a great communis at 
St Petet s b or g. The discovoy of the Cape ronte to India and of the 
Sew World led to the Ml of Venice. The invention of the steam 
engine and the electric telegraph have rendered possible the great 
aae of modem States. We might multiply sudi instances greatly. 
We might group them into categories, but our object t«>day is 
laerdy to indicate the possilnlities of the subject. One thing, how- 
erer, must always be borne in mind. The course of history at 
a givm moment, whether in politics, sodety, or any other sphere of 
human activity, is the product not cmly of environment but also of the 
mmnentum acquired in the past The fact that man is mainly a 
creature of habit must be recognised. The Englishman, for instance, 
win put up with many anomalies nntil they become nuisances of a 
certain degree of virulence. The inffuence of this tendency must always 
be kept in mind in geography, llilford Haven, in the present state 
of things, offers far greater physical advantages than liveipoiA for the 
ha nL— ILlsch 1887.] v 


American trado ; yet it is improbable tbat Liverpool will bave to give 
way to Milford Haven, at any rate in the immediate future. It is a caeo 
of vis inertiw. 

Wo propose pa Being now to the special illustration which we have 
promised. We will start fr<(ra the fountain-hoad. From the buh's heat 
and the earth s rotation wo demonstrate the trade-wind system. From 
the influence of that heat on the vast maes of Asia we deduce tho 
monsoon variation of the system. Witbin the monsoon area are col- 
lected some seven hundred out of the eight hundred millions of 
Asia. Itight athwart the south-west monsoon extends the Himalaya. 
The moieture of the Indian Ocean in conse<|nence deluges its soutbem 
face. Thus the full importance of the direction of the mountain-chain 
IB brought out. The rains have washed down from the mountains the 
debris which fonns the fertile plain at their base. HeneCj along the 
southern foot of tho Himalaya wo have a belt of country possessing 
the conditions of climate and soil needed to sustain a large population* 
In effect we find two-fiftbs of the pojmlation of the entire peninsula 
concentrated in the provinces of Bengal, the North-west, and the Punjab, 
althoiigb these three provinces have btit little more than ono-eixth the 
area. Moreover, tho abundant moisture of the monsoon coupled with 
the height of the Himalaya (the height is a consequence of the com- 
parative newness of the \\Tinkle) produce an abundant glacial system 
from above the snowline. One result of this is that the rivers of the 
plain are perennial, and constantly navigable. Tints we have two con- 
ditions favourable to the development of civilisation, density of population, 
and case of eommnnication. 

A wealthy civilised community is a region tempting to the conqueror. 
Now conquerors are of two kinds — land-wolves and sea-wolves. How 
would these respectively gain access to their prey in the Ganges valley ? 
Consider first the landward frontier of India. On the north-east the 
Himalaya is practically impassalde to a host.* On the north-west is 
the Sulaiman range, pierced by many passes. From the Iranian uplands 
of which this range is the boundary wall have swept down successive 
waves of conquerors. But within the mountain line is a far more effective 
obstacle, tho Thar or great Indian desert, with its continuation the 
Bann of Katch. This barrier extends parallel to tho Sulaiman Moun- 
tains from the sea almost to tho Himalaya* Between the desert and the 
foot of the Himaliiya the ferl ile belt is narrowest. Through that gate 
must pass whoever would gain access to the Ganges valley, Alexander 
advanced to its entrance. When he swerved to the right and followed 
the Indus, India was saved. Close to tho eastern end of the pass is 
Delhi. It stands at the head of the Jumna-Ganges navigation, the 
place of transhipment from land to water carriage. It is therefore a 

• ODly one (exception is recorded by history, A Cbinese army once fiucceeded in 
reachmg Nepaoi 


natural centre of ccmmeroe. It is also the natural base of operations 
for the Asiatic conqueror, his left flanked by the mountains, his right 
by the desert, his line of communications secure to the rear. The 
strat^ic importance of the region has not escaped the British. Here 
is Simla, the summer capital of India. Here also the army cantonments 
are most thickly sown. Here are the fields of many battles. So much 
for DelhL Now for Calcutta. From the sea India is singularly in- 
accessible. The eastern shore is beaten by a heavy surf. We have had 
to construct a harbour at Madras at great expense. The western coast 
has many good harbours, but in its rear rises the steep slope of the 
Western Ghats. Drenched by the monsoon, they are densely clothed 
with forests, which to this day are the abode of some of the mcst 
savage races of the world. Behind Bombay railways have now been 
carried over the mountains, but until recently they must have been 
a most effectual barrier to communication. The Portuguese settled 
at Goa» and could not advance. The English possessicm at Bombay 
was our earliest in India,* yet the Presidency of Bombay was the last 
to grow. The one great natural water-gate is by the mouth of the 
Ganges. Here, on the Hoogly, the British established themselves at 
Calcutta. It is the place of junction of river and sea shipping, and 
therefore a commercial centre. It is also the natural basis of operations 
for the conquerors from over the sea. From it they have extended their 
influence far and wide. The old presidencies of Bombay and Madras 
liave ea<^ been succeeded by a single province, but the Presidency of 
Bengal has b^otten Bengal, the North-west, the Punjab, and th& 
Central Provinces ; we might almost add Assam and Burma. Thus, to 
earn up, at the two ends of the fertile belt are the two gates of India — 
the Khafbar Pass and the Hoogly. Along that belt the great highway 
is the Jumna-Ganges. At either end of the river navigation stands a 
strategical and commercial capital, Delhi on the one hand, C^cuttaf 
on the other. 

Thus we complete our survey of the methods and scope of geography. 
I believe that on lines such as I have sketched a geography may be 
worked out which shall satisfy at once the practical requirements of the 
statesman and the merchant, the theoretical requirements of the historian 
and the scientist, and the intellectual requirements of the teacher. Its 
inherent breadth and manysidedness should be claimed as its chief 
merit. At the same time we have to recognise that these are the very 
qualities which wiU render it ^ suspect " to an age of specialists. It 
would be a standing protest against the disintegration oi culture with 

* Onr euliest poBsevkm. We had heUaiea at Smat and at Fori 81. George aome- 

t Oa]eiitU=Kali Katfta— the village of the goddeas KalL Thia anggests the 
qneatioii, Wh j abould Uiia particular Tillage hare riaen to be a metvopolia rather than 
aoj other village? I would pvopoae the tezm ** geographical adectkn'' Cor the pcooeas 
<at the analogy of** natural adectjon." 

V 2 


which we are threatonud. In the dajs of our fathers the ancient claaaicB 
were the common element in the culture of all men, a ground on which 
the S|>ecialista could meet. The world is c hangings ancl it would seem 
that the classicfl are also becoming a Bpeciality. Whether we ref^ret the 
tuni whic'i things have taken or whether wo rejoice at it, it ia equally 
our duty to find a subetitute. To me it seems that geography combines 
some of the requisite qualities. To the practical man, whether ho aim 
at distinction in the State or at the amassing of wealth, it is a store of 
invaluable information; to the student it is a stimulating basis from 
which to set out along a hundred special lines ; to the teacher it would 
be an implement for the calling out of the powers of the intellect, unless 
indeed to that old-world class of flchot>lmaster who measure the difl- 
ciplinarj value of a subject by the repugnance with which it inspires 
the pupil. All this we say on the assumption of the unity of the 
subject. The al tentative is to divide the scientific from the practical. 
The result of its adoption will be the ruin of both. The practical will 
bo rejected by the teacher, and will be found indigestible in after life. 
The scientific will bo neglected by most men, because it lacks the element 
of utility in every*day life. The man of the world and the student^ the 
scientist and the historian, will lose their common platform. The 
world will be the poorer. 

The dbcussion on the foregoing paper was adjourned to the next following 
meeting, February 14th. 

On that evening (General R. SrajLcnET^ Yice-Preaident, in the chair) the dis- 
cussion was opened by Mr. Mackinder &s follows :^ 

Mr, Chairaion, I nm asked to say a few words to you bj way of analysis of the 
paper which I laid before you on the last occasion. It is obviously impoeatHe for 
mo to give you an exbanstive analyt^iB, because the paper itself, in spite of ita 
length, was necessarily more or leas of the natnre of on epitome. 1 think, however, 
it will be possible for me by grouping the ideas, such as they are, in a somewhat 
different way, to place the salient points almost in a nutshell. If I were asked to 
describe geography roughly I should venture on the assertion that it is the science 
of distributioD, the science, that is, which traces the arraDgenjent of thiogs in general 
on the earth's surface. Since it is a science it is not sufficient to rest content with 
recording, however accurately and skilfully, the places of things on the earth'n 
surface. After using our various obiscrving instruments, after making maps as care* 
fully as ever you will, it is necessary that we should pass on to consider what 
lelations hold between the distributions of various sots of features on the earth':* 
surface, and what are the causes of tho&e distributioDs. Let mo give a oomparison 
with some other science. Take that of astrooouiy. I will ask you to remember that 
the astronomer spends a very large portion of his time in using the telescopci in 
mioutely observing and recording facts ^itli regard to the heavenly bodies^ but you 
would not say that a scieDC© of the heavenly bodies existed unless you showed that 
there were laws governing their movements and great forc«;ft holding the solar 
.systems together. If we apply these ideas to geography I tliiuk we shall see how 
the various chapters may be strung together in natural sequence. I do not pretend 
that these suggestions aro new. My aim ia simply to show a method which some 
1) t tie experience in teaching has proved to be available— such as will be fitted to 



the higber dasses m UniTemtiea and stifficieotly digniUcil for men to make tbc 
subject their life studj. 

We start m\h the conception of tho world as a kndlesa globe, I believe tbata 
useful expedient for tbia reason — ^tbat there are isome phenomena, such as the trade 
winds, which are more or less independent cf the difitrihution of land and water. 
On the principle that a person who baa an untmined ear for music would prefer 
heariDg " Homej Sweet Home " on a flute, to hearing It with full orchestral acoora- 
paniraent, so we prefer clearing away many sets of causes when we first apj^roach 
the oonfideration of the earth. Then we go on to consider the land and sea distri- 
buted {Ls they are* Juat as^ in the case of a stone standing in the way of a stream 
going down a hill, the stream has to split upon it, go round it, or go over it, so w. 
the same way the great currents impinging on the land, either swerve to right or to 
left, or split upon it^ or in Ihe case of winds have to leap over it, and therefore we 
get a complex state of affairs out of a simple set of causes. Thertforo we see that 
precise topography is a necessary tbiog if we are to have a proper expknatiou of 
the actually observed distributions of currents both in the air and water, 

Passing from that, if I look at a headland projecting into the sea, I cannot help 
feeling that there must be some cause for the place which that headland holds, aud 
for its shape, aod I cannot help feeling, from the analogy of other sciences, that if I 
knew that cause and compared it with the causes of other things^ I should be able 
to see that they were related, and so should be able to work out a law of considerable 
simplicity where apparently we have great irregularity of distribution. Geologists 
seem to be agreed on this, that the shape of the earth's surface is due to the inter- 
actioa of two tet^ of causes— upheaval and ruin. The forces of upheaval, even so 
conservative a geologist as Sir William Dawson agrees, are the result of the gradual 
shrinking of this earth, producing what I call wrinkling, and others folding or 
corrugation in the earth's surface. Then we have the forces of ruin — frost, wind, 
nin and ao forth, brought to bear upon it, chiselling it. When you look at a ruiu 
it is at first sight exceedingly disorderly, and until yon have seen what wore the 
relations of its parts in the past, that disordt^r continues. So with this earth. If 
you understand the arraogemeDt of the rock- folds you are in a position to understand 
the actual distribution of the present fiatures* There is in this month's * Fro- 
ceedingB* (February No.) a most excellent application of this method of describing 
the features of a country by means of the wrinkles. The paper by Dr. Nauraann, 
on Japan, which has been so generally praised, contains a passage which runs as 
follows : *• The study of geology in j list as indispensable to the orographer as the 
Btndy of anatomy is to the sculptor. Ko clever artist would think of rcpreiscnting 
the beauties of the human form as those of a hollow figure. The pliysical features 
of Japan present a fine example for the verification of the intimate and mutual 
dependence of those sciences whose object is otir globe* After having made ourselves 
acquainted with the general laws of geological structure wc shall be better enabled 
to understand the language of the external features of that part of the surface we 
are at present dealing with,'' Ho practically applies his idea and gives a map on 
which he ^hows the ** Line of folds," Having got the distribution of the earth's 
snriace we come to work out the distribution of other things. The rainfall obviously 
depends on the profile of the eanh's surlace, the soils on the distribution of climates* 
mod rainfall. Then the general vegetable clothing of the earth — ^forests, grass lands, 
and such like — all follow on what we have previously studied. So with regard tu 
man, the same laws apply, only the nppliciaiuns are more complicated, because we 
have to study the distribution not only of races, but also of numerous attributes of 
man, languages, religions^ political organi^tiona and forms of civilisation. Ag^o, 
♦iiijce man is a moving creature we have to study phyBicat featurci«, not only as 



determiDing wliether the region in whicli be dwells eholl be favoumble or not, but 
also as impediments in bis %vajr, whetber be pasaes m an arm j» in migration, or as a 

From all ibis It will be seen tbat it is necessary to do two tbings — to base our 
physical geogra[)by to a great extent on geolog3% and to combine physical and 
IxiUtical geograpby together, I bave defined geograpby in the way wbicb I have 
for the following reasons, 1 believe that nine out of ten studtnta who approach 
geography wiO necessarily approach it from the human standpoint, Tbey wish to 
study the world as man's environment. I use the word environmeot, because 
Mr. Bryce has made that term a received one in geography. In order to understand 
the distribution of man it is neeessary to understand that of the physical features. 
We have thus a science in which essentially the same methods are applied from 
beginning to end. But it la the culminating stage which postulates all that has 
gone before that bas a general interest. I do not mean to say that for purposes of 
original investigation some people will not choose to confine themselves to inanimate 
nature, but 1 say that for a general basis it is necessary to study the physical features 
in order chiefly to understand the distribution of man. I believe that a considerable 
number of those who will take part in the discussion this evening bave seen my 
ideas set out in print in a more connected form than it was poasihle for me to show 
them on the last occasion or would l>e on the present. I will therefore only say 
in reply to a criticism which bas been current, to the effect that whatever value my 
ideas may have from a theoretical point of view, they are impracticable for teaching 
purposes', that since last Octol>er, I have had an opix>rtuuity of lecturing to 1200 
people, and I find that even elementary lectures^ set out on the plan I bave suggested, 
have been more or less successful in interesting i>eo]>le. In conclusion, if the ideas I 
have put forward, however much criticised (and I hope they will be criticised), 
result in our arriving at a more or less general opinion as to what the scoi>e of geo- 
graphy is, I shall he amply graiibed (or any trouble I have taken* 

Sir Frederic Goldsmid wished to explain in a few %vords the reason of bis 
coming before the meeting. Hearing that a paper about to be read in these rooms 
contained something in the form of onslaught on a position taken up by himself in 
an address to the Geograpbiciil Section of the British Association at Birmingham in 
September last — and finding that other engagements would prevent his attendance 
at the meeting — he procured a *."0|iy of the paper aforesaid, and wrote dow^n some 
hurried remarks to be retid on the occasion by a kind substitute. It so happened 
that when the lecturer's task was completed, no time for discussion was available, 
and hia notes were returned. Now that they were met to di^iuss the last meeting's 
imper, and that the reading of these notes would spare the audience perhaps a more 
rambling statement and economise time, he ventured to recur to them in fulfilment 
of the object for which tbey were originally designed. 

Tlie passage quoted in proof of hia (Sir Frederic's) tripping was this: " It is 
diflicult to reconcile the amalgamation of what may be considered 'scientific 
geography ' with history. One is as thoroughly apart from the other as geology is 
from astronomy.** Presently be would quote another passage in which the offence 
is even greater, and defined with like precision. But he (Sir Frederic) was speaking 
of geography in the sense of what may bo called its mathematical treatment, and his 
critic took bim as referring to scientific theory and deduction. He (Sir Frederic) was 
in the material world with the practical surveyor and his outdoor apiiaratua. His 
critic pictured him in the world of speculation in which historian and geographer find 
a common ground. It was a misconception of meaning, a confusion of tcrms^ — in 
fact, of theories with theodolites. 

Setting aside the actual charge of making proposals " fatal to the best prospects 



of geography," it might B«^em unwarrantable on his (Sir Frederick) part, after the 
able and exhaufltive discourse delivened a fortnight ago, to take up the time of the 
meeting with an answer to a personal alhision expressed in the brie teat of terms. 
But as the duooorse itself bears, as it were, almost wholly upon that personal 
allnsioD, and is in fact one expansive comment on an individual uttorauce for which 
lie was held reaponaible, a reply of some kind would be admitted to be necessary. 

He was not going to disavow the words which had been quoted from his address 
to the Geographical Section at Binningham, though he could not help regretting 
that the passage selected fur objection was not one morn expressive of the general 
tendency and manifest object of that address. Indeed, had it been considered in 
reference to the remainder, it would have been evident that his meaning in fshowiuga 
eompilete separation between history and "scientific geography ,** was to imlicate wliat 
he might call the comprehensive ** nnity "of the latter branch of study, and to 
suggest the incorporation into history of a newly constituted "political geography " 
containing, he might add, very much the kind of teaching which has been aptly 
illustrated by the present lecturer. Questions such as density or sparseness of popu- 
lation, and contrast between upland and lowland civihsations — all these matters 
naturally appertain to history. Nor would he pronounce as foreign to the same 
sphere of teaching that eloquent paragraph of theoretical topography which, in the 
paper read at the last meeting, accounts for the growth and greatness of London. In 
fact^ when speaking of "political geography etrippod of its purely scientific belong- 
ings,^ he (Sir PVederic) made no reference to those broad lines of ** science,'* the value 
of which in historical research no true student of history can deny, nor to that light 
of *• science " which gives a reality to the historical f^age — but to those belongings 
which imply rather practice than theory, a^d the presence of the surveyor and 
engineer than of the geographer en grand. Let his words be analysed : — " Tbe mean- 
ing of the verbal combination * political geography* requires some kind of analysis. 
Conventionally, and in an educational sense, it is the description of the political or 
arbitrary divisions and limits of empires, kingdoms, and states ; their inhabitants, 
towns, natural productions, agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, as well aa laws, 
modes of government and social organisation^-every thing beiDg viewed with rcfereDce 
to the artificial divisions and works made by man. Accepting this interpretation of 
t^ objecte, who can hesitate to admit its palpable and immediate relation to history ? 
The mathematical science which investigates the physical character of territory and 
territorial boundaries is in this case but a sGcondary requii-eraentand can be always 
fairly disposed of in the recognition of results." >!eed he add that the question of 
** man*fl environment," on Mr. Bryce's conception of which ht< had occasion to sj-icak 
a little later, was not for a moment contemplated as one of tbe *^ secondary require- 
ments " here noted. He was told by those who had taken the trouble to consider his 
address in its entirety, that, in the view taken, he dwelt too much on the " fieldwork 
of geography," the results of which are seldom, if ever, questioned by the reading public 
and are accepted by the writer of history as he accepts the journeys and researches in 
libranes. If, indeed, his argument be weak, he admitted that it is in this particular 
aspect it shows its most vulnerable pomt ; but he was prepared to defend the position 
by the teaching of his own experience. Tins, however, was not the point on which 
he was now assailed ; he was supposed to apply the word ** scientific " to that which 
comprehends the physical causes and connections of the earth's features, and such was 
not in this instance his intention. He referred to that branch of geography which, 
to be duly apprehended, demands in the student a mathematical rather than a 
theoretical turn of mind. To this head belong much that comes within the purport 
of topography, physiography, cartography, trigonometrical survey, and the mechanism 
whidi necessitates acquaiutance with the instruments and appliances of geography, 


and their reapectiTe uses. Physical geography, and the thousand and one theories 
involved in its cods idem ti on ^ helong nndonbtedly to history, and cannot be exclnded 
from the programio© of study prepared for iho use of ndvaoced hitftorical claBses. 

But the gist of his argument was Ihia. To popularise geograpliy, the method of 
study mnat be such as to suit the mental biaa of the pnpil. Call the principle 
advocated '* A concesBion to human weakness " if you will ; but so long as human 
nature is weak> the fact must be acknowledged, and treatment regu!att^d accordingly. 
There may be present at the ordinary meetings of the Royal Geographical Society 
those who appreciate and eojoy ** I rave Hers* tales" more than ** travellers' ^B 
geogra^jhy.^ They may bo weak, hut their weakness must be admitted as a factor^ 
in the matter of providing the public with |K>pular [i^apors. 

A story had been related to him which illustrates the case. Some ^ears pnat* a 
gentleman well known to the Society was about to read a paper, with one of our 
most esteemed Presidents in the chair* The latter remarked on its length. " What 
shall I leave out ? " asked the reader ; "the adventures ? ** ** No;' was tbe ready 
reply : ** the geography ; you can print that afterwards " So is it with the outaide 
world, and those classes whom it is wished to attract towards a neglected study. 

It is not, then, tbe ** division of the scientific from the practical " w hich be 
ventured to recommend ; but the creation of a chair for geography in its most 
compreheDsivc form, combining the eci en tide and the practical, or what Is theoretical 
with what is material, matter-of-fact, or perhaps mechanical On the other hand, he 
would combine with history — for which chairs exist— certain elements of this 
"scientific" or universal geography, such as are rather included in the term 
** political " than under any other now recognised head, — " irrational," ho granted, 
in failing " to trace causal relations," but subject, in this aa in other respects, to re- 
cast and revision. This, it will be found, was precLiely the course which he before 
propoBcd^not as the result of any intricate investigation, but tbe natural outcome of 
jjcrsoual observation. 

He submitted, with all deference, that scientific geography, as tangbt from the 
chair, should make the accomplished geographer, historian, and man of science 
combined : history, with its geographical supplement, the diplomatist. There is no 
claishing here, and no danger that I can see to the cause of science. To those who 
did him the honour of reading, or liiitening to the Birmiogham address, his object will 
be evident. It is set forth in the following paragraph :— 

** It must be boroe in mind that our governments or geogmphical societies, our 
boards or our Universities— whichever distinguished body takes the matter in hand, 
separately, it may be^ or in concert^ — will have to cater for a multitude of pupils, and 
that, whatever change eventually takes place in the programmes of study, the 
division of school teaching into two great representative branches, classics and 
mathematics, is a practice which has hitherto, at most public schools, resisted the 
shock of ioDovation, The maintenance of this lime-hononretl custom is not so much, 
to my mind, an illustration of conservative principle — ihat^ w'e all know, is jxjwer- 
less against national progress— as the assertion of a xjrofound truth, similar to that 
which in the region of language sejiarates the Semitic from the Aryao category of 
tongues. It is a recognition of the distinctioa which exists in tho human organi- 
sation between mind and mind — a distincticn apparent in the boy as in the man, 
at school as at college — ia the battle of life itself, as in the period of preparation 
for battle. I do not mean to imply that all school studies fall essentially under 
one or other of these divisions ; but 1 do believe that the student'^ progress will be 
la accordance with his idiosyncrasies ; that the student's taste should be considered 
in the inaster*a eystim ; and that, in dealiug with geography, we ought not to 
throw it wholesale into the hands of the professor or reader, but wjiarate it to suit 



the capacity of the ckfiical as of the mathematical intelligence, so that the one part 
oome within the province of history and art, the other within the limits of unadul- 
tcAted science. Attention to both sections should be imperative, so far as attention 
to claaeicaand mathematics ia imperative, but the standard of competence attained 
IQ either mu^t defiend on the mind and bent of the pupil who might readily excel 
in one but fall short in the other, not heiag even distinguished if the suljject of study 
were undivided/* 

Plainly and finally. Establish a chair for geography, pur et simple. The 
professor occupyiog it may be left to impart to his teaching as much history as he 
pleads ; there is no rule or cumpulsion here. On tho other hand, biatory i^ more or 
less dependent on geography, and it were wlU to define precisely what and how much 
of the science it should borrow from the geograpliic^vl chair. His own impression bad 
been that "political ge(^mpby" fibould meet all its possible requirements; but, 
unfortunately, political geography, as now understood, would have to bo reconsidered 
and recast. Here, tbeo, ia the aeiiaration — or one sepamtion^he would especially 
advocate, and for this reason. There are many pupils whose minds are so constituted 
that, wbile content to study both sciences with ardour, they are likely to attain ex* 
ccUenc© in one only, and where that one is hiistory, the supplement of geography 
iucluded in it, if carefully chosen, might impart that very essential qualilication for 
the higher services of State, which is the real cause of political usefulaess and im* 
dying reputatiom 

Mr. Frakcis Galtok said the word " geography,** like many others, was used 
in different senses, so they ought to be grateful to Mr. Mackinder for the effort he 
had made to frame a de Coition that should combine the suffrages of most people. 
For his own part he thought tliat an eveu simpler definition waa ix)ssible, namely, 
that the art of geography was to give a vivid and connected account of the more 
intereating charge terii^tics of s^%cified districts. The art of giving a vivid account 
was an extremely rare one. He was sure tbey must have heard in that room many 
eminent travellers who read accounts of their journeys, and yet the meeting obtained 
from them but a very slight idea of the country tbey had visited, it was extra- 
wrdinary how weak ordinary kmguage was in expressing visual objects. Who could 
describe a face in that room in such a way that another person who had never seen 
it before, should recognise it when seen ? The same remark applied to countries. 
ITiey read bouks about a country and then they went there, and found it to be 
entirely different from what they expected. Now one of the arts of the geo* 
aphicat teacher was to bring vividly before the raind of the learoer what he 
rjsbcd to convey, so as to put the learner as far as possible in the position of one 
who had actually been to the country. That art was somewhat developed, but 
needed to be developed a groat deal more by illustrations, photographs, dec Another 
art of the geographical teacher was to give a connected or rational account. He did 
not himself think so much as others of the possibilities of geography as a science ; 
it^was well to have a high project, hut when tbey endeavoured to reason out tlie 
conditions of a country, they found that at the present time tbey knew very Ettle 
about the interaction of the various forces of nature. Tbey could go a certain 
disitanoe ; they (»uld easily follow as far as a shrewd intelligent man could go, who 
had at the same time a little more than a bmatiering of the principal sciences ; but 
to suppose that any one could really reason out a geographical problem in all its 
completeoess in the same way that be could a mechanical or a mathematical one, 
seemed to him to be supposing a great deal loo much. To recur to the deiuition, 
Vfchat were the interesting characteristics of a oouutry ? There were different people 
tu be interested ; that which intereated the strategist did not interest the artist or the 
merchant ; so the geographical teacher bad to consider the main wants and wishes of 



moBkind, and to imme his book or teacblug accord mgl jr. At tbc j^resent time tho i 
lioiies for the Letter leachiDg of geography seemed to bo in a critical stage. Last 
week a deptitatioD of thnio members of the council met the committee appointed by 
the governing body of the Univeraity of Oxford, consisting of the present Vice- 
Chancelior^ the late A^ice- Chancellor, and three other distinguished members of the 
University, and that committee manifested, so far as they were individually con- 
cerned, a sympathy and a desire to help the objects of the deputation. During: 
the present week another deputation would go down to Cambridge to have an inter- 
view with the authorities there* Both Univcrsitiea were at length clearly waking up^ 
and beginning to practically throw themselves into the cause of geography. At this 
critical time it was a great thing to have a gentleman Uke Mr. Mackinder, of 
Uuiversity distinction, who knew his own mind, who had attracted large audiences 
in the provinces, who was enthusiastic in geography, a believer in his cause, and 
who, he was sure, would leave no stone unturned to further the inttirests of geo- 
gmphy — it was a great thing to have such a man taking so [jromincnt a j)art, and 
ho had very little doubt that however much Mr. Mackinder*M theories might be 
criticised, or whatever mistakes he might make, be was destined to leave his mark 
on geographical education, 

Mr, T. W, Buxs (Head Master, Bath College) said his preaenoe at the meeting 
was accounted for by a very paradoxical reason, namely, that he was very ignorant 
of the science of geography, and wanted to say that the very fact of his ignorance 
was some reproach against the present state of geographical teaching in the land. 
It had failed to attract him throughout a life devoted to many brancbes of learning. 
It had not commended itself to him in its present form as an instrument of instruc- 
tion. He had observed that both teachers and learners of the better order of mind 
found the subject of geography uninTiting, and would have as little of it as they 
poBfiibly could. He found also that those minds to whom it did recommend itself 
were of the order of those who were content to rest in facts without rising into 
principles. Ho must demur to the view tbat Sir Frederic Goldsmid set forth that 
the subjects taught to the young should humour their weaknesses and idiosyncrafiies. 
It seemed to him that if a boy had an imperfect organisation, and a faulty physi«^ 
development, it became gymnastic not to let him move in those modes which were 
easy to him, but to adopt those modes which were most helpful for him w^en he 
had overcome the preliminary difllculiies of being set right. Among his own 
boys, some few years ago, two, in almost successive years, obtained the Society's 
medal, but tliey were boys of singular inaptitude for studies of a nobler sort, and he 
could not but thinkj from what he saw of them, that he had been indulging them in 
their devotion to a catalogue of topographical facts — in a weakness that he ought to 
have corrected. It was his fortune to have the conduct of a school which was dis- 
tributed under two heads, the classical and the modem side. The modern side, 
where geography was chiefly taught, laboured under the great diflaculty, that 
there was no centrct no backbone to the studies tbat the boys pursued ; con- 
fiequcntly they were disintegrated. Their minds were in no way instructed and built 
up, and it occurred to him that this science of geography, if it were established on some 
such baRis aa his friend Mr. Mackinder had sketched, would servo schools in excellent 
stead. It was not his purpose to start a new definition of geography, but it seemed 
to him tbat geograpby was very well defined in Mr. Mackinder 's language as the 
science of distributions. It would occur to every one that there was nothing which 
was not distributed on the carth*8 surface, and, therefore, if geography was a science 
of things distributed there was nothing which did not come under the science. It 
w^as a science primarily of the distribution of the atr, which was meteorology ; it was a 
Bcienoe of the diBtribution of land and water ; it was a science of the distribution of 





a mtnal g^ which waa zoology — of plaats, which was botany — of minerals, which was 
minemlogy — moreover, it was a science of military iwsts, and then it was military 
geography; audi indeed, a German of cnrioiia ioquiry had been mapping out tht* 
locality of genius of different kinds, so Ihat it wa« also the science of human 
ficulti<^ It was post hope that any man could be found to combine all thogc 
various elements. But if so defined, geography helped to teach tbe inter- 
dependence of knowled^^e, and in all schooU there was great danger of breaking up 
the minds of the boys in «iiecial subjects ; but geography, founded on lis new basis, 
would afford a common meeting ground, on which all the sciences were heard, and 
a boy who read hia history by the light of geography would be tempted to take 
to geography in the form of history with delight. A boy who icarnt the distribution 
of plants, learut much geography incidetitaUy ; a boy who learnt zoology would 
take interest in the geographical aspect of the distribation of animals; and so 
geography was fitted to brin;^ all these sciences face to face, and to teach much 
of their interdependence, 'and give the boy that unity of knowledge which was 
so much required. It ap|ieared to him to be much as though a man should 
profess general medicine and not be a specialist in practice. They might go to 
the general practitioner for advice with regard to any common ailment, and so they 
oouLl go to a geographer for general information with regard to any i»art of the face 
of the globe. Geography, taught on the principle which Mr. Mackiudcr advo- 
catedy would tend to induce in the niiods of the boys in the modem sides of 
schools a disjtosition to regard knowledge as a whole. He would be extremely 
grateful to any professor at cither or both of the Universities wbo would put into 
the hands of schoolmasters some text^book which would combine so much of all 
thaw sciences as might be taught to schoolboys under the head of gcoi^raphy. It 
would be useful to the botanist, to the military student, and to ev^ry student, but 
they must look for such gcncmlisation to somebody who would make a departure on 
the lines advocated by Mr. Mackinder. 

Rev. Canon Dakikl (Princifial, Battersea Training College) said that he had 
not had the pleasure of hearing Mr* Mackinder read his paper, but he had perused it 
wiih very much delight, finding it eminently suggestive and full of practical value. 
He would venture to differ from Mr- Mackinder with regard to some of the con- 
clusions that had been arrived at. He would not stop to discuss the definition of 
gieogTaphy, for that was a mere matter of words. The province of geography would 
depend very much upon the cmriculum of which it formed a part. If geology was 
already very well provided for, it would be a great mistake to include geology as part of 
a geographical a>urse. If on the other hand geology had no indei^endent place lu the 
cnmculam, so much of it should be taught as had a practical bearing on geograpby. 
He agreed with several of the speakers that geogniphy was mainly a science of distiihu- 
tion; it aimed at accounting for the distribution of man, pre-eminently by the con- 
ditions under which he lived, and anybody who looked at the maps exhibited on the 
wall would see how very close the connection was. There were three maps of 
Hiodostan exhibited^ One gave the (lOpuJation, another the rainfall^ and the third the 
mountain and river system. Clearly there was a very close interdependence between 
the three, for the density of population corresponded very closely with the amount of 
rainfall Any one who noticed the density of |Hipu]ation in the valley of the Ganges 
and the rainfall there, would see that there was more or less a oortespcndence 
between the two, and also a correspondence between the rainfall and the mountain 
and river system of the peninsula. He did not say that, given the physical facti^, 
thiey could in all cases reason out the political facts, bat he did say that when they 
Itid the political facts they might find physical facts to aooaant for them* There 
WIS an interdependence between the facts of physical geography in the first place and 



a closer conoection between political and phy ideal facts in the second. It was only 
wben Mr, Mackinder camo to tli© methods of teaching that he was disposed to 
disagree with hioi. He waa astoninlied that Mr, Mackinder should place googmph y 
in a category by itself. Why should it be treated differently from any other induc- 
tive science ? Surely the reasouable probability was that, bo far as it was an indue* 
tive science, it should be treated like any other. What was tbc method of any 
mdnctive science? Was it to start with an hypotbesisj with a succession of 
hypotheses^ and then to account for ihe Lmls ? Or was it not rather to start with the 
facts themselves, to collect them, to classify ihem, then to form hypotheses that 
would account for tliem, and then to verify the hypotheses? That wsis jost what 
Mr, Mackinder bad not done. He bad very graphically and forcibly illustrated his 
position with regard to the south-ea*tcrn portion of England, and as he s|x>ke to an 
audience already famUiar with the facts of political and physical geography, do 
doubt his argument was very much enjoyed. But if be had been speaking to a 
class ignorant of physical geography^ and of the political facts which he constantly 
assumed, then bis theories and hypotheses would have been absolutely meaninglesB. 
To those who were already familiar with the details, such a ^cnerabsatioa was 
helpful^ but to those who were nut familiar with the details, the generalisation, 
instead of being a help, was a hindrance. Ho could not but think that, although 
many of Mr. Mackinder s audiences Imd followed him with very much interest, yet 
it was doubtful whether, if they bad been examined at the end of his lectures, the 
results would have been eminently satisfactorj . If they had been, then his audiences 
must have differed from the rc*t of mankind, for inductive science was much the same 
to an adult as to a child. They all began with facts rather than with generalisations, 
and in pro{x>rtion as geography was a science of generalisations it must start with 
the accumulation and classification of facts. He did not distinctly uuderetaud from 
Mr. Mackinder to what class and what age and state of development hia method of 
teaching was applicable. Was it to be followed in the teaching of children, or in 
tbc teaching of adults? It might be an admirable method for Uuivcrsity men, 
assuming that wlien they were children they bad been thoroughly grounded in the 
elementary facts of physical imd political geography, but if they d,d not know whero 
the Thames rt^se, or the Kennet ran, or where Dungencss was, or what relation tbts 
Isle of Wi^bt bore to the mainland, tlitn all his geuendisations would fall meanmg- 
Icssly on the ear. His contention was that the proper course of teaching geography 
was to begin, not where Mr. Mackinder began, but at tl)e other end, not build the 
tacts on theory, but the theory on facts. The great mistake that bad been 
made was not that they had begun with tbc accumulation of facts^ but had stopped 
there. They had done very little indeed towards classifying the facts and showing 
their interdependence, and whatever iroprovementa were likely to be made in the 
teaching of geography, would mainly consist in bringing out very clearly tho inter- 
dependence of the physical facts in the tlrst place, and the connection between the 
political facta and the physical facts on which they were dependent in the next place. 
Prof. H. G, Seeley (Professor of Geography, King's College) said it was some- 
what reluctantly that he rose to speak upon the subject of geography, because it 
was extremely difficult to say auytbing wis^ily in the ten or fifteen minutes at bis 
disposal, which should afterwards bear fruit. It was only because he wished to 
ejEpress his agreement in the main witb the views which Mr» Mackinder had fut 
furward that he rose at all. For eleven years in King's OoUego he had publicly 
taught geography, and delivered regular courses of lectiu-es in the morning and 
evening classes; but it required many years of study before he ventured to 
undertake that chair. The results at which he had arrived bad enabled him to 
treat geography as a science, and to meet most of the dilficulties which speakers 



liid mtsed &t that meetings because tbey were not familinr with the metliods 
which were followed in teaching. He ohJL»€ted Bltogether to the idea that geography- 
was a meeting ground for the sciences. Any one who attempted to comprehend the 
phenomena of geography must look at man as in nature ; and therefore looking 
backward the vista carried them into a remote past, in which they found that the 
phenomena were in no way to he sejiarated from those with which the geologist 
dealt. Very many of the familiar features of our own country were oric^nated in 
remote ' geological periods, or dependent npon the geological structure of the 
Chantry. On the other hand, when they conceived of man as placed in a worifl 
in which these varied physical phenomena influenced him, they must discover 
what those infiuences were. Granted that it was not an easy matter to dis- 
eatADgle iliemt yet they could he taken one hy one and examinefi by various 
methoda. He had thus disentangled them and testetl the efiixst^ produced hy com- 
puison with the |>eoplcs of the various countries of Europe ; and he had found that 
tlie flftine laws which held true for the determination of th*? main moral and mental 
characteristics of the inhabitants of the various districts of England, operated also in 
France, Germany, and the main j>ortions of the world in which laws could he 
determined on the basis of similar facta. It would be readily comprehended that 
when a subject reached over such a wide field it was eitreraely diflficult to say in a 
few minutes anything; of a general nature which would make its scope clear. 
He would limit himself to the remark that he entirely agreed with Canon Daniel, that 
if gieograpby was to be taught to young j>cople the condition must be considered! that the 
reudhing powers, which were necessary to deal with such aspects of the flubject as he 
hod referred t*\ were not develope<l until the age of somewhere about fourteen was 
loaehed ; and therefore, in the earlier period of life, although a tew of tlie larger aspects 
in which law manifested itself in connection with geogiaphy ml'^ht be taught, 
teachers must limit themselves to teaching the larger order of facta rather than their 
erplanation. The thing which bad retarded the scientific teaching of geography was 
the ezamioation system with which it was clogged. The examiners were not thcm- 
fielves educated into an appreciation of the largo philosophical bearings of the subject, 
and they had been so Baturaled with the facts that tbey had prevented the students 
from acquiring a philosophical conception of the rea,sons for the collocation of those 
(acts, by insliting mainly upon the obvious fact4S being stated in examination jiapers. So 
long as this prevailed, so long would it he perfectly hopeless to expert geography to be 
taught in the schools in a scientific way. He would, however, take exception to 
Canon Daniel*s remark that geography was to be defined by the curriculum of 
which it formctl a jmrt. It was perfectly independent of all curricula ; it was a 
heginnisg and an end ; and although its foundation was baaed on geology, its end 
became the philosophy of history. It was true that a broad glance and grasp 
might be taken w^hich would include the whole world; or they might limit 
themselves to the geography of a region such as Europe, or to tbo geography 
of EngUnd, each of those subjects being complete in itself ; but whether they 
took the largest or the smallest view, they found man influenced by nature iu 
Tarioos ways, and the teaching of this relation required varied knowledge and 
varied power in proportion to the field which it included* But there was a 
definite beginning, and that beginning was most certainly a geological one. He 
TCDttired to say that there was not a contotir of covist-ltnc which was not deter- 
mined by laW| and which the geologist did not easily and perfectly explaia the 
existence of. He referred not merely to the main general directions of land, but 
also to the existence of the inlets into the land. Tbey were all in [positions which 
could not \te varied, and until a man or a boy was familiarised with the prin- 
ciples which governed these things it was perfectly gratuitous to rest content with 


the idea tliat he knew the position of the Wasb, wlien lie did not know why it wa^fl 
there. He (ProfeBsor Seeley) would therefore not be content with atjy descriptiotj, no4 
matter bow vivid it might be, A description of geographical phenomena vpas^ 
aeoeaaarily vivid when it carried with it the reasons for the existenco of the 
phenomena ; and the moment it was realised that the various features of nature, 
whether they referred to the earth or to maa, admitted of bein^ explained, and tliat 
it waa the duty of the geographer to explain them, then they were placed on a special 
ground. At present they must be content, so far as schools were concerned, to teach 
facta mainly. It would probably be a long time before teachers were sufficiently 
educated to teach geography wisely, so that the student was taught to think on 
every subject, and would get in his training tho same mental development as he 
would get from the more severe mathematical and other technical studies. Tho 
training^ however, was to be got, and it depended entirely on the teacher whether it 
waa obtained or not. 

Mr. J. Bryce, M.P., said be felt a great deal of difficulty in venturing to make 
any observations, because he had not the advantage of having been present when the 
paper was read, though he had seen it since, and he did not know what were the 
issiiea raised in the discussion aud which the members of the Society had chiefly 
before their mindB, llio speeches just delivered had, however, given him some indi- 
cation aa to what these points were. He heartily agreed with the view which had 
been presented by Mr, Maekinder, and greatly admired the singuhir clearness, logical 
cogeucyj and width of philosophical view by which the paper had been marked. 
Mr. Mackinder succcetk'd very well, not only in defining his genera! position 
and point of view, but in showing by happy illustrations the way in which that 
point of view was capable of being worked out and applied to different minor 
departments of geographical investigation. Ho had been a little surprised to hear 
Sir. (jalton speak of geographical teaching as if it were mainly a matter of descrijv 
tion. It was also with some surprise that he had heard the view expressed that 
geography was concerned chiefly with distribution, and that the main business 
of the geographical teacher was to give facts. The study would become infinite 
if they were to occupy themselves chiefly with giving the facts ou which 
generalisation must be based. He understood that they were considering geography 
from the point of view of a University professor, and that they were to 
assume that the students would be reasonably supplied with the main facts. A 
knowledge of the facts should be assumed, and if nccesjfary the teacher should issue 
a statement telling what subjects he was goiug to lecture njwn, and suggesting to 
students that they should come prepared with ajeasouable amount of preliminary 
knowledge. That being assumed, w ns it not the case that geography was not a 
science of description nor of distribution, but of causality, that its function was to 
exhibit the way in which a variety of physical causes played, firstly upon one 
another, and secondly upon man, and that the duty of a University professor of 
geography would bo best discharged when he dealt with the elementary causes, and 
showed the students by successive stages bow each cause passed into a secondary or 
subsidiary cause, until the world as it is now was arrived at. A geographer would 
naturally begin with the distribution of land and sea^ and ivitb tho distribution of 
the great centres of formative force which had made the earth's surface what it it. 
He would therefore show how it was that the world had been made to consist of 
continents, islands, oceans, and would explain the directions of mountain chains^ 
He would then pass on to consider the distribution of winds and rain, which de- 
pended on the distribution of land and sea, and upon the degree of elevation of parts 
of the dry surface. Thus there woald be introduced another set of causes which 
were themselves originally due to the distribution of land and sea. Next he would 




explain the workiiig of these meteorological causes, sli owing how they affected the 
dktribation of vegetfttion (since the quantity and nature of vegelatioa depended 
mainly on nunfall and temperature), and would examine the resulting fertility and 
productive power of different districts. The whole theory of botany and zoology 
most be worked out with reference to rainfall, and the rainfall itself is of course 
coDditioned by the distribution of sea, the infiuence of the sun's heat, and other 
cosmic causes. The teacher would then pass on to consider how all these 
censes operated upon mau, and detemiined the course of human history. In 
that way it seemed to him that geography was really the tracing out of various 
caiuea, some of which continue*! to oi^erate directly, and some set in motion 
other canses, and the condition of the earth at present and human history as it 
had gone on on the earth were the complex result of the joint operation of all 
these causes. To show how these causes operateti one upon another was the main 
function of a professor of geography. While, therefore, the study of geography 
developed a philosophical habit of mind it also cultivated the imagination, because 
there was nothing that excited the imagination more than the consideration of lar^e 
forces operating over large periods of time and in different ways* It also developed 
the faculties of observation, and it seemed to him that it would have a very im- 
portant function at the Universities in littiug men to become travellers. Nothing 
was more remarkable in our modern world than the rapid development of cheap 
meana of communication, and tbe extent to which they were used. Let them 
compare the interest with which ordinary people travelled over the earth*a surface 
now, with the opportunities they had to acquire knowledge of other countries 
100 years ago, and they would see the progress the world had made was as remark- 
able in that respect as in any other. How differently a man profited by his travel 
if he had been taught to observe, wherever he went, the nature and direction of the 
mountain ranges, the kind of rocks, and the influence they had on the direction of 
Btieams and lakea, and how the meteorology of a country influenced it, and how all 
these canses played upion the flora and faima. If a man travelled with knowledge of 
that kind he found a constant delight and interest in visiting different i^arts of 
the world which was entirely absent if those lines of inquiry were closed to him, 
and he believed in thetio matters it was not so much the mere facta that it was the 
duty of a professor to teach as the metho<L Let them give their students a clear 
comprehension of the true method of study. Let them take one particular country 
or one particular branch of the subject^ such ns tbe meteorology or the geology, or 
the diatribution of agricultural products, and deal wnth it in a philosojihical way, 
ahowing how the action of various causes is mingled, and then a mind of reasonable 
iatdligence would find it easy to apply that method in other matters and other 
^beres. He would like to add one word to the effect that in these matters we must 
look for good results mainly from influencing and training highly a comparatively 
imall number of personB. Ho did not feel very hopeful at present about the study of 
geography in schools, for it was hard to find time there for a new study like geography, 
wluch had been hitherto taught in such a way that it could scarcely be said to have 
been taught at all. The direction in which they might look for improvement was in 
implanting just ideas of philosophic method in a comparatively small number. If 
a class of twenty men who were to become tcacbers in the great schools were to 
receive a training in geography such as Mr* Mackinder recommended, it would 
fiwcinate their minds, and not only geography but every subject which came into 
connection with geography would he vivified and permeated with it, and the same 
ideas and methods would by degrees filter through and spread among the colleges 
and echools of the country, until an intelligent comprehension of the earth's surface 
would come to be a part of common knowledge. They must therefore not be dis- 


contented if they were not able at first to operate on a very large sph&re. It was of 
much more importance that a smail number of superior mioda ahould be imbued 
with good methods, and be able to practise them, thnu that methods of a more 
mechanical kind should be taught to a larger number of persons. 

Mr. Delhab Morgan said that as he waa preseut at Birmingham when Bir 
Frederic Goldsmid delivered his address, he was very pleased to have heard his defence. 
The result of the address was that the British Association appointed a Committee to 
exercise their iniluenco on the Uuiversitiea of Oxford and Cambridge in order to 
interest them m the cause of geographical edtication. He hoj^ed that Mr. Mackinder 
would give two or three words of explanation with regard to a few points in his 
j>aper. How did the discovery of America cause the fall of Venice ? How did arti- 
ticial lighting render possible the existeoce of a great community in St. Petersburg? 

Mr. Douglas FreshfieI-d said that on the whole the speakers had stuck very 
well to the subject of discussion, namely on what general lines geography should Ise 
taught. Mr, Markham, to whom Mr. Mackinder's paper had been referred^ had in 
hiB Report to the Council of the Society summarised excellently its main points. He 
would read extracis from Mr. Markbam'a report which, coming from one who had 
been Secretary of the Society for twenty-five years, would carry more weight than 
any words of his own, Mr. Markham wrote, ** The question which Mr. Mackinder 
discusses is w^hether the science of geogmphy is one investigation, or whether physical 
and political geograpliy are separate subjects to he studied by different methods, the 
one as an appendix of geology, the other of history. He contends for the former 
view, and that no rational political geography can exist which is not built upou, and 
subsequent to, physical geography . The present system, he maintains, is an irra- 
tional i»litical geograpliy, a body of isolated data to be committed to memory- 
It is like learning mathemaiica by trying to remember forainla; instead of grasping 
principles. A true geographer, taking up the central geographical posit ioD, should 
look equally on such parts of science and such facta of history as are ijertineiit to hia 
inqniryp His work ia to bring out the relations of special subjects. The more 
BCientitic investigation tends to specialism, the more necessity is there for students 
whose aim it shall he to briog out the relations of the sfiecial subjects. One of the 
j^reatest gaps lies between the natural sciences and the study of humanity; it is the 
duty of the geographer to build a bridge over this abyss, which is upsetting the 
equilibrium of our culture.*' Mr. Markham coutinucib '* 1 am inclined to nnticipate 
that the rca(3ing and consideration of tluH poi)cr will form an era iu the history of 
our Society/' On some points he (Mr, Fresh field) might be disfjosed to differ from 
Mr. Mackinder. Mr. MackindeKs definition of geography appeared to him a summary 
uf his scholastic method rather than a final definition of the science itself. He 
should perhaps define it as the science which examined the face of the earth, the 
causes and connections of its featm^s, and the relations between them and its 
deniacus. But he should be sorry to see time s]>ent in endeavours to frame rigid 
definitions. What was wanted was a clear and liberal view of the functions of 
geography as the main meeting-jK>iut l)tt\v(.<n the sciences of nature and of man, 
and its thorough adoption of this poiot of vieW| which the speaker had himself urged 
at Birmingliam, was one great merit of Mr* Mackinder's address. He thought that 
Canon Daniel had rather confused geography as a scientific pursuit with geography as 
a ficholaatic discipline. In scientific research the true methoti was, no doubt, to 
collect facts iu order to deduce principles and laws from them. But in teaching, the 
laws laid down by research must be enforced and illustrated by individual facts.* 
** The general truths," as Mr. John Morley has said, ** are the means of lighting 
up the particulars^,^ It had been objectetl also to the method advocated by Mr. 
Mackinder that it was not practical, that it would not aSect schools, and was not 





suited for examiDMioDB. Aa a fact» the attencUnta at Mr, Mackioder's lecttirea 
had been examined ia tbetn. He wished to read an accotiot of their succesa, sent by 
the Secretary of the Oxford University Extension, the lectures of wbicli were 
given to working and middle-class audiences in the north and west hy gratluates 
of Oxford, " Since the above was written I have received reports from Saliabury 
and Manchester as to the suocess of Mr. Mackinder*a lectures. On Tuesday, 
February 8tU, a meeting was held of all the elementary achool teacbera attend- 
ing Mr. Ma<^inder8 lecturer on geography at Manchester. They numbered 
105. Ilie teacliers IhemselveH pointed out that the fact that the fifth lecture 
of the course was attended by m br;4e a number was an indication of the 
way in which the lectures were appreciateii The head masters and mistressoa 
calculated that the geographical teaching of 6000 pupils was affected by the 
delivery of one course on the subject in Manchester.** That showtd that the 
proupect of teaching geography aa a branch of etWcation which would call into 
play the reasoning powers, was likely to be realised in the immediate future, and 
that by encouraging teachinj^ of that sort the Geographical Society, both at the 
Universities and in elementary schools, might do a great deal of good. Mr. 
Mackinder bad suggested that the supply of papers of discovery and adventure 
was likely to become exhausted because the world was being used up. He did not 
at ail agree witli that. The w^orld was not nsed up yet. For iostanoe, there was 
New Guinea^ in which ** Captain Lawson ** some years ago ventured to invent the 
story of the discovery of Mount Hercules, 32,000 feet high ; the South Pole, large 
tracts of Aaia and South America, many remote and remarkable islands. There was 
still room for tales of adventure; but ho would put his objection on different 
grounds. He did not consider that any region had been explored until it had been 
deacribed by a person of some percepiion. Mr. Gal ton said there were very few 
people who could find words to describe what they saw. It was perhaps not so 
much the words as the ]_>ower of observation that was wanting. The number of 
good narratives of travel was compamtively small, liecause the perception of English 
travellers was so often limited and untraineci In this connection he w^ould read to 
the meeting some sentences from an article by bis friend, Mr. Conway (Profe&sor of 
Art at Liverpool), in the last number of the * Alpine Journal,* Mr. Conway was 
discussing the exhaustion of the Alps as a literary subject^ but it seemed to him 
that what he said might, muiatis mitlmidU^ be applied to the larger literature of 
geoeral traveU *' The credit due to explorers can only be measured by the utility 
of their work to others. The first visit is ih ere fore the first recorded visit— the first 
visit 80 recorded that others are enabled to follow where the first man forceil his way 
in doubt and j^erplexity. An unrecorded journey is nothing ; one badly recorded is 
worth little more. The man who only visits a remote region, and contents himself 
with stating the fact, can only be regarded ns ewaggeriag. If he records his route 
in plain language, he deserves thanks. If he so records it that readers can discover 
its interest and beauty compnred with the interest and beauty of other routes, he 
deserves much more credit.** He would like to a^nk any Fellow who had been 
accustomed to attend the meetings of the Society, how many countries they had 
heard described which they did not wish to hear described again by somebody with 
vivid jjerceptions. One means of training the power of pereeptiou in travellers was^ 
to give better geogmphical education in English schools and Universities ; they had 
boeo told over and over again that the only way to secure that was to get capable. 
leifiliiefa, and to make teachers they must secure geography its proper poaition at the 
Universities which trained the teachers. He hoped that in this way brilliant 
[jajiers of adventure, discovery, and research would be obtained by the Society fjr its 
Journal and its meetings, so that every taste might be satisfied. 

No* in.— March 1887.] o 



Mr. Macsinder said that be was surprised at the general UDaaimity which had 
characterised the proceedings, and he felt gratified that any i>aper of his should have 
Leea the cause of bringiDg out from what he might call the authority on geography 
so unaoimons an opinion as to what geography was. In the world outside there was 
an opinion that geographers did not know their own minds, and were Bot certain as 
to the limits of their own science. Ho therefore felt that the opinions which had 
been expressed by the difiTerent speakers would have a considerable effect, and be 
was gratified that hia pajser had been the means of clicitinc; that opinion. Part of 
the discussion that had taken place had been on words rather than on tbing». Sir 
Frederic Goldsmld had contrasted theodolites with theoriea. He (Mr. Mackinder) 
did not undervalue the work done by explorers and by those who had to undertjike 
the, i>erhapa, more difficult and drier work of Ordnance Surveying, but be submitteil 
that until the reason of tlio facta obeer^'c^i by the instniment was given, they bad 
not reached a scientific stage, however skilfully the iufitruments were manipulated. 
In reply to Canon Daniel he would say that his experience tended to show thatt 
when teaching elementary geography, the best way was not to teach the facts first 
and then tho principles, but to combine the two, and teach tbe facts incidentally 
while explaining the principles. He could not help feeling that that was the wa^^ 
in which all hut the ABC of geography should be taught. Obviously^ in bis paper 
b« waa not referring to the most elementary pupils, but he believed tliat bia system, 
properly diluted, would be applicable to them also. With rej^ard to geography as 
the science of distribution, he thought that Professor Bryce had clearly mistaken the 
sense that he attached to the expression. What he (Mr. Mackinder) meant by it 
was not merely the enumeration of tho distributions, but the causation and the 
connection of the distri but ions. 

The Cbaikman (General R. Strachey) said be thought that many of the obeer- 
vations which had been made might, with due respect, be termed rather academical 
in their diameter, stilt they had all no doubt been useful. A certain amount of 
misconception seemed however to have arisen amongst some of the speakers as to 
what the others meant, and there bad j^crhaps been a little want of precision as to 
the distinction between what geography was as a science and what was its practical 
utility, and what the best method of teaching it, Jlr. Galton had also spoken of 
geograpliy as involving the art of geographical description. The fact of the matter 
-was that geography, like all mixed sciences, might be viewed in ten thousantl ways, 
but all those ways were useftd and valnahli'. The same might K^ Kaid with regard 
to the methods of teaching, whether it was Mr, MackindeT*s particular way, or Canon 
Daniers, or Prof. Seeley's, or Mr, Dunn*a, they were, be had no doubt, all very good. 
All the speakers had shown that they really apj^reciated the pro[>er manner in which 
geogniphy should be taught, and he would say to tliem all, ** Go on your own way." 
Why should they make a Procrustean bed and compel peo])le to deal vdih. the 
subject in any particular manner? That was not the way in which science grew or 
would grow. Let everybody exercise bis ingenuity in the manner which to him was 
apparently the most conductive to the object he bad in view. If any one wanted to 
know what his own opinions on the subject were, he would mention that ten years 
ago he read a discourse before the Society, on the subject of Scientific Geography, 
and he would refer them to this |kiper whicli was printed in the * Proceedings' of the 
Society. Ho did not find, on reconsidering the subject recently, that be bad very 
much to change in what be then said. 

A vote of thanks to Jlr. Mackinder concluded the proceedings. 

( 175 ) 

Mr. A, D. Carey's Travels in Turhistan and Tibet. 

The attention of geographers lias been so mucli occupied of late by tlie 
prooeedings of General Prejevalsky in Chinese Tnrkistan and Northern 
Tibet, that the explorations of Mr. Carey in those regions haye been 
scarcely noticed. Yet Mr. Carey's journey has been as important and 
interesting as that of the Eussian officer. Mr. Carey is a member of the 
Bombay Civil Service, who is devoting two years' furlough to travelling, 
at his own expense, over what may be fairly described as almost the 
last of the unexplored regions of Asia. He is accompanied by Mr. 
Andrew Dalgleish, whose name is known as the pioneer British trader in 
Chinese Turkistan, and who joined Mr. Carey as Turki interpreter and 
general assistant ; the remainder of the party is made up of pony drivers 
and two or three personal attendants. Mr. Carey left India in May 
1885, and inarched through the hills to Ladak, where he adopted the 
plan of travelling eastward into Northern Tibet (Ch6ngt4n) as fiEur as 
the Mdngtsa Lake, and thence striking northward till he should descend 
on the plains of Turkistan, near Eiria. This plan was successfully 
carried out during August and September 1885, and resulted in more 
than 300 miles of country being traversed which had never before been 
visited by a European of any nationality. The altitudes on this section 
of the journey were always very great, the track running usually at 
about 16,000 feet above the sea, while one, at least, of the passes crossed 
was calculated to reach 19,000 feet. In descending from the Tibetan 
highlands towards Eiria, an extremely difficult defile had to be passed, 
where five days were taken up in making good a distance of 28 miles. 
A short stay was made at Eiria, and a somewhat longer one at Ehotan, 
where General Prejevalsky's party was camped on Mr. Carey's arrival. 
The two explorers, however, did not meet, the former being then just on 
^the point of starting for Aksu and Bussian territory, while the latter had 
to fit himself out with a new oaravan of camels for crossing the desert 
to Euchdr. In this way it happened that for a portion of the journey 
towards Euchdr, Mr. Carey had to follow the Russian explorer, but for 
the remainder — the greater part — he can claim to be the first European 
ever to traverse these dismal plains. The route lay down the Ehotan 
river to its junction with the Tarim ; then along the latter river to 
Sarik, and thence across another stretch of desert to Shah-Yar and 
Euchar. From the latter place, after a halt to renew the caravan, a fresh 
start was made, when the Tarim was followed down to a point where it 
turns southward towards Lake Lob. But the Euchar pack animals 
were in bad condition, and Mr. Carey found it expedient to leave the 
river for a time, and visit the towns of Eurla and Edrdshahr, with the 
object of replacing them. All arrangements being finally completed by 

o 2 



about the end of the year, the Tarim was Btnick again, immediately 
Bouth of Knrla, and traolced to Lake Lob. 

Thus the whole length of the Tarim has been explored. The country 
along its course is d escribed as flat and reedy, and the people extrornely 
poor and miserable; at the villages near Lob, fodder was bo deficient 
that Mr. Carey bad to pitch his standing camp for the latter part of the 
winter (about February to April) at a village called Chaklik, some 
distance south of the lake, and close to the foot of the great raoge of 
mountains which forms the northern scarp of the Tibetan highlands. 
This long bait was utilised in preparing for a journey southward into 
Tibet as soon as the season should permit ; and it happened eventually 
that a now departure was made on the 30tb April, 1886, The route 
was then to have been over a pass in the great range (the Altyn Tagh, 
or **gold mountains," according to Prcjevalsky), and onward by a track 
occasionally nsod by the Kalmaks in their expeditions to Tibet, and 
indicated by them to Mr. Carey, Since this final start from the low- 
lands of Lob, nothing has been heard of the gallant explorer, but it is 
presumed that after spending the summer and early autumn in travel- 
ling over the elevated region, and among the lakes of ([^hangtiiu, he has 
returned to Turtistan for tho winter. If this should have been the 
case, Mr. Carey's return to Ladak and India may be looked for late in 
the comiug spring, though news of his whereabouta and the safety o 
his party may perhaps arrive before that time. It may be noticed that 
Mr. Carey speaks everj'whcre, in his correspondence, of the good trea 
ment he received from tho inhabitants of the countries visited. The 
nomad tribes of Northern Tibet and the Mussulman inhabitants of 
Turkistan showed bim nothing but civility, while all the Chines© 
officials acted loyally up to the terms of the passport with which Mr. 
Carey had been provided by the Peking Government befc^re he set out 
from India. Mr. Carey has no escort, or armed following of any kind, 
and it is worthy of remark that be has been able to make his way (up 
to May 1886, at any rate) quietly and unmolested among people with 
whom the Russian explorer came into collision, and with mandarins of 
whom he has complained so bitterly since his return to Eussia. The 
f?tory Mn Carey will bave to tell on bis return cannot fail to be of 
importance, and may be looked forward to with great interest by 




( 177 ) 

A Journey from Blantyre to AngonUland and back. 

By J, T. Last, Commander of the Society's EspeditioE to tlxe 
Namali Hills, East Central Africa. 

Map, p. 212. 

fs M&y last (1886), being retaitied at Blaatyre, wailing for the favourable season to 
start for the Namuli Hills, I made a journey, in com|iaoy with Ci>ii8ul HAWta, to 
the Augooi country, oq the highlantls to the south-west of Lake Nyaasa. I now 
submit to tha Society the following account of this expeditiou : — 

The course of the journey waa from Blantyre to Zomba, thenco by way of 
HaletnyaX on the west side of Lake Sbirwa, to the river Shire, on to Mpooda'a at 
the south end of Lake Nyassa, up the eaet «ide of the promontory jutting into the 
8DUth end of Nyatisa to Liviagstonia, From LiviiigstoDia we traversed the west 
side of the promontory, and then travelling west wo weut vii Mount Chirobwe to 
Chikusi's in Angoui-latid. On leaving Angoai-knd, we travelled E.S,E1., striking 
the river Shiri5 at a village called Mpimbi. Here we passed over and went oa to 
2omba, returning to Blantyre from Zomba by the way wo had come. 

We started oa May 3rd from Dlantjre. Our way took us past the Scotch 
MisaoD Station at Blantyre» and then, after leavinj; the small bill of Nyambadwo 
on our left, we went round the western spurs of Ndilandi Hill, and down to the river 
Lunzu* The bed of this river is some 20 feet wide, and its banks 10 feet high ; 
during the dry season there in but little water bere, but th«5 dried grass and debris on 
the trees on its banks show that during the rains there ia frequently a rush of water 
10 or 12 feet deep. The Lunzu riaes about Banf!;we and the adjacent bUls, some 
eight miles to the east of Blantyre, and eniptiea itself into the river SHr^, south of 
the African Lakes Company *s trading fitation at Matojie. We crossed to the right 
lAuk of the Lunzu at 6 p.m., and cami>ed on the rifiing ground close by. The next 
morning we staj-ted at 7 a.m., and in the evening reached the river Mnamazi. Hero 
we found the camp of the Portuguese traveller, Lieut. Cardozo, stsll standing. This 
our men were glad to make use of. During the day we crossed several rivers and 
streams, of which the Chipandi is the chief. T\m river, which is somewhat larger 
than the Lunzu, rises on the west side of Mount KilndKuIu, aud rushes west betweca 
rocky defiles into the Shir<g, a short distance south of Matot>e. Several long pieces 
of bog and marah had to be crossed during the day, Tlie inarsby surface was hid 
by a coarse grass, about 18 inches high, which grows in the water, but the jkaUia 
were only loo distinguishable by the long line of black mud and slime. On leaving 
the Mnamazi the next morning, we passed over geutly undulating ground covered 
with long grass, from five to eight or more feet high, which renders travelling very 
anpleasaat, both on account of the heavy dew with which the grass is surcharged 
during the early morning, and aUo from the stiHiog atmoepbere during the greater 
heat of the day. We crossed a number of marshes and small rivers on the way, of 
which the Likangala is the princi|ml. This rises in some hills on the left bank of 
the Sbir^, passes along the foot of Zomba, and enters Lake Shirwa, It h the largest 
river between Blantyre and Zornba, having a bed 50 feet or more wide. It rises and 
falls in the wet season after the manner of the Lunzu and other rivers. At 2 f.m. 
we reached the site of the Britbh Consulate, which stands on the right bank of the 
river Mluaguzi. The Consulate is being built by Messrs. Buchanan Bros, on one of 
the spurs which jut out from the south side of Mount Zomba. The Mlunguzi river, 
which rises on the top of Zomba, and aepanites the Consular estate fri.>m that of 
Meure. Buchanan, rushes down over rocks aad boulders, forming pretty cascades 




and waterfalls with its bright sparkling waters, and thence goes on ta Join the 
LikaDgala. ^H 

Mount Zomba, which is nearly 5000 feet ahove sea-level, has extensive spumw 
from 300 to fiOO feet high jutting out from its sides. These are all fertile, well 
watered, and iipparently very healthy. They are but sparsely mliahited at present, 
but this is prolmbly owing to the continual feuds tho natives liave amongst thera- 
sehxft, and the extensive raids which have of late years been made by the Maugoni 
tribe* I think the spurs round Zomba are more healthy tlian Blantj^re or any 
district for a great distance. The district about the south of Zomba proves to bo 
very fertile, by the fine crop of coffee which ilessrs. Buchanan have on their planta* 
tions this year. Sugar-cane grows equally well. Tea, cocoji, cinchona, arrowroot, 
and other products are being tried, and they promise to do well. 

Whilst detained at Zomba I made the ascent of the mountain twice, and ascer- 
tained its height by boiling-point tberraometer. The top of the mountain is an 
undulating Hat, covered with grass about two feet high, and having here and there 
OToaU ]mtches of thick forest* The most mteresting plants, to me, were heaths, 
ferns, and ground-orchids. Of the ferns, some of which are arboreal, and orehids, 
there are several varieties. 

On Monday, May 17th, shortly after noon, we started for thevill^e of Kumjali, 
where Malemya, a chief of considerable influence, resides, on the spurs at the north* 
east of Hount Zomba* We reached our destination about 7.30 p.m. Near to 
Maiemya's is a small missionary station, an offj^boot of the Scotch Church Mission 
at Blantyre, under the charge of a nativo teacher named " Bismarck," This man 
kindly invited us into his house while we were waiting for the caravan to oome up, 
and w^e remained talking for about an hour, during which he showed himself to be 
a very intelligent man, as also on the following day, by his manner and conversation 
with tho chief Malemya, which took place in our presence. 

As soon RS we reached Malemya's the chief invited us to camp in the inclosnre 
at the back of his house. He was very noisy, being somewhat under the effects of 
native beer; still ho wished to make us as comfortable aa ix>ssible. He has a 
number of villsgea scattered about on the eastern spurs of Mounts Zomba and 
Malosa, from which one may look over the whole of Lake Shirwa and the north- 
west side of the jMilanji mountains. The next morning the chief was sober, and 
came early to pay his respects to the Consul ; he then made himself very agreeable, 
and through his influence the men were able to get plenty of food. He also 
promised to do all in his power to help the caravan on. 

On the 19th we started again, Malemya having given some men to carry fiome 
extra loads belonging to the Consul. These men were ordered to take us on to the 
river Shir^ and then return. Our path took us over the uiiduiating spurs of the 
east side of Malosa HilL We reached Machinjila's village after an hour and a 
halt's walk, and stayed there to lunch. In the distance to the north were the 
districts under the two chiefs Che Mchamba and Che Kawinga, the former at the 
foot of Hount Chikala on the south side, and Kawinga on the s]>nrs extending from 
the north side of the .same. The Consul was very desirous of visiting these chiefs, 
but as there had lately been fighting between the people at Slack inji la's and those 
of Che Mchamba the men from Malemya would not go. From Machinjila's we 
went on over the same kind of undulating ground till we reached the villages of 
Mpasu, a relation of Malemya's, Here we found plenty of food, flour, potatoes, 
bananas, fowls, with other common products of the country. 

We went on next day to the villager of Mangnlu, on Kumbanga HilL The 
conntry is of the same nndulating character as that hitherto traversed. Several 
rivers and streams were crossed on the way, of which tho most important were the 



Jjif^ai, NjambADyka, Likwenl, and tbo Mbelezi. There are no people betwoen 
Mpam*a and Mongulu'a, the people who formerly inhabited the country liaviog boen 
removed by the Mangoni. Mflngulu's Tillage is built in a very peculiar ptjsition. 
The north-east end of Kambanga Hill is covered with huge bonlders and rocks, 
having spaces between them which are lUUised by the natives as sites for their 
bottset; Beldom more than live or mx houses can be seen from one point of view, 
thoagh ^ihere are a good number. In the evening the chief came to the Consults 
tent^ and we had a long talk together. 

In the morning we desired to start ^rly for the river Bhire, but the men from 
Malemya'S refosed to go any farther, saying that Malemya had told them not to go 
any farther than Mangulu's village. This we knew was contrary to what Malemya 
had told U5, and as they persisted in saying that they would not go on, they were 
lold that they would be {mid, according to their agreement, on the bank of the 
river Shir^, and not before. They, however^ refused to go on, and other men had 
to be hired from Mangulu* 

We managed to get away at 8 a.m. The road ky over rough barren ground 
for Bome six miles, till we again approached somewhat near the Likweni river. 
Onward from thb place the ground was level, and covered vrith long gras*. The 
country abounds with game— elephants, buffaloes, and various kinds of antelopes. 
These were known to be in the district by the many tracks and marks about ; we 
did not see any, however, it being about the time such animals go to water, which 
was several miles to the south-west At 5 p.m. we reached a small lake near a 
clump of trees, and camped for the night. 

The country is very flat on to the banks of the Shire, Here w© met with some 
large euphorbias, and also the big awkward-looking baobab (Adansonia), Treeejaro 
in patches, with intervals of grass. In other places there are trees very much^Uke 
elms in ap[)earaDC^ standing scattered about. They grow from 60 to 70 feet high, 
with good straight trunks from one to two feet in diameter, and would make'good 
timber for building purposes. 

On Saturday, May 22nd, we reached the river Shire about noon. There is a long 
stretch of low-lying ground all along the left bank some li mile wide. This in 
the close vicinity of the river must make the country unhealthy at all times of the 
year. The chief of the place was Cbe Liwonde. At Mangulu's village we were told 
that Li woo do had died a few days previously^ but was not yet buried. The custom 
here is to keep the dead for some days after death, the idea being that if the bodies 
aiie kept till they are well advanced in decomfxisition^ the so-called wizards are not 
10 likely to dig them up and eat them. There is a strong belief amongst these 
people that wizards eat the dead as opp:)rtunity occurs, and by that means get a 
supernatural power over their fellow-creatures. As we arrived at the river we heard 
the beating of drums and people singing. Soon afterwards three canoes came in 
sight filled mth people. The home of Liwonde was on an island in the river, and 
men were bringing his body thence, in order to bury it on the mainhind. On 
binding, a sort of procession was formed, two or three men in front carrying beer 
and flour, then the body, which had been bound up in a kind of mat made from the 
stalks of the long matete grass, and suspendwl horizontally to a pole, was brought 
on by two men. After these came a number of men and women bearing beer and 
other things, aomo had small drums and rattles, which they were beating and shaking, 
and others were singing the funeral dir^o. The stench arising from the body as it 
was carried past showed that we had not been wrongly informed as to the time the 
natives keep their dead before burial. 

Soon after we appeared on the left bank of the ShM, people living on the right 
bank saw us and came over in their canoes. Among them was Litete, the head-man 



of the village, with wliom an armDgi^ment was made to take as over, Tbiii be did 
for eight yards of bluo calico and four yards of white. We were quickly ferried 
across, and soon had our tents pitched in the inclosure of one of the houses of the 
head-man. There is a marked difiference between the ri^^ht and left banks of the 
river. The left is quite uninhabited^ and very unhealthy. The ri^ht bank is fairly 
healthy, well-peopled and very fertile — hr^^e quantities of good rice are grown, and 
an abundance of Indian corn, millet of three kinds, a variety of beans^ and other 
legnmiDOUs plants ; pumpkins, potatoes, and cassava are alao cultivated. Moat of the 
natives have patches of tobacco, and some Indalge in Indian liemp. Fowls are 
abundant and cheap; but goats and sheep scarce. Only bush-buck and other small 
antelopes are found in the vicinity^ The people in all these districts are Nyassas 
and Yaos (Ajawas), Between this place and Livingstouia mauy of the natives arc 
in the habit of going down !o QuiUimane, or to the more northern coast towns of 
Ktlwa and Lindi, so that several can speak Swahili^ and understand coast customs. 

From Litete's we went on to Che Mlelemba's village, od the way crossing the 
rivers Mnangona and Mkasi. The cliief here lias been to the coast several times to 
barter Lis goods and briug up coast stuff. Our visit gave him an opportunity of 
showing off his knowledge of the coaat language and customs, which he did not fail 
to make use of. He was very anxious that 1 should come and live with him at his 
new village, whicli he is building in a group of hills some ten miles away to the 
west. The country her© is very fertile, immense fields of millet are growo, and 
Indian corn is planted all the year ronud. | 

The next day we went on to Mwasama*s, passing through Che rita*8 district at 
midday. During the day we passed several large villages belonging to the Nyassa 
tribe. Mponda, who is the head chief or Sultau of all these districts on the right 
bank of the Shire, has made some tei-ms of friendship with Chikusi, the Manguni 
king, and now his people live in peace and safety. The path lay through the same 
fertile kind of country all the next day. In the afternoon we crossed the Nasenga 
river and camped in the forest some distance farther on. Thence a messenger was 
sent on to the Sultan Mponda, to obtain his permisalon to visit him. Near the spot 
where we camped there had lately stood a lai^ village^ but the chief of it, refusing 
to obey some command of MpondaV, was attacked by his order, killed, his village 
destroyed, and bis people scattered. The mej-senger returned the next morning with 
favourable answers, and we moved on. We could not but notice the barren appear- 
ance of the fiat district In which Mponda lives. The soil consists chiefly of dry- 
washed sand, which has probably been drifted up at some time. It seems that large 
portions of the country, forming tho east side of the promontory, were formerly 
covered with water, the hills and rocks then fonning little islands. Since then, 
drift sand, or sand and mud, has filled the spaces between tho hills. This is indi- 
cated both by the surface of the flats and also by breaks in the ground, wliich ahows 
that it is simply made up ground. When there is simply saod on the surface little 
else but grass will grow ; hut with a mixture of sand and mud, the ground is very 

The next morning we went on to Mponda*s, On reaching the town we were 
conducted to one of the chiefs houses, where wo remained for about a quarter of an 
hour, and then proceeded to the houses which he had placed at our disposal. About 
two hours afterwards Mponda came, bringing a line goat and two baskets of rice as a 
present. The Sultan remained talking for about two hours, and then retired with 
the present the Consul had given him, Tho present Mponda is a young man who 
has only lately succeeded to the sultansbip. The custom is that when a sultan or 
chief dies, his sodb cannot Inherit, but the sultanas brother or brother^s sons. The 
present Mpondft is & younger brother of the bte sultan. A great difficulty against 




t son inberiting is the custom that on tbe death of a aultaa or cMef^ a!l his wires 
and women become the projierty of tiie penstm succeeding. 

There is now a general feeling among the sons of great chiefs in these territories 
Aat they ought to succeed to the pc)8ition and property of their fathers^ The two 
WDB of the late Mponda, who hve in the great town of their father, are much d\s- 
eonteDted with their positiooj and are intriguing to turn out tbe present ]l(l[X)niia, 
Ah» at the great chief Makaujila's, on the south-east shore of Lake Nyassa, the same 
feeling ia shown. The son of Makanjila is at war with his father, because the latter 
will not consent to make him his heir. All the chief young men are well acquainted 
with the coast towards Zanzibar^ and have become Mahommedans, They are sur- 
rounded by a number of Warima, or Coast-inea, who exert great influence over 
(hem. It is probably owint; to the increased knowledge they have gained by their 
journeys to the coast, and also the influence of the coast-men who live with them, 
that thete young chiefs ai-e desirous of altering the present ciibtoms of tlieir country. 

On the evening of tbe day of our arrival at MfxiutlaV, the African LaktfS Com- 
j)any'« steamer i/a/a came in, bringing down from the north end of NyiiHsa Mr, 
Nicoiland Mr. Stephenmju, employes of the company, Tliey, with Mr, Morrison, 
who is iu charge of the stetimer, e^me ashore, and we spent a pleasant evening 
togietber. In the morning they were off again on their way to Matope, the com- 
pft&y*s station at tbe up|>er end of the FalU on the river Shire, 

We remained at Mpooda's the following day» and on the next. May 29th, resumed 
our journey. Oar way led through the large town where the former Mponda had 
lived. Here we were met by his two sons, who were very anxious that we should 
slay the night with them., but time would not allow ns to do so, Tbe grave of the 
late Mponda is built just in front of the house where he resided. It is tbe largest 
bailding of the kind I have seen in all East Africa. Its large size is chiefly owing 
to coast influence— but the style and custom are purely native. The building is 
about 40 feet long by 30 wide, with a verandah 5 feet wide all round. The roof, 
tbe ridge of which is some 25 feet from iho ground, is thatched with graH««, the thatch 
being covered all over with white calico from the ridge to the eaves. Tbe building 
stands nearly east and west, with the door at the east end^ The roof inside is of 
bamboo, and hung with numberless pendants of white calico, about 1 foot long and 
1 inch broad. The position of the grave shows the coast influence exercised at the 
burial. The grave was dug nearly north and soutb^ looking towards Mecca, and w hen 
tbe body was buried, it was placed with its head towards the north. I was told that the 
burial was jjerformed with tbe customary Mahommedan rites. Over the grave a tomb 
has been erected on a raised platform ur dais, which is ascended by two steps. Tbe 
tomb is fonned by a turreted wall about four feet high, which surrounds the grave. 
The square enclosed by this wall is left o|x;n at the top, and inside is a mound 
raised like that of an ordinary grave. On either side of the tomb outside there is a 
large square boic, said to contain rupees, the oll'erings of people who have come to 
pay their respects to the dead The wall of the tomb facing the door is inlaid with 
round earthenware plates, basins, looking-glasses, ii copper plate, and other things of 
European make, and hung with numerous strings of heads, the offerings of friends 
and yiaitora. In front of tliis wall a rail is put up, about six feet from the ground, 
from which are suspended a number of good Muscat cloths, and some coloured cloths 
of European manufacture. These form a screen to the tomb, and are always kept 
down except when people come to visit the grave. The door is always kept locked, 
and a man is appointed, whose sole duty is to keep charge of the place. 

After a small present hod been made to the two sons of the late Mponda we 
moved on, and passing the villages of Kumlonxl)a on the way, reached Malunga*s in 
the evening. The country passed over was low and sandy, with numerous patches 




covered with salt. These patches are covered with water during the wet seosoii, 
and, as the water is evaporattd, tlio aalt deposit is left* We saw several parties of J 
womea engaged ia gathering up the salt, which they mix with water, and strain ; it I 
is then evaporated by hoiling, aft^r which it is ready for the market, A larg^l 
qoautity of salt iij.thus colkcted about Mponda*8 district, and it fioda a ready markell 
with the Yao3 to the south, and among tlie Mangoui to the west- At Malunga*i| 
we were told that hippopotami were plentiful ; they must have been very shy, for ^ 
we only saw one at a distance. In an endeavour to shoot it we were not successful. 
We had heard much talk about thesa animals in the rivor Shire, They must be few 
in number, however, for we did not see more than half a dozen all the way up the 
Shire, and along the shores of the lake. 

From Malunga*3 we went on the next day past the villages of Ngnmbi, Mako- 
l>o]a, and Chipoka, to the village of Abdulk. We camped outside the village, at 
which the chiefl was rather surprised, the general practice being for travellers to 
camp inside. AbduUa^s village is strongly situated on a neck of land on the lake 
ooast^ BTirrounded ,by hills. At the foot of one of these hills is a little lake of salt 
water, in which there is a variety of fiKh. 

From AbduHa's we made a loug journey, and at night reached the broken-down 
village of Pampamba, of which the chief is naraerl Kiznra. The country we 
passed through varies considerably ; some of it is most fertile, while other parts are 
simply clean sand, and useless for gardens. In other places there are large swamps, 
shut off from the lake by low banks, ufion which some of the natives have built 
their sraaU villages. The chief of these are MIela and Walo. Beyond these villages 
we passed over the Ngnai Hills, and came to a deaerted village. There we had to 
retrace our steps for a short distance, till we entered a broken track, which took us 
sometimes along the shore, sometimes over mgjijed rocks, and ultimately brought us 
to Kizura's village, at which we arrived about 6.30 p.m* This is a most desolate, 
broken-down, and unhealthy place, and v;e were glad to be oi9f again the next 
morning. On leaving, we went for some distance along a scrubby forest, and then 
came upon the shore of the lieautiful bay of Mazinzi, where we stopped for break- 
fast. At 11,30 we reached another beautiful bay, called Lusumbwe. This bay is 
about half a mile in width, and a mile in length. The sides of the bay are formed _^ 
by the hills Sanu and Dim we on the right, and Punzi and Tumbwe on the LefL^f 
These two rows of hills are parallel to each other, and a strip of low bank at right 
angles to these forms the bead of tho bay. There is a good-sized village just over 
this bank, the inhabitants of which paas a good deal of their time in catching fish in 
tlie bay, where they are plentiful and in great variety, A large seine or net is taken 
to the mouth of I ho bay in caaoes, where it is dropped into the water, and stretched 
from side to aide. Rops ata attached to each end of the net, and the men with 
these draw tlie net to the head of the bay, and land the £sh. We stayed at this 
place for about two hours, and left at 2 p.m., thinking we had ample time to reach 
Livingatonia before dark. We had to cross over a high pass in the Kuognni Hills, 
and night came on before we were at the foot on the other side, so when we arrived 
at the gardens we had to camp, and go on the next morning. We reached Living- 
ston ia in less than an hour's march from the last camping place, on June 2nd. 

The mismon station of Livingston ia is built on the shores of a little bay at the 
foot of the Kunguni Hills, An elevated bank of shingle and sand ia thrown up 
all along the shore of the bay, and inside this bank is a low Eat, extending up 
to the hill-side. Many parts of this flat are lower than the lake level, and con- 
sequently very damp and unhealthy. In the rains all this must be an extensive 
swamp, as is shown by the elevated roadway which the missionaries have had to 
make in order to get over it at that season of the year. At first sight the place 


has the appearance of being unhealthy and unsuited as a mission station, and for 
the fiist two days of the time we were obliged to stay here the excessive humidity 
of the place made both the Consul and myself quite ill, and incapable of doing any- 
thing. The missionaries have lately retired from the place on account of its un- 
healthiness and gone to Bandawe, a place more north on the west side of the lake. 
A number of good houses have been built here, but they are now rapidly falling 
into decay. At present a young native named Albert has charge of the scholastic 
and religious work of the station. Teaching in reading, writing, and arithmetic is 
carried on every morning for about two hours, and on Sandays a religious service is 
conducted by the schoolmaster Albert, at which, it is said, all the people of the 
place attend. The station itself is in charge of a man named Mlolo, who acts as 
chief of the district. The people living at or near the station are Nyassas and Yaos. 
The Yaos were brought here by the missionaries, and the Nyassas have come to 
live near the station, feeling that they get some kind of protection by living near 
the Europeans. They still retain their old superstitious customs. Only a short 
time ago a woman accused two men of being wizards, stating that she had seen them 
take the body of a child, who had lately died, into a house, and that there they had 
eaten it On the charge being made the men protested their innocence, but to no 
aTail; they had to submit to the ordeal of mwavi-drinking. The mwavi is a 
mixtara made from certain plants, which varies in its action, probably from the 
manner in which it is prepared. If the person who is made to drink it is sick and 
recovers, it is taken as a proof that he is innocent, but if he dies he must have been 
guilty according to native ideas. The men above mentioned were made to drink 
the mwavi, and both died. Some short time afterwards the IlaUi steamer of the 
African Lakes Company came down and anchored off the station. On hearing of 
the affair the Europeans on board protested against the use of mwavi, and after 
some persuasion induced the people to dig open the grave to see whether the body 
was really buried or not. They did this, feeling sure that the body had not been 
eaten, and hoping thereby to convince the natives that the use of mwavi was entirely 
wrong, and not a test in any way of a person^s guilt or innocence. The grave was 
dug open, and at a depth of 12 feet the child's body was there found. Many of the 
people were astonished, and admitted that in this case the mwavi had fuled. But 
it did not convince the people that though the mwavi had failed in this case that 
it was a wrong thing to use, or that it would fail in other oases. The old chief 
Mlolo told me that though the Yaos and those connected with the mission were 
obliged to give up such customs, still the Nyassas who lived near would not think 
of doing 10. It is hardly to be expected that natives will give up such customs 
quickly. If the practice was simply for the purpose of determining the guilt or 
innocence of a person, then it might easily be given up ; but as it is one of the 
safest and most powerful means the natives have of removing obnoxious persons, it 
is not to be expected that it will be quickly abolished. 

On June 4th we left Livingstonia at 4 p.m., and proceeded south over a spur of 
the Kunguni Hills along the west shore of the promontory. At 5. SO we reached 
the Tillage of Mpamba, and camped for the night. The village consists of a string 
of huts built along the coast-line at the foot of. the hilL Nearly all the people were 
away in their gardens driving away the monkeys which live in the hills. The 
damage they do to the garden crops is very great, and this the natives here feel all 
the more because they have only the rocky sides of the hill where they can grow 

The next morning we went on past the villages of Mpangu, Nyamkumba, 
Ifiamngsmo, Mpande, and the border village of Mbapi at 2 p.m. At Mamngano's 
we foond a blacksmith busy forging hatchets. These are. made from iron picked up 



in the swainps and bogs of the district. The iroQ was apparently of a poor quality, 
being very scaly. There was one hat-chet which the smith seemed to value, the 
iron of which cauie from the hill& on the west side uf the lake. The smith's anvil 
was a great stoDe, for a sledge-hammer he naed a large stooe, and for finishing his 
work he has amall hammers, probably of his own make. With the&e rough too!s 
he turns out hatchets, axes, arrow and spefir heads, hoes, and other implements of 
such good quality and finiish, that a European smith would hardly believe that the 
work was accomplished with such tools. Moat of the country from Marungano's is 
very fertile, covered with fine crops of Indian corn and millet. Between Mpande** 
and Mbapi's wo crossed the dry bed of the river Lusangadzi. This is a considerable 
river in the wet seastJO, Its bed being some 30 yards wide with banks 12 feet high* 
The marks on the banks show that the river is full during the rains. The Htrata of 
mud and sand seen in tiie banks show that all the adjacent flat country has been 
gradually made up> or rather that it was formerly part of the bed of tlie lake from 
which the waters have now receded, Mbapi's vdlage is extensive, an J surrounded 
by a high fence of trees. The people all along the shores of the bke in these 
districts are chiefly Nyassas. Whilst walking about the village of Mbapi» I saw 
a little hand-loom for making cloth from cotton yarn. The cloth produced was 
in pieces about 7 feet by C, and very strong, very much like stout canvas, but 
softer. At Mbapi's we laid in a supply of foud, and proceeded the next morning Ut 
cross the plain whtcli separates this district from that held by the Mangoni. It h 
nearly all a continuous long flat, largo portions of which am swamped during the 
wot season. We cami>ed near a little stream of water, and next morning went on 
to the village of M|>ulufia, This is the frontier village of the Mangoni in this 
direction, and is held by a sub«chief named (jhakuawa. On our way from Mbapi^s 
we i>as»ed several sites where villages had once stood. We learnt that the late 
Mponda, several years ago, had attacked and destroyed those villages. He was 
driven out of his own country on the west side of Nyiissa by the Man sod i, and he 
ill his turn attacked the Nyassa villages at the south-west end of the lake. Taking 
the people thus captured with him, he went and established the villages now ruled 
over by the present M pond a. About this forest and flat there were the marks of 
plenty of large game, but we did not see any^ owing to the size of the caravan, and 
probably also to the long grass with which the country was covered. We breakfasted 
atChakuawa's village under a large Mtoiido tree, the shade of which covers the baraza, 
or gossip-place of the village. From Chakuawa*s wo went on to M hen's, where we 
aaw some more cloth being made, thence to the river Bivanji, where^ after croasiDg, 
we camped on the left bauk. The whole of ihe country is very fertile, corn is 
grown in abundance, and al«o large quantities of the cotton plant. The village of 
Mtenganjila i;* o|>pai*ite, on the right bank, and a little in advance of where we 
camped are the villages ot MaCua. The inhabitants are Kyassas and Yaos, ruled 
over by ilangoni head-men. 

On starting the next morning we passed a number of villages with extensive 
gardens, and in two hours reached the village of Chifisi Kwipa, the chief head-man 
nf the villages in this part of Cbikusi s country. We stayed here to breakfast, and 
were informed by Chifisi that we must not go alone to Chikuai^s ; that he would 
undertake to guide us there, and arrange tlie meetings, as that was part of his duty. 
At 10.30 A.M, we resumed the march ; Chifisi, who was accompanied by some of his 
men, leading the way. During the day we crossed aud rccrossed the Tuta, a small 
strcara which runs into the Bwanji. On oar way we passed over a rather steep hill. 
On the top we found large heaps of stones, which reminded me of similar heaps I had 
*4een on the road from Zanzibar to Unyamwezi, On inquiry I found they had been 
raised in a similar manner. Probably the spot is regarded with some idea of sanctity, 

for any one pnssiii? tbis way on businesfi throws a stone on tlie heap to secure 
( to hb undenaking. At the foot of the hill we crossed the Tuta again, and 
camped on its left bank. Here there are no villages, hot the conntry has the appear- 
fttice of being: very fertile* The next morning we ascended the hilly district ofNyandi, 
wiih the rocka Ondwe oa the right, and Funi on the left. At 9 a-m. we reachetl 
the banks of the Liveleze. This river rises, one day's journey to the south, out of a 
mnall lake near the villages of Bands, of which Kamkodo is the head-nian. After 
resting on the Livelcze we moved on to the village of Malimba, situated at the foot 
of the bigb bill Chirohwe, 

From this place we sent two men to acquaint the king of our approach to his 
town, and to ask his permission to visit Mm, They returned witli tho message that 
we were to move on the next morning, and that the kings nephew Zieogea would 
meet and take ns to the king. 

The next day we ascended the hill Kamtanda at the south of Chirobwe. On 
descending a little on the other side we came to a small strciam which runs south 
and enters the Liveleze. Here we breakfasted, and then ascended to the top of the 
ridge, which opens out into an exteoHive pkteau. We stopped hero to make some 
observations, and towards eveninp^ reached Geagea's village, where we camped for 
the night. There are but few villai^es in this part of Chiknsrs country, and the 
land IB very poor. When we w^ere abont to start the next morning, two messengers 
came from Ziengea, saying that we were to go on to Mavnnji's village, and await 
him there. This we did, and iibout 11.0 a.m. Ztengea came up, and we had to 
go with him to his village of Mai we. On our way we crossed the nv^er Lifobwc, 
which rises in the Dexa mountains and empties itself into the Zambeze. 

We remained at Maiwe for two days waiting for a message from the king. He 
ultimately sent word that we were to move on to his chief town Lnisini, where we 
stayed two days more waiting for the king's arrivaL Finally we had to move on 
to Kujipori village to meet him. 

The next morning we started a^ain^ our course lying along the left bank of 
the Msunguzi. Leaving the hill Mang^ani on our right we went on for 14 hours, 
and then crossed the streams Chigaga and Chikuhwo in close succession. About a 
mile further on we arrived near the villa^re of Kujifiori. ftlessengera were then sent 
to the king to announce our arrival, and after waiting for an hour he came out to 
receive oa. A seat was prepared for him on some bales of cloth, to which he was 
conducted when he arrived. The Consul and I then went otit of I he tent to hirn. 
He was very cordial in his manner, and expressed himself as pleased that w^e had 
come to see him. Afterwards when the camp was arranged, the men of our caravan 
were drawn up in line, and three volleys were fired as a mark of respect to the 
king. This seemed to please him much. After some conversation, the king 
moved to go away ; the natives, of whom there were some 200 or 3O0 sitting about, 
at once set up a low bleating sound, as a mark of respect to him. 

The king Chikusi is of middle height, but of extraordinary stoutness, so much 
so that he can only walk for a short distance at a time, and that very slowly. 
Except this obesity, there is but little to distinguish him from any of his subjects. 
His dress is no better, and not so good as that of some of his hea*l-men. The 
folluwing morning the king paid on ofliclal visit to the Consul, and remained with 
him upwards of two hours, discussing matters of business. 

The whole of Chikusi's home district is a large plateau, which begins at the 
ridge of the hills of which Chirobwe forms an elevated fiart, and extends away 
t4)wards the we^t far beyond the hili ranges of Samaug'omlw and Kandunda. Over 
all this district there is scarcely a tree to be seen, the fuel commonly used by the 
people being corn stalks and ox^ung. The land near the east is very poor, but as 



one proceeds towards the west it greatly improves in appearancejand all the country 
around Loisini and Kujipori is very fertile and extensively cultivated. There are a 
mimlwr of sniaU streams traversing tlie whole conn try ♦ These have their sources in 
ihe hill ranges dotted all over the plateau. These keep the hvnd somewhat damp, 
and then the plateau bcin^ at an elevation of nearly 5CK)0 feet, the land does not 
liecome so scorched and dried up here na in the plains below. Wc found it very cold 
on the plateau ; tho nunimum thermometer one night was as low as 37° F. This 
may not seem much to Europeans, but by Africans and travellers in Africa so low a 
temperature is felt very nmch. From a sanitary point of view, I think the plateau 
in many places is very healthy, and several suitable spots could easily be selected for 
Kuropeau residencesj but it loses much by its want of good scenery and by its bleak 
flud treelefis appearance. Food is generally ciieap and plentiful, fuwls beiug bought 
at the rate of six for two yards of calico, value 11(/. The people, most of whom 
have been taken prisoners from the various Nyfksea and Yao tribes, are in many 
respects different and superior to the peo[ile of th« same tribes liviug in the 
plains. These latter are generally iotnistve, boisterous, and often without any 
show of respect, %vhilst tbu people who have been brought up under the Mangoni 
ndo are most respectful and quiet. When they come with their articles for sale, 
they first sit some 15 or 20 yards away; on being iuvited to approach, they 
do so. There are bnt few of the true Mangoni stock, the bulk of the people 
called Mangoni being men who have been taken in war, and then traiucid np 
to the Mangoni cnstomH, There arc probably more true Mangoni women than 
men. They are neariy all the wives of the king. They are easily distiugmslied 
from other women by their light colour, and by being generally taller and 
stonter than the ordinary women. The common drcsa of the women la a loin cloth. 
Some may be eeen with another cloth in addition to this, witb which they wrap 
themselves up. Others have neither tlie one nor the other, but simply fasten a 
ijtring round the waist, to which in front they attach a piece of cloth about two 
inches wide ; this is drawn lightly between the legs, rind the end fastened behind to 
the string round the waist. They are very fond of bead oroameuts, which consist of 
neck Laces, bangles, cartings or plugs, enuf)'- boxes, and other articles. The women 
also wear a great variety of brass bangles. With the exception of the chiefs and head- 
men the dress of the men is very meagre, hke that of moat African tribes, con- 
sistin^ as it does of a loin clotli or piece of skin as a substitute j in addition tlie 
Mangoni wear a private covering jneculiar to all the Zulu tribes. The arms used are 
chiefly clubs and spears, in addition to which they all carry the large ovabshai^ed 
.shield. Bows and arrows may sometimes be seen. Unlike the Masai it is said tht-y 
do not throw the club, but on coming t<j close quarters, they strike their opponents* 
legs, and when they have brought them down, then spear them. The king has a 
few guns, but it appears they are never uaed in the raids Ufion the neighbouring 
tribes, but for elephant hunting, or occasionally when parties are sent on duty to a 
neighbouring territory, in which, case a gun or two is taken, probably for the 
pnrjx>se of firing a friendly eahitc on arrival. King Chikusi seems to have oompleto 
control over all his country, and there is the greatest resj>ect shown by the ordinary 
people both to him and his bead-men. This is owing probably to his deaj>otic and 
tyrannical rule, for be has the credit of removing at once any person who is unfortu- 
nate enough to make himself obnoxious to him. It was said that only a short time 
ago the head-man of Luisini village, being on a visit to the king on business, he 
requested permission, aa night drew on, to retire, and at this the king took great 
offence, and ordered him to be taken out and speared, wbicb was done. The houses 
of the Mangoni, excepting those of the king at Luisini and Kujipori, are most 
miserable buildings* They are like the ICya^sa round hula, but much smaller, and 
almo&t all in a dilapidated state. This undoubtedly is owing to the fact that there 


18 no wood in the neighbourhood. The king's houses at Luisini, which are the best 
we saw in Angoni-land, are large, being some 80 feet in diameter, with bell-shaped 
tops. Each wife at Luisini has an inclosure to herself, in which is included the 
rojal hut, with two or three smaller ones, in which the lady's attendants live, and 
space sufficient to conduct the general household work of grinding com and brewing 
beer being carried on. All these are kept very clean, and well swept, which is 
quite in contrast to the general appearance of the other villages. 

We remained at Kujipori till the 19th June, the king being unwilling that 
we should leave before. On our departure we were given an escort of ten men, 
and an official was sent in charge. They accompanied us to Mpimbi on the river 
Shir^. where the Angoni territory in that direction terminates. 

We started about 10.40 a.m., and passing under Mpulu hill, reached the village 
of Kamtawila on the right bank of the Lifobwe at 2.20. We stayed here to 
lunch, and then crossing the Lifobwe reached the village of Easungwe and camped 
at 5.20. 

On June 20th we left Easungwe's and reached the villages of Goma at 11.45. 
On our way we crossed several streams of good water all making their way to the 
Lifobwe. From Goma's the path lies between the hill Mbidzi to the north, and 
some spurs of the Lipepeta range on the south. On issuing from the pass we 
traversed some undulating ground and descended into the district of Eamkodo. 
Thence we went on to the Lisipi, and camped on its right bank. This river rises on 
Eitungwe hill. The next morning we descended into the Ncheu district, head-man 
Eadole. After a rest we went on to Bangala village, where Lunduka is chief. At 
4.50 P.H. we crossed the Msipi, which rises on Mount Ncheu, and marched on to the 
villages of Sakapi, in the district of the Msipi. The whole of the country between the 
Lifobwe and the villages of Ziwandea is poor, the soil is dry and little cultivated. 

On the 22nd June, at 8. a.h., we crossed the Luvelevi river, which has its source 
in the M vai Hills, in the district of Eama, head-man Njala. At 5 . 40 we reached the 
stream Eapeni, which flows into the Luvelevi ; this we crossed and camped on the 
right bank. The journey was for the last two days over gently undulating ground, 
except at one place, where there is a rapid descent from the central plateau to this 
lower one. The next day we made a short journey over a fairly level country, and 
reached the village of Ziwandea. This is a collection of broken-down villages on 
both banks of the dry bed of the Mulunguzi. During the rains its water flows into 
the Luvelevi. Here the land is very good, and large crops are raised. Judging 
from the present young Indian com,- it is possible that the natives have fresh com 
all the year round. Bice is grown plentifully here, and sold at Matope to the 
Europeans on board the steamers which call there. The next day we had a very 
rough walk thTough long coarse grass, which renders travelling very tedious, when 
beaten down over the path. At noon we crossed the dry bed of the Nazipili river. 
It had cut its way through a deep stratum of white limestone, which, by report, 
lies under the soil of all the country about Mpimbi. At 1.0 p.m. we reached the 
villages of chief Euratali on the right bank of the Luvelevi. After stopping to 
lunch, we moved on to the village of the head-man Nyozera. Next day we reached 
Mpimbi, on the river Shir^, about 11 .0 a.m. After a little delay we bade farewell to 
the Angoni escort, and were taken over to the left bank by Mpimbi's people. We 
then moved on and camped in the forest. The next moming wo started early and 
reached the top of Che Mlumbi's hill at 12.15. We rested in his village to lunch, 
and in the afternoon went on to Zomba^ where we arrived at 5.30, and pitched our 
tents in the Consulate grounds. 

On Monday we started for Blantyre, arriving there on Wednesday, July 1st. 

( 188 ) 


Geographical EdEcation.— -As stated by Mr. F. Galton in the die-^ 
CDBBion on Mr, Mackioder's address (ajite, p, 166), throe delegates of our 
Council (Mr. Galton, Hon. G. C, Brodrick, and Mr, Freshfield), met (on 
the 10th Febmary) delegates of the Hebdomadal Council of Oxfords 
to confer on the subject of the proposed eetabljehment of a Keadership 
of geography at that Univeraity, On the 18th February, another dopnta- 
tion, consisting of Mr. Gabon, Sir Thomas Wade, General J. T. Walker, 
and Mr, Freshfield, met for a similar purpose a Coinmittee of the Senate of 
the University of Cambridge, The results of both these conferences, 
though of course not final, were most encouraging to the prospecta of 
the recognition of geograpliy at both IjniversitieB, 

Mr. Last's Exploratian of the Hamuli Hilli. — We have received a 
brief preliminary account of the results of Mr. Laet^s visit to the Namuli 
Hills, in a letter sent by the traveller from Quillimane on the 6 th 
December last. He devoted three months to the task of exploring this 
region, which it will be recollected was the main object of his expedi- 
tion. During this time he went almost completely round the hills, but 
found it impossible to reach the summit of tho principal peak or double 
peak ; in fact» he came to the conclnsioD that it was inaccessible. Spurs, 
to the height of 2000 feet or more, extend from it on all sides, above 
which the two cones rise precipitously. There is a clump of trees near 
the top of one of the cones, near which arc probably tho sources of a 
small but perennial stream, which flows down tho eastern side. 
Before leaving the district, Mr. Last, with a party of twenty men, 
ascended the banks of the Lukugu river to its source, which lies west 
of Kamuli, at the north foot of Mount Pilani. He found the whole 
country well watered and fertile, though very sparsely inhabited. Un- 
fortunately, the Lukugu river, the main watercourse of this promising 
region, owing to its long series of rapids and waterfalls, is unnavigabldj 
even by canoes, and its mouth is closed to coasting vessels by 
formidable bar. 

Ihaglaud and Germany in East Africa. — The priDcipal provisions of 
the recent treaty between the two Governments regarding the boundaries^ 
of their respective territorial interests in East Africa, and also defining ^ 
the possess ions of the Sultan of Zanzibar, may be summarised as follows : 
— Both powers recognise the sovereignty of the Sultan over the islands 
of Zanzibar, Pemba, Lamu, and Mafia, and also over all the small islands 
within 12 nautical miles of Zanzibar. Germany assents to the agree- 
ment between England and France regarding the independence of 
Zanzibar. The two Powers also recognise as the possessions of the 
Saltan on the continent an uninterrupted stretch of coast from the mouth ^B 
of the Miningani river on the south (near Cape Delgado) to Kipioi on 
the north, but extending only 10 nautical miles inland. Both Powers 




recognise the coast from Eipini to the north end of Manda Bay as be- 
longing to Witn. Great Britain agrees to support the negotiations of 
Germany with the Sultan by which the latter is to grant a lease of the 
harbour dues of Dar-es-Salam and Pangani to the German East African 
Society, in consideration of an annual payment on the part of the 
Society, and also to use its influence to promote a friendly arrangement 
with reference to the opposing claims of the same Society and the Sultan 
on the Kilima-Njaro territory. With regard to the respective spheres 
of interest of the two Powers, that of Germany extends from the 
HoYuma in the south to the river Wanga, Kilima-Njaro and the south 
end of Victoria Nyanza in the north, while that of Great Britain is con- 
fined to tho country between Kilima-Njaro and the Tana river. The 
actual line of demarcation runs from the mouth of the Wanga in a 
straight line to Lake Jipe, along the east and north shore of the lalce 
across the river Lumi, dividing equally the districts of Taveta and 
Chaga, and then along the northern slope of the Kilima-Njaro range in 
a direct line to a point in 1° S. lat., on the eastern shore of Lake Victoria 
Nyanza. Each Power agrees to make no acquisition and establish no 
protectorate within the limits of the other's territory. The German 
Protectorate had formerly only been declared over Useguha, TJkami, 
Nguru, and Usagara. We hope to be able to give a map showing these 
new political boundaries in the April number of the ' Proceedings.' 

Eonvier's Astronomical Observations to fix Positions on the Oongo.— 
The report of Captain Eouvier on his recent journey to the Congo, 
when, jointly with Lieut. Liebrechts and Captain Massari he acted as 
one of the Commisbioners for laying down the boundary between the 
Congo State and the French possessions, promises to become most 
valuable to geographers. It is to be accompanied by an atlas of 
38 maps, showing the regions explored on various scales. The astro- 
nomical observations upon which these maps will be based have just 
been published in the 'Annales hydrographiques.' They include 
79 latitudes, one longitude determined absolutely, and 70 longitudes 
determined chronometrically and adjusted to Libreville on the Gabun, 
as laid down on the French Admiralty chart (9° 26' 33" E, of Green- 
wich), and to N'Ganchu, which was determined, by thirteen sets of 
lunars, to be in 16"^ 12' E. It is satisfactory to find that Captain 
Rouvier 8 longitudes agree very nearly with those of Lieut. Mizon. 
^ The principal positions ai-e : — 

Loango .. 

4 38 25 c5. 

11 49 10 E. 

Equator Station 2 N. 

18 13 10 E. 

Kitabi .. .. 
>Iakabana .. 

4 10,, 
3 25 10 „ 

12 11 „ 
12 37 50 „ 

^T^v\ } 120 30 8. 
(Alima) .. / 

16 15 20 „ 


4 6 40„ 

13 4 40 „ 

Leketi .. .. 1 35 50 „ 

14 54 50 „ 

Maoyangs .. 

4 53 30 ., 

14 22 50 „ 

Diele .. .. 1 41 30 „ 

14 42 40 „ 

BrazzaTille .. 

4 16 55 „ 

15 17 10 „ 

Franceville .. 1 36 50 „ 

13 34 30 „ 

N'Ganchn .. 

3 17 3„ 

16 12 „ 

Boue .. ..0 5 20 „ 

11 54 40 „ 

BoDga .. .. 

1 6 40,, 

16 52 10 „ 

Libreville .. 23 25N. 

9 26 33 „ 

N'Konja .. 

8 40,, 

17 41 30 „ 

No. TIL— Maboh 1887.] 



Tho true longitudo of Loopoldviile on Shinloj^ Pool appears tlni§ to 
te 15"* 15' E. (inat^jail of 15"^ B\ as determiiKicl by Herr Baiimatin from 
two sets of liinars). 

Dr. Lenz's Expeiiition, — In a communieatiDii to the new niiml>er of 
the * Mittheilnngen ' of the Yienna Geographical Society, Dr. Franz 
liitfer V. Le Monnier refers to the delay wLicIi has taken place in Dr, 
Lenz's leaving Zanzibar. From a Times telegram we learn that he 
was expected to leave about ten days ago. It is stated that two interest - 
ing letters (to be piiMished in the next number) havo been receivetl 
from Dr. Lenz, one dated from Lake Tanganyika in September, and the- 
other from the river Shire, in December 1886. Meanwliile we are told 
that the expedition left Kasongoon Juno 20th, greatly hindered by tho 
loss of several of its men through small-pox. On Jidy lltli Kibonde 
was reached, a park-like plateau passed, and a mountain eros^ecL On 
August 7th tho expedition reachetl the Mtowa country, on the went 
ahore of Lake Tanganyika, and was received by Captain Here ou 
Kavala Island. Ujiji was entered on August 15th, Here Dr. Lonz 
discovered that on account of the warlike raids of tho Arabs and the 
excitement in Uganda, it would bo impossible for him to push northward** 
to Emin Pasha, aa was his original intention. Ho resolved, therefore, 
instead of proceeding by Tahora to Zanzil^ar, to go southwards to the 
south end of Lake Tanganyika, and onwards tu Lake Kyassa. He reached 
the latter at Karon ga's town, pToceD<lecl, apparently b}' land, to the south 
end, along the Shire', and so down tu (^uillimane. Dr. von Le Monnier 
points out that this is tho ninth timo in w^hicb Africa has been crossed 
by white travellers, so fur as known. Dr. Lenz has crossed the eonti- 
lient from the mouth of the Congo to the mouth of the Zambesi in less 
than 17 months. The previous expeditions havo been those of Living- 
stone, 1854— G (Loanda to Quillimano), 20 months; Cameron (Bagamoyo 
to Catembela), 2 years and 8 months, lS7:i-5; Stanley, 1874-7 (Baga- 
moyo to Banana), 2 years and 9 montlis ; Serpa Pinto, 1877-D (Benguela 
to Durban), 16 months; Wissmann, 1881-2 (Loanda to Sadani), 1 yeai- 
10 months ; A mot, 1881-4 (Dnrbfin to Benguela), 3 years 3 months ; 
Capello'and Ivens, 1884-5 (Mopsamcdes to Quillimane), 14 months; 
Qloerup, 1884-6 (Banana to Zanzibar), 3 years. 

Guinea, — The unknown country lying to tho north of Togo Land 
which, it will be remembered, was partly traversed hy Herr Zbller, somcg 
two years ago, has been further explored liy aX\cncb missionarj', nametl 
Baudin. Another missionary, M. ^Menager, had in 1885 penetrated 
heyond Agome, Zollcr*s farthest point, to Adangbe. In the bulletin (Xo- 
5, 1880), of the Geographical Society of Lyons will bo found a short 
account of M. Bandin's jouTne3^ He started in January 188(5, from 
Ague on the coast, and pushed into the interior as far as the town of 
AtakpamOj which at the time of his visit was beginning to recover itself 


after its destmotion by Dahomey. The traveller intended to proceed 
still farther north, but was prevented by the opposition of the natives. 
He accordingly turned eastwards and reached Togodo, whence he effected 
his retnm jonmey down the river Mono to the coast. A map of the 
traveller's itinerary is published with the paper. 

The Monsoons. — In Mr. H. F. Blanford*s report on the Administra- 
tion of the Meteorological Department of India for 1885-6, there is a 
statement of considerable geographical interest with reference to the 
monsoons, which tends greatly to modify the prevailing conception as to 
the origin and real character of these winds. Briefly, the summer 
monsoon is regarded as an anomalous diversion of the south-east trade- 
wind of the South Indian Ocean, caused by the high temperature deve- 
loped on the continent of Asia in the early summer months. But Mr. 
Blanford points out, the wind-charts of the North Indian Ocean, now in 
course of preparation, show that the south-east trade does not, as a rule, 
blow across the Equator, and changing its course from south-east to 
south and finally to south-west, pass gradually into a south-west 
monsoon. A rainy belt in the neighbourhood of the Equator exists 
throughout the year, which is fed by the south-east trades. In this 
belt the winds are very variable, blowing from all quarters ; and it is. 
only some 6° N. of the Equator that the monsoon is established as a 
comparatively steady current of wind. The monsoon, therefore (in so 
far as it is a south-weat monsoon), is drawn from a reservoir of air over 
the equatorial zone, fed by the south-east trades, but it is not the south- 
east trade wind simply diverted from its former course. Moreover, Mr. 
Blanford maintains that the Indian summer monsoon is not simply a sotUh- 
west monsoon. On the Arabian Sea, and especially beyond the tropic, 
the winds are as frequently west as south-west, and not unfrequently 
north-west ; and this is also the case on the west coast of India. The 
less southerly or the more northerly the wind, the finer is the weather 
and the smaller is the rainfall of the Bombay Presidency. According 
to Mr. Blanford, the explanation of these facts is that, at certain times,. 
a considerable portion of the air which enters into the western branch 
of the monsoon is not drawn from equatorial regions at all, but from the 
dry coasts and still drier plains and mountains to the north. In all 
years, in the summer season, this dry air famishes the greater part of 
the winds of the lower Indus Valley and Western Eajputana, and hence 
the rainlessness of this portion of Western India. As Mr. Blanford 
points out, these conclusions have a very practical bearing, and are 
certainly of much interest in connection with the physical geography 
of India and of Central Asia. 

Inflnence of Forests on Climate. — In the same report Mr. Blanford 
describes the steps which have been taken in India to discover to what 
extent forests influence the rainfall. A few observatories have been 

p 2 



establiBhed in the Ajmer© forests, and the results so far have been to 
tihow slightly but appreciably higher rainfall in the forest than with- 
out. However, it is admitted tliat more careful inquiry must be made 
before any definite Gonclusions can be drawji. Mr, Blanford points .out 
that M. WoeikofF, in a paper ou the Bubject, with special reference to 
India^ essentially supports the view which he himself regards as 

Jotimey to the Soureea of the Finke Eiver.— Mr. Charles Chewings 
has recently published in the Adelaide Observer an account of his journey 
to the sources of the Finke rivor» which baa now been issued in pamphlet 
fomip accompanied by a %^aluable map. The Finke river is tbe largest 
of all the Central Australian watercourses; it drains the whole of the 
oonntry on either side for scoria, and even hundreds of miles in some 
directions. It is sinuous in its windings, and is fringed with a wide 
belt of gum trees on either side the whole of its course. The journey 
was mado in 1885, and the distance travelled was considerably over 
5000 miles. The author hoWs that the far inland tract of Central 
Australian pastoral land is by no m(?an8, as it has been termed, a desert ; 
on the contrary, much of the country traversed w-as found to be excel- 
lently watered and well grassed. Although at times the expedition 
followed on the tracks of other travellers, a great deal of new country 
has been explored, for a description of which we must refer our readers 
to tbe authorV full and interesting account. 

Former Tegetation of Iceland, — The question of the former vege- 
tation of Iceland was dealt with at some length hy M* Fedderaen, in 
a paper recently read by him before the Geographical Society at 
Ct>penhagen, on bis explorations in the southern jiart of ^ the island* 
His discoveries in the valley of the geysers appear to falsify Dr. 
Labonne's * conclusions as to the character of the ancient vegetAtion of 
the country. M. Feddersen found there great trunks of trees which 
had been dug up from the sandy soil, showing that at one time this 
district was covered with large forests of gigantic birch trees. His 
theory, it will be remembered, is supported by the ** Sagas'* or 
hymns of the ancient Icelanders. He has also boon able to prove that 
an immense arm of tbe sea penetrated formerly into the south part of 
Iceland, but has disappeared in consequence of an upheaval of the soil. 
A curious fact noted by tbe traveller was that salmon ascend tbe 
river Elve with the warm water of the geysers* M. Feddersen confirms 
Dr. Labonne*8 observations regarding the still active character of the 

Journey across Labrador.— * The Church Missionary Intelligencer* 
for June of last year, publishes an account of a jotimey across Labrador, 
from Little Whale river to Ungava Bay, undertaken by the Eev. E» J, 

^ • Prcc. R.G.S,. 1887,p.52. 




G90GULPSIC1L 50nS. 1^ 

I^ek. one of tike C&vrck Sacktr's misEi'nuie& Mr. Ptck, with foca> 
le& lit^ WLile TiTu- OB Jnhr ITtL, iSSi, &&d after dOGsing 
part cf Bkii^Kx^i GyiIC whidi is about tlurtr* raikiB 
vUe. reftcbed a ssill irrer, asid entered a email diain of likeB lyic^ 
abovt fiait W wvi^ T^ c tm i lj i here ^vas liilly, ai>d in scvse places 
MacwTtuliiiiwi After paiffTng tlirengli azKidter diain of lakes, lying 
abos! eart ly Aorts^lkalf-i^ordi, tbe party raac^ied *- Clear Water Lake."^ 
His lake k abovt iortr milea kng, and about fifty in breadth. On 
leavxBg its noniieia dkove tber paaaed into a anall livier. The 
co antiy here v»b nveh lover than that hitherto fcen. Afto* making 
» lev portagea^ the party entered '* Seal La^^ which is about sercnty 
mile* kmg. ani which Taiies much in Ireadth, being abcmt its 
wddle qmJie narrow, in ccther places measxziing perhaps ftosn thirty 
to fifty miles brc^d, and studded with iflanofi On learing its south- 
gmttui boandazy, they entered a small rirer, and passed into a 
ixther large lake. The coontry hereaboats was xery moantaino«is. 
T^ remainder of the jommey was aooomplisbed by following the course 
of the zirer to Fort Chimo, one of the Hiidsi?ti's Bay Company's posts, 
ITngsim Bay, where they arziTed on the llth of AngnsL 

Xxvor, XraxiL — The Xingn rixer and its sources are to be the 
aeene of farther exploratioDS by Dr. Karl tx>q den Steinen, the enter* 
prising tzsTeDer whose Talnable journey in IBSl, in the same region, we 
ikodatd at aosae length in the number oi oar * Prcceedings' for August 
lasL The present expedition includes Herr W. t. d. Steinen, who aooom- 
panied the former party. Dr. P. Ehrenrdch, known to geographers by his 
trsTfls on the Bio Booe (Brazil), and Dr. P. TcgeL who with Dr. K. 
T-. d. Steinen formod part of the German mission to Sovith Geucgia. 
The expedition left Germany on 25th Jannaiy last em remit for Coyahs, 
which win again be the starting-paini. The efforts of the party will be 
directed to the more complete surrey of the three important river 
sooroes of the Xingn, e^^ecialhrc^ the eastern arm, the EnliseiL Another 
important fioatare of ihe work of the expedition will be the study of 
those Indian tribes whidi still remain nntooched by ciTilisation ; among 
these Dr. ron Steinen intends to make a long stay. 

Suiieji. — ^An extract from a report presented to 
the Braziliaa Goremment on the work of the Commission (IST^IS^) 
appointed to determine the boundaries between Br&zQ and Yenei:iiela on 
the Upper Xegro and Bio feanoo, is published in the ^ Zeitschrift ' (No. 4) 
of the Geographical Society of Berlin. The report, which was drawn np 
by Lieitt.-Colonel F. de Aranjo, not only gives the results of the sanrey 
as regards the bonndary line, bat contains geogr^hical and topo- 
graphical information of the highest importanoe, which has led to the 
rectification of the coarses of the nnmeroas tribataiies of the Bio Xegro 
and BioBrukoo. A m^ on the scale 1 : 1,200,000 aooompanies the report. 



.Another bonndarj survey is comiaeiicmg operations at tlie oppoeite 
extremity of the Empire, The QoTemmetits of Brazil and the Argen- 
tine Republic agreed some time ago to the appointment of a united 
oommiBaioa to explore and thoroughly eurvey the boundary territory 
between the two countries, with the view to a friendly settlement 
of the lino of frontier. After a long delay the CommisBion has got 
to work. It includes M, J- L. Gannendia, Pr. A, Seelstrang, the 
well-known cartographer, M. Y. Virasoro, sunreyor, and M* G. Niederlein, 
who has charge of the geographical and natural history part of the 
work. The operations of this oommifision are expected to extend over 
nearly two years, and will donbleea add much to our knowledge of the 
geography of South America. 

Sir Charles M. MacGregor.*--Sir Charles MacGregor was the son of Major 
Robert Guthrie MacGregoFj Bengal Artillery, and grandson of Major-General James 
MacGre;i;or, Bengal Cavalry, of tbe MacGregors of Glen gyle, his mother being a 
daughter of General Archibald WaUon, o.b., Bengal Cavalry. He was bom at Agra 
on the 12lh Aiiguat, 1840, so that at the date of liia death he waa in his forty* 
seFentli year. He was educated at Marlborough^ and entered the Bengal Army at 
pjthe very early age of sixteen* He reached India just in time to take his tihare in 
the events of the Mutiny, and exhibited his soldierly qualities early in his career. 
He waa present in no leea than fifteen actlooe, besiden the siege and capture of 
Lucknow, and was twice wounded. His distinguished courage marked him eren 
then, and many feats of pluck and endurance are recorded of him» His next cam- 
paign was in Chiua, where he was twice wounded in the action at Sin-ho, He was 
then serving witk the 19th Bengal Cavalry (Fane*s Horee), and there was not, in that 
distinguiahed regiment, a better s^jecimen of the ** beau sabreur " than Charles 
MacGregor, His chivalrous nature, which always prompted Mm to take the part of 
the weak against the stmng, and his outtipoken plainness of speech were a little apt 
to place him occasionally in a position antagonistic to the interests of military 
discipline, and, it may be added^ to bis own interests also. It is said (but with 
what truth I cannot tell) that his gallantry in action during tbe China campaign 
would have won for him the Victoria Cross, a distinction which he covet«d above 
all others, but for his outspoken profession of faith in the innocence of a tr(.x)i>er 
whom he considei-ed to be unjustly punished, 

Tt was PS Brigade-Major and Deputy- Assist ant Quartermastcr-Getieral in Bhutan 
(1864-66) that I first made his acquaintance, when he had an excellent opportunity 
for indulging hia passion for acquiring new geographical iDformalion, and filling up 
biank sjiaces in maps. The two columns which advanced into the Bhutan Hills 
were widely separated hy a strip of intervening hilbcountry, densely covered with 
jungle, and skirted by the pkins and forests of the ** Dears,*' about which very little 
waa then known* It was thought iiossible that between the two hases of operations 
at Buia and Dcwangiri, a tbird route migbt be found lead tog more directly to 


• By Lieut-Colonel T. H. Holdieh^ b.e. 

OBlTUARr, 196 

i'linakha, the capital of Bhutan. MacGregor accompanied the survey parties in 
ezplofing for it, and acquired much valuable information about this remote region. 
He was again wounded in Bhutan, at the actions of Dalimkote and Bala, and 
obtained a breret for his gallantry. 

We next met in Abyssinia, where he was actively employed on the Staff, and 
was one of the lucky few who were present at the action of Arogi and the capture 
of Magdala. Although Abyssinia offered an exceptionally fine field for geographical 
research, from the fact that the line of route followed during the advance to Magdala 
was pnustically the main line of watershed between the Nile basin and the Red Sea, 
it was not possible to carry out explorations very far, partly owing to the rapidity 
with which the expedition progressed, and partly to our somewhat insecure relations 
with the various tribes through whose territory we passed. MacQregor*s hands were 
too full of work just then for him to have much leisure for his favourite pursuit. 
He oontinoed on Staff employ after the Abyssinian expedition till 1874, and was 
appointed Director of Military Transport during the Tuhut famine. 

In 1869 Colonel MacGregor married Fanny, daughter of Sir Heniy Durand, the 
Lieatenant-Govemor of the Punjab. It was her death that prompted his first 
wanderings in Persia in 1875, which resulted in his book called ' Journey through 

At the time when he undertook this journey our geographical knowledge of 
KhoiaaBan was exceedingly limited, whibt the interest that was attached to this 
portion of Persia and to the north-western districts of Afghanistan was daily 
becoming intensified owing to the gradual encroachments of Russia towards the 
Pernan and Afghan border. The book appeared just when it was wanted, and for 
several years Macgregor was imdoubtedly our best authority on the geography of 
the vague regions of the Afghan boundary. He travelled right across Persia, passing 
through Shiraz, Yezd, and Birjand, to the Afghan border, at that time infested with 
Turcoman raiders ; and it was not without considerable risk, and many amusing 
adventures, that he made his way over the border to Pahra, from which place he 
purposed to pay Herat a visit. In this, however, he was disappointed, for, although 
he reached a village within a few miles only of the city, he was allowed to proceed 
DO further. It was reserved to the Engineer officers of the Boundary Commission 
twelve yean later to be the firat to enter Herat since the days of Pottinger. Mac- 
Gregor was shown out of Afghan territory with more decision than politeness, but 
he acquired a great deal of most important information ere he left, and we owe it to 
him Uiat the question of the strategical value of the Herat valley and of Sarakhs 
(which he afterwards visited) was discussed with something approaching to accurate 
knowledge of the existing state of those positions. This is no place to discuss the 
soundness or otherwise of his views. ; | The strong point about the man's character 
was that he always determined to form his opinions at firat hand, to see for himself 
and to speak plainly of what he saw, without much thought of delicate suscepti- 
bilities ; and it follows that his opinions will always command the respect of those 
who wish to learn the truth from the most authentic sources. 

A yeai^s rest after this most adventurous journey was enough to prepare him for 
yet another series of explorations in the uninviting deserts of Baluchistan. In 
company with Captain Lock wood he started from Gwadur, on the Mekran coast, on 
the 1st January, 1877, and the two together contrived, by occasionally following 
divergent routes, to explore a most uninviting waste of mostly desert country 
between the sea-coast and the Helmund. MacGregor followed the Pasni route vi& the 
Kej valley to Panjgur, where he joined Lock wood, who had taken a more direct line 
from Gwadur. They then made their way across the Baluchistan desert to Zirreh, 
during which part of their journey they encountered terrible hardships from want 



of water, ODly twice finding a drinkable supply during a fortTiight of their jo 
They Bepa ratal again at Lai Khan Cbah, Lock wood returning to India hy the now 
well-known route passinj; through Clmgeh, Xashki» aud Mastaug; and MacGregor 
making his way through the Brahui country to Sohrab and the Mula Pass. 

In 1878-79-80, Colonel MacGregor found coDgenial employment in AfghauiBtan. 
He was «p[x>inteti Deputy-Qunrtermaster-General on the line of the Khaibar com- 
munication during the firijt ]>ha9c of iho Afghan campaign, and took his share in the 
operationii in the Bazar and Jellfllabad valleys. After the massacre of Cavaguari aud 
his escort at Kabul, when Sir F. Roberta again took the field, MacGregor was with 
liim, and shared in the succeRs of Charasia and the rapid advance on Kabul. There 
was a day in December 1879 when his distinguished courage again brought him to 
the front. There had l>een an action near Kila Kazi in the Chard eh plain to the west 
of Kabul, the result of which had been to le^ve some British guns hard and fast, well 
wedged into certain inconvenient irrigation channels, which barred their progress as 
they were withdrawn towards Sherpur afier the action-waa over. It was MacGregor 
who undertook to extricate them in face of the enemy, and h© accomplished his 
pur|>Ofie with his usual resolution. Soon after this, Sherpur was besieged, and never 
did MacGregor appear happier in all his life than during those ten uncertain days 
whea we were awaitin;:; the beacon to be lit on the Asniai Hille, which was to be the 
signal for the attack on JShcrpur, At such times as those a confident soldier like 
MacGregor was indeed a lower of strength. When Sir F, Roberts made his march 
from Kabul to Kandahar, MacGregor obtained command of the 3rtl Infantry brigade, 
and assisted at the action of the 18th September, when Ayub Khau^a forces were 
finally dispersed. Subsequently he commanded the Mari field force and conducted a 
most successful little carapaij-n of his own against the Mariis. Fur his disttuguished 
services as Chief of the Staff tt^ Sir F. Roberts and Sir D. Stewart he was made c.u, 
in 1879 and kx.d. in 1881, having been nominated €.s.r. in 1874 and c.i.e. in 1878. 
He was Quartermflster-Gcneral with the rank of Major-Geueral in the East Indies 
from 1880 to 1885, when he was appointed to the command of the Punjab Frontier 
Force. He was the author of several workH of a military character, besides his books 
uu Khoras^an and Baluchistan, To the end of his life he never oeased to preach 
the doctrine of " pre p.a ration,*' aud his notes of warning will not soon die away, By 
hia death England bos lost one of her foremost soldiers, a leader whose aame was as 
greatly respected as that of Sir Herbert Macpheraon, bis countryman, who passed 
away so shortly before him* The loss of two auch men at such a time is indeed & 
bitter blow for India, 

ColoEel Sir J. V, Batemaa Champam, E.E.'— Colonel Sir John Underwood 
Bateman Chamixiin, who died at Han Remo on the Ist February, vrm an ofHcer of the 
Royal Engineers (Bengal), and son of Colonel Agnew Champain of the 9th (Norfolk) 
Begiment. At the period of bis decease, he had been for some seventeen years 
Birector-in-Chief of the Government Indo-Euroi>ean Telegraph. Born in London on 
the 22nd July, 1835, he received his early education at Cheltenham School, where 
he remained a pupil from 184G to 1849. Entering subsequently the Military 
College at Addiscombe, he soon becjime one of its most distinguished cadets, and 
eventually j^asaed out head of his term— a position he had held uninterruptedly from 
the day of entrance. His commisaion dates from the llth June, 18o3* Within 
four years after his arrival in India, the Mutiny broke out, and Chnmpain*s services 
at that critical epoch are such as to warrant recapitulation. 

Early on the 12th May, 1867, a sowar rode into Rurki bringing the news of the 

* By Mftjoi-General Sir Frederic Goldsmid, k.c,b,i. 

. OBITUARY. 197 

oatbceak at Meerat. Captain Fraser, commanding the Sappers and Miners there, 
that very day marched his regiment to the scene of disturbance ; and Lieutenant 
Champain, then acting for Lieutenant Chesney as Assistant Principal of the 
Thomaaon College, with his Principals approval, volunteered, and was permitted tu 

On the 16th May, at Meerut, a large proportion of these very Sappers mutinied, 
and Captain Fraser was shot dead at his own encampment. Champain assisted in 
carrying him to hospital, and the next day was appointed adjutant of the corps, vice 
Lieutenant Mannsell, who assumed command. Most of the men present in the 
lines when the mutiny took place ran off to Delhi ; but from working parties absent 
at the time, and a few individuals who remained faithful in the midst of temptation, 
a body of some 300 sepoys was formed, which nucleus was afterwards reinforced from 
Uurki, The carbines of these men were taken from them ; but when ten days 
ifterwards General Wilson determined to march on Delhi, the native sappers were 
re-armed, and Lieutenant Champain testified that during his adjutancy their conduct 
was most exemplary, nor was there one deserter among them throughout the 

lieutenant Champain was present at both actions on the Hindun river under 
General Wilson, and at Badli-ke-Sarai and the capture of the heights before Delhi 
under General Barnard. Regimental adjutant during the whole siege, he further 
undertook the duties of field and assistant-field engineer, not having bad probably, for 
three months, one whole night in bed. He was specially thanked in onlers by General 
Barnard for rapidly constructing an urgently required battery, afterwards designated 
*• Champain's,*' by written instructions of Colonel Baird Smith. Never absent for 
one hour from duty through sickness or any other cause, he was employed either to 
superintend or assist in the construction of, without exception, every single battery 
thrown up during the whole siege. On the 13th September he was wounded, but 
while on the sick-list, owing to the number of Engineer officers incapacitated, he 
volunteered for duty, and was present at the capture of the Palace. 

Lieutenant Maunsell's wounds having necessitated his departure to the hills. 
Lieutenant Champain succeeded to the command of the Sappers, and was in that 
position on the march to Agra and seven or eight minor expeditions in the vicinity, 
including the capture of Fathpur Sikri. He further commanded a small force of 
nearly 2000 men, including Sappers, 2l8t Panjab Infantry, two guns, and a detach- 
ment of Hodson's Horse and 9th Lancers, on the march from Agra to Fathgarh, 
where he joined the Commander-in-Chief in November or December 1857. He con- 
tinued to command the Sappers, numbering some 500, on the march to Cawnpore 
and the Alambagh, returning to his post of adjutant on the return of Lieutenant 
Maunsell in March 1858. He was present at the final capture of Lucknow, twice 
acting as Sir Robert Napier's orderly officer, with Lieutenant Elliot Brownlow, who 
was killed when associated with him in this duty. 

Major Champain was thanked specially in orders by Sir Robert Napier for 
having, with Captain Medley and 100 sappers, held for a night the Shah Najif, an 
advanced post of great strength, abandoned by eight companies of the 53rd on 
account of its remoteness from the army. Assisting to prepare the plan of the siege 
for submission to the Commander-in-Chief, he was ordered by Sir Colin Campbell, 
after the capture of Lucknow, to erect fortified posts for outlying detachments of 
police and regular infantry. Of these he completed about twenty. He was present 
at fourteen or fifteen minor engagements under Colonel Walter and others, and was 
thanked in a despatch by Captain MacMullin for services rendered in a rather severe 
afiair near Balia. He was the only Engineer officer employed at the capture of 
Jagdispur, where probably more than 10,000 troops were engaged under Sir John 



Douglas ; and lie was partictilnrly recommendeil by that officer in his final despatch. 
He joined in pursiiifc of the rebels to tbe Kaimiir bills, aiid when matters looked 
more quiet, he was appointed Executive Engineer of Goiidab. Hence be was trans- 
ferred to Lnclinow, of wbicb station be was Executive Enj^ioeer till ordered to 
Persia with Major Patrick Stewart in 1862 on special duty connected with tbe 
pro|J08ed telegraph to connect India with England/ 

The story of the ludo-Enropean Telegraph, diveHte<l of its ** blvie-bookislmess " 
and official belongings, h full of interest and adventure, and in it are no two drumaih 
personm more prominent tlmn Stewart and Champain. Of tbcir maoy brother- 
ufiicers and friends, tliero aro doubtless some living who remember them when 
ttissociatetl in the preliminary oi^anisation of tbta great enterprise : first in India, 
taldng imtruclioDs in Calcutta and making inquiries at Karachi — then in Persia, 
travelling upwartl fn>ni Busbahr through the wliole length of tbe country to certify 
the status — then in London, at home, but not at rest. Here indeed, now moits than 
twenty- three years aj^o, in a small room on theground-floor of a hovise in Lower Bclgravc 
Street, tbe two young Engineers might have been found at a table covered with 
papers, deep . in the consideration of eontracts and estimates, charts and charter- 
parties, plans and 8^>ecifications, together witli the numerous and various questions 
involved in the vast undertaking committed to Stewarts charge by the Indian 
Government and Secretary of State for India. After some busy months in London, 
Lieutenant Champain left England ngain fur Persia in September 18G3, tmvelling vii 
the Danube and Tiflis, and reaching "J ehran on the 20tb October. Quitting the Shah*s 
capital cm the 3rd NovembL*r, he was at Bushahr on tho 17th of tbe same month. At 
this place he met Captain MuriJoch Smith and tbe non-commissioned oflicera of tbe 
Itoyal Engineers, witli whom ho returned to Tehran* Those acquainted with the local 
geography will admit the distances traversctl to be considerable, to say nothing of the 
character of tlie country ; and it is to be taken into acenunt that Champain had 
before, in tho previous year, performed the jonmey from Tehran to IjOiidon, by 
Baghdad, Alepi^o, and Alexandrctta, \\'hile his assistant was engaged in con- 
Btructing the coast-lines in Persia [and to tho Turco-Persian frontier, Stewart had 
returned to ISombay and Karaclii, and embarked from the latter port to lay down 
the line of submarine lelegiaph westward. 

In January 18G5, when the cable connecting Karachi with the little station at 
the head of the Persian Gulf had been for some months at work, and when the 
Tm?oo-Persian link with the Euroi>eaa system was within an ace of completion — 
Stewart, worn out with sickness and anxiety, died at Constantinople* Por the next 
five years Champain remained the Inic and loyal colleague of the prest-nt writer, 
ap tainted to succeed his tuiTuer chief; ;\nd it would be no easy matter to render 
justice to the zeal and abiliiy which he displayed in seeking to remove the obstacles 
which daily and hourly presented themselves to successful organisation of Indo- 
Europt^in trafhc. Not only was it nocessar}' to set in working order the materials 
given over to the hands of Biittsh officers, but also to remedy the gross defects 
apijarent in the many sections of tho long overkud line outside their control. To 
accomphsh botli these ends he stoutly and heartily laboured. He was an earnest 
advocate for securing tlie co-operation of the late Sir William Siemens, a satbfactory 
understanding with whose Comjxiny (the Indo-European) was brought about mainly 
by the exercise of his good common-aenfle and judgment. In 1870 he himself became 
the sole director of the whole Government section^ comprising tbe Persian Land, and 
the PersiaaGnif Submarine Line; and to bis careful and energetic superintondenoe, 

* The above outline of Sir John C bam pain's Indian services is obtained from tbe 
preaent writer** own volume of ^Telegfaph and Travel* (Mscmillan, ISTi). 


md tbe adminbie amngements of ** the Indo-European Company,^ may be attri- 
Inted die marked snecess whidi theoombined OTeriaDd Telegra{^ to India has siuce 
achieTed, and for idiich it has loi^ been diatingoished. Now that the inter- 
oommTuucatioQ of East and West by electric wire is an amompiished ^i of old date, 
and that the Orerland Line has been anpplemented by a Red Sea route, the widely- 
uttered complaint at the lack of such adTantages— which naturally became a ^ bitter 
cry " during the In<Uan Mutinke — is a comparatiTely forgotten incident, and the 
labour which effiscted the desired object is regarded by the multitude as a mere 
mechanical opention, or at best confounded with the deposition of an ordinary ocean 
cable, and setting up posts and wires in the lands of civilised Europe. But the work 
was really one of the highest importance and magnitude, and the names of John 
Champaxn,^ Murdoch Smith, OliTer St John, William Henry Pierson^ and others, will 
be honourably and lastingly connected with its recoid. 

The dfgaeased officer's last important outdoor duty was the submersion of a new 
guttapercha cable, more than 500 miles in length, from Jask to Bushahr — an opera- 
tioQ wfaidi he personally superintended in 1885, proceeding to India on its completion, 
and returning to England in 1886, to receiTe the well-deserved honour of knighthood 
by admianoQ into the order of St Michael and St George. Sixteen years before, he 
had performed a similar service in laying an indiarubber caUe between the same 
two pcnnt^ and under signally difficult circumstances. The steamer bearing him 
to India was wrecked in the Red Sea (the cable ship had already suffered from a 
serious collision in the Channel) ; and wind and weather offered strong but, happily, 
ineffectual opposition to the accomplishmoit of the work itself. There is no saying 
to what extent the many vicissitudes he underwent *' by flood and field " contributed 
to break; his originally fine constitution and physique, and to cause that fatal 
asthmatic affection which painfully characterised his later days. 

Cdcnel Pat^^an Champain has been enrolled among the Fellows of the Royal 
Geographical Society since 1874, and was elected a member of its Council in 1883. 
His paper on the '^ Various means of communication between Central Persia and the 
Sea,^ read at the Evening Meeting of the 15th January, 1883, provoked an interesting 
diacusabn, and is a valuable contribution to voL v. of the * Proceedings* (New Series). 
later in the same year, another paper of his, on '* Trade Routes of Persia," was read 
before the Society of Arts and published in its JoumaL In 1879 he filled the 
Presidential Chair of the Society of Telegraph Engineers, and delivered the opening 
address of ^the session. His official reports, as well as all his writings, are lucid and 
well expressed, and had he been less chary of anything like display, he might have 
become distinguished for literary power. Let it be added that he was an artist of 
no mean capacity, as many of his well-executed sketches and paintings would 

His many and long journeys, his interesting adventures, his diplomatic negotia- 
tiooa in Europe and Asia, his experience of men and nationalities, would alone have 
sufficed to make him socially popular ; but his genial disposition, his keen apprecia- 
tion of right and wrong, his kindliness of heart and warmth of attachment, his sense 
of himiour, but extreme oonsidemtion — these were Nature's qualities — qualities which 
he possessed in an eminent degree, and which, wherever exercised, could not fail to 
impart brightness and inspire affection. With a central figure such as this, it seems 
hard, in a worldly sense, to associate the gloom of sickness and death. But the 
picture has no uncommon features. Man's wishes are not the laws of Providence. 
" Work well done " is a conclusion in arriving at which human testimony has a certain 
value, and such has been readily and richly tendered in the present instance. How 

* The name of ^ Bateman** was a prefix of recent years. 



geoeral haa bcfcn the consenaiis in this respect may be inferred from tbe fad that tlio 
Shah of Persia, who had but two or three years ago left the path of stern Oriental 
precedent to confer a sword of honour on C'hampain, has now further deviated from 
that path by the despatch of a personal telegram of condolence to his fntniiy. 

His remains were interred at San Kemo, in the English cemetery, on the hill- 
side—a beautiful spot overhanging the Mediterranean shore, such as hU fine taste 
would have once delighted to sketch on paper. Beloved in his domestic relations, and 
estimated by others as just described, what more may now Im said regarding him 
in a brief obituary notice? Beyond the threshold reached, all else la too sacred for 
the pen of tlie writer. 

A. W. Moore, C.B.* — Mr. Adolphns W. Moore, c.b., recently appointed 
Politicftl and Secret Secretjiry at the India Office, died on Febmary 2nd, aged 
forty-seven, at Monaco, where he had gone to recruit his health. Mr. Moore wa* 
the son of Major John Arthur Moore, some time a Director of the East India 
Company, He was brounrht up at Harrow, and went straight from school into the 
India Office when about seventeen. In 1874, he joined the Political Department. 
In 1875, he was appointed Assistant Secretary, and during the absence in India of 
liis chief, Sir Owen Bnrne, from 1876 to 1878, acted as Political Secretary* Jn 1885 
he retired from the office, but the Conservatives coming into fx>wer almost on the 
same day, he was invited aimultaneonaly to become secretary to Lord Salisbury and to 
Lord Randolph Chnrchilh Lord Randolph Churchill was then Secretary of State for 
India, and Mr. Moore preferred the post which kept him in connection with his old 
work. He remained that statesman's official or private secretary, in or out of 
oiBce, until Lord Randolph's recent resignation of the Chancellorship of the 
Exchequer, when Mr, Moore received the appointment which, so far as he had any 
personal ambition except for opportunities of useful work, had no doubt been the 
object of his life* 

Mr. A, W. Moore had a vast store of departmental experience and information. 
But these are ordinary official qualities ; and he was much more than an ordinary 
official. He had a rare faculty of marshalling facts, recognising their relative im- 
portance, and drawinj; from them statesmanlike conclusions. These conclusions he 
expressed in t^rms of admirable lucidity. Hia mind had something of a judicial 
quality, and his comj>asitionfi had on the reader rather the effect of an exhaustive 
and impartial sumniiDg-up, than of an advocate's ar^mcnt in favour of the line of 
policy they set out. His premature death may, without any exaggeration, be said 
to be a loss to the nation, as well as to his office and the Indian Council » the members 
of which folly appreciated his services. 

But it is chiefly as a traveller that we have here to speak of Mr* Moore, and it 
was as a traveller that I first made his acquaintanoe. In 1H67, 1 went to him with 
my plans for a journey in the heart of the Caucasian chain, and easily persuaded 
him to be one of ray companions. In tho following year we spent three months 
together, making the first ascents of Kaxbek and Elbruz. In 1H74, Mr, Moore 
returned to the Caucasus with three other members of the Alpine Club, In these 
two journeys, both sides of 120 miles of the snowy chain were visited, the chain 
itself crossed by many passes previously unknown to Englishmen, and, as a conse- 
quence, intelligible dtscripiions of its i>eaks, passes, and glaciers laid for tho first 
time before English readers. Mr, Mooro was an admirable travelling companion. 
His energy was equal to his endurance. He developed tinder difficulties a quaint 

By Mr. Dotiglas W. FrcslifieR 


and inspiriting humour. He combined a boyish and playful egotism in small 
things with a readiness for serious self-sacrifice when he thought it called for. 

His official duties naturally stood in the way of his indulgence in distant travel. 
But twenty years ago his name was familiar as one of the leaders of the Alpine Club 
in the exploration of the part of Europe above the snow-level. He was one of the 
first climbers of the Pointe des l^rins, the highest peak of the Dauphin^ Alps, of 
Piz Roseg in the Ober Eogadin, of the Gabelhom near Zermatt. He had a share in 
opening many of the now famous glacier passes of the High Alps, the Sesia Joch, 
the Morning Pass, the Jungfran Joch, the Br^che de la Meije. He paid a great deal 
of court to Mont Blanc He forced a new way up it by the Brenva Glacier, he 
walked up it with only one guide, he walked over it from Courmayeur to Chamonix 
within the twenty-four hours. There was frequently something original and 
audacious about his Alpine feats. With his constant companion Mr. Horace Walker, 
h« invented winter mountaineering, a recreation which has led to the discovery of 
some curious and unlocked for meteorological facts. He would go off for Christmas 
to the Dolomites or to Dauphin^. Of late years his favourite holiday was a fort- 
night's walk over Alpine passes and through Italian valleys in October, a season he 
rightly maintained to be far more beautiful than midsummer. He loved scenery 
as much as climbing, and would descant with equal emphasis on the glories of Mont 
Blanc or of Yal Onsernone, one of the exquisite glens that open on Lago Maggiore 
near Locarno. 

Mr. Moore never published any volume. Scattered papers by him, all remark- 
able for clear and forcible description, may be found in the earlier volumes of the 
'Alpine Journal.* For various reasons he left his Caucasian journeys to others 
to describe.^ But his friends possess, and value highly, a privately printed volume, 
'The Alps in 1864,' which contains a spirited and entertaining narrative of his 
most successful and adventurous alpine campaign, carried out in company with 
Messrs. Whymper and Walker. For three years he acted as Hon, Secretary of the 
Alpine Club, and had only a few weeks ago declined its Presidency. One of the old 
mottoes of that body was 

** Jaoundnm vertice mentis 
Yesci aur& ffithereA et dextram conjangero dextrsQ.*' 

There are many who will miss, both in the mountains and at home, the hearty 
grasp of the old friend and comrade who has so suddenly and so prematurely been 
taken from us. 


Fifth Meeting, January Slat, 1887. — General R. Strachey, r.e., f.r.s., 
Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Elections. — Frederic Gorell Barnes, Esq, ; liev. Canon Walter Beck ; B, 
BiekneU, Esq. ; Charles Ernest Clarke, Esq. ; Thomas Cecil Curwen, Esq, ; Lieut. 
Arthur Moftyn Field, b.n. ; Walter Bernard Hamilton, Esq., b.a. ; John Hender- 
son, Esq,; MaJor-OeneraZ H, Hyde,n,E,; George Harvey Johnston, Esq,; James 

Wilson Johnston, Esq, ; Frank J, Leslie, Esq. ; Bev, Daniel Orenville Lewis ; 
Pn^essor Ralph Waldo Emerson Mac Ivor ; Capt, Htnry St, Patrick Maxvjell, 

(Beng. Staflf Corps) ; Charles Griffith Nuttall, Esq, ; Kelson Provoer, Esq,, m.a. ; 

• See FresWIeld's « Central Caucasus,' 1869, and Grove's • Frosty Caucasus,* 1875, 


Rev, WiUiam Jos. SmttA; CapL tht^ Uon. M. G. Talhot, r,e. ; Edwd, Wcdla^, 
E^q,y M.D, ; Eohcrt Augustus Warren^ Estj. ; J, Beau^hamp Waimn^ Esq. 

Peesen'tatioxs.— IFiY^mm Martin^ Esq. ; A, JI, Burtmif Esq, ; D, M» Hobertsan 
Maedonaldf Esq. 

The Emtk Pasha Belief Expedition. 

At the comiT^encemcDt of tlie meetmg tlie Clmirman announced tliat ft letter bad 
Iwen Teceivprl from Mr. W, JIackinnon, President of the Managing Committee of 
the Emia Pfiiiba Helief Expedition, tlianking the Council uf the Society for the con- 
tribution of 1000/. Ihey had made to the funds of the. Expedition, and saying how 
greatly the Comraitteo appreciated the coiirteay and lil)orality of tlie Society in this 
matter. He added that it was understood that all new geographical information 
which miglit be obtained by Mr. Stanley during the progress of the expedition 
towards Emin Pashas headquarters, and on the journey back, should be com- 
municated to the Society immediately on receipt^ for publication V>y them. 

The subject of the evening was an address by IL J, Mackinder, Esq.^ b. 
(Oxford), on the Scope and Methods of Geography. 

The address was illaatrated by diagrams and typical geographical views projected 
on a Bcreen by means of the dioptric lentern and lime light. At its close the 
nhairman announced that the discussion on the address was adjourned to the next 
meeting, February 14th. 

VidCf anU^ address and disciiBsion, p. 141. 


SiXtJi Meetiuff^ Fehrimri/ 14ili, lf!87*— General E. Stkachey, r,e., f, 
Yice-President, in the Chair. 

Elections — Oeorge E. Aslcwith^ Esq,; WiUiam Alphetts Jliggs, Esq.; Ba^ 
Lindsay^ Esq, ; J, W. Lindt, Esq. ; James Pankhurst, Esq. ; Capt. W» C, Speed'^' 
i'ng; Whitworth WalliStEsq.; Henry Milner Whiie^ E$q,^ m.a. j Frederick Wf 
WHkotkSf Esq.f j,p. ; Samvd JViUiammmt Esq, 

Pre,se>'tations.— T. C. Curwen, ET>q. ; RfP, Wm. J, Smtth, 
The evening was occupied by the adjourned discussion on Mr. H. J, Mackinder's 
adtlreM on " The Scope and Methods of Geography.** Antef p. 160. 



GeograpMcal Society of Paris.— January 7th, 1887 ; M. A. Gebmafs in the 
Chair.— The Minister of Public Instruction informed the Society that the Govern- 
roent had decided to coatribnte the mm of 241. (GOO francs) towards defraying the 
cost of the publication of the maps accompauyiDg M. Dutreuil de Rhina' work on 
Thibet, The General Secretary alluded to the great geographical imi>ortance of 
this work.*— JL R. du Caillaud forwarded a copy of the ' Missions Catholiques ' 
(12th Nov. 1886), containing an excellent map, by the late M, Lombard, of the 
Foreign Missions, of the course of the Lower Mekong. — A communication from 
M, Hangsen Blangsted was read, giving some notes from a paper reatl by M. 
Feddersen before the Geographical Society of Copenhagen upon bis journey 
to Iceland, — The Secretary read a letter from Whl, Capus and Bonvalot, dated 
6th Sept, from Samarcand. — Dr. Vaume sent a report of his journey from Keshd to 


Hamadan.^-Tbo series of photographic views of the region of Lake Eelbiah (Tonis) 
preseDted at a recent meeting, was the subject of a communication by Dr. Bouire, 
whose explorations they illustrated. He gave some explanatory notes of interest on 
this little known district. With reference to the exact locale of the ancient Lake 
Triton, M. A. du Paty de Clam transmitted an extract from a work to be published 
shortly, in which he opposes 9r. Rouire's theory. — M. K. AUain took occasion to 
refer at some length to the journey accomplished some time ago by M. Foureau from 
Uargla (Algerian Sahara) to the district of El Erg, by a route not previously 
traversed by any European. The traveller reached a point situated in Sl° 10' N. lat. 
and 3** 15' long. E. Everywhere along the route he came across vestiges of an ancient 
civilisation and former human habitations. At intervals natural springs were dis- 
covered and artificial wells. In the opinion of M. Foureau the route was well adapted 
for a railway. — ^The Minister of Foreign Affairs had received from the French Consul 
at Buenos Ayres, a letter announcing the despatch by the Argentine (Government of a 
mission to explore the territory of Patagonia. — The Society received from M. Comejo 
a memoir by Dr. J. F. Velarde, giving the substance of a paper read by him before the 
Geographical Society of Kio Janeiro, on the hydrography of some of the least ktown 
parts of Bolivia. — ^The Chairman announced that M. J. Martin, a French traveller 
who has spent five years in traversing Eastern Siberia, was present at the meeting. 
Having conducted some investigations for a largo Russian Mining Company, 
M. Martin had proceeded to visit some of the unexplored portions of Siberia. 
Skirting the south-west comer of Lake Baikal, he travelled northwards to the 60th 
parallel ; then turning south, he descended the Amur and traversed Mongolia and 
Manchuria. He crossed the Trans- Baikal region twice. The Chairman stated that 
the topographical service of the Russian stafif were about to publish the traveller's 
admirable itineraries. M. Martin, at the invitation of M. Germain, briefly addressed 
the meeting and promised to give an account of his journey at an early meeting of 
the Society. — In conclusion M. W. Ruber read a paper on the piercing of the 
Siraplon, M. Huber was one of the committee of experts charged to report upon this 
enterprise, and was able therefore to give very precise and interesting information. 
ITie Committee had pronounced in favour of a tunnel with double lines, which, with 
a length of about 11} miles, would take six years to bore, working at the rate of about 
twelve feet a day. The advantages of the Simplou route, as compared with that of 
the St Gothard and Mont Cenis, were then dwelt on by M. Ruber. A discussion 
followed the paper, in which the Chairman and others took part. 

January 21st, 1887 : M. Jannsen, of the Institute, in the Chair. — The 

Chairman announced that the Bureau of the Central Commission bad been recon- 
structed for the year 1887, as follows: — President, M. Janssen, of the Institute 
(Academy of Sciences) ; Vice-Presidents, MM. Dr. Ramy and W. Huber ; General 
Secretary, M. Maunoir ; Assistant-Secretary, M. J. Giraud. — M. G. Marcel called 
attention to several ancient maps in the library of Arcachon, and suggested that the 
Society should ask the Minister of Public Instruction to have a general inventory 
prepared of all documents of this description in the possession of the various public 
libraries of the kingdom. — ^The Secretary read a letter received by the Commercial 
Geographical Society of Madrid from M. Julio C. Baviera, an ofiicer in the Spanish 
navy, giving an account of his explorations in Western Sahara in connection with 
the mission with which he was charged by that Society. Re started from Madrid 
on 1st April, 1886, accompanied by Don Francisco Quiroga, professor of Natural 
History, and Don Felipe Rizzo, as interpreter. In the course of his travels he 
traversed the territories of Ed-Dajla, Guerguer, Aatf, Ar-Rak, An-Hanfrit, Tisnik, 
the plateau of Tivis, Sriyik, Teninlek, lyil, and Ansert. He explored several hun- 
dred miles of hitherto unknown country, a large portion of which he surveyed. 



Dr, Quiroga waa able to make valuable notes on the meteorology, geology > flora, ^'c*, 
of the rpgion. The rigour of the climate, the hostility and fanaticism of the natives, 
made travelling extremely hazardous. The expedition returned to Spain on 
16th August.— The Minister for Foreign Affairs communicated a report from 
H. ITaffray, French Consul at Zanzibar, on the explorations of Dr. Junker, Ac- 
eording to this report, which does not enter into detafis, the most important diacovery 
made by the traveller in his seven years' travels is in coEiiection with the Welle or 
Makua, Br. Junker believes that the opinion hitherto generally accepted that the 
Welle, under the name of the Aruwimi, ia a tributary of the Congo, is errtmeoui?. 
After the bend which the Welle makes in Monbuttn-land in about 4** N* lat. antl 
27*^ E, long., the river, Uifitead of deacending to the south to rejoin the Congo in 
2PE. long, and 1*^ N, lat,, tuma ngain to the north. Tiie traveller encountered the 
river between 5*^ and €° north and 20*^ and 22<* east, and conjectures that It runs 
north into Lake Chad, |>ossibly under the name of the Shari. He is of opinion that 
the Nepoko, lying much more souths which takes its rise among the mountains weat 
of Albert Nyanza, is really an affluent of the Congo. Ihe Bokomandi in the south, 
and the Uerro in the north, are tributaries of the Welle. The former riaes among 
the same mountains as the Nepoko. The result of Dr, Junker*a discoveries and hypo- 
theses would be to fix the limit of the Congo basin much more to the south. With 
regard to the navigability of tlie Welle, the traveller states that in Monbuttn-land, 
tbe river is navigable for a long distance, but in the vicinity of its confluence with 
the Uerre he found some rapids^ and is led to the conclusion that there are others. 
He devoted three yeara to tlio exploration of this region.— A letter was read from 
M. Vofision, French Vice-Conaul at Philadelpiiia, giving an account of hi« ac- 
quaintanceship with Emin Bey at Khartum in 1882, where the latter was staying 
on a visit. M. Vossiou offered in his li^tter (dated 5th January, 1887) to lead 
a relief party from the east coast, if Stanley did not take the initiative.^M, 
Cluaffanjon, in a letter dated 20lh Oct., 1886, from San Fernando de Atabapc, 
stated that he was or^nising his expedition for immediate departure t<> explore the 
sources of the Orinoco. He had received great assistance from the Governor pro 
/em., and also from M. MiralieL He had discovered some very curious funeral urns, 
differing frtmi those found by Dr. Crevaux. He hoped to return to San Fernando 
about the 1st January, 1887. — M. Gasassut, the inventor of an apparatus called the 
** Cosmograpbe/' lor facilitating the teaching of cosmography, gave a deFcript^ion of 
ids ingenious invention. —The growth of tiie i>opulation of France, as compared with 
that of European countries, was the subject of a paper by Dr. A. Chirvin, The 
first proper census was in 1801, when the population waa 27,349^003. The census 
of May last ffhows 38,218,903 iuhabitiinta. The annual increase of population 
shown by the chief countries of Europe was stated to be as follows i — ^Greece, 12 
per 1000 inhabitants; Holland and Denmark, 10; England, 9; Germany and 
Belgium, 8 ; Austria, Sweden, ]SJorway» Portugal, and I taly, 7 ; Spain, 3, and 
France only 2 per 1000. The author also reviewed the various movements of the 
population. In conclusion he stated that, although the mortality of France wa.s 
one of the lowest in Euroi^, yet ita record of births was the lowest of all, notwilli- 
atanding numerous marriages* 

( 205 ) 


(By J. SooTT BLeltie, Librarian R.G.S,) 

Bartholomew, John. — Gkizettegr of the British Isles, [Statistical and Topogm* 

phical. Edinburgh, A. & C. Black, 1887 : imp. 8yo., pp. [yilL] and 912. Price 

36s. [ProBented by Mr. Bartholomew.] 

A leading feature of this well-printed gazetteer is the number of places 
which it contains. It answers with brevity the questions " Where is it ? umI 
** What of it ? " with regard to most places that have names in these islands, 
and will therefore be useful as a handy reference-book ; those who require 
further information must go to more detailed works. So far as we have tested 
it the work is wonderftdly accurate, and as ftdl as it professes to be ; but it is 
di£Scult, unless by revision on the spot, to obtain the latest trustworthy in- 
formation. Thus the leading industry in Gainsborough, the manufiM^ture of 
agricultural implements, is not mentioned, and the canals connecting it with 
the Trent are now of very little importance. The newly-printed maps which 
are appended, embody a variety of statistical information, though here, as else- 
where when distinct tints of colour are used to indicate gradations of one 
phenomenon, it is difficult to find a method that is not liable to mislead the 

Egli, [Dr.] J. J.— Die Schweiz. Leipzig, Freytag, 1886 : 8vo., pp. viiL and 210. 

This is a useful and well-arranged summary of geographical and statistical 
information on Switzerland, by ute well-known Swiss geographer, Professor 
EglL It has a number of illustrations, but no map. 

Kettle, W. £.— A few Notes on the Island of St. Michael, Azores. [1887.] 

12mo., pp. 16, map and plan. [Presented by the Author.] 
— • A Beport on the Artificial Harbour of Ponta Delgada, St Michael's, Azores 

Islands, from Observations made during a visit to the same, November-December, 

1886. London, B. H. Laurie, 1887 : 870., pp. 12, maps and plans. [Presented 

by the Author.] 

Feacoek, B. B.— Original Vocabularies of Five West Caucasian Languages. [From 
the ' Journal of the Boyal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland,' voL xix.. 
Part 1.] [1887] : 8vo., pp. 18. [Presented by B. N. Gust, Esq.] 

White, [Lieut-CoL] T. PiUdngton [E.E.]— The Ordnance Survey of the 
United Kingdom. Edinburgh, Blackwood, 1886 : 8vo., pp. x. and 174. Price 5ff. 
[Presented by the Publishers.] 

Colonel White's object in this instructive little volume has been to convey 
to the general reader an intelligible idea of the National Survey, without 
entering more than is necessary into technical details. The book is intended 
to be a short po pula r account of what might at first seem a dry scientific 
subject Colonel White has succeeded in writing an account of a great under- 
taking that any ordinary reader should find it easy to understand. Beginning 
with the early attempts of General Watson and Boy in the middle of last 
century in the Highlands of Scotland, Colonel White traces the progress of the 
great work down to the present day, describing the various methods used, Uie 
various improvements intioduced, the present position, and the future of the 


Beqamin, S. 6. W- — Persia and the Persians. Londun, Murray, 1887: 8vo., 
pp. xvii. and 507. Price 24». 

Mr. Benjamin was the first representative of the United States sent to 
Persia, where he resided from 1883 to 1886. He had many opportunities of 
No. m.— Maboh 1887.] q 



seeing court life, and the country around the capital and in the north of Persia. ] 
IliB doscription of the roj^ion between the Caspian and Telieran is clear and 
ilctallcd, and even more so his account of Tuhemn. So far as his own observa- 
tions went, they are of oHgiual value. Mr. Benjamin has, moreover, taken the 
troiiblo to bring together a good deal of tniBtworthy information alx)iit the 
country generally. Ho hfis chapters on the physical aspects of Persia, nn its 
races, on arts and religion, on its resources, products^ and trade, and on the 
Ix)Utical Bitnation, The book is interestingly written and richly illustrated, 
iind will he found useful to any one desirous of acquiring Bomo general iufonna- fl 

tion on Persia, in short sjiace. There is no map in the book. 

Smeaton, Donald Mackenzie. — The Loyal Karens of Bnmoa* London, Kcgan 
Paul & Co., 1887: cr. Hvo., pp. 204. Price is. M. presented by tb© 

An interesting sketch of the Karona, embracing their Origin, Language, 
Customs, Agricnlture, Folk-lore, &c. j compiled from the Author*s observations 
during his bve years* residence in Burma, from 1879 to 1884. 

Yat6, [Lieutenant] A* C- — England and Bussia Face to Face In Asia. Travels 
with iho Afghan Boundary Commission, Edinburgh, Blackwood, 1887: 8vo., 
pj\ viii* and 481. Price 21s. 

Lienteniuit Yate acted aa corresixindent to an English and an Indian paper 
with the Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884-5. His ojmmunlcatjoiss, 
with additions, he has reproduced in the present volume, lie has wisely allowed 
these to remain cjiisentially aa they were originally written ; had they been recast, 
Ibcy would almost certainly have lost the freshness and vividness which fonn 
unc of their most attractive features. The book may be taken as a provimooal 
and unoflicial narrative of the doinfjs of the Commission, and tlie events connected 
therewith. Most of the route of the Commission in Afglmnistin^ na we know, was 
tbrougli territories, ahnotit, if not altojzether unknown, and therefore Lieutenant 
Yate*ii notefl of the country through which he passed arc of some value, such, 
for example, as the considerable section describing the journey from the Helmund 
to Herat Among the illustrations is a fme one of the ZulSkar Pass. The 
rough sketch-map on the scale of 32 miles to an inch will prove useful. 


[Cape of Good Hope.]— Blue-Book for the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope. 
1S85. Cape Town, W, A, Bichards & Sons, 188G : folio, pp. 516. 

Feilden, Eliza WMgham-^My African Home; or, Bush Life in Xatal when a 
Young Colony [1852-7], London, Samp«on Low & Co., 1887 : cr. 8vo., pp, 364, 
illustrations. Price 7«. Gcf, [Presented by the Publishers.] 

Consists of a series of letters, together with aelectiona from the author*s 
journal, written thirty years ago during five years of active bush life in NataL 

Playfair, [Sir] E. Lambert [K.C.M.G.].— Handbook for Travellers rn Algeria 
and Tunis. Third edition, revised and greatly augmented. London, Murray, 
1887 : 8vo., pp. viii, and 344, Price 10«, 

It is eight years since the previous edition of Sir Lambert Playfair's well- 
known handbook was published, and great changes have taken place since then 
both in Algeria and Tunis. Both countries are much better known now than 
then, Sir Lambert himself having done much for their eiploration. The sis^e of 
the volume has been increased by some forty page^, and throughout important 
changes and additions have been made, bringing the guide up to the latest date. 
The map of Algeria has been much improved, and a map of Tunis and other 
mB\m and plans added ; though we venture to think more might have b«eii 
given with advantage. As the Consulates of Algeria and Tunis were among 
the first establislied by England, Sir Lambert has added an interesting list of 
the incumbents of these important posts from John Typton, 1580, down to tlio 
present day 




sidCctaciIHatoryc/ Aiaerxaw Edited bj Jxatin Wni^x. 
Td. rr. FsBBca Fipimsft^n ssd SeciLoneats in yortii Amfriea, a&d tbcae </ 
& Pj.!»iiUM B, Daises, ssd Sv^des, 15<y>-170O. Loodxi, Sgsi p aa n Lenr 4r Ojw 
IJEK: ins. s«q^ ^^ ix. acd ttt, acd 516u Price 3Qk. 

Ix w€llait wem. ant ^s aev Ttifczxae of tois iapviaBS Ma/Stfotakis^ desk 
vick UK ^ las isas lamma i g penods of Xonk Aaenean rTjjantkjg, sad 
«DB «fr v:sk JK isoK vcft^ of ciKaal CHBTi, Bs^ aoi iXlattBataoas a« a tbe 
csK 4C me maeiiiMt w^ma>, Ccnaeml, TcRiiaai&, Gonez, a&d T^ewt se 
jeskk v^ck t5 Mr. Gozzst D^ssb; widle sbe edasor iiddiS a kw MCboK €& Mi^a 
if :ae Shmo. C^sK of X<zm As&Bia, ISOO-lSSSy T«j jE^^ 
jtTjr ingM miL. Of came n-mi i MapT»H e tgmot bj oeroBBd tock to Jac^aei Cticr 
;^Er. I^ B. F. Dft Gma^ aaid C^aBTX^BFf (Ser. EL F. Sa&egi), mxOka hag^ 
mritn m, Cg aagag cj, W sae eoioc; ccn^ i^yiW ^ Dr. iKa Cxsu s 
rhaqoTL Acnos s seuEii as ssse iBDe:^ ^ Mr. C&aek» C ^"^^, sbd i^ 
miBi»gTt «f i3e GsBS LtfiEs if lam Ber. E.'D. Xcl^ T1« fGot isMsmil n 
su caagaer iau^ vi^ Jioes, Mjp^j e tae^ La SLjt, Txiitec T^^^^^ii^ ^gd La 
^mTTT Oastsr TL s ieTimd i& lae •Jsssi, Beoujaeu; «sd i&e T'y^^^aaM^ 
15 It:. JL < S. 5o nL JOit ;3e «&sr it» & »aiL seeaciL ol lae Jcbbs s£Eidei». 
^ ■'^■Hj*^^ TEL Mr. Gsfx^ S fagm^ * ^ oekiis ■ak FraEOeaae laii sai kaxei^ ^n** 
;ae «czxxr va. Bsiucik^ jciua aa«i dan <f T2e I6ck s&d ITsk ^enssn^ 
a&L Yzk 3iflfK It lae 17a. ■^'^'-^''^ susM^Jiiz CMOtat, C&a^ccr VIIL, W Mr« 
llnrainif F^suv. aas of :sus I>c3sn. oz. 3i^:cik ^TnwniP!*^ a^^ C^opcer rr £<r 
Mi. J. £. ^flm, ^ ia«sr ZmHta ea -ol lae LtdsRvasK;. One 5aeasst ^J ^m TUimut 
12 ae poBES ^ne 3 SL hDBFAaesaoL U lb fags l^r 

. IL '93K3. ilS ffiiTVS IFISL HSOBL §k^ MUt 'rSMSm'JtiilS^ ISUt TTT^4 J 'H n -y 

F v^oEa. "UA gff ^!'jgiraaL dtacaesKTScaBS ^ ^e S»irsL Asienoa ^snof- 

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^fliier tua. Hua m ik- aasmxu: Sir ^^ii» so- 

*'€£ "VnciL cnBianrnn 'juem ma juaj 'njcuj' JZiC^ 

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i^LOB&mix^ ^la^ iir &. ^vsj argf acaua. 11: Us qintnffnn iiiss^ m trzim^ uuje n. 
iie inBR. okhc li JB >bii^ magL jl a «■& if i Mm,iiiK» rf -ti^ ^gac ibssik 
oc He^ loBE^ MiuiuuBL. £ ji gquBg "M: ae •*• J»gp »j g i^ijuay * aam iiegm. 


[BtieilO& Ayres,] — Ministcre do GouvQmemeQt* Bureau de Statistiquo g^aeralc. 

Anuuaire Statistique de la Province do Buenos- Ayres. Vnh]i6 sous la directiua 

du Docteur ]5mile R. Goni^ Directcur da Bureau de Statistique G^neralc. 

Cinquieme Anc^e — 1885. Buenos- AyreSj 1880: large 8?o», pp. xlv. aud 4tiO, 

inap«i, plate, plan. [Presented by Dr. EmiLio B. Com.] 
Oanada-'-Goologiail and Natural History Survey of Canada. Alfred R. C. Selwyn, 

LL.D,, i<'.B.s,, Director. Aunual Report (new Berica), vol* i., 1H85* Maps to 

accompany report, in separate cover, Montreal, Dawson Brothers, 1880. 

[Presented by the Director J 

This volume deala witli the surveys of 1884 and 1885, chiefly in Britisih 
Columbia and the North-wcat Territory, Ontario, Quebec, Hudson's Bay aud 
Strait, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Besides the specially geological work, 
the volume contains a good deal which will be found of value to the geographer. 
We may specially mention Mr, G, M» Daw8Du*ij preliminary report on the 
physical and geological featuretiof that portion of the Rocky iR»untains between 
latitudes 49*^ and 50^ 30' j a paper on the CypreaB Hi Ik, Wootl ^fountain, and 
adjacent country, by Mr. E. b, McConnell ; on the Lake of the Woods Region, 
by Mr. A. C, Lawaon; on the Lake Mistaaaini Exi)edition, by Mr. A. P. Low; 
on Hudson Strait and Bay, by Mr. R* Bt^U. The aroount of Lake iristaasini is 
of special interest. TJiroughout the vohime are a number of illustrations, 
photographs, and w^elL executed engravings, ^vbich are uf some geographical 
value; and so also are the map, which combine topography with geology, 

Steinen, Karl [von den].— Durch Central-Braailien. Expedition zur Erforschung 
des Schingu im Jahre 1884, Lcipxig, Brockhnus, 1886 : imp, 8vo., pp. xii, and 
372. Pric^ 22s. Gd. (Btdau.) 

Herr von den Stein en'ts worlc may be t^iken as a typical example of what a 
scientilic exploratiun of a great tract of comparatively unknown country ought 
to 1)0. He, his cousin W, von den Steinen, and Dr. Clauss, were members uf the 
German South Georgia expedition, on the return of which they remained beljind 
at Monte Video for the purpose of carrying out an exploration of a section of the 
South American interior. In various departments of science they were well 
qualified for making the most of their oppttr tun i ties, and the volume containing 
the record of their work is rich in results. Their main object was to explore the 
course of the great river Xingu, w^hich flowing north thruugh 14 degrees of lati- 
tude, joins the Amazon near the head of its delta. Starting from the La Plata 
and proceeding northwards by the Parana to Cuyaba, much good work was 
done before the source of the Xingu was reached. Several chapters are devoted 
to Cuyaba and ita inhabitauta, and two chapters to the great province of Mat to 
Grofiso, The ethnology of South America receives special attention, and the 
volume contains a map showing the distribution of the various races. The 
survey of the Xingu was carried out with great care, and the detailed large-scale 
map, OS well as the narrative, abounds with new information. The chief results, 
BO lar as the river is concerned, have already been described in the * Proceedings ' 
(voL viii*, 188G, p. G17). Several appendiceii, mainly ethnological, are addedj 
and the work contains many atlraimblo illustrations. There are some useful 
hints as to the kind of words which traveHers should aelect for which to obtain 
native equivalents. 


Hager, OarL — Kaiser WilhelmS'Land und der BIsmarck-Archipel. Leipzig, 
Gressner und Schramm [188C] : 8vo,, pp. 14 i. Price 3*. (Dulau.) 

Herr Eager has brought together in this volume a summary of what we 
know concerning the recently acquired possessions of Germany in the South 
Seas, There are several illustrations, reproduced from books of travel, and a 
sketch-map of the German coast of New Guinea. 

Leudeufeld, B, von* — The Glacial Period in Australia. [Extracted from vol. x., 
Fart 1, of the * Proceedings of the Linneaa Society of New South Wales.*] 8vo., 
pp. 10, map and plates. 

( 209 ) 


(By J. CoLBS, Map Curator, r.g.s.) 

Croatien nnd Slayonien*— Karte yon — >, entworfen uud Sr. Exccllcnz Uerrn 
Crrefen Josef JellaSiS von BaSim, in tieikter Ehrfarcht gewidmet yom k.k. iDgenieur 
AaUtenten dex Staatseisenbahn Michael Katzenschliigcr. Scale 1 : 504,CXX) or 
6*9 geographical miles to an inch. Eigenthum und Yerlag yon Artaria & Ca, 
Wicn, 1887. Price 5s. (Dtilau.) 

Elbe* — Stiomkarte der • Scale 694*5 yards to an inch. L. Friedrichsen & 

Co., Hamborg. 56 sheete in case. Price 21. 18s. (Dulau,) 

This map consists of fifty-six sheets, each of which would contain an area 
of forty square miles, but as in many of them a considerable portion is left 
blank, the fact is only mentioned in order to convey some idea of the extent of 
country shown on either bank of the river. In that portion of the map which 
shows the course of the Elbe through the Crerman Empire, Uie distance from 
the Austrian frontier to the sea is given in kilometres, the numeration increasing 
with the river's downward course, and the opposite is the case in the Austrian 
Empire where the kilometres are numbered up-stream as far as Prague, which 
is the limit of the map. The heights are shown by contour lines, and cultivated 
ground, means of communication, &c., by the symbols usually employed in 
surveys drawn on a large scale. In addition to the principal map, a sheet, 
on a reduced scale, is given, on which the whole area drained by the Elbe 
and its affluents is laid down, together with statistical tables having reference 
to the same subject 

Oefterreiohsoh-Ungarischen Honarchie. — Specialkarte der . Scale 

1 : 75,000, or 1 geographical mile to an inch. K.k. militSr-geografisches Institut, 
Wien, 1886. Sheets: Zone 11, Col. XXII. Nagy-ROce und Rima-Bdnya; 
12— XXrV. Gone und Csobad; 13— XXVII. Beregsz^z und Mezo-Tarpa; 
14— XXVIL J^nk; 14— XXIL GySngyosund Bakba; 16— XXVI. Szalacs und 
Er-Dioszeg; 18— XXVII. Bucsa und Rossia; 32— XV. Almissa und S. Pietro 
della Brazza; 32— XVII. Kocerin und Mostar; 33— XVII. Ljubuski und 
Metkovi6 ; 34— XIX. Bilek; 35— XIX. Trebinje und Risano. Price If. 4rf. each 
sheet. (DtUau.) 

OMterreich-Ungarischen Eisenbahnexi-— Die der Gegenwart und Zukunft. 

Karte zur Reise, so wie zur Uebersicbt der befahrenen, im Bau befindlichen, 
concessionirten und projectirtcn Eisenbahnen, nebst deren eigenthiimlichen 
Benennungen« Emeute Ausgabe mit 3 Beikartken : Das nordbohmische Eisen* 
bahnnetz.— Umgebung Wiens.-^Die Orient- Anschltisse, Artaria & Co., Wien, 
1887. Price 2*. • (Dulau.) 

Oefterreich-Ungarn. — Eisenbahn- und Poet- Communications-Earte von , 

enthaltend fertige und in Bau befindliche Eisenbahnen mit alien Stationen, die 
Postrouten filr Personen-Beforderung und Dampfschiff-Stationen. Mit den 
Distanzen in Tarif-Kilometem. Scale 1 : 1,700,000 or 23*2 geographical miles to 
an inch. Beikarten : Umgebungen von Wien und Budapest sowie das nOrdliche 
Bohmen. Artaria & Co., Wien, 1887. Price 2«. 6d. (Dulau.) 

Horway.— Generalkart over det sydlige Norge i 18 Blade. Scale 1 : 400,000 or 5* 5 
geographical miles to an inch. Sheet VII. Udgivet af den geografiske Opmaaling. 
Kristiania, 1885. Topografisk kart over kongeriget Norge. Scale 1 : 100,000 or 
1 ' 3 geographical miles to an inch. Udgivet af Norges geografiske Opmaaling, 188G. 
Sheets: 9o, Skien; 15a, Eidsberg ; 20o, Eidsvold ; 26o, Aamot; 42c, Troldhetta ; 
43g, Holtaalen ; 42d, Rennebu ; 43d, Stuesjd ; 49a, Orlandet ; 50d, Snaasen ; 
53b, Overhalden; 5dD, Hoilandet; 54a, SanddOla.— Den Geologiske UndersCgelse. 



Scale 1:100,000 or 1*3 geographical mile to an inch. Udgivet af Korgca 
goografiake Opmaaling. 81ieeU: 1 5c, Fct; 20a, Nannestad— Kristlania Omegn 
(iti 6 sheets). Scale 1 : 25,000 or 2 ■ 9 inches to a geographical mile. Sheets ; 
II. and V* Udgivet af Norges geografiske Opmaaling^ 1885, — Romsdals Amt, IV. 
Scale i : 200,000 or 2 ■ 7 miles to aa inch. (Dulau,) 


Publlcfttioni iBsnod during Ute moDtb of Januaiy 188T. 
I -inch— General M4|mi :— 

ExaLAxi> ATtj) Wales : Shc«t 241. New Series^ U. 
6-liioh— Ocnmty M^pi:*- 

EjfaLAKD AJCB Wales : Bodfordflhire : 23 N.W.» 35 N.W., S.VV,, S.M, 2« N.E., 2a X.E.. 29 N.W^ 
N.E., S.W., aK.; u. each. Brecknockshire : 'i« n;k, S.W.. S.E., 29 N.W., N.E.. H.W..S.E., 
35 N.E.,S.W., 36 i^W., in S.W,, 40 N.W. • l<. Mjkcii, Cambridg-eshiro : lo N.fcl, ii N.IU, a.E„ 
12 S.W^ S.K., IB N.E,. S.K, lli KiL.S.fc;., 21 N.W.. S.W, S.ll. 55 8. E.; U. t^ath. Cardlff&ll- 
ahLre: U S.E„ 12 S,E.. le NE,. S,E. i l*, «u:ti. Carmarthenshir© : n S.W., 4^ N.W.; 
1*. each. DevonoMre r 19 Nil: is. e^icb, DoTsetaliire : 5 S.W., u N.E. ; i#, eiich, 
Glouceatershix* ; ^s N.W., 67 S.W. ; l*. eack. Herefordskire ; i^s s,W. ; i*. cacb, 
l-inQoLii^hijre : 13 SAW u N.W„ 7y aE.; i*. each. Monmouthshire : -^h, 3*. €d.; 31. 2*» 
Montg-omeryshlT©; 2Q N^E., S.W., S.E., 27 N.W., ao S.E.,; ir. each. Norfolk; 67 S.E., 
79N.I'l; ijr.caeh. Someraetflhlre : 60 N.W,.a3S.W.; i*.e*Lh, Stalfordahir© : 7i N.W.; 
U. Suffolk; S4 S.W,; u. Warwickshire: i& N,W., S.W.. n S.E., £0 N.E,, 23 S.W^ 
^5 N.W. ; li. each. Worcesterahire ; i N.W. ; ir 
25-illoh— Parkh Idipa :— 

EsGLAJfD AND Walk*; Brecknockshire^ XXV, n. is, 3*. ciich. Cajnbridffeshire : XXVI. 
13, 3j J LIV, 1, 4J.; LIV. % S*.; LIV. 5» 7. Sjr.eadi; LIV. H. &*. ; LIV. 15* 16, LVIU. 1. 7, LIX. 
I, i, fi, 7, 8, LX. 1, 2; 8» 3*. each. Carmarthemhir© : XXVIL 12, 13, h, is, XXXIIL 11, t% 
3«. rach; XXXllJ, J5. 4j».; XUL 2, 4. 3i, rflcb. Devonshire: XVli. 5. IVIII. 13, XLl. t, h. 
n, la. Lll. 3,4, 7, R» 13. CVlI. 9. 10, 12, 14, CVIII. 1. 2. 5, U. 11, Ifl. €XXVi. 9, W, t^^CXXXI. l&, 
CXXXll. 1,2,3.6. 3*. ca.h; CXXXIf. €. 4j.; CXXXll, a, CXXXUL 1. 2, 3. 4. 5, fi, 7, 3*. each.; 
CXXXlfL 11, 41,; CXXXITL 15. CXXXVJI. h 3*.; CXXXVll. B, 4*. Area Bouk«: Aihbury, 
BeAWortlijr, l#, each; Black Torrlnptou, It. iki.; Bratlon ClDTflly, 2f. ; Brcator. If* Gd,\ Broadwood 
Wldfer/i^r Od.^ Ctawtou, 1*, 6ii. ; ilermuiBwcck, U.; HahviO, it.; lame it ou, 1*. Gd.^ MaO'tavy. 
It.; MiltoD Abbot, If. fkt.; Norllileir, 2jt. ; SamtifMrd HpEn^'y, U. ; Sydeokam lianicrel. If.: 
Tavirtodt, 2j. ad. ; Tet<»it, Thumhurv, 1 ». each \ Wbltchurcb* li. gJ. Gloucestershire : XXVI. 2, 

0, LXXVllI. 5, 9, 3*. each. Area Book : Lower Slaugbttr, 1*. Herefordshire : VIL 13, X. 

15. XUL 2, XIV. H. XVIJ. 3, 4. 15. X Vlil. I, XIX. Ii. XX. 11, 3t. each ; XXI. 6, 4j. Himtinff- 
donshir©: XX. b, 4j. Lancashire: XLVU. 3, 4s. Leicestershire: XXIX. 11, 3«.; 
XXX Vt. I*. 4*,; XLIV. 16, 3*, Area iVok ; Markfield, It, Lincolnshire: V. 3, fi, 7, d. la, X. 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 3#. each; X. 10, 4f,| X. H, l.'i, XVL f, XXVII. I, J, Ts 6, y, Hi, 13, 14, LI. 14, LIL 4, 
LXl. s, LXil. 3, 5, 6, 3*. (?«ch. Montgomeryshire : VI iL h. 12, XXII. 10, 4 jr. each 1 XXllI. 

16. 3*.; XXJll, 16,41- XXVil. 16, 3i. ; XXVHI. 9, 13, XXX. 1, XXXJV. 4, 8. 13, 15. IXXV. 6, 9, 
W, 13. 14, XLL 2, 4. e, 7. 8. 10. 11, 14, XLVIL 1, 2, 3, 7. 9, 10, 11, 12, IS, LI. 3, 4, 7, ». 11. 3*. each. 
Norfolk ; VL », 13, XV. h, XVL 1. 2. 3, 3j. ea*:lii XVL 3, 4j. ; XVL 6. 6, 7, «, 9, 10, 11. 3*. ench ; 
XVL 12, 41; XVL H. 16, 16. XVIL 1, 7, 0,10, 14, 3s, each; XVIL IS, 4i.; XIX. 10, XX. 

1, 6> ». 3*. «ach; XX. le, LXXVII. S. 6^ 13» 4t. each; LXXVIL 1ft, 3*,; LXXXVIIL 1, 4, 
6, 7, 3#. ench; LXXXIX. 2, 5, fl, 4i. Mch; C.t, '_', «*. 6<L Area Book: North Eltnham. If. 
Korthamptonshir© : VIIL 9, 14, 31. each; XL 7.4i. ; XXVIL 10, 12, XXXiX. 10, 12, 15. I6, 
3*. ra4:h; XLIV. H, 12, 4*. each; XLVtIL 12, 3t. Nottinfi-hamshir© : I. 13 and 14 on one 
iihc*t, 3*.; IX. 15, fif.; IX. 16, 6*. 6d. Butland : XV. 7,4*. Somersetshire: XX. 4. a*.; 
XXXIX. 9, 3*. J XXXJX. 14, LL 1, 2. 13. LXIV. 5, 4t. e»ch ; LXIV. a, 31.; LXIV. 9, JO, 4f. each: 
LXIV, 11, 12, 13, 16, 18. 3», oftdi : LXV^ ^,4*.; LXV,6, 18, 61. eacb ; LXVL 1, 3*. Arm Booka: 
BalhforiJ, Stowey, 1*. each. Staffordshire: LXUL 2, et. fki.i LXUL 5, a*,; LXIIL », 8*.; 
LXllL 13, llj. M. i LXllL 14, 4*. Suffolk: XXIV. 2. e#. C<i ; LVL 3, LXIIL 16, LXXIV^ 7, 
LXXXL 11, 3f, each; LXXXVIL 3, 4j, Arva Book^: AketLham, Alnheton, Bmndbb, Chedburgb, 
Cla.vclou^ luutoo. It. eucb; FramBDi;hani, Fre^alDgfield, It. 6ii. eacL; Great Ui&kenUaiu. (ireat 
FlDborijugh, Hargrave, llawkedati, LnwshaLI, Lt tht ringlmrn. Little Blakenhatn, Oiifid*'n, Southwell 
Park, PakBfl*ld, Wlnstoii, It. e*ch. Warwickahii'e : XXX. 8, Bt.; XXXI.K, 10, XLIU, ?, 4, 6, 
*t. 1>, 3t. eaclii XLIV. 3, 4i.; XLIV. s,XLV. L 9. ^t». 13.14, XLVL 7, Vi, 14. l&, LI. 3, 4, 7, B, 10, 11, 
15, 16, lAL 4, 5, », 13, LIV. 2, 3. 7. ift, 3t. «acb. WOtshire : XXV. B, 9, XXVIL 2, XX VIIL 4, 
3t. each; XXIX. 0, St, i XXDL 10, XXXIE. 2, 3, fl, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 3ji. each ; XXXJL 16.XXXL11. 15, 
4f. each; XXXVL 1, 13, XXXIX. 1,3,6,0, XL. 11, XLL 3, G, 9, H, 13, 14, ID. XLll. 1, 5, 9. 13, 3*. 
each. WoroestertBhir© : XXIIL a. ar. Area Hooks; Aldlngt-m, Breedon, Crowle. Crutck, 
I>jdd»rhlll, Kld«r»fleld. Graflan FljfoTd, Ha^lwr. lllnibli'tou, HiKldlngton. Little Witley, U. each ; 
Miirtley, It. ed. ; Oddlngley, BMniarlcy d'Abltot, SL Andrew, aiid limdii ruted to ibe imrUkbcB of 
t?t. Peter and St, Andrew, St, i'etcr, eind kndi raled lu the i>arbhe'ii of Sl Leier und St. Andrew, S«I- 
warpe. Sbsljrlejr Beaucliamp, Siirawley, Tlbberton, U. each. Yorkshir© : '-LX.X.XIL 11, 3t. 

Town Plams— lO-fectEcale.'- 
KKCLAMi AN© Wales : Aljeirstwith. VL 13. 2, 7 ; 2f. each. Bradford-on-ATon. XXXIL 14* fi. 9, 
10, 15, 1?, 20, 2X 24, 25; XXXVIII. 2, 4 ; 2t.e«ich. C«;wk<-me, LXXXVIll. 16. 15. 20 ; LXXXJX. 
13, 1. 7, 11. 16, 17,18.22; XOIL 4.5; XCtlLl. 1 ; 2t.eacb. Oramhara, 0X111.18,3. h, 13. IS, l% 
23, 24 ; CXXIL 4, 4.9; 2l. each. 8tratf<»I\l-uT5-Avon. XLIV. 6. 2, 3, 4, 7. 9, 12. 13, 14. IS, IS, 20. 23; 
2t. each. IVo w bridge, X XXV I IL 7, 4 ; 21; Y tov 1 1 . L X X X 1 i L 14, 1 1 , 1 B, 2 1 ; X C . 1, 4, tt ; 2#. cdch. 

CStat^ordt Agent) 


A&ica Meridional Portngneza— Carta da . Scale 1; 6,000,000 or 82"! 

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NEW MAPS. 211 

Algeric— Carte Topographique de V . Scale 1 : 50,000 or 1 '4 inches to a geo- 
graphical mile. D4pOt de la Guerre, Paris. Sheets :— No. 8, Dellys ; 9, Azef- 
foon; 15, Djebel Filfila; 17, Bdne; 18, Oued Guergour; 22, M^ncrville ; 65, 
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Cabinda, Holembo, e Hassabi — Carta dos Territorios do . Scale 

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Onin^e. — Carte de la delimitation Franco-Portugaise en , par E. Desbuissons, 

1886. Scale 1:940,000 or 12*8 geographical miles to an inch. Gravd et 
imprimd par Erhard, Paris. (Dulau,) 

Kabylie. — Carte de la Grande (Algdrie) et d'une partie de la Medjana. 

D*apr^ les reconnaissances des Officiers d'£tat-major et autres documents. 
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Principe.— Carta da Ilha do . 1886. Scale 1 : 100,000 or 1*3 geographical 

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S. ThiagO.— Ilba de . Piano hydrographico do Porto da Praia, Archipelago 

de Cabo Verde. Scale 1 : 8000 or 9 inches to a geographical mile. Commissao de 
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Siidafrika.— Die Portugiesische Exiiedition quer durch , 1884 und 1885* 

Nach den Originalkarten von Capello und Ivens im Massstab 1:1,000,000 
reduziert auf Justus Perthes' Spezialkarte von Afrika. Scale 1 ; 4,000,000 or 
55*5 geographical miles to an inch. Petermann's * Greographische Mitteilungen,' 
Jahrgang 1887, Taf. 3. Justus Perthes, Gotha. (Dulau.) 

West Central Africa-— Boute von Paul Staudinger und Ernst Hartert von Loko 
am BenuS nach Kano, Sokoto, und Gandu. August 1886-April 1886. Nach 
den Tagebiichem der Relsenden, construirt und gezeichnet von Wilhelm Erman. 
Scale 1:1,000,000 or 13*6 geographical miles to an inch. Mittheilungen der 
Afnkanischen Gesellschaft in Deutschland, Bd. v. Taf. 4. 

Zontpansberg (Transvaal).— Curte des Districts du ,et de Lorenzo Marquez 

(Possessions Portugaises) dress^ par Henri Berthoud, Missionnaire, d'apr^ ses 
voyages en 1881, 1883, et 1885. Scale 1 : 925,000 or 12*6 geographical miles to 
an inch. F. Noverraz et Fils, Geneve. (Dulau.) 

HissiiSippi Eiver.— Map illustrative of Captain Willard Glazier's Voyage of 
Exploration to the Source of the — . Drawn from delineations by his Indian 
guide (Jhe-No-Wa-Ge-Sic. Approximate scale 1:265,000 or 3*5 geographical 
miles to an inch. Band, McNally & Co., Chicago. (Dulau,) 

In a note which is inserted on this map beneath Lake Glazier it is stated to 
be the source of the Mississippi river, and that it was reached July 22nd, 1884. 
It would, however, appear that this lake was first visited and surveyed by 
Lieut. Allen in 1832, and afterwards by Mr. Featherstonehaugh in 1835, who 
describes it in his book * A Canoe Voyage on the Minnay Soter.' In the other 
portions of the map there is little worthy of special notice, and for farther 
particulars with regard to Captain Glazier's claim to be the discoverer of the 
sources of the Mississippi river, see B.G.S. ' Proceedings ' for January, pp. 58 
and 69, where a note on Mr. Harrower's pamphlet will he found ; and also in the 
February number, p. 119, where Captain Glazier's claim is briefly discussed. 




Alidree, Richard, — Supplement zurcraien Auflage von RichArd Andrees HaadaH|^| 
enthaltead die 33 Seiten ueucr Eartea der zwciten Auflage von 1886* Apart liir 
die Bcfiitzcr der crsten Auflage, Heraiisgegcbeti von dcr Geogiaphischen Anstalt 
VOB Velhagen & Klasing in Leipzig. Lief, 1 ife L\ Price 2*. each, (Dutau,) 

In conseqiienco of discoveries and Burveys that have hc^n mado bIocc the 
original issue of this atlas, eome of the maps which it contained required 
correction, and it was also desirable that others which had appearecl in the 
original iBsiie should be given on larger scales, Willi these objects in view, 
the author i« now issuing a eupplement in three parts> which will contain 
33 sheets of maps. On a previous occasion, attention has been called to this 
excellent atlas, which, for the price at which it is sold, is equal to any published. 
These two jmTt& contain the following maps : — Lief. 1 : Beite 3, Ireland; 4 u. 5, 
England und Wales ; 6, Schottlaud ; 7, Das shdlicho Skandinavien ; 8, Nord- 
westliches Frankreich ; 9, Nordustliches Frankreich ; 10, Siidweatliches Frank- 
i-eich ; 23. Die Antillen ; 24 n, 25, Kordwestlichefi Afrika ; 2% Westafrikanische 
Kolonial-karten,— Lief. 2 r Beite 11, Siidoatliches Frankreich; 12, Franzosisch 
-italienische Alpen ; 13, tlbersichrskarteder Alpen ; 14, Sizilien und Sardinien ; 
15, Griechealand ; 16, WestniBaland ; 17, Kaukasualiinder ; 18, Japan ; 27.^ 
Algerien und Tunis ; 28 u. 29, Nord< Jstliches Afrika ; 30, Agypten. ^| 

Berghaua* Physikaliaclier Atlae (begriindet 1836 von Heinrich Berghans), 

75 Kartcn in Ziehen Ahtcilungen, enthaltend mehrerc Huudcrt Daratelliingcn 

ilber tleologie, llydrographie, Meteorologie, Erdmagnetiamus, PBanzenverbreitung, 

Tierverbreitiing und Volkerknnde, Vollstiindig ncu bearbeitet nnd unte(E^ 

Mitwirkung von Dr, Oscar Dnide, Dn Georg Gerlaud, Dr. Julius Hann, Dr. Q^H 

Hartlaub, Dr. W. Marshall, Dr. Geoi^ Neumayer, und Dr. Karl v. Zittel, heraus- 

gegeben von Professor Dr. Hermann Berghatifl, Siebente Lieferuog* Inhalt: Nr. 31, 

Isothermen von Xord-Amerika. Nr. 48, Florenkarte von Aden. Nr- 5G, Vor- 

breitung der Keptilien. Gotha, Justus Perthes, 1886. Price 3». each part, 

(Didau.) H 

This is the seventh issue of this atlas, and contains sheets No. 31, 48, and!^ 

56. Sheet 31 exhibits isothermal lines on the Continent of North America for 

the months of January and July, and the mean temperature of the year. 

Another map shows the isotherms of the eastern portion of the United St^tteu 

for Januarj\ Sheet 48 is a map illustratin.^ the distributiou of flowering plants 

in Asia and Europe. The region embraced is so lar^e, and the cons<?i]uent ^ys* 

tern of colouring is so elaborate^ that there is some little difRcnlty in distinguish* 

ing the meaning of tho different shades employed, as, for iniitance, the colour 

u»ed to diatingulsh the region of tho Dryobalauopfi from that of the Diptero- 

carjjua is so nearly the same aa that employed in the latter case that it wonld 

ixi extremely diflicult to decide as to which it was intended to represent. 

Sheet 56 exhibits the distribution of reptiles. This is done by mcAns of six 

small maps of the world, the different regions where each class is found being 

enclosed in a band of colour. These sheets are beautiful specimens of carto* 

graphy, the registering of the colours employed being perfects 

BrltlBll Empire,-"Atlasofthe throughout the World, by John Bartholomew, 

}r.B.G.s., with Explanatory and Statistical Notes, Enlarged Jubilee Editiotu 
London, G. Philip & Son, 1887. Price 3i. Bd. 

This little atlas contains twenty-nine sheets of maps which have been 
specially prepared to illustrate the various colonies and dependencies of the 
British Empire, The first map gives, with tho aid of colour, a general view of 
the distribution of the British i)osse8Hions. Care appears to have been taken Uj 
US© the best materials in the work of compilation, and the result, as a whole, 
3s satisfactory. Under the title of " Notes to Maps " some very useful explana- 
tory and statistical information is given. 


OP ' 



Prejevahhys Journeys and Discoveries in Central Asia.^ 
By E. Delhab Moboak. 

CBead at the Evening Meeting, Febmaiy 28th. 1887.) 
' Map, p. 268. 

Before calling your attention this evening to the travels of Prejevalsky, 
let me give a few personal reminiscences which may help to bring his 
individuality before you. 

I first met him at an evening meeting of the Imperial Geographical 
Society at St. Petersburg, when, with a flow of language and eloquence 
very striking, he gave an account of his first expedition into Central 
Asia, whence he had just returned. Calling at his lodging a few days 
afterwards I found him busily, engaged in unpacking his collections 
which were in an admirable state of preservation, notwithstanding the 
many thousand miles they had come and the variety of climates to 
which they had been exposed. Among his chief prizes he showed me 
skins of the Ovis Poli and other rare animals shot by him in Northern 
Tibet Ever since then our acquaintance has been renewed as oppor- 
tunity offered between his long absences from Europe, and from time to 
time he has sent me particulars of his discoveries which I have com- 
municated to this Society. As to his personal history, I may mention 
that his earlier years were passed in inuring himself to all kinds of 
physical privations and hardships to prepare for the career of an explorer, 
and soon after entering the military service, he asked for and obtained 
an appointment in Eastern Siberia, where he could indulge his passion 
for sport and adventure. In the dense virgin forests on the TJssuri, 
that remote part of the Bussian empire acquired in 1860, he passed 
two summers, continually moving from place to place, and when not 
occupied with his of&cial duties taking meteorological observations, 
collecting and drying plants, shooting and stuffing birds, keeping a 
diary, &c. 

In 1871-73 he made his first great expedition in Mongolia and 

* Compiled from the Bossian originals. 
No. rV.— April 1887.] b 



Tibet, After crosBing the Gobi Desert between Kiaclita and Kalgatx lie 
turned westward and followed nearly in the footsteps of Abbe Hue to 
the province of Eaneu in Western China, visiting Lake Kokonor, a 
magnificent water- spread 10,800 feet above the sea. He then entered 
Tsaidam,* a saline marshy tract Bome 500 milGs long from east to west, 
which in his opinion has recently been covered by the sea. Hence he 
passed into Northern Tibet» but owing to the want of resources ho was 
unaMo to prosecute his journoy to Lliiisa, and was obliged to turn back 
when but 27 days' march or about 500 miles from that city. Among 
the results of this expedition^ besides rich collections of the flora and 
fauna of the countries visited and a detailed route survey, was the 
discovery of a moist mountainous region in Kansu, to the north of the 
upper Hoang-ho and east of Lake Koko-nor, well wooded and abundantly 
supplied with rainfall though isolated by arid tracts. On his return 
journey ho crossed the Gobi in its widest part between Din-yuan*ing 
and Urga, in the height of summer, by a route never before attempted 
by European travellers. 

In 1870 Prejovalsky advanced from Kulja, then held by Hussia^ 
crossed the Thian Shan and turning southwards from the oasis of 
Eara-shahr^ struck the Tarim and followed this river down to its out- 
flow in Lake Lob, the first European to visit this lake in modem times* 
His description of it, difijaring widely from the accounts given by old 
travellers and by Chinese writers, took geograpbcra by surprise, par- 
ticularly as regards the Bweetneea of its waters at its western end where 
the discharge of the Tarim takes place. But his most important dis- 
covery was that a high range of mountains, the Alt^^n-tagh, rises almost 
jjrecipitously from its southern shore to the limit of perpetual enow, 
and apparently buttresses the northern Tibetan plateau. We can now 
understand, says Baron nichthofen, why the old silk traders passed so 
close to the south of Lob*nor, and encounter 'd the terrors of the desert 
between it and Sha-chau rather than attempt a passage over huge 
mountains where the diMculties of transport were so great. We shall 
see, however, when we come to Prejevalsky*8 fourth and last journey that 
the trade route did in all probability cross those mountains hy an easy 
pass from Cherchen, while an alternative route to China lay through 
Lob-nor and Sha-chau. 

By these two journeys Prejevalsky had acquired a reputation as a 
traveller and observer, and whon he started on his third expedition he 
was well supplied with funds and \i4th every requisite- In 1879 be 
undertook what he himself prefers styling his third " scientific recon- 
naissance" into the heart of Asia, Fort Zaisan, now a town in th© 
government of 8emii)alatin8k, was his point uf departure. Here he 
obtained the supplies necessary, aud transport animals for his party 
numbering thirteen all told, ten being Cossacks^ picked meuj and well 
♦ 10,000 feet above sea-leveU 





practised in the use of firearmB, upon which Prejevalsky's experience 
had taught him to place his chief reliance in dealing with the natives 
of Central Asia. 

Their route at first led them by Lake Uliunghm*, visited in 1253 
by the Franciscan monk Euhmqnis, who was sent on a mission by 
Louis IX. of France to the Jloiigol Khan at Karukomra. The lake has 
a circumference of 87 miles, an elevation above the sea of about 1600 
feet, and receives on the east the discharge of a large river, the Urnngu. 
A pecnliar feature about this lake is that a narrow ridge of highland 
separatea its north-eastern extremity from the Black Irtish, and there- 
fore from the basin of the Obi and the Frozen Ocean. 

Prejevakky and his party passed along its western and southern 
fihores to the Chinese fort of BulaD-tohoi, sittiated at the month of the 
Unrngu. 'J'hey then followed this river, which has a course of abont 
300 miles, and derives its source from the Altai Mountains, cutting a 
deep channel through the plain lying between them and the Thian Shan 
range. Not long before the expedition passed this way a large body of 
Kirghizes, numbering about 9000, had wintered on the Urungu, having 
escaped from tho control of the Eussian authorities in Soniipalatinsk. 
They had suffered terribly from want of fodder for their cattle, and 
Prejevalsky saw numerous traces of their encumpments along a tract 
extending over 100 miles up the Urungii, where everything edible had 
been devoured, even to the hark of the poplur trees, which had been 
felled and stripped, while the ground was strewn with the carcases of 
their dead sheep. This incident serves to illustrate tho great change 
that has come over Central Asia sinoe the days when Jinghis Khan 
and other great conq^nerors found sufficient sustonanco for their vast 

The natives of the upper valley of the Urungu or its chief tributary, 
the Bttliigun, are Turgtite-Kalmuks, whose kinsmen, inhabiting north- 
western Dzungaria at the foot of the Tarbogotai range, are the descen- 
dants of those Kalmuks who, driven out of their camping grounds by 
the Bzungars, migrated to the banks of the Volga and Ural at the end 
of the 17th century, and in 1770 suddenly departed, to the number of 
460,000 families, into the depths of Asia under the leadership of their 
Khan UWsihi, and arrived, though in greatly diminished numhers, on 
Lake Balkash, and afterwards at Ili, where lands were given them hy 
the Chinese Emperor. The Turgutes are subjects of the Emperor of 
<Jhina, and remnants of them who escaped tho Dungan insurrection now 
occupy the lands about Yulduz and Kara-shahr. 

After ascending tbe Urungu and Bulugun, Prejevalsky crossed a 
sand waste to the foot of the Thian Shan, called by Mm the desert of 
Dzungaria, after tho countiy of which it forms part. It is bounded on 
throo sides by moantains, while on the east, where the Altai and Thian 
Shan ranges appr*>ach one another, an isthmus of sand unites it with 

B 2 


the Golu,* This coBBection existed in distant ages, when the whole 
area of what is now known as th© Gobi was covered by a sea menlioned 
in Chinese annals as Kan-haLj The Dzimgarian desert formed a great 
gulf of this sea commnnicating with another x&st water-apread, the 

Frejo%'alsky describes at some length its climate, soil, flora, and 
fenna ; we have only space here, however, for a few of his remarkis. 
First, the most characteristic of the flora of this, and indeed the whole 
of the Central Adan plains and deserts, is thi» Saxaul (Haloxjflon 
ammodendron\ called by the Mongol b zal\ a tree or shrub growing 
to a height of fourteen feet, and a thickness near the root of half to 
three-quarters of a foot. It is most commonly met with in the drift 
sands, particularly in Ala-shan and in Rnssian Turk is tan. It is by no 
means attractive in appearance, it gives no shade, and the sand round 
it is devoid of all other vegetation. But its usefulness to the nomad 
ifl beyond description ; it supplies kim with fuel, and his camels with 
food ; its wood, though heavy and hard, is exceedingly brittle, so much 
S0| that a large log of it when struck with the axe will fall to pieces. 
Henoe it is of no use for building purposes, but it bums splendid I y» 
almost like coal, and retains its heat a long time. Its geographioal 
distribution is very wide in Inner Asia. It is met with throughout the 
vast tract extending from the Caspian Sea on the west, to the limits 
of China Proper on the east, and through nearly 12^ of latitude from 
the parallel of Lake Uliunghur on the north to Tsaidam on the south, 
where it grows at a height of 10,000 feet above the seaj but its chief 
habitat is the Gobi and Northern Ala-shan, Bznngaria, and Russian 
Turkistan* Of the fauna of Dzungaria, we must mention the wild 
horse — ^Frejevalskj^'s wild horse — a stuffed specimen of which ia pre- 
served at the Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg, and the wild camel, 
the Bactrian two-humped species. Both these animals inhabit the 
wildest and least accessiblo parts of the desert. The wild horsCj wliich 
jmlsBontologistB have shown was onco widely distributed over Europe 
and Asia, is now only met with in a corner of the desert of Bxungaria : 
but the wild camel was also observed by Prejevakky in the desert of 
Lob, where he was the first European to see it since the Venetian 
traveller Marco Polo, six centuries ago, passed this way. 

On turning southward from the valley of the Bulngun he soon left 
behind him the Altai and approached the Thian Shan, visible in the 
clear atmosphere of the desert 130 miles off, while its highest peak» 
Bogdo-ula, could be seen before leaving the Urungu, 160 miles distant. 
Among its spurs he found a few Chinese settlers, but they were not so 
numerous as they had been before the Dungan insurrection, and they 
had entirely driven away the nomada. 

• Borne ckains of mouataioi between the Turbogotoi and Tbian Shan bonier it on 
tiw woat* t Or ** tha dry mq,*' 




Passing the salt lake and plain of Barkul,' Prejovalaky crossed tire 
-xnain a,xx3i of the Thiao Shan l>y a pass 8700 feet high,| and descended 
<o the oasis of Hauii on the south side* 

This oasis, supplied with moiiiture by the streams which descend 
:from the snowy muuntaiDs, though of no great extent, is reniarkably 
3>roductive, Com, vegetaljles, grapes and melons are grown here, the 
last of such exceptionally fine flavour as to he considered worthy of 
"being sent to the court of Peking. But Hami in its present state shows 
unmistakable evidence uf the ravages committed by the Mahommedan 
Tebels. Its trees have all been felled, its gardens destroyed, its home- 
uteads laid in ruins. Only within the last few years have the Chinese 
l)egim restoring their houses and cultivating the land. Prejevalsky 
considers it an over-rated place, not to be compared with Kulja, that 
" pearl of Central Asia/' 

The natives of Hami are descended from the ancient Uighurs, and 
are called Taranchi.} They wear a national drese, consisting of an ampU^ 
flowered klialal or robe, and a cap of a peculiar shape, worn at the back of 
the head. The women are good-looking, black -eyed and black-haired, 
with splendid white teeth, but unfortunately they fullow the Chinese 
custom of painting their faces* They walk out unveiled, and are gene- 
rally free and easy in their mannerB, just as they were in Marco Folot* 

Kami is a strategical place of the highest importance, as it commands 
the chief roads from China Proper to Eastern Turkistan and Bzungaria. 
It is the key to all the cities Bituatod along the Thian Shan, fur here a 
road passable for wheeled vehicles crosses the narrowest part of the 
desert to An-si-chau. By this route, 250 miles long, Prejevalskj' 
passed, resting his caravan, much exhausted by the fiery urdeal they 
had gone through, in the environs of Sha-chau. 

Sha^^hau is one of the best oases of Central Asia, It is situated at 
the foot of the Nan-shan range, at a height of 3700 feet above the sea, 
and occupies an area of about 200 square miles, the whule of which is 
thickly inhabited by Chinese,§ Sha-chau || is interesting as the meeting- 
place of three expeditions started independently from Kubsia, India, and 
China. Just two months before Prejevalsky reached this town it was 

• The town of Baikal, founilod by the Cliii»eie in 1731, rcmjimud on one side ef 
PtejevalftkyN route» iiud was not visited by liim. 

t On eitber uidc uf tbia range tfiL-re iB ft cart*rofld leading from Wi stem China. 
The northern road^ Peh^lii* kad^ lo Daikul, Guchen» UrumtBi, Manas, 5<hi-ho, Jinhft 
and beyond vi& tbo Talki jjciss to Kulja. The Boutbera toutt'^ Niiq-Iu, paiBca ibrougU 
f icliun*Turfaiif Kjura-^habr, Korla^ Kucha, Bai, Akau to Ki^bgar. 

I Hami is composed of three parts, two CldDeee (an old and a now) und on^> 

{ Preje?Dlfiky efetimateB the fopulatiou at 10,000, «f whom 2000 were froldicrs. 
&6C;cbenyi given 12,000 as tht.» totiiL 

Alio koown bj its Chinese name Tung-hwim-haien. 




visited b^^ Count Szeclienyi,* jtiid eighteen montlia afterwards Pundit 
A— k, whose re|x>rt of it agi'ees fiiirly well with that of our traveller, 
also Btayed here. Both Prejevalsky and Szeclienyi remark on some 
curious eaves in a VMlley near Sha-chau containing Buddhistic clay 
idols. These caves were in Jlarco Polo's time the resort of numerous 
worshippers, and are said to date hack to the Han dynasty .f 

Undeterred by the suspicious and unfriendly attitude of the Chinese, 
who thwarted him in every way, Prejevahiky pushed on towards Tibet, 
now seeking the road hy scouting^ now pressing into his 'service ooca* 
sional Mongols with whom he chanced to meet. He crossed the Nan- 
shan, whose glittering snowy Bumniits stood forth in startling contrast 
with the dark blue canoj^y of the heavens, those mountains which 
extend on the ea«t to the sources of the lloang-ho and on the weat to 
Loh-nor» Khoten, and the Pamir, forming a gigantic northern barrier to 
the whole of the Tibetan uplands* 

By his discovery in 1876 of the AltjTi-tagh, Prejevakky defined the 
till then unknown conoeotion hetw^een the Kan-shan and Kuen-ldn, at 
all eventa in a general way, and the position of the northern harrier of 
the Tibetan plateau, advancing this in the meridian of Loh-nor 3^ 
farther to the north than had hitherto been supposed. Tsaidam proved 
to be enclosed on all sides by mountains, w^hile the Kuen-ldn, extend- 
ing under various names from the sources of the Yarkand river far into 
the interior of China Proper, margined the lofty uplands of Tibet only 
in its western part on the side facing the low Tarim desert. The far- 
thtr margin of that Tibetan plateau is formed hy the nowdy discovered 
Altyn-tagh, uniting on the one side by means of the Toguz-dahan with 
the Kuen-liin, and on the other, as may be now confidently asserted, 
with the Nanshan, stretching from Sha-chau to the Yellow river. 

In this way an uninterrupted gigantic mountain wall stretches from 
the Upper Iloang-ho to the Pamir, dividing the great intumescence of 
Central Asia into two parts, the Mongolian desert on the norths and the 
Tibetan plateau on the south, ■ 

Nowhere in this world is there to ho met with on such a scale so 
marked a difierence between two countries lying side hy side. The 
chain of mountains separating them is often not wider than aboat 
30 miles, and yet on either aide of it lie tracts completely distinct in 
their ge<dogical formation and topographical relief, in their elevation 
and climate, their flora and fauna, and lastly, in the origin and the 
fortunes of the peoples inhabiting them. 

But let ns return to the Nan-shan. This range, as wo have stated, 
extends westward from the Upper Hoang-ho, and is divided into several 
parallel chains forming a mountainous alpine country, widest to the 
north and north-west of Koko-nor, where parts of it rise utove the 

* In April 1S79. 

t Whetlier to tiie first or eecond dynaity of that name is imkiiowu. 



snow-line. In tlie meridian of Shu-chati ll:e Nan-alian narrows to a 
l>elt o£ 27 miles, and even less near the sno^vy groiip of Aiiembar-ula, 
But before ibis contraction, 60 railoa to tlio east of the gioup just 
mentioned, it stand b as a gigantic range crowned with perpetual snow 
for a distance of over 70 miles in a direction W.N.W. to E.8-E.* 

In the Nan-shan mountains, Prejevalsky pitched his camp in a 
chanuing spot by the side of a brook, which ho called ** Botmteous," ft 
name it richly deserved for its life-giving properties. The Nan-shan, 
in the meridian of Sha-chau, is a sterilo, treeless range, differing widely 
from its eastern part, the soKialled mountains of Eansu, In the last- 
namedf dense forests of every kind of tree and sknib clothe the slopes, 
particularly on the north. The alpine zone abounds in rhododendrons 
and ridi pasturage ; the treeless Sha-chau mounttiins, on tho other 
kand« have only about a dozen kinda of bushes, and but little variety 
m their herbaceous flora,t while their avifauna is proportionately 

Instead of grassy slopes, there are beds of rocky detritus, or bare 
clay, giving an aspect of dreariness and monotony to the scene. Yet 
the higher bolts possess a savage grandeur, with their summits towering 
above the main axis, their precipices, and white-capped peaks. 

In these wild mountains, Prejevalsky and his Cossacks remained 
several weeks hunting and exploring. Among tho additions to their 
zoological collection, was a now species of deer,| and tho large Tibetan 
partridge § inhabiting the highest alpine belts. They visited a glacier, 
17,100 feet by barometrical measurement, and gaining the crest of tho 
range had a magnificent view of its whole extent. 

But here a disaster nearly overtook them. Their mutton and dried 
venison being all consumedj they sent out hunters every day to tiy and 
obtain deer or yak. Owing, however, to the scarcity of these animals, 
they often returned empty handed, One day, a Cossack reported that 
ho had fired at and wounded a yak, but approaching darkness had 

* At lis eastern extremity this rangte is joined almost at right angles by another 
nn^ ocMaing from tJio W.S.W», equally snowy, thonE;:h perhaps leaa continued. In its 
ioathem part this range is ci»tili;^oiiii with the desert of Xortiicrn Tcjaidani, near Luke 
Ike-TsaidaiDin-nor. Neither of thei^ snowy ranges liayiDg aoy genend name among 
ihe local inhabitanUj whe only diBlinguisli cirtain porta of the moimtams and their 
chief peaks, Prejevalsky claiming^ the rights fif » first discoverer, chrietenod one — that 
extending along the mnln axia of tho Xan-^han — Humboldt range, nml the other, 
porpeadicnlar with it Hitter range. Dietinci peaks of Humboldt range attain au 
devation of 19,000 fe^:t, and perhaps more in ita central and eastern parts, 

f Tho limit of Yegetatiou on Huinbokli range lies nt an elevation of 13,700 feet on 
th© nortljem* and 15,000 feet on tbe Bouthcrn aide. The Bnow-linc is TOO feet higher 
on either side. 

X Ccrvus dWirostris n, sp. 

J Megitlopcrdrix thibetanus. Its general name in Asia is utiar^ a word of Kirghiz 
or Torldsh origin ; the Mongola call it fuiillh, and tho Tibetans ktm*j-mo. There aro 
two other varieties of this bird foutid in the Himulja and Altai MeuntainSi bat the 
httbits of life and call-note of all three are the same. 



obliged him to almiidon the pTirsnit, The next daj, he and a com- 
panion Yegoroff, set ont to renew the search ; they came upon tho 
track of the wounded yak, showing that it had climhed a mountain 
ridge and descended the southern slope. The hunters, excited ^v^th tho 
chase, followed, A mile or two beyond tho pass they came across a herd 
of wild sheep, into which they fired a Tolley, and while Kalminin went 
to aseertain if any had fallen, YegorofF continued his pursuit of the yak. 
In the meantime, Kalminin unexpectedly shot a kulan or wild donkey, 
and haTing don© this, he returned to tho spot where he had parted with 
Yegoroff and shouted* EeceiTing no answer, and thinking it possible 
his eompanioB hEid gone straight back to camp, Kalminin retraced his 
steps and joined his party at ton that night. The nert morning, the 
prolonged absence of Yegoroff caused much anxiety, and a search party 
was organised* For some miles they followed the tracks of the hunter, 
hut at last lost all trace of him in tho maze of crags and defiles. For 
£vG days they continued their search, Prejevalsky himself assisting. 
They climbed the rocks in all directions, thoy fired off their guns, and 
then concluding Yegoroff had perished from exhaustion, with heavy 
hearts they broke up their encampment and resumed their march. 

They had gone about 17 miles^ when the leading Cossack discerned, 
by the aid of a field -glass, a man coming down the mountains towards 
their caravan ; two of the party set out at a gallop to meet him, and 
within half an hour they had brought back with them the unfortunate 
Yegoroff. He couldl hardly 8t4ind ; his face was sunken and nearly 
black, his eyes bloodshot, his lips and nose swollen ; he wore nothing 
but a shirt J and his feet were bound in rags. When he had sufficiently 
recovered, he related how he had come upon the yak ; how he had 
wounded him a second time, how he had again pursued him till dark, 
and how, when he had turned his steps homeward, he had taken the 
wrong directioD, and when morning dawned he had found himself on 
the Syrten plain, He'told too how he had made his way again to the 
mountainsj hut instead of going north had gone west, and how he had 
kept himself alive by chewing rhubarb leaves and drinking water ; he 
had also shot partridges, and eaten them raw. On the fifth day he 
came upon a herd of Mongol cows, but there were no herdsmen to be 
seen, they having fled probably at the eight of a stranger ; he wanted 
milk» but alaSj the cows were all dry ; his strength was sensibly 
diminishing, and he knew that in a day or two he must die from t^heer 
exhaustion ; he determined therefore to walk to the very last, and then 
by tho side of a spring wash his shirt and die. Thus ended Yegoroff*8 tale. 

The expedition now entered the Tsaidani plains, an expanso of salt- 
marsh and clay flats, dotted with lakes, and elevated about 10,000 feet 
above the sea. Its ^Mongol inhabitants* received the Russians well, 

* Tlie MongoU of Tsaidam cultivate patcbee of the soil and o1>tDiii gmxl craps wherf* 
there is irrigatLon* 



bnt feared to show them the direct road to Tibet, lest they should incur 
pimishmeiit from the Chinese authorities. The expedition had therefore 
to take a circuitous route along northern Tsaidam, which led them into 
the track followed by Prejevalsky in 1872-3. The native princes, 
acting doubtless by orders from Peking, refused Prejevalsky both guides 
and provisions, and it cost him no little trouble, and he had even to 
resort to threats to obtain these. At length he reformed his caravan, 
and prepared to enter the promised land, the mysterious realm of 

Northern Tibet* offers no exception to the well-known grandeur of 
Asiatic scenery. No other part of the world has anything to compare 
with its gigantic tablelands, 13,000 to 15,000 feet above the sea, its 
stupendous mountain ranges, not lofty compared with the general 
elevation of the country, yet bordered by the wildest alps. 

But few Europeans have crossed its solitudes and these have followed 
the routes taken by the Buddhist pilgrims from Sining to Lh4sa.t Un- 
fortunately none of them left a detailed geographical description of his 
journey through Northern Tibet. Far more important in this respect 
were the services rendered by Pundit Nain Singh in 1873, when he 
accomplished his remarkable journey from Ladakh to Lhasa vi& Tengri- 
nor, took 497 altitudes, and determined the latitudes of 276 points.^ 
Another pundit proceeded from Eastern Nepaul to Tengri-nor, skirted 
its northern shore, and returned by way of Lhdsa to India. 

Prejevalsky himself on his first expedition penetrated 200 miles into 
Northern Tibet by the same pilgrims' road, as far as the confluence of 
the Napchitai-ulan-murren with the Mur-ussu, the head-waters of the 

In 1879-80 he again made his way to the upper Yang-tse-kiang, 
oros^ed this river and the Tang-la range, besides exploring the upper 
Hoang-ho to the south of Koko-nor.§ 

* PrejeTaUky iacludes within Tibet, viewed in its widest physioo-geographical 
aspect, the region to the north bounded by the Altyn-tagh, the basin of Koko-nor and 
the Tangntan country, all of which lie outside Tibet proper, but from the similarity 
of their physical conditions may be included in it 

t In 1624 the Jesuit Antonio Andrada set ottt from Agra and reached the sacred 
shores of Lake Mansarowar ; thence he made his way to Rudok, and eventually by 
way of Tangut to China (Markham's * Tibet,* p. Ivi.)- In 1661 the missionaries 
Grueber and D*Orville passed through Lhasa to Agra on the Ganges. Between 1723- 
1736 the Dutchman Samuel van der Putte travelled from India to Peking througli 
IMsa and back again to India; and lastly, in 1845, the missionaries Hue and Gabet 
reached the capital of the Tale Lama from Northern China, and returned through 
Southern China to Canton. 

X Sec * Journal R.G.8.,' vol. xlvii. pp. 86-136. 

§ Eastern Tibet was also visited in 1862 by the Abb^ Desgodins, who went from 
Bathang to Cha-mou-to (Chiamto) (See * Proc. R.G.S.,' 1885 and 1886. ' La Thibet d*apres 
la correspondance des Missions ') ; and Pundit A— k, during his four years* travels, 
succeeded in making his way from Lhdsa to Tyingali (Tengelik) in 36^ N. lat and 
96° E. long., and thenc^ through Xorth- western Tsiidam to Sha-chau. 




Meagre as our geographical information is concerning Northera 
Tibet, its general features may be rongkly sketched, more especially 
as nature has fashioned it on a large scale. The limits of our plateau 
are the Kuen-lun on the north, and the northern Himtilja on the 
south ; from east to west it extends from the Karakornm, and its south- 
eastern continuations, to the borders of Sze-chnen and Kan-su, The 
eastern, smaller half of this region differs widely from the western. 
A line drawn diagonally from Lake Tengri-nor to the sources of the 
Yellow river would servo to EQark the division. West of such a line 
lies a continuous table land almost without relief, and having no waters 
flowing towards the ocean except in its eastern part. East of this line « 
all the streams belong to the oceanic watershed, the country loses its f 
tableland aspect, and now and again presents grandiose alpine scenery. 

The whole of Tibet may from the diversity of its topographical 
features l^e divided into three parts :^a southern, comprising the upper 
valleys of the Indus, the head-waters of the Sutlej and the Brahmft- 
putra ; a northern, presentiDg a continuous tableland ;* and an eaatem^ 
containing an alpine country reaching far into China Proper.f The 
Kuen-lun on the north and the Northern Himalya on the south are 
its repreeeutativo chains, but neither of these has been yet fuUy ex- 
plored, though their main features have been revealed to us by the 
Pundits Nain Sing } and D. in the case of the Kortliem Himilya, and ■ 
by Fi-ejevalsky in the central parta of the Kuen-liin. f 

The climate of Tibet is characterised by (1) a low temperature at all 
seasons of the year, notwithstanding its southern position; (2) a pre- 
valence of violent storms, especially in spring ; and (3) by excessive 
dryness of atmosphere in autumn, winter, and spring — on the other 
hand, by an ahundance of humidity in summer. § 

Turning to the flora and fauna of Korthorn Tibet, we again meet 
with a strange phenomenon, a poor vegetation contrasting w^ith large 
numbers of herbivorous animals. Of trees there are none, and Preje- 
valsky only found three kinds of bushes, one of which — the wdllow— 
grew half a foot in height ; the others lie on the ground* There are 
three or four kinds of grasses along the banks of the Mur-ussu and some 
other valleys, but the soil is for the most part bare, or only occasionally 
covered with plants about an inch in growth. But its fauna places 

* I am informed bj Mi* Ney Elias tbut this country may prove to be momifcimuiw, 
just as parts of Nortb-eaat Tibet actually visited by Prejevaltiky* In tljesame way tbo 
Pamir uraa tbougbt to bo a continuous tableland before exploration proved it to be a 
fiucceaaion of ranges, 

t Itii not proposed in tlii» paper to enter into the orographical details commumcated 
by Prejevalaky. Thesti might form the subject of an apfMjndii in a separate paper. 

I Kain Blrigli measured a peak, Gandizri (i% 25,000 ft^et higb^ and Pundit D. saw 
equally lofty summits aouth of Tengri*non — Juurual K.G.S., vol. xlvii. p. 105. 

§ 1 am ioformcd by Mr, Ney Elias that the humidity noticed in Eastern Tibet and 
Kftu-su docs not extend to Western Tibet 


Tibet in a separate zooiogical category, not from the variety of species,* 
but from their number and aize. Probably there is hardly any part of 
the world, except perhaps Inner Africa, where there are such nmnbera 
of wild animals as are met with on the solitudes of Northern Tibet, 
Hare in one day the traveller may see hundreils of herds of yaks, wild 
aeses, and antelope, and these show' no signs of alarm at the approach of 
man. Their numbers may be estimated, not by tens or hundreds of 
thunsands, but by millions* 

The first place among them is taken by the wild yak, which may 
be distinguished from the domestic species by many, thougli compara- 
tively minor, zoological marks, and may be calledt as Prejcvalakj' 
suggests, Poejihagus muius, owing to the fact that this animal never 
utters a sound, while its domestic congener grunts like a pig, and is 
therefore named by Pallas Bo9 grtmniens. 

Then there are two beautiful kinds of antelope.f two kinds of 
mountain sheep4 frequenting the wildest crags ; lastly, a deer, only 
found in small numbers on some of tbo mountains, but not on the 
plateau itself. 

On advancing into Tibet, mraours reached the expedition that the 
Tibetans had assembled troops to prevent their approaching the capital. 
Neyertheless they advanced, full of hope and scorning every inauspicious 
omen and report. In order to avoid the high pass over the Burhan 
Buddlia they turned into the defile of the Nomokhun-gol, passing along 
one of those barren, stony plains so common in Central Asia,§ margining 
with a wide and slightly inclined belt the foot of the Bnrhan Buddha. 
Here, in the midst of tamarisk bushes, they came upon patches of culti- 
vated land, sown with barley, a rare sight in a country inhabited by 
Mongols, who hate and despise agriculture. Having passed the Burhan 
Buddha and Shuga || ranges, the last-named by a pass of 15,200 feet, they 
entered a remarkable valley, only thi-ee miles wide, but 70 miles long, 
forming a natural causeway between two huge ranges. At either end of 
it, passes % lead southwards across the range named by Prejevalsky 

• AU the mumnials found by PrejeTtilaky in Nortbern Tibet belon;^ to four orders, 
distributed on follows :— Caraivora, ^ ; Gliresi 6 ; Soliiiuiigula^ 2 ; HuxiiififUiLid, 1^. 

t Tbe orongo (Panthoiops Ih^gsoni) and iidft (Prtxapra pictk<mda}. 

X The wbite-brea«ted argnli (Otis //-H/*/sonj ?) and Kuko-yaman {Ps^ifvia Xttftoor). 

§ The ocrurreDce of eimilar jilaiiis iti Afghan iatiiii hns lK?en expkincd by C L. 
Gnedbuch, Ike geologist on the Afghan Boondaiy Commiiibion, in the following wny : 
** Nearly all the great valleys of Southern Afgh&DistaD are covered TirUh poat-Pliocent' 
depomU in great thickness ; amongst them b conspicuous a deposit of gravel and 
iireguliir fragments of rock from the Hirrronnding hills, more or lets firmly eomen ted 
together by a calcareona or argillaceous matrix forming a breccia. After ilia integration 
has taken ]ilace on the snrfacc of this deposli, t\w prevailing Band«eharged stonnB 
ffinuHre such decomposed niat*?rbl^ leaving the larger particka, namely, th<i pebbles and 
sogoliir rock frogmentSf behind^ producing wide spreads of those Btoije-»trt?wn plains, 
chanLctenstic of this part of Asia, and commonly termed dasht by the natives." 

H Described in Prejevalsky's book, * Mongoliii, &c-/ voL ii. chap. (1, 

^ Chium-ChiuTO is the name of the eastern pass, 16^300 feet» Anghir-dakeliin (A— k's 


224 . 


"Marco Polo." Their outward track lay by the eastern pass, their 
return journey by the weBtem. They were now fairly on the plateaa 
of Northern Tibet, and for tho remaindor of their journey in that countr^^ 
never descended below 14,000 feet. Hero their difficnliies were great. 
The guide refused to show theoi tho way, or probably did not know 
it ; tho weather turned cold, with continued enowfalls, though it was 
only the middle of October, and their camels and horses could find 
nothing to eat ; the artjoh l>ecame damp and refused to bnrn, and thei^ 
was every prospect of an early winter. It required some resolution on 
the part of the leader of the expedition and hie men to persevere. 
Difficulties, however, could not daunt them, and they all as one man h 
said, *' Come what may^ we will go forward." ( 

They still advanced in the same south-westerly direction towrards 
the Koko-shili or Blue range,* visible as a long wall on the horizon. 
After tw^o days more of bad weather, tho snn ahone out brilliantly, but 
the glare from the snow caused ophthalmia to men as well as animals, 
and one of their sheep became totally blind. But there were sjTnptoms 
of a change for the better, and the severe cold they hsd so recentl}'^ 
experienced had been exceptional. After they had extricated them- 
selves — not without difficulty, for they had no guide — from the Koko- 
ehili Mountains^ the weather became warmer, and the snow melted off H 
the southern slopes, 

Btjfore reaching the next parallel range, the Dumbure.f they crossed 
a plain 15,000 feet above tho sea, studded with lakelets fed by springs, 
where the sandy soil supports a scanty vegetation consisting of mingled 
alpine and steppe forms* Their next march was most difficult, for they 
had not only to cross the main axis of the Dumbure and two of its 
ramifications, but to traverse intermediate tracts of half-frozen marsh 
land. Having at last extricated themselves from these mountains, they 
arrived on the banks of the Mur-ussu* Hero they halted for tw^o 
days, before ascending its valley, by a well-worn track taken by the 
LhEksa pilgrims. But this disappeared altogether after about twenty 
miles, and they had again to report to scouting in order to find the 
road. Fortunately, they were by this time so experienced in local land- 

AngliirtdkebiB) tliRt on the west A — k also gives thin name AngkiMflkahin to a long 
ningeljiDgeajjt and vmet, piobtibly identical vvitli Prejfcfvalfeky'B "Marco Fcslo "* rajigK, 
He dcilTes this name from u medlcimil herb used for burning as incense, Cf. * B«port 
on the Explorations in Grtat Tibet and Mongolia,' p. 42. 

* The Koko-shili m a ^est4^rlj ooutinuution of tli© Baian-kara-ula. It Btretcbca 
from the point tit which the expoditicn cioMod it for 400 tnikei due we^t. Its height 
abovo the plain iw only between 1000 mud 2000 ft*t, but tb<j plain itself is 1*1,000 feet 
above sea-leveh A — k'a *' Khokliosili," at tlic point wbtro he croesed it, io 35*^ 10' 37" 
N» !at. The height of the pasu, bb measured by boiliDg wa(er» was 13,430 feet, Cf. 
Eeport, p. 41. His "Khokbo«ili" lies to ibe ouulh of the Ma-chu river (Prejevalaky'i 
Na pchitai-uilan'nmrren) . 

t A— k*B " Dung^bnra/' 


marks, that they had no difficulty in hitting off the right line. But 
the severe marching had told on the camels and horses; four of the 
former and one of the latter were disabled, and it was necessary to 
reduce the number of loads. A cache was therefore made in a natural 
valley in the mountains, where some of their heavier baggage, including 
the skins of animals, was left to be called for on their return. This 
was satisfactorily accomplished, and the expedition again pushed 
forward. But toils and hardships began to tell on all the men^ who not 
only felt the usual effects of travel at great heights, loss of strength, 
giddiness, shortness of breath, sometimes palpitations of the heart and 
general lassitude, but one or other of the Cossacks was always ailing 
with cold or headache. Happening upon the tracks of a caravan that 
had recently passed and trodden down the snow, they were able to cross 
the Tang-la Plateau, which lay like a mighty swelling in front of them, 
crowned in the far distance with a long chain of snowy summits. But ' 
first they forded the Mur-ussu, the water only two and a half feet deep, 
being at its lowest, and the ice, though strong enough to bear a man, 
would not support an animal. 

The pass over the Tang-la is 16,700 feet of absolute height, yet 
only 2100 feet above the valley of the Mur-ussu, and 2000 feet above 
that of the Sang-chu flowing at the foot of its southern slope. Yet the 
ascent of this plateau from the north is 80 miles long and the descent 
50 miles.* Towards the west of the caravan road, the Tang-la is still 
loftier, and its snowy peaks f stand closer together than towards the east. 

In this direction too, i. e. towards the east, the range runs, according 
to hearsay reports, for 130 miles as a snowy ridge, and possibly the 
Tang-la itself, together with its accompanying plateau, continue east- 
wards, though on a smaller scale, to the Ein-sha-kiang, or Upper 
Yang-tse-kiang, where this river has a due southerly course. And if 
such be the case, the Tang-la range, like the Baian-kara-ula, divides the 
sources of the greatest rivers of Eastern Asia, the Yang-tse-kiang on one 
side, the Gamboja and Salwin on the other.t 

* Equal to a rise of one foot in 26 miles on the north, and one foot in 40 miles on 
X the south. The Tang-la might, therefore, be easily crossed by a railroad. 

t The snowy peaks seen by Prejevalsky on the Tang-la were at least 19,000 to 20,000 
feet above the sea, and the snow-line is at 17,000 feet on the northern side and about 
17,500 feet on the southern side. 

X All the rivers of the northern slope of the Tang-la cerfainly join the Mur-ussu, 
which has its source here. From the southern slope of the western Tang-la, accoiding 
to the information collected by Prejevalsky, flows the river Zacha-Sanpo falling into 
Lake Mitlk-jansu (probably the Chargut-cho of Nain Singh). This lake is also the 
reservoir of other streams, which are themselves fed by lakes lying south and west 
along the northern slope of the Northern Him^lya range. Lake Mityk-jansu or 
Chargut-cho, sends its surplus drainage to the east by a river entering Lake Amdo- 
t&onak, and from this agnin issues another river called Nnp-chu by Tibetans and 
Kara-ussu by Mongols. This river, known in its lower course as the Lu-tse-kiang 
(Tibetan Nge-kio) and other names, appears in Indo-China as the Salwin. 

In this way, if there really be this connection between LiJce Mityk-jansu and the 


Tlie inb 111 >i tail ta t>f these platcraiix were Ycgrais,* tbo first Been fiinc50 
the expedition left Tsaidam, aTid Goliki^f two TaBgiitaii trthets known 
Tinder the general name of Sok-pa. The Yegrais nomadi&e in the I'ang-la, 
moving from place to place according to the supply of food for their 
cattle ; tho camping groTinds of the Gollki arc on the Bine river, much 
Mow it^ confluence with tho Napchitai-ulan-mnrren, Prejc valsk}' saw 
nothing of tho Goliki, hut came acrosB the Yegrais while ascending the 
Tang-la, and afterwards fought them when they attempted to close the 
pass to his caravan. Their appearance closely resembles that of all 
the tribes of Northern Tibet, though there are probably slight differenoee 
between them, but not enough to be distingiiiahed by a paesing 
traveller* Their long, matted, black locks fall on their sboulders, 
their whiakers and beard are scanty, their face and head angular, their 
complexion dark, their dress dirty. They carry a «word thrust into their 
Ijelt, a gun of the old matchlock typo over their shoulders, a lance in 
their hands, and are always on horsebaek. They are spoilt by the sub- 
mifisiveness of the Mongol pilgrims whom they plunder as well as every 
caravan eoniing from and going to Lhilsa. They live in black tents 
made of the hair of the yak. Their occnpations, l>esides those of a 
predatory kind, are bunting and cattle-breeding. Their domesticated 
animal a are the yak, sheep, and a few horses. They number 400 tents 
or 2iH}0 souls of both sexes. After his engagement with the Yegrais 
Pi-ejevalfiky came to some warm springs on the south side of the Tang*la. 
One of these, surrounded by si licious crags at a height of 15,600 feet 
above the sea, had a temperature of 90^ Fahr.t Within the rock a dull 
s50und is heard continually and the noise made by the water is like the 
blows of a hammer ; by their side is a funnel in the rock sending forth 
suflfocating steam. 

On the fifth day of their descent from the Tang-la the exp€N3ition 
loft its plateau and arrived at [the Sang-cbu river (14,700 feet),§ where 

more westerly lakes as shown in Nain Siiij;li*s route map (see J^mrnal ILG.S*, vol. xlvii. 
pp, 87 and 110), the eouroea of the Salwin [or perhaps tlio Irawadi] should be placed od 
tbo tftljleland of Northern TiWt in 83p E, long, and about 32^^ N. kt., or a littJe east of 
the meridian of the sourcea of the Yaru-Sanpo» i. e. Upper Brahmftputra, If this should 
prove to be tho case, both these rivere, the Solwin [? Iruwadi] for au ijomeuse extent of 
their upper courso aloug the j>lfttejiii of Tibet, flow from west to tast piirallel with, and 
at no grtat diatancu from, one nuuther, parted, however, by the mighty Northern 
Htnuilja ehaiu. 

* Cf. * Meagolia/ vol. ii. p. 151. 

t The Goliki are probably tho Koks of Abbe Hue. 

X The lower springs are nine miles from the upper one on the bnaks aud in the bed 
of a brook, the Tiing-chu, which also recojvei the drainage of the upper apring* Two 
of them throw up fuuntains 3 and 4 feet high, tlje othera issue in small streams with a 
hissing or Vmbbliug sound. Tlic uiaxLimum tempers^ture observed at the lower springs 
WB8 I2t Fahr. 

§ The B.iug-chu fSows into the Taag-chu, called by the Mongola, Biij^yn-gob atid 
this latter has a soath^eftateily course intothj Nap-chu or Kara-nssu, Tlie valley of 



they met with the first encampments of Tibetans, whose black tents 
were scattered about the valley, among herds of yak and flocks of 

On their second march from this valley they learnt that the Tibetans 
had decided not to allow them to pass, and that great excitement pre- 
vailed at Lh4sa, where reports were circulated that the Russians were 
coming to steal the T41e Lama and destroy their faith. Pickets had 
been stationed from the village of Napchu on the frontier to the pass 
over the Tang-la, but these had been withdrawn on the approach of 
winter, as it was thought that the expedition had been deferred. Now, 
on its sudden appearance, soldiers and militia were at once assembled on 
the frontier, and the inhabitants were forbidden on pain of death to sell 
the Russians anything or enter into relations with them. Two officials 
with an escort of ten soldiers were sent from Napchu to inquire who 
they were, in order that the authorities at Lh&sa might be at once 
informed on all points. 

Having advanced to within a short distance of the village of 
Napchu * and met the Tibetan officials, Prejevalsky halted, and here 
he was obliged to wait until an answer had been received from Lh&sa. 
On the sixteenth day the answer came, positively refusing to allow them 
to proceed. And thus they were compelled to return when they were 
within 170 miles of the capital of Tibet. 

I must now say something of Prejevalsky 's fourth journey to Tibet, 
1883-1885. Having left St. Petersburg in August 1883, he travelled to 
Eiachta, where he finally equipped his party, numbering altogether 
twenty men, well practised in the use of firearms. 

From IJrga he again crossed the widest part of the Gobi to Ala-shan, 
and marched thence to the Chinese city of Si-ning. Early in May 1884 
he arrived at the foot of the Burhan-Buddha, having left a depdt in 
Eastern Tsaidam of all his superfluous baggage and spare camels under 
the charge of seven Cossacks, while he and his companions, a party of 
fourteen, started to explore the sources of the Hoang-ho or Yellow river. 
After about 70 miles of marching over a barren plateau, 14,000 to 
16,000 feet high, they reached their goal. The Hoang-ho is formed by 
two streams flowing from the south and west out of mountains scattered 

the Sang-cha i» bordered on the south by a low ridge, the Jugulun, which forms the 
northern margin of another upland extending some distance to the south, probably to 
the Sarotyn-Kansyr (Sanden-Khansa of A — ^k's map), which stands on the south bank 
of the Nap-chu. This snow chain (i. e. Samtyn-Eansyr) is, in Prejevalsky's opinion, the 
easternmost spur of the Nien-chen-tang^la, and therefore of the Northern Him&lya. 
Samiyn-Khansyr divides the waters flowing down its northern slope to the Kara-ussu 
and down its southern slope to the Yaru-Sangpo, i. e. Upper Brahmaputra. 

* Hue's Naptchu, A — ^k*8 Nag-chu, situate on the river of the same name. Abbd 
Hue was fifteen days going from Napcliu to Lh^Ua. 



over a wklo marsh j plain (40 miles long by 12 wido)^ known under the 
name of Odon-tala (thousand fiprlnga). Here tlio Hoang-ho appears 
as a very modest river, divided into two or throe channelB, each from 
70 to 90 ftset wide and two feet deep at the fords. After flowing in this 
way fur 12 miles it passes through two great lakes^ the Jarin and the 
Orin, 13,500 feet above the eea ; then it makes a sharp elbow to avoid 
the snowy Anmeh-machin range, bursts through the chains of the Kuen- 
liln, and hurries on to China Proper. 

From the sources of the Hoang-ho, Prejovalsky continued southwards 
to the Blue river, the Bi-chu of the Tangutans, passing over a hilly 
plain, for the moet part covered with tusaocky marshes overgrown with 
stiff wiry grass. He crossed the waterparting between the two great 
rivers of China at a height of 14,500 feet, and on entering the basin of 
the Bi-chu cAme to a very different countrj% alpine in its character, but 
without forests, possessing, however, a rich and varied herbaceous flora* 
Here be met with a tribe of nomads called Kaniy* who received him in 
an unfriendly, tbongh not actually hostile way. After 67 miles of 
difficult marching, he reached the banks of the Blue river, flowing at 
a height of 12,700 feet, hemmed in by mountains, with a muddy, rapid 
stream of great depth. Finding it impossible to cross with his camels, 
he retraced his steps to the lakes at the sources of the Hoang-ho, which 
he explored and named.f Xear this he was attacked by a band of 300 
mounted Tangutau robbers, but succeeded in dispersing tliem, and made 
good his retreat down to Tsaidam, which in spite of its unattractive 
appearance, seemed a well-favoured land after his experiences in Northern 
Tibet. Hence he marched to the west along a wide valley stretching 
for 150 miles between the Chamen-tagb on the north ani the Kuen- 
lun on the south, and rising gradually from 9000 feet at 6az to 
14,000 feet at its western extremity, where it is closed by a range, con- 
necting tho Euen-lun with the Altyn-taghp This valley is situate in 
the direction of the prevailing westerly winds, and is constantly swept 
by them. Hence Prejevalsky gave it the appropriate name of " Valley 
of the Winds.** The descent from it to Cherchen in the Tarim basin 
is very easy, so that in all probability it was the highway in ancient 
times between Kboten and China. Tho Kuen-lun was found to cul- 
minate in the snowy group of jing-ri, in meridian 90^, with 20,000 feet 
of absolute elovationj forming the centre of chains to the east and 
west, to %vhich Prejevalsky gave the following names : — -*' Marco Polo," 
'* Columbus," " Mosco," with its peak •* Kremlin," 20,000 feet, and •' Con- 
jectural," with its rounded summit ** Shapka Monomakh" (Cap of 

* Kam, or KbDm, is the name of tlie provitiro of Eftstorn Tiljet. Nain Siogli cam© 
flcpoaa a predatory tribe named *' Kbatupa," who bad originally come from tb© cc»mitry 
north-east of Lbasa. Cf* Journal R.G.B., toL xlvii. pp- "^5 set^q,^ 102. 

t ^ Bufiniau" and '^ Expeditioo " lake, hut aee autey where tbo uative names are taken 
from hh own map. 

IN CEyrRAL ASU. 329 

Mononiacinis), Between the Moeoo and Conjectnnd ranges lies an 
exccjauielj salt lake, free from ice in the coldest weather, and named 
hj PrejeTalskj ** The Unfinasen," having a circnmfei^nce of about 
36 miles, with a width of only seven. 

Having retained to his depot at Gaz, Prejevalsky started for Lob- 
nor, distant 168 miles, across an absolutely unexplored plateau. In 
revisiting Lob-nor, he verified his previous observations, clearing up 
doobts expiessed by geographers as to whether the waterspread seen by 
him were the tme Lob-nor or only an expansion of the Tarim before 
readiing its final discharge. He concluded that Lob-nor is a reedy lake 
of no great depth surrounded by flat shores, the haunt of prodigious 
numbers of waterfowl, and inhabited by a few hundred human beings, 
whose halHts, tenements, and mode of life resemble thoee of the primitive 
lake dweDers. 

Frejevalsky's farther journey lay along the southern border of 
Eastern Turkistan. He visited the oases of Cherchen, Eiria, Nia, and 
Khoten, heard of the buried cities which flourished 3000 years ago and 
are now almost obliterated by the moving sands, saw more snowy peaks, 
and made a short incursion into the Kuen-lun, but being opposed by 
the Ghineae, could not proceed to any great distance. 


With leferenoe to the last part of his joarney General Prejevalskj has been good 
enoogh to communicate the following particalara to me by letter. 

1. Changes in existing maps, 

(a) The Khoten river makes no bend to the west bat has a nearly meridionid 
oomae from south to north (our iUaerary from Khoten to the oonfluence of the 
Kboten-daria with the Tarim measures 327 miles). 

Q}) There is no such lake as Yashil-^ul, nor any lakes along the course of the 

(c) Thirty miles below the fork of the Eara-kash and Khoten rivers, a low, narrow, 
and absolutely barren ridge, having an apparent elevation of only 500 feet, stretches 
frcHn fortMaiml-bashi in this direction (Le. towards the Khoten-daria). 

2. More Details. 

Forty-three miles below Khoten, following the Khoten^aria, otherwise known as 
the Yunm-kaah, lies the oasis of Tavek-k^, inhabited by about 500 families, not 
marked on any map. According to native information the population of the Khoten 
oasis (including Khoten, Kara-kash and Sam-pul) numbers 600,000. 

In September the Khoten river is an insignificant stream, 70 to 100 feet wide 
and 6 inches to a foot in depth. After a devious course of 17 miles below Mazar. 
tagh ridge it dries up, only leaving pools here and there' along its sandy bed. In 
summer, however, there is an abundance of water and the river then reaches the 

On either side of the Khoten river are drift sands the whole way from Khoten to 
the Tarim. The valley of the former river is about three miles wide and indistinctly 
defined ; on the lower river there are no inhabitant& 

No. IV.— Apbil 1887.] s 



The flora and fauna here are extremely poor \ Khoten has aa elevation of 4100 
feet, aod the confluence of the Khoten river with the Tarim 2800 feet, 12 miles 
below the junction of the Yarkand and Aksu darias. Here the Tarim has a width of 
about 200 yards at low water, and a depth of not less than five teet. The whole of 
the Tarim in navigable for small river steamers from the confluence of its upper 
waters to Lob-nor. The first irahabited parts of the Aksu oasis occur on the left bank 
of its river, 18 miles from the ford across the Tarim coming from Khoten. And it 
is exactly ^^ miles farther to the to^n of Aksu, The Ak^u oasis has a population 
of 56,000 families, according to cative information, and ia the most fertile part of 

After the jmper, 

Mr. H, H, Ho WORTH, m.p,, said he had sj^ent many years hv wandering 
over the terrihly dry and arid history of the districts described in the ffapcr. It 
was early in the thirteenth century when Jinghis Khan, the greatest of all Asiatic 
conquerors, and probably the greatest man the Asiatic world ever produced, set out 
to conquer the country described in the paper, then known as Tangut, and spent 
four summers in laying it waste. His victims were numbered by millions, and it is 
difficult to understand how it could have been so ]x>pulous, unless its physical oon- 
ditiona have greatly altered. Jiughis Khau made himself master of all the 
Turkish tribes which then occupied Central Asia, and then made his famous 
expedition to the west, making the valley of the Black Irtish, so graphically 
described in the i>apor, the rendezvous of his trooi>3. At the other end of the 
district described in the paper is the great bend of the Yellow river enclosing the 
country of the Mongol tribe called Ortus or Ordus, so called from their having been 
the guards and guardians of the Ordu, or special encampment and household of 
Jinghis Khan. On his death they were entrusted with the care of his tent and his 
body. Only three or four years ago the great French naturalist P^re David made 
an expedition into their country, and found that they were in possession of a 
silver box in which they said they had the bones of Jinghis Khan. When 
Jinghis Khan had conquered the whole of zlsia he performed one of tho greatest 
feats in connection with the movement of human races that was ever known : he 
shifted the whole of the tribes of Central Asia very far to the west. When he died 
he left the Mongols in charge of tho district still called Mongolia, which had pre- 
viously been largely occupied by Turks, and it was very singular that one of these 
Turkish tribes with which he was specially in contact, called Kirais, was still found 
north of the Tliian Shan. This was the same tribe that was mled by Prester 
John. Some of the Kimis were transplanted into the Usbeg country, at the same 
time the Turkish people who occupied the whole district south of the Thian Shan 
was pushed very much to the south, so that along the boniers of Tibet there 
were still the descendants of the Buddhist Turks who lived in that district when 
the Chinese pilgrims jessed that way, and who were mentioned by Marco 
Polo. The Tibetans call them Horpa. When in 1368 the Chinese drove the 
Mongols out of China a certain number took refuge in the valleys of Tsaidam, 
&c. Another migration took pbce in the beginning of the seventeenth century 
when a large number of the Kalmuks were induced to migrate down to Lob- 
nor. In tho last century, when the great struggle took place between tho civil 
and religious powers in Tibet, the Dalai Lama was so hard pressed that lie sent 
for these Kalmuks to help him, and it wag with their assistance that he drove 
out tho civil authorities. He had been much struck with one of the pictures 
shown lo the meeting of a most desolate part of tho desert which was known among 
the Mongols in the fourteeuth century as the " Pield of White Eoues,*^ which waa an 




cxtTemelj expreasive descriptioa of tbo terrible ws^te. With regard to the other 
cod of the diatriot, to which Prejevalsky lad referred, he might mention that in tbo 
S«ri«8 lakes and aUo m some of the early megalithic remflicB in Brittauy were found 
some little axes TOode of jade, and German geologists were convinced that they conld 
only hare come from the valley of Khoten. No jade was found in Swxteerland, 
ifDcl if it were, there was nothing there to triturate and grind it down so as to make 
polished axes with. It was exceedingly likely that these small jade axes were 
brought from Central Aeia- All through medieval times those small axes wore in 
use among the Turkish tribes. 

The Chairman (General K. Strachey) said he was prohahly one of the very few 
tjettons present who had ftctnally been in Tiliet, though he had not been very far into 
Tt« It was now thirty years since he was there, but he saw enough of it to get a moro 
vivid idea of the nature of the country than it waa possible to obtain without an 
aclnal visit to it. He looked forward with great interest to the full narration by 
General Prejcvalsky of his latest journeys in the northern part of Tibet, Tho 
aocount thai Mr. Morgan had given, combined with what had been learned from 
the native Indian explorers who went into the country under the Indian Survey 
BefMrttnent, interested him greatly » and he was quite satisfied that what may be 
regarded as Tibet proper certainly extended as far as the great range, which w^as 
marked on the map as the Kuen-ldn, and where travellers from the north llr&t came 
tipon very liigh mountains and an arid country. The region to the north of this 
range appeared to be altogether different in its character from Tibet proper. It had 
been visited by General Prejevalsky and was described by A— k, who was there for 
several months, and his description gave a fair impression of what the coontry was 
like. The j>eople cultivated wheat, and A — k found there what he was pleaxed to 
call ft forest, but what was in fact a thicket formed of baehes six or seven feet high, 
and that was altogether in excess of any arboreous vegetation to be found in Tibet 
proper. To some extent the climate also seemed to have changed* In Tibet there wens 
commonly strong westerly winds, but A — k*s account was that the prevailing winds 
of the district to the north of the Kiieu-ldn were easterly or north-easterly. The 
country, too, was sjene rally speaking sandy with rounded hills, and without the steep 
rocky mountains found in Tibet. Although Mr. Morgan had spoken of luxuriant 
'Viegitation, he ventured to think it was very different from what was oonsidered 
Inxitnant vegetation in any other part of the world. Enormous crowds of animal 
life had been mentioned, but he entirely disbelieved anything of the sort. When 
a traveller was wandering over a stony desert the appcamnce of a comparatively few 
wild animals would no doubt engage attention, but ho altogether doubted that there 
wat any large amount of animal life there. Mr. Morgan had roferred to the province 
of Kansii, and stated that there, there was really fiuo vegetation. Ko doubt the in- 
^uence of the niiii*bearing winds from tho Pacific was felt there; but Til>et proper, 
60 Jar as ft had any rain or moisture at all, was under the inGuence of the winds that 
came up from the Bay of Bengal. Mr. Howorth's remarka regarding the transfer of 
the population in the time of Jcnghis Khan wero citromely interesting, but he 
doubted if any such change of climate had taken place since Jenghis Khan made his 
expeditions, as Mr. Howorth appeared to suggest. 80 far as India was concerned 
he did not think there bad been any oonsiderable change of climate within the 
historical period; but he quite admitted that there was evidence of great changes 
ance the surface had taken its present form. He remembered Sir Oeiry Rawlioson 
and his brother Canon Rawlinson giving them most interesting statements regarding 
the changes of climate that must have taken place in the country about the lower 
part of the Oxus ; but ho did not think that similar changes had taken place in 
northern India. Whether they had occurred in the Mongolian plain was a matter 




well worthy of itiveatigation. It would be iotereBtiag to the Fellows present to be 
informed that at the present time sn Enghfth traveller was still in those countries. 
Mr. Carey, a gentleman belonging to the Indian Civil Service, had been there for the 
last two years. Ha left India in May 1885, struck northward, and descended Into 
the plaine of Turkistan near Khoton* His iilan was successfully carried out during 
Au^uflt and Seplemher 1885, and resulted in more than 300 miles of country being 
traversed which had never before been visited by a European of any nationality. 
The altitudes on this section of the journey were always very great, the track being 
de«cribed as runninc; usually at about 14^000 feet above the sea, while one, at least, 
of the passes crossed waa calculated to reach 19,000 feet. In desceQding from, the 
Tibetan highlands towards Kiria, an extremely difScult defile bad to be passed, 
where five (lays were taken up in making good a distance of 28 miles. A short 
stay was made at Kiria, and a somewhat longer one at Kboten, where General 
Prejevalsky's party was camped on Mr. Carey's arrival. The two explorers, 
however, did not meet, the former being then just on the point of starting for Aksu 
and RoBsiaa territory, while the latter had to fit himself out with a new caravan of 
camels for crossing the desert of Kucbar. From Kucbar he made a freah start, 
when the Tarim was followed down to a i)oint where it turns southward towards 
Lake LoK Thua the whole length of the Tarim had been explored. The country 
along its course was described as flat and reedy, and the people extremely poor and 
miserable ; at the villages near Lob, fodtler waa so deficient that Mr, Carey had to 
pitch his standing camp for the latter part of the winter (about February to April) 
at a village called Cbaklik, some distance south of the lake, and close to tbe foot of 
the great range of mountains which forma the northern scarp of the Tibetan high- 
lands. This long halt was utilised in preparing for a journey southward into Tibet 
as soon as the season should permit ; and it happened eventually that a new depar- 
ture was made on the 30th April, 1886. The last that was heard of Mr. Carey 
appeared to have been in May last year, and it was to be hoped that before very long 
some more intelligence would be received from him. They were indebted to 
Mr. Ney Elias for this account of Mr. Carey*8 proceedings, and it was to be regretted 
that Mr. Elias was unable to be present at the meeting to throw some furtlier light 
upon that country of which he probably knew more than any other EnglisliniaD- 

Mr. E> Delmab MoitUAN, in reply, said that Prejevalsky had dealt at aome 
length with the question of the violent winds, which he attributed partly to local 
causes. Prejevalsky gave full details of the extraordinary numbers of wild animals, 
•stating that he Baw them not only on his last but also on his previous journey. It 
was owing to the presence of these vast numbers of animals that travellers were able 
to cross the high plateaux of Northern Tibet, their dung being the only fuel to be 
found there, and he believed that A — k also referred to the subject. When winter 
commenced with its usual severity large herds were observed by the traveller 
imigratiog to lower and warmer regions in the sonth-^st. The conditions of life in 
Northern Tibet are, moreover, exceptionally favourable to them : Ist, their im- 
munity from persecution by man; 2nd, the unlimited range over which they are 
distributed ; and lastly, the absence at these high altitudes of the insects that 
torment them in the plains below. In summer there waa sufScient humidity to 
fiupi ort such scanty vegetation as Tibet afforded ; at other seasons it wsa quite dry. 

( 233 ) 

PotanirCs Journey in North-western China and Eastern Tibet. 

Wk are indebted to M. Veniukoff for the following abstract* of 
M. Potanin's lecture, delivered before the East Siberian Section of the 
Enssian Geographical Society, on his travels in China, at Irkutsk, in 
December 1886. 

Potanin's expedition started from Peking in 1884, with the intention 
of crossing the desert of Ordo8(Ortu8) to Lang-chan, capital of Kan-snh, 
and penetrating thence as far south as possible. The X)art7 started on 
Uie 13th May for Eukn-khoto (or Kwei-hwa-cheng), passing over the 
triple chain of mountains dividing the plain of Peking from that on 
which Euku-khoto is situate. The southernmost of these three ridges 
bears the Chinese name of U-tai-shan, *' the mountain of five sacrificial 
altars,*' after the group of five peaks, the highest of which is 10,000 feet 
above the sea, a height not exceeded by any mountain in Northern China. 
At its southern foot lies a valley remarkable for its Buddhist monas- 
teries and shrines, one of which, '* Shing-tung-tze," is entirely made of 
brass, whence its name. 

Euku-khoto is the depdt for the Mongolian trade with China. It 
contains 200 tea-shops, five theatres, 15 temples, and six Mongol 
monasteries. Among its sights are the Buddhist convent of Utassa 
with its five pinnacles and bas-reliefs, the convent of Fing-sung-si, and 
a temple containing a statue erected in honour of the Chinese general 
Pai-jin-jung, who avenged an insult ofiered to the Emperor of China. 

Leaving Euku-khoto the expedition crossed the Yellow river and 
entered the sand- wastes of Ordo8.t The Mongols of Ordos are ranged 
under BbyetLX'koshung9 or banners under seven princes, the chief authority 
being vested in one who has the longest family tree and bears the title of 
*' Wang." Their holiest place is a collection of felt tents called *' Edjen- 
joro," reputed to contain the bones of Jenghiz Ehan. These sacred 
relics are entrusted to the care of a caste of Darhats numbering 
some fifty families. Every summer, on the twenty-first day of the 
sixth moon, sacrifices are ofiered up in his honour, when numbers of 
people congregate to join in the celebration, such gatherings being 
called t6Ugan. 

On the southern border of Ordos are the ruins of Borobalgassun, 
said to date from Jenghiz Ehan's time. From this place the expedition 
went to Lang-chau, in the valley of the Yellow river, surrounded by 
fruit gardens which continue along the river for about 40 miles. To 
the south lie hills covered with thick deposits of loess, and the river 
cuts its way through these, forming a narrow gorge. Many of the 

* TraiiBlated by Bfr. E. D. Morgan. 

t Fully described by Prejevaldky in his irork * Mongolia,' ftc, toL i. pp. 180-195 

X PrejeTaUky says six, and gives their names. Cf. * Mongolia,* d:c., vol. i. p. 144. 


inliabitants live in artificially constructed caves, probably since tbe 
Mahommedan insurrection which destroyed so many villages and towns, 
and laid waste the coEntry. 

M, Potanin, who was accompanied by his wife, visited the territory 
of the Salars,* a Turkish tribe, which has preserved its written and 
spoken language almost unaltered. This jtribe inbabits twenty-four 
villages near Siun-hwa-ting, on the south bank of the Yellow river. 
iVnothcr in teres ling people visited by the travellers were the Amdos 
Mongols, identical with the "Taldi** or "Daldes" of Prejevalfiky,t 
scattered over a tract lying between the meridians of Lang-chau and 
Suh-chau, and partly engaged in agriculture and horticulture. Their 
language is a mixture of Mongolian, Turkish, and Chinese words ; their 
houses, food, and dress are Chinese, while the costume of their M'X)men^ 
especially their head-dress, is peculiar. The Amdos are governed by 
elders, whose office is hereditary, and who trace their descent from a 
half historical, half legendary prince, Li-ching-wang, whose tomb ia 
shown on the bank of the Sining-gol near Shangnlang. Some of the 
Amdoe profess Islam, others retain Lamaism. 

Potanin and his travelling companion Skassi liad an audience of the 
governor of Si-ning, who gave them a free pass for Eastern Tibet. 
During a part of their journey they had an escort of twenty Tangutan 
or Tibetan soldiers officered by a monk. 

From Si-ning the travellers set out for Mlng-chau, passed over 
so-called iantjg or high plateaux (about 10,000 feet), thickly clothed 
with herbaceous vegetation. To the west of their road rose two snowy 
g^ups of mountains — Amni {-jakar and Amni-tungling. The town of 
Gui-dui on the Yellow river, the fortress of Bounan, and the monas- 
teries of Labrang and Joni were successively visited. At Labrang they 
were received with much ceremony by the chief Lama or ge^en, who, 
besides his spiritual functions, exercised temporal swa3* over the district 
and had a military force at his command. Joni is the residence of a 
Tangutan prince named Joni-bombu, 

From Ming-chau the expedition turned southward, but were pre- 
vented from penetrating farther than Sung-pang-ting, their supplies 
having come to an end. The country between Ming-chau and Sung-pang* 
ting is described as a labyrinth of steep ranges of mountains and deep 
valleys, where the views, even from the summits of the passes, are too 
limited to enable the observer to form any clear idea of the general direction 
of the ridgee and valle3rB* The scenery, however, offers many points of 
interest. Biver torrents, cascadea, and natural terraces lend a charming 
variety to the landscape, while the roads, only passable for pack animals, 
here clinging to the rocky steeps, or cut into the rock itself, there 

• Ct ■ Mongolia,* &c^ voU iL p, 149. 
t Ct ^MoogoliA,' Ac Tol. a pp. G9 M^, and 299 9eq, 

t Or ** Amneb,'* Le. ** ancestors,** held vcred by the TsngataiiE: cC 'Mongolia,* 
Ac*, Tol iL p. 76, 



sopported on irooden props, or carried acron the stream on rid^etj bob- 
pension bridges wbich rock to and fro under the laden mnle, remind the 
traveller of the wild alpine country he has entered. Bains too were 
freqnenty for the Chinese monsoons deposit their moisture on these 
ranges and call into existence a Inxnriant vegetation. The hiUs from 
top to bottom were denselj forested with conifers in the npper zone, 
deciduous trees and bnshes on the lower slopes. Here were observed 
three kinds of maple, the lime, the hazel, a prickly-leaved oak like 
the ikx with fruit branches like the strings of copper coins current 
in the country, whence the CSiinese caU it the ** money-tree." Here 
too amidst the undergrowth were the tall stems of the bamboo and 
several sub-tropical ferns. Maize is cultivated in the deeper vaDeys, 
and round the villages a sheaf-like variety of bamboo, DUmpfnm 
KaM,^ yidding a frnit, the m-i»si ; the soap-tree, the varnish-tree, palms 
(CftoHeropt), and bananas The deciduous woods of the upper belts at a 
hei^t of 9000 feet were fringed with bushes of rhododendron of two <»- 
three kinds, one of arborescent growth, with a trunk eight inches in 
diameter. In the alpine zone above the limit of the forests, four kinds of 
poppy were observed, <me yellow (Cdikcatiia %mlegrifoUd)j two blue, and 
one red* 

Sung-pang is an important trade centre, and lies on the road taken faj 
the tea caravans, passing from Szechuen to Northern Tibet. Thj&Js one 
of the three main roads to Lhasa followed by the pilgrims frcnn China 
and Mongolia. The environs of Sung-pang are funous for their monas- 
teries or •* bonbo," the objects of veneratioai to tiie Tangutan population. 
Thirteen miles nortii-east of Sung-pang is the snowy Siue-shan, at 
whose foot flows a rivulet, theKsemtso, ** golden lake,** really a suceessicm 
of small lakes divided by thin waDs of tufa, one above the other. 

From Sung-pang the expediti<m returned to Lang-chau vii Lung-«n- 
fu, Yen-hflien, Tse-chau, Hung-chang-fu, and Di-dao. They passed the 
w int er at the monastery of Kumbum, south of Si-ning, where tbey saw the 
relies of the mother of Tsonkaba, the great Buddhist reformer, and the 
miraculous tree described by Abbe Hue. 

A Jomrmof tj» Noriken and Eastern MandiuricL 

The * Proceedings' for Deoemb^ last t ccmtained an account of a jour- 
ney undertaken by Messrs. James, Younghusband, and Fulfoid to the 
Pei-shan Mountain and the sources of the SungarL Mr. James, one of 
the party, informs us that the three traveUers have since continued 
their explorations in Northern and Eastern Manchuria, and visited parts 

* A spetitmcldMie plmn, Bometimes called tbe *^ Keg-fig " ; the French sweetmeatB 
^gna-ooqmti are made from ita fruit 
t ' PraewdiBga B.6.S,* ISSe, p. 779. 


of tlie country wliich havo not been previously described. After a 
tletentioii of three weets at Kirinj caused hy the prolonged rains, they 
started on the 3rd September fur TsitBihar, the capital of North 
Manchuria. Passing through Petunia, they croBSed the Sungari at its fl 
junction with the Konni. The rivers were in flood, and the joint stream 
was 10 miles across. The prairies also beyond were so much under 
water that frequent diversions had to be made for the high road 
described by the Archimandrite PaOadius.* Tsitsihar was reached 
on the 20th September, and then the party turned to the south-east, 
passing for 175 miles over a high undulating and perfectly uncnlti* 
vated steppe. Large flocks of geese, of which there were three 
varieties , the large bustard, and a species of black crane, too shy for 
a specimen to be secured, were comnjon. The only other thing notice- S 
able here was a rude but eiBcient system of manufacturing soda and " 
a salt, called mien-tm. The earth containing the salt is gathered 
from the edges of brackish lakes, mixed in large tanks with water, 
and then the impregnated liquid is drawn oE and boiled in iron 
cauldrons, at the bottom of which the soda collects in a solid cup-shaped H 
mass, 9 to 12 inches thick. The other salt is ladled out liquid, and 
pressed into briuks. The process is identical with that used for the 
production of saltpotro in Sind, and borax in Ladakh, fl 

Near the edge of the steppe the flourishing town of llulan, on the 
banks of the Hulan river, 8 or 10 miles from the Sungari was reached. 
The modem town of Pe-tun-lin-tzu, 55 railcs to the north-east was the 
next visited, and then Pa-yen -shu^shu, 55 miles to the south-east of 
Pe-ttm-lin-tzu, Each of these towns contains upwards of 25,000 inha- 
bitants, and increases in size rapidly, as the country around, which 
is very fertile, is being widely cultivated, and colonists arrive eveiy 
winter in largo numbers from the south. 

The whole of Mfinchuria is noted for brigands, but this neighbourhood M 
literally swarms with them* One everjiog at dusk the party met with a H 
party of five, armed with foreign guns. But it is considered unlucky to 
meddle with "foreign devils,** particularly as these, for purposes of 
sport, always carried their guns ready, so the party was not molested. 
The banditti make their hiding-places in the hills to the north, and the 
officials are so corrupt and incompetent, and tho Manchu soldiers are 
so cowarJlj') that in spite of constant and wholesale executions the pest 
still flourished. Anyone who makes a little money is liable to have his 
house plundered, or to be kidnapped and taken oW to the hills, and then, 
if an exorbitant ransom is not paid, his head is sent back without fail to 
his friends, jjo Mr encoura^jer les an t res. Not nmch more than a year ago 
a large body attacked Pe-tun-lin-tEu, with the connivance of the local 
military Mandarin, and another flourishing village, called Hsian-shih-ho, 
was looted twice in the same year. 

• 'Journal B-G.S.,' vol rlil p, 142. 


The Solon Tartan also, who live by hantiDg in the hills, are wild 
saTages. While the party was at Holan, four Chinese arriyed, the last 
of a party of thirteen, who had gone to the hills to collect medicinal 
loots, and were masBacred for the sake of their carts and baggage. No 
attempt at retribution would, it was said, be made bj the officials. 

The principal places of business in the tract are the distilleries, as, 
although the grain is Tcry cheap, communications are so bad, that even 
when floods make almost a famine in Liao-tung, as is often the case, it 
does not paj to export it south, except in the form of liquor. These 
distilleries, and indeed all important places of business, whether inside 
towns or out, are strongly fortified with lofty walls, flanking towers, 
inm-plated gates, and sometimes even, with small cannon ; convoys of 
carts travel around with gingalls, matchlocks, and spears, unless they 
have first paid blackmail to the brigands, and even foot-passengera 
carry weapons of some kind. Three French missionaries reside in this 
out-of-the-way region. They have discovered that excellent claret and 
brandy may be made out of the wild grapes of the country. 

From F^yen-shu-ehu the road followed the left bank of the Sungari 
as far as San-seng, below which town the Chinese have built a fort, 
aimed with Erupp guns, to guard the approach up the river. From 
San-seng, which is not a very flourishing place, the party turned south, 
up the valley of the Hurka or Mutan-chiang, along a tract constructed a 
few years back, and said to be passable for carts. It proved barely so. 
It crosses an everlasting series of very steep ridges running down to 
the edge of the right bank, with difficult swamps between, and though 
the worst parts had been roughly bridged or causewayed, so much is it 
out of repair that until the frost came it was very difficult to get the 
carts through, and the gradients of the hills were so severe that many 
accidents happened. 

Along the Hurka and its tributaries, the capture was seen of entire 
shoals of salmon coming up to spawn, the fish being intercepted by 
weirs of wickerwork, and then pulled out of the water as fast as the 
gaff could be thrust into them, so that hundreds were collected at a 
time. San-seng was left on the 16th October, and after passing a canton- 
ment called Teh-ho, which guards the road leading to Lake Hinka and 
the settlement of Nikokk, Ninguta was reached on the 26th. This 
neighbourhood is veiy well cultivated. The road further south was 
found not to be so difficult, and Hunchun, a large cantonment in the 
south-east comer of Manchuria, was made on the 6th November. From 
there the travellers visited the Bussian outpost on the frontier, as well 
as the station of Novaviyeek, in Possiet Harbour, meeting with a most 
cordial reception from the colonel in oommand and the other Bussian 
officers. From San-seng onwards the country swarmed with pheasants in 
incredible numbers, and black-game was also met with in large flocks, 
very tame, packing together in willow trees, like hens in a barn. The 



mountain deer or fau-tzu was aleo oommon. From Hnnchiin the party 
divided. One of the numbor went with a convoy of mules by a short 
cut across the hills to Eirin. This route follows a river YarlouBly called 
the We-tzu-ho, the Yang-tzu-kang-ho, and other Barnes, from places on 
its banks, and it falls into the Kaya-ho shortly before the river joins 
the Tumen, The raule-track, which is also used by carta in winter, con- 
tinues along this stream up to its very source, and then crt^sses the 
watershed between the Tumen and Htirka valleys by the Hu-la-pa-ling 
pass. It then follows the Sha-ho, a tributary of the Hurka» crosses the 
Hurka itself at a place called San-cliia-tzu, not far from Autuo (which is 
erroneously shown in tho maps on the Tumcn side of the watershed), and 
ascends another tributary, the ChuH^rk-tao-ho as far as Omoso, on the 
Imperial high road from Ninguta to Kirin, After crossing the Chang- 
tsai-ling, it quits the main ro^d again near a mountain called La-bu-la- 
tzu, and crosses a further range called Hai-ching-ling, south of the 
Lau-yeh-lmg, one which the high road passes. Kirin was reached by 
this route on the 24th November, and the rest of tho party travelling 
in Ninguta arrived on the 26th. The next place to be visited was the 
large commercial city of Kwan-chang-tzu, containing probably 100,000 
inhabitants, and there the party turned south, travelling first to Mukden 
and then to Yingtstu, the port of Nowchwang which they reached on the 
20th I>ecember, just seven months from the day they started. Fortu- 
nately tho weather was unusually mild and little snow fell* The 
greatest cold felt was — 20^ Eeaumur (—13^ Fahrenheit), whil& 
occasionally north of the Sungari it falls to — 45^ Centigrade (— 49*^ 
Fahrenheit). Travelling was therefore easy. At Yingtzu the ]>arty 
separated. Mr. James went south, travel sing the whole of the Liao- 
tung promontory as far as Lu-shuan-kou or Port Arthur* On the road 
he visited several interesting Korean remains, and about twenty miles 
from tho port of Ta-chiang-ho he ascended to a picturesquely situated 
cave, near the top of a fine precipitous mountain, inhabited by Buddhist 
priests, who hay© built some temples inside. These ancient ediBoes 
ofi'er a strong contrast to tho forts, great Krupp guns, torpedoes, sub- 
marine mines, and other modern appliances for defence with which 
Port Arthur briatles. From there Mr, James passed by a transport to 
Chefoo, and he has since left China for America. Mr. Younghusband 
and Mr. Fulford took tho Imperial high road vi4 Shan-hai-kuau for 
Tientsin, to finish their vacation in Peking. The whole journey has 
extended over more than 3000 mileSt Almost without exception the 
people were found civil and obliging ; but excluding Liao-tung and the 
Chang-pei-shan hills, whore strong guilds exist, brigandage certainly is 
the curse of the country ; putting on one side the tract d"'^*» *^^ 
Sungari, which has already been described. Twice, pari 
were met on their m*ay to trial and execution ; tho ^ 
traveller was seen on the high road coming fror 





I aent to the a^ast for lettors waa stopped hj a band wMch plundered 
some carts immediately behind him, and while the party were at Mukden 
the news amved of the blockading of upwards of a hundred robbers in 
a caTB on the road to Kirin, The Manchu military-civil administration 
is certainly effete, and it is time it j^ave place to Chinese, The Manchu 
Tartars themselves are fast losing their own language, spoken and 
written, for Chinese, and the substitution of extremely complicated hiero- 
glyphics for a simple alphabet, forma a case of national retrogression 
without parallel in modem times. They are demoralised by petting and 
idleness ; for every man belonging, as it would be called in India, to the 
Imperial caste, and who can draw the bow, receives two ttiels a month, 
and land rent-free, in return for a training in the militia twice a year. 
Am the Emperors no longer visit the cradle of their dynasty, it is 
time a Chinese reformer were sent to the province with power to mak*:^ 
a clean sweep of all existing Manchu officials and institutions, Tht; 
country is extremely rich in gold, silver, iron, coal, furs, silk, and 
opium, the cultivation of which last has greatly increased, and the 
dru^ IB now exported to all parts of China. All it requires is good 
government and security to life and propert3^ 



Geography at Oxford. — We call attention to the announcement made 
by General Strachey, at the Evening Meeting of the 28th Februar^^, to 
the effect that the Council had been officially informed that the University 
of Oxford had decided to establish a Readership of Geography for 0ve 
years. Thus, as General Strachey stated, the aspirationB of the Society, 
as regards Oxford, have been realised. 

Further Explorations of the Tributaries of the Congo by Mr. 

Orenfell. — The indefatigable explorer, Mr. George GrenfeD, has juet 
added a sucoeesful ascent of the great Quango tributary of the Congo to 
bis previous achievements of the like nature. In company Avith Mr. 
Bentley, in th© Baptist Missionary steamer Feae.e, he succeeded in 
reftching the Kiknnji Falls, the point at which Major von Mechow, 
descending the Quango from the south, was obliged to turn back in 
1880* About six miles above the junction of the Kasai with the Quango 
they found another lEwg© tributary, the Djuma, entering the river from 
the eaet, which presented so large a volume of water, that it was a 
ma^er of uncertainty which was the larger stream. A little beyond 
this, the course of the Quango veered round, first S.S.W, and then west ; 
at 4'^ 30' S» lat. it had come back to its usual southerly course, and 
maintained it for the remainder of the journey- The Kikunji Falls 
(5'"^ 8' 8- lat.) are about three feet high, and though insurmountable to 
the Peacc^ are said by Mr. GrenfeU to be no ol>stacle to communication 


by canoes arid small eraft.— Mr. Grenftsll expects to 1>o in England 
in May* 

The Gambia and Sierra Leone. — In a newly-issued Colonial Office 
Report on the Gambia, by Mr. G. T. Carter, the Acting AdmiDLstrator, 
there are some fresh data on the climate of that colony, which tend 
greatly to modify previously accepted notion &, based on imperfect 
observations. Theae tend to show that Ihe temperatures hitherto 
accepted are much too high ; the mean temperatures for 1885 were, in 
Jannarj% at 7 a;m* 68 * 5^, and at noon 73 • 7^ ; in July, at 7 a.m. 80^j and 
at noon 82 ' 5"^. There are also in the report a few notes on the ethnolog;^^ 
of the colony. A Colonial Oifico Eeport on Sierra Leone, with map, 
contains mnch information regarding the difiFerent districta and tribes of 
that colony and its vicinity. 

Haeent French H^editioiis in the interior of Senegal— A commnni- 
c-ation, dated 17th December, 1886, from Senudebn, on the Upp«r Niger, 
has b^en received by the Geographical Society of Paris, which gives some 
account of the intended operations of the French, tinder Colonel Gallieni, 
in that region, whicht it is believed, will lead to geographical results of 
great importance* In consequence of the threatening attitude of the 
Marabout Mahmadu Lamine, who was encamped in the neighbourhood 
of Diana, two columns had boon formed to proceed against bim ; one, 
starting from the confluence of the Faleme and the Senegal, was to 
march direct upon Diana via Senedubu ; the other, traversing the 
district of Bambuk, was to cross the Faleme near the village of Jabusire, 
and by this circuitous route approEich the same objective from the south. 
One or two ofiBcers specially charged with topographical work^ were 
attached to each column. The country to be traversed is not known, 
and the existing maps are all at fault regarding it« With the view of 
establishing more amicable relations with Almany Samory to the east, 
the Uassulu mission had been ordered to visit that sovereign, with 
instructions to survey all the country along the right bank of the 
Niger, and returning up the Tankisso, to connect its surveys with those 
of the other two detachments. Further, Dr. Tautain, the companion 
of GalUeni on hie journey to Bcgu, and Lieutenant Quiquandou had 
been charged to explore the Great Beledugu country, and to push 
beyond Murdia and Segala to the north. 

Dr. Len2. — The new number of the * Mittheilungon ' of the Vienna 
Geographical Society contains the letters from Dr. Lenz, to which we 
referred in the last number of the • Proceedings,' and which carry on the 
narrative of his journey from Kasouge on the Upper Congo to the river 
Shir^. These letters do not oontaiu much geographical information, 
and no wonder, for Dr. Lenz had Ms hands full of trouble. Kasonge is 
an extremely unhealthy place ; his companion Bohndorf was prostrated, 
and had to be carried nearly the whole way ; small-pox broke out among 


liis ttimTmn, mmnj of his men died, and othen had to be left behind, so 
that he had little leisure or enei^ left for geographical work. Still 
the letters contain srane interesting information, and donbtless we may 
look far more in his complete narrative. He tells us that Tippoo Tip 
went to Zanribar for the purpose of being invested by the Sultan with 
authority to act as his representative in the Tanganyika regions. Of 
covrBe, we know now that this mission was useless, as the Sultanas 
authority extends only to 10 miles from the coast. Dr. Lenz left 
Kasonge oa. June 30th, and traversing the plateau between that and 
Lake Tanganyika, reached Mr. Here's station on Kavala Island on 
August 7th. He found much of the route studded with recently founded 
Zsnzibari villages established by the Arab traders, the natives having 
been compelled to retreat into the forests and remote mountains. All these 
Tillages are surrounded with fields of maize and durra, as well as with 
maniooB, bananas, and oil-palms ; sheep, goats, and fowls are plentifuL 
On the latter part of the journey, over a plateau 3000 to 4000 feet high, 
were mountains rising to the same height, mainly composed of granite, 
with occasional crystalline slates. After being hospitably entertained by 
Mr. Hoie, Dr. Lenz arrived in Ujiji oo August 1 5th. Here, as already stated, 
he resolved to abandon the attempt to proceed to Emin Pasha, and, at 
considerable cost, hired a large boat, with which he proceeded to the 
south end of Lake Tanganyika. He left on September 8th, and took eleven 
days to reach Niomkolo, on the south shore, having called on the way at 
Karema, now a Boman Catholic mission station. With reference to the 
Lnknga river, which Mr. Stanley, in 1878, found had forced its way 
through obstractions and flowed into the Congo, Dr. Lenz has some in- 
teresting remarks. Mr. Hore informed him that the current is now ex- 
ceedmgly strong, and that during his residence of several years on the 
lake, he has observed the level of its water to have fallen 15 feet. Dr. 
Lenz himself observed at several places old shore-lines. Niomkolo is a 
most inhospitable district, and Dr. Lenz had to stay a fortnight before 
he could get enough of men to take him two days' journey towards Lake 
Nyassa. The villages, strongly fortified, are all at war with each other. 
At Famba's strongly fortified village (Thomson's Mfumbo) Dr. Lenz 
found himself on an important waterparting. The Seise goes north to 
Lake Hikwa, and dose beside it rise two or three small streams, which 
uniting with others to form the Chambese, flow to Lake Bangweolo, and 
so may be regarded as the ultimate sources of the Congo. There was a 
four days' march through an uninhabited district, with many mined vil- 
lages. Further on, a large caravan of Arabs and Zanzibari was met with, 
who had been selling ivory to the African Lakes Company. The region 
consists mostlj of granite and crystalline slates ; the average height above 
sea-level 5000 feet, with mountains rising some thousands of feet higher. 
After passing the villages of Mpansa and Nimbo (? Vimbo) he came 
on Stevenson's traces, and on October 15th reached the mission station 


near Miuia Wando (? Maliwanda )* Karon ga*8, on Lake Nyasaa (a station 
of the Lakes Company), ^vas reaclietl on the 17tb* Henc© Dn Lonz 
journeyed down the lake to the Shire river, from which his last letter 
18 dated» December 1886. 

Changes of the Coast-line in Northern Africa— Df, Theobald Fischer 

contributeis an interesting paper to Petermann's *Mitteilungeii' (Nos, 1 and 2, 
1887), in which he gives a detailed account of iheobservationsmadeby him atSieTGral 
points on the north coast of Africa, His previous examination of the coasta of the 
Mediterranean and ScaDdina\na led to hia iiodertakiDg tbis journey ia the spring of 
1886, his special object bt'ing to Btudy on the spot the action of the Burf-wave 
upon the Algerian and Tunisian coasts. In tbe course of his exj>editionj however, he 
travelled over a considerable part of Algeria, viaiting Bona, Biskra, and Constantine, 
He then traversed the "Shott^* district eastwards to the Gulf of Gabes. The obser- 
vations made during this part of hie journey will add to the completion of our know- 
ledge of the country. But it ie to his study of the coast-line that wc desire to draw 
attentioQ. The coasts of Algeria and Tunis forcibly illustrate It ichtbo fen's theory as 
to the formation of surfaces of ahnision and their important connection with changes 
of the fibore-line. The information as to the atrengtii and direction of the wind, 
necessary in dealing with the action of the sea upon the coast, Dr, Fischer obtained 
from the carefully prepared tables of Mr, 0, M*Cartby, who has for some years 
made this subject his special study. From tbe tables for the two years ending 
April 1885 he found that tbe preTailing direction of the wind was uorth-^ast j in 
tbe summer months, when its strength was greatest, tbe wind was almost inTariably 
from that quarter. The coast of Algeria is subject to storms of great violence from 
the north and north-east. Tbe traveller gives an account of tbe damage done by 
one which occurred shortly before his arrival at Algiers. He confined his coast 
studies principaOy;to four points : — 

1. Tite Algerian Coast near Tipaza, — This bay, lying to the west of the town 
of Algiers, may be, he says, regarded as entirely tbe result of the action of the eurf- 
wave. Its western boundary, the promontory of Chenua, formed of hard uummu- 
litic limestone, and its eastern boundary, Cape Sidi Ferruch, a spur of the mountains 
of Algiers composed of granite and mica-slate, have withstood the onslaught of tbe 
waves, though the shores exposed to the north-east are strewn with large pieces of 
rock, testifying to the powers of the sea. The soft, miocene limestoue of Tipaaa has 
given way rapidly before the sea, which has advanced to the limit of th^ hard 
nummuUtic limestone. The action of the sea in forming the numerous small bays 
along tbis part of tbe coast has been facilitated by the torrents, at the mouths of 
which these bays are generally to be found. 

2p The Coast in the viciniij/ of Algiern. — Here, on tbe western side of the bay, 
where the coast is of hard slate, the sea has formed an abrasion surface of about 
li mile in breadth. Cape Blatifu, bounding the bay on the east, is composed of 
slate rich m quartz. Tho ravages of the sea are very apparent at Rusgnnia and 
Riisubbicarri, where the coast, consisting of clay and marl, has given way about 
650 yards. These towns, of which now scarcely anything remains, were founded 
by Augustus, and in the middle ages were flourishing and possessed good harbours. 
At tbe innermost part of tbe bay, however, the land has gained on tbe sea, especially 
in the vicinity of the river Harrach, where^ in front of the chalk ridges, a fertile 
plain half a mile broad extends some four miles each side of tbe mouth of tbe river. 
Dr. Fischer concludes that tlie surface of abrasion has here reached such a breadth 
that tbe surf-wave loses its power, 

3. Tite Bay of Bmia, — The physical features of the bay aire described ia detail 




by the traveller, particularly Ihe dunes surrounding it, whick form a barrier to the 
rivers fiawing into the sea, caosiog them In some iostances to How for several miles 
parallel with the low hilk before fioding their natural exit« New land is being 
formed here. The direction of the current from Cap© Bosa on the one side to Cape 
de Garde on the other forces the mouths of all the rivera westward. This is very 
notice-able in the case of the Mafragh and Seybuso, both of which are rich in 
alluvial deposits. The efifect of this on the ahore-line is at once apparent, as the 
east coast of the bay has nndergone practically no changie, whereas to the west 
of the month of the Seyhuse the land has gained very considerably on the sea. 
Br. Fischer refers at some length to the ancient town of Hippo. 

4. The Guff of Tunis, — The traveller*a principal work here was in the delta of 
the Medjerda, to which so many writers have drawn attention. He traces the 
physical clianges which have taken place in the peninsula of Utica, and the rapid 
formation of land within historical time through the exceptionally rich deposits of 
the Medjerda. After careful ejamination. Dr. Fischer nnds that the Medjerda does 
not flow into the Bay of Porto Farina, as indicated in tho French topograpluc^l map 
of Tunis, recently puWiBhed, hut discharges directly into the aea. Occasionally in 
winter (when the French sun^ey was made) the waters are very high, and an arm 
of the river flows into the above-mentioned hay. An excellent little map, showing 
the delta and ancient IkhI of the river, accompanies Dr. Fbcher^s paper. The Bay 
of Tunis is gradually being closed up by the action of the ocean current and tho 
furf-wave* It is only kept from being completely landlocked by the i»eriodicaL 
overflowing of the Medjerda, Its size and depth are also being diminished by the 
refnse of the city of Tunis, Dr. Fischer's description of the flora of all this district 
will be found of interest. He comments on tho very general cultivation of the 
date-palm, which is pknted close to the &ea-shore. 

Dr» Hans Schinz in South-western Africa. — In the * Proceedings' for 
1880, p. 65Q, we gave a brief account of the explorations of l>r. Schinz 
in Sonth-weBtem Africa, The following intereating details are taken 
from a private letter, Br. Schinz went out to Kama Land in 1884, on 
behalf of Mr. Luderitz. Having explored the territories acquired by 
this enterpriBing gentleman, and now passed into the posseiBsion of a 
company, he turned to the northward, exploring the country as far as 
the Knnene river, and to within a short distance of Lake Ngami, He 
resided and travelled in Ovambo from August 1885 to February 188r>, 
when a misunderstanding with the family of King Kambonde of 
Ondonga, whose suspicions had been aroused by his scientific pursuits, 
compelled him to seek safety in flight. The journey from the kings 
residence to Groot Fontein (Otyavanda tyongue)^ the settlement of the 
Boers, near the Otavi copper-mines, can be accomplished in summer in a 
fortnight, but owing to the condition of the road Dr. Sohinz spent fully 
six weeks over it. The soil was saturated with water, and the draught- 
oxen frequently sunk into it up to their bellies, the day's progress 
occasionally not exceeding a mile. Etosha Tan presented the ap- 
pearance of a veritable lake. Tho Boors who have settled at Groot 
Fontein under the leadership of Mr, Jordan received the traveller most 
hoepitably* They had left Humpata in Mossamedes, owing to a disa- 
greement with the Portuguese authorities, and established themselves 


withiu a territory ptircliased by their leai^ler from tlio Cliiof of Ondonga, 
and constituted a Hepnblic named " Upingtonia/' in honour of the 
Prime Minister of Cape Colony, This territory is bounded on the west 
by the Etosha and Onandora Pans and etretcbes away eastward between 
18° and 20^ of south latitude. Dr, Schinz describes it as a region well 
adapted to agricultural pursuits. Abont one-fourth of it ie hill}^, and 
apparently rich in minerale, while the remainder consists of uoduliiting 
limestono plains (am ancient lake-bed) of great fertility. Perennial 
springs are numerous, and the ample rains fall between November and 
April. Malarial fevers prevail during that season, but they are not of 
a vimlent typo. Horsea and cattle, however, aro subject to a lung 
disease as in other parts of South Africa. Mr, Jordan has divided his 
territory into farms of 6000 acres each, six of which, together with all 
mining rights, ho reserved to himself^ handing the rest of the country 
over to a ^* Bostuur," elected by the Boers. Settlera receive farms gratia 
on condition of their beginning to cultivate them within a year from their 
arrival.* Having procured a fresh team of oxen, Dr, Schinz trocked to the 
eastward, following at first a spoor left by Mr. Erickson's waggon, and 
then the dry bed of the Omuramba wa Mataka as far as Karakobis, where 
that watercourse turns to the north-east and, aasaming the name of 
Seshongo, joins the Okavango or Ombuengo, The country between 
Karakobis and the Tonke (Tiogo) forme part of the Kalahari, and 
presents a succession of dunes, covered with Bauhinias, Cassias, Com- 
breti, and other di cotyledon on s trees, the intervening depressions being 
occupied by acacias, Yleys are only met with at long intervals, and 
game is the reverse of abundant. The few inhabitants are bushmen, 
and speak a language distinct from that of the Nama, though apparently 
allied to it. In May, Dr» Schinz arrived at Nokana, the residence of the 
Batowana chief Moremi, who formerly lived on Lake Ngami, but who 
in consequence of an incursion of the Matabeli has removed to the 
swamps, thrco days' journey to the north-west of it. Tho immediate 
neighbourhood of the lake has been abandoned to the Bakoba, the old 
herdsmen of the Batowana. Dr. Schinz was not permitted to visit it. 
He heard J however, that the lake has not dried up, although much 
reduced in si^e. It is fed by numerous branches of the Okavango which 
meander through the extensive swamps lying to the north of it. The 
Batowana name of the lake is Ngabi or NagabL On his return to 
Damara Land, Dn Schinz once more crossed the Kalahari. At Qhanze, 
where Mr. Eobertson has built himself a stone bouse, he was able to 
collect materials for a grammatical sketch and a vocabulary of the Ai- 
San language. This journey through tho Kalahari was attended with 
much hardship, and the traveller suffered greatly from fever and 

* Id Judo 1886 Mr. Jordan was murdered, and the fiftoen families who bad settled 
in '^Upingtoma'* have ainoe placed tliemselvcB under the protection of Germany. 



dysentery. Embarking at Walvtsck Bay on November 16th, 188C, Dr. 
ScMnz reached Capeto\m after a voyage of twenty-six days, and then 
returned to Europe, Br, Schinz has aucceeded in making valuable 

' botanical and ethBOgraphical collections, and is at present engaged in 
preparing a full acconnt of his explorations. 

New Guinea Expleration.^We are informed by the Eev. W. G. 
Lawes, by letter from Port Moresby, Jiintiary 20tli, that an expedition ia 
being equipped under the leadership of Mr. Vogan, the curator of the 
Auckland Museum, with the intention of attempting as soon as the rainy 

Iseaion was over, to cross South-eastern New Guinea from Freshwater 
Bay to Hnon Gulf. A journey into the interior was made in August 
last by Dr. Clarkson and Mr, G, Hunter, from Kapakapa, along the 
depression between the Astrolabe and Macgillivray Coast Banges. The 

tiemp- Welch river was crossed, but no addition of importance was made 

}io our knowledge of the country. 

MM, Capus and Bonvalot in Central Asia. — Some interesting details 
concerning the recent unsuccessful attempt of these French traveUers to 
penetrate to Balkb across the Afghan frontier, have been received by the 
[Geographical Society of Paris in two letters, the latest dated 13th 
January, 1887* Thoy started on the 13th September from Samarkand 
for Bokhara, having rested at the former place sioce July,* The route 
lay through the Takhta-Karacha pass to the village of Shahr-i-sabz, A 
few miles south of Samarkand the plantations of General Korolkoff 
connnence. By utilising the waters of the Kara-tepe and other streams 
i considerable area of hitherto barren country has been within the space 
of seven years brought under cultivation and covered with acacias, 
mimosas, fruit-trees, &c. The pass of Takhta*Karacha, though not more 
than 5500 feet high, is very difficult, especially on the south side where 
the path is narrow and stony. Passing through Yakobag and Kalta-kul 
the travellers ascended to the Ahugah pass, known also under the name 
of Lahore Murda, the top of which Is at an elevation of 15,58G feet. The 
descent into the valley of the Sanguirdak was toilsome, down a slope of 
45% the path running zigzag over stones and rubbish. The Sangardak, 
one of the affluents of the Surkhan, is a rapid torrent rushing through a 
wild narrow gorge. All tMs district was covered by the " KisMaks " 
or winter villages of the Uzbegs, Tajiks, and other tribes. A magnifi- 
cent cascade, a rare thing in Centxal Asia, was found at Baghcha. The 
valley gradually broadens as the mountains open out, until the plain of 
ar becomes visible in the far distance. Passing through Baridjui 
ad Karatagh, situated on the banks of the Turpalan, the travellers reached 
liasar on the 24th September. The plain ii? covered with fields of rice, 
which is of exceptionally good quality, Hissar itself is very unhealthy, 
and in summer is practically abandoned, the whole population retiring 

• Vid< * Pfooeedingi E,G.S./ 1886, p, 722, 
No, IV.— April 1887,] t 



to Earatagh* At the latter placo the party was received by the Bey of 
Hisear. After a fihort stay at Uissar, the travellers descended the still 
unexplored valley of the Kafimahan to the point where it dischargee into 
the Amn-Daria. The valley, bordered with chains of hills, has an average 
breadth of about 2 J miles^ and is everywhere covered with saline efflores- 
cenoes* The XJzbegs, who are rarely met with in the npper part of the 
valley, are vary nnmerous near Kabadian. They settle on the rich 
allnvial gronnd at the many bends of the river, or on the little islands 
with which it ifl atndded. The hills are almost bai-e of vegetation. 
Kabadian, reached by the party on Ist October, is situated in a fertile 
oasis where the valley widens. The march was continued down the 
valley by Bish-Kent to Aivadj, on the Amu-Baria, and thence to Termez, 
where flome excavations were made among the ruins. On the lith 
October the traveOers crossed the AmU'Daria, near Chnsbka Guzar, into 
Afghanistan, when they were made prisoners by the Afghans at Shnr- 
tepOi near the frontiers, and detained for 25 days in a Turkoman 
sarai. On the 8th November, by order of the Emir, they were released, 
and conducted across the frontier. The reason assigned for not allowing 
them to travel in Afghanistan was that the country was not in a suffi- 
ciently settled state. They bad thus got within about 50 miles of Balkh, 
their intended objective. After making some further excavations at 
Termez, the return journey was commenced up the Surkhan valley over 
the mountains of Baisun, to Derbend, Near the latter point they took 
Lup the route followed by them in 1881, in order to pass through the 
^UftouB gorge of Chatchag. The ordinary route to Ghuzar was ahan- 
ckmed in favour of one more to the north by Kara-Koval, and through 
the valley of Katta-Uru-Baria. On the 8th December, after visiting 
Karabag and Ghirakchi, the travellers crossed the Russo-Turkistan 
frontier at Jam, and reached Samarkand, having been absent three 

Arctic Traveb^Mr. Alexander McArthur, formerly in the servioe 
of the Hudson's Bay Company, loft Winnipeg on February 13th, on an 
exploring expedition to the Polar regions* He intends to go from 
Winnipeg to Fort Churchill, and to continue bis journey along the 
west coast of Hudson Bay. While Colonel Gilder proposed to push 
north by Fury and Hecla Strait, Mr. Mc Arthur proposes to go north- 
west by way of King William's Land and Boothia Felix, He intends to 
spend a winter on King William "s Land, and to go north in the ensmng 
winter, crossing Lanciister Sound, and followiQg the west coast of North 
Devon* He then proposes to cross to the little-known islands of Jones 
Sound and thns reach the west coast of Grinnell Land, which, he hopes, 
will prove a safe route north. He expects to be absent some three or 
four years. W© agree with Scienee in believing that this plan of reaching 
the North Pole will be as unsuccessful as Colonel Gilder's^ and it is a 
pity that two men so energetic should waste their time in journeys that 



can jield results of no value. There ia at least no reason why a traveller 
who intends to explore the extreme north should not start from the avaOable point, iostead of wasting his time and strength in a 
hazardous joiimej for which there ia no neoessity, Ab Science Bnggest8» 
Colonel Gilder might do real service by devoting his energies to the 
explot-atton of Jones Sound» one of tbe most important remaining 
problems of Arctic geography. The latest news with regard to Colonel 
Gilder is that he has returned to Winnipeg from his Journey to Hudson^s 
Bay, and has for the present given up his plan to reach the North Pole 
by that route. 

The Rivers of New England. — To the March number of the American 
Journal of Science Professor N, S. Shaler contributes an article of some 
geographical interest on the fluviatile swamps of New England. He 
first notes the fact that the greater number of New Eti gland streams 
flow in a genemlly north to south direotion. Except at tho head- waters 
of ithese southward-flowing streams > where the brooks have too little 
volume to clear their beds of the glacial waste which encumbers them, 
the valleys of the group contain no swamps. All these southward- 
flowing streams show that they have, for a conBidei-able time, been 
cutting their beds downwards through a deep layer of detrital material 
which was evidently deposited in their chitnuols While the ice-sheet was 
disappearing from the district in which they lie. Above the alluvial 
plain are several terraces l>eariug the mark of river-action. The upper- 
most of these terraces, however, Professor Shaler points out, is of the 
peculiar form characteristic of the deposits which were made at the 
front of the ice-sheet when the base of tho glacier lay below the level 
of the sea ; these Eame-hearing terraces were, he believes, formed while 
the valleys in which they lie were depreased* Omitting tho upper 
tennace^ the other terraces prove that in tho valleys of rivers flowing 
from north to south, the conditions have been stich, that the streams 
have had no difficulty in constantly cutting deeper and deeper into tho 
detrital deposits which hindered their flow at tho dose of the glacial 
period. Turning to the streams which flow from^ south to north, 
we flod the conditions in marked contrast to those which are found 
in the rivers flowing in the opposite direction* The number of these 
northward- flowing streams is small, and none of them have drainage 
areaii to be compared with those of the greater New England rivere. 
Ppofesfior Shaler's observation refers especially to the Xaahua, the 
Concord, tho Charles, and the Neponset, all situated in Eastern Massa- 
chusetts. He finds that along the streams which flow from aouth to 
north there are no river-terraces except those which are covered by the 
ordinary floods, and are at times swampy ; while in the rivers flowing 
in the opposite direction, the lowest terrace is well drained in the dry 
season^ The only heuehes or terraces are of the Kame character 
referred to above, and these are very conspicuous features in some 

T 2 



©f the valleys, and by an unwary observer may be taken for 
ordinary river-terracea. A careful exaniinatton of their sections 
and surfaces proves distinctly their glacial origin. Below the level 
of the Kame terrace, the valleys of the rivers which flow from 
south to north show no other l>enches till we descend to the level 
of the present flood -plain, which is always covered with a very 
slight flood. The whole of this alluvial plain is swampy, and so far as 
Professor Shaler has aeen» there is never any indication of down-cutting 
on the part of the stream-bed. It is, moreover, clear that the reverse 
process is now rapidly in action ; none of these streams have sufficient 
currents to clear their beds of the detritus brought into them by floods. 
The result is that tho process of deposition is constantly going on, both 
in tho river-bed and over a wide field on either side. At the same time 
Professor Shaler produces evidence to indicate that at a former period 
these rivers had a much more powerful current than now, capable of 
doing considerablo excavating work. It thus appears probable that 
after the streams which flow to the northward had in good part done 
their excavating work, a change came over them which led to a 
lowering of their slopes and a consequent diminution of their fall. 
Professor Shaler enters into considerable detail to show that after the 
removal of the ioe^iheet, there was an elevation of the land in the 
district concerned, and that during the immediate post-glacial period 
these north-flowing rivers excavated their valleys. Then a change 
must have come about which led to the relative lowering of the 
ftouthem part of New England, and a corresponding relative increase 
in the height of the northern part of this section; Professor Shaler 
ia inclined to think there was a positive sinking of the southern 
section. The amonnt of tilting he estimates need not have exceeded two 
feet to the mile, and was most likely a change which involved a largo 
part^ if not the whole, of the glaciated district of the continent. 

The Valley of the Cachapiial (Argentine Andes), — The current 
number of Petermann's ' Mittoilungen * contains an article by Br. A. 
Plagemann on his explorations, made last summer, in the valley of the 
CachapuEd. The head-quarters of the traveller were the residence of 
Don Manuel Olegario Soto, well known for his hospitality to all 
travellers, situated in the centre of tho Hacienda of Canquenes. Dr. 
Plagemann*s object was to make an exhaustive examination of this com- 
paratively emaU but important district. The results of his work, while 
confirming mainly those of the celebrated Dr. Paul Gilssfeldt • and other 
travellers in the same region, will go to complete our knowledge of the 
details of the country, and in several instauces rectify our maps. He 
explored the tributaries on both banks of tho Cachapual, including the 
Eios de los Cipresses> del Cortaderal, Claro, do los Lenas, and the 

• Vidi ' Frooeodinga ILQ.SV 1884, pp. 658 et seq. 



** cajoB *' de los Vegas, devoting much time to tho glaciers at tbe head of 
the river vallojB. The " cajon " del Cortaderal contains a fin© glacier 
&B large aa the magnificent *^Ada'' glacier of tho *^ cajon ^* do loa 
Cipreeses which Br, Guaafeldt describes. The largest and most im- 
portant glacier of the district, named the ** Yentisq^uero do los Piu- 
quenes^" was thoroughly explored l>y the traveller* The head-waters 
of the Cachapoal, he ascertained, conisist of three streams, tbo Hio de 
Molina, Bio de los Fiuqitenea, and l?io de los PiuquencLtoe. The Rio 
Canquenefi, marked on some maps, haa no existence. Dr. Plagemann 
found the " penitentes *' or "penitents,** those curious conical snow- 
formations in the same high zone of from 11,500 to 13,800 feet as 
mentioned bj Dr* Giissfeldt. With regard to the effect of rarefied air 
on the body at high elevations, neither he nor his companions snffered 
at all ; he believes the 80*called " puna " to be connected in some way 
with the electrical condition of the atmosphere* He confirms the 
observation of preceding travellers as to tho vai-ying character of the 
anow-line, which bo estimates, in agrooment vdih Herr Fiasis, at 10,500 
feet* The author concludes his paper with some remarks upon the 
different passes of the Cordillera. 

Proposed Astronomical Observatories on High MonntaiiiB. — The 
Harvard College Obeervatorj^ being entnisted with the Boyden fund of 
230,000 dollars bequeathed for the purpose of promoting astronomical 
reeearch at elevations free from atmospheric impediments, has issued an 
invitation to travellers and others to furnish them with exact informa- 
tion regarding mountain elevations,' especially in the southern hemi- 
sphere. Facility of access is a prioiary condition, and it is probable 
that a very great altitude will be eventually chosen for a permanent 
station. The points on which detailed information is required are as 
follows : — 

1. Latitude and longitude. Distance and direction tVom some town, or otlxer 
well-known point. Height, and how determined. 2, Peak, pass, or tableland. 
Character of surface : ledge, broken rock, gravel, or covered with trees, shmba, or 
grasSp Frevaleoce of snow in summer, and ])eriod during which the depth of snow 
1 in i^nnter might obstruct the paths of access, or occasion other inconvenience or 
damage. Proximity of wood for fuel, and of water. 3. Means of accesa, distance 
fhmi and height above the nearest railway station, waggon road, bridle-path, or fool- 
path* Time of ascent and descent. Nearest post-otBce and telegraph station, and 
their distances from the proposed station* Nearest point of road kept open in 
winter. 4. Observation of the rainfall at different seasons of the year. Proportion 
of the sky covered with clouds at different hours and seasons. These observations are 
desired at sunset, sanrise, and late in the evening. Such observations may also he 
made of a distant mountain peak, confining the evening observations to moonlight 
nights. Observations of the barometer and thermometer are also desired. Informa* 
tion is wanted regarding the prevalence of very high winds ; the presence of dust, 
haze, or the smoke from forest fires, rendering distant points invisible ; and all other 
meteorological phenomena afifecting the value of the station for astronomical pur- 
poses. If there is a rainy or cloudy season, its duration j also the regular recurrence 



of clauils, thunder-storms, or wind, at any giveu hour of the day, 5. Sketches or 
photographs of tbe proposed location, and of jioints on the road ; also of the view. 

CorreBpondence is invitod with those residing near or in eight of 
suitable locations who are willing to undertake any of the ohaervations 
just descrilied above. Letters should be addressed to Mr* E. C. Piokering^ 
Director of Harvard College Obeervatary^ Cambridge, Mas6.» U.S.A. 

GeograpMcal Education.— There are several matters of interest in 
connection with the subject of geographical education which have come 
np dming the past month. Bj a new ordinance of the German Educa- 
tion Department geography has been raised to the first rank ("ein 
selbstiindigeB Each "J in the higher schools of Germany ; that is, it may 
bo taken as one of a teach er*^ two specialties along with either a scien- 
tific, a linguistie, or an historical subject. The subjects of examioation 
for a teaoher wishing to take the Faculta* Bocendi in geography are 
laid down* There are three grades — for lower, middle, and higher 
classes. For the lower classes the teacher must show that ho has an 
elementary but precise knowledge of mathematical, physical (eapecially 
topical), and political geography ; the candidate must also be in a posi- 
tion to demonstrate the loading facts of mathematical geography by 
means of simple apparatus. For a certificate of permission to teach in 
middle classes, the candidate must show a more intimate knowledge in 
the above-mentioned departments, as well as an aoquaintance with the 
history of exploration, and with the roost important trade-routes, past 
and present* For the upper classes the candidate must show that he 
ha^ a thorough knowledge of the elementary mathematical principles on 
which mathemalical geography ie based^ and be in a position to give an 
account of the more important geological conditions of the earth's 
surface. Moreover, the candidate must show that ho possesses an in- 
telligent knowledge of the political geography of the present and of the 
politico-historical geography of the most important civilised peoples, as 
also prove his familiarity with the leading facts of ethnography. For each 
stage, besides, the candidate must exhibit a readiness in the construction 
of maps. In Germany it is believed that tliis new ordinance will have 
a powerful influence in still further improving the position of geography 
in that country; In this connection we may state that a German 
teacher, Herr Anton Stauber, of the Beal- gymnasium of Augsburg, has 
obtained tho King of the Belgians' prize of 25,000 francs, for the best 
essay on the most effective means of popularising geography and im- 
proving its position in education of all degrees. It is worthy of note 
that no German was on the committee of judges. In our own country, 
in connection with the exhibition of the Society's Educational Collection 
at Bradford, a series of prizes was offered by the Bradford School Board 
for (1) Hand-made models of the physical features of the borough; 
(2) Hand -made maps of any country ; (3) Hand-made maps of the neigh- 
bourhood of any school; (4) Hand-made model of the neighbourhood of 


anv Echool; {^oj Hand-made apparatus for teaching lAiynuui] f^*^i^Tii\ihy i 
acd loj A sketch of the geography and associated on) of YfjrkMrtf. 
Thirnr-three maps and models were sent in for these pri/^m, whirii wm*^ 
decided on Uarch 17th, the adjndicators lx;ing Professor Mi*ill (of 
Yorkshire College ;, Mr. J. S. Keltie, Mr. T. G. lJ<x^pcT. IT.M. Infqmfiim 
•jf S^hcic-Liv azid Hr. A. B. Binnie, the Borough En gi been Th^^ U«t itmp 
was one of Yorkshire hy Mr. F. D. King, of Tfoly Trinity ShiidHAi 
Sch'icL Bndtbrd. while a m«yif:l of tho rjoantry around Hk'iptfAtf by Mi, 
F. B. StkniiTArdr of Christ CharcL National Schry^l, waa of high m^rfft. 
The physoil map of the ancitnt parish of Kildwif;k, }fy Mr. X F* 
HjffwelL 'if KUdwick National School, also deserves mffniUfn. Tbft 
^suBxaL iniinynrft of such competidona in impressing up^/n tead^^^n tli« 
iapcztaooe of zood appaiacoa in teaching geography must \^. %f^ti, mbA 
-ixey difirtiQbre 'ieflerve enconragement. The public spirit of tho Bra^ 
:*}r4 tTianKnar Smcol in isatinitinz such, a oorApetltion des^i^i?* a w^>rd 
•:f pcuse. 

Sum. Ta^a. — The • Deu-ache Oecgraphiache BUtt/tr ' •'^f 
^nhlxfliiei ci biographical iketch ..t Emin P^aha ?>y I>r. W. WoJ 
±um whicii we zarher the fuLlijwi=.g particnian. EdTUizri 
'-iecoBT known tm Emin Paaxia. was bora ^n Xarch 2ftth, l^M), U Opyihiy 
in PrTiwiinii ^Teaia. die «3n :t a merchant- On ?he fsif^vfiv^ n 

I.r4J- die mother psmoveii v^ N^iase, *a<i *xn -ifvsrw«rjia ^ 

wemmt -ime. SkinaxrL -vie f.-im his ^jarliesr. Vnrjilni/v! *5xhi : flu«( 
loT^i )f zanuTu. iifi lorj -v iiicii ]ia»» • i :.«^r ; n -jp i h ifii ;f! >. ; ■.n ii*/ a ilM> 
jrr»:iiK -ime. jeceL^red jla 5r:»" ^::ii:arion ar, iho •'^/m- - ini <if 
Xtriaite, ind snbseqnaiilj iTTUiiiiifi medicine ir rhe ^ni-r nni^mm ^ 
Broeian. Beriin. uuL K>inigaherr> Ha-^^n^ ihcained his 'i«g^«% !• 
^tarTcti ^-r "lie East. )htaineil ui inpoinnuenr m Harhot 
kt Anirrar:. icrompanied i militar* *::pedition ln&> ."iTria 4.1 
"."TTi ^, ind iohsenuentiy be<!ame irraiihiwi 'xi :he linusehniii <i^ 
P.ifcfia^ -TOoni "jie irri^nderi Vj Trr^'r.i^fniL uul Srzenm. '"01 
jud T.anua. iHa ^^aimn iihii rrw.irri.H -he ^ione if :;^74. :«iil A|^ 
:i?nniizBr u:com.nanieii jjs ramily 'o \..>Riitannnrjpl*^. In ".bft t^rta^tif 
l::7r^ iie loidk ^izut to !iis j:eniia u Neiiifle uid Breaiaii. iTis .g Cuwa i t di^ 
.i^r*a javmg ')een. -xciteti "ix-rpadinir 'Jie TorSa if "^in ipr T n jmd 
Jmsch. j^ {taarted rVr Za^^r. imi ^ncpftetxert in ^hraining u rgrttac- 
Jieni u iTircson _n -he irmy. 3bw lie mhsenuentiy <eT-7(hri inffnr 
rtjrdoxL 3aaha. uui rose -o -iie losirion f Tfi'«-f-i.rr*or ^r' 'Iv^ '' »:/ir;»l 
-'rrrvmce, j naner f !iutor7. — ^Th*?- 'iTiik 'f Jr. Hrnnitzer ..tUi^w 
vin^ai "oilection^a. aiL^nnnn;^ :o ^" >•'• inet^imeni^. ftiineftni ni Jmi^ ten« 
en- -ij Dr. '. ZarrLauh \x 3rKnen, oui Pinr. .i. -on ?',i7^tn r^ 
'?omii 'fDr. Zirtianr/- ; actors >ii -Lii ^oilrfriorj* .»r»-r li^^Ti »i ,.. -^ 
■:iir ^Trxjeetiiaus f "he luOjLOi^iioai ioi^ierr -t' — .ntVm. oirt .n 
"hfe man t he Bnriah )mithoio;5icai T-nm- riw*-;- .nclui* 
hzpe -Tieexea uui k :iew ^emza. oamed 'Zminia ' ij .Ir. H ti4^ >• 
:oniiUT t -r.e ^iHc^Tr-rar. 

52 ) 


The Band-i-Amir Lakes and Moore's Bmdemeer. 

In the article on Captaias Maitland and Talbot's journeys in AfghaniBtan, in the 
Febraary number of tbe * Proceedings* (p. 104), it is eaid that, " An excuraion was 
made to the oelebrated Band-i-Amir lakes, whicli are mentioned by the poet Moore/* 
in the following passage :^ 

** There's a bower of roBea by Bendemoer'i atreum, 

And the mghtmgalo eings round it all the day long; 
In the limo of my childhood *twaa liko a sweet dream, 
To iit in the rosea imd hear the birds' song." 

The writer of the article forgets that to reach Moore's *' Bendemeer*s stream," not 
" lakes/* one must go to Persia, to tho neighbourhood of. Slitr^z, Moore^ in a foot^ 
note to the passage referred to, says it is "a river which flows near the ruins of 

In fact, the Band-i-Amlr referred to in the article in the * Proceedings ' — which 
also is known by another name, and will be described in my 'Notes on 
Afghdnist^u,' aa soon as they are allowed to see the light — ^has nothing whatever to 
do with " that bower on the banks of the calm Bendemeer !*' of Lalla Rookh. The 
" river,*' so-called, of Moore's poem, was a hand or dyke, but not a hand in the usual 
acceptation of that word as used in India, hut a stone structure of considerabLe 
architectural beauty, " the like of which,*' the Muliammadan historians say, " the 
world did not contain,** erected over the river Kur, near the city of Shlrdz, for the 
purpose of irrigating the numerous gardens and vineyards in the plain north-west of 
the city, in which there literally were " bowers of roses/' and also for drinking 

It was the munificent work of the great Amir, *Uzd-ud-Daulah, Abu-Shuj4*-i- 
Kai-Klmsran, the Buwiah or Dilami, sovereign of Pars, and ivho caused many other 
works of public utility to be erected. He came to the throne in 3^ IL 
(94^-50 A.D.), »iid died in 372 H, (982-83 a.d.). 

It is dangerous to jump at oonclusions^ in geographical and historioal matters 
especially, from an apparent similarity in names. 


The Secretary, R.G.3. Ma/or, 

11th March, 1887: 

The LengtJis of the Grmted Rivers, 

Caius Colleoe, GAlTBBnSGr, ' 
Fek 17th, 1887. 

In connection with General Tillo*s estimates of the lengths of great rivers, given in 
tlie * Proceedings* for the present month, it may be interesting to notice the different 
results we obtain as to their relative lengths, when the minor windings of the streams 
are left out of consideration. Not only will the order of length of the eight rivers 
given be greatly altered, but the riveia themselves included in the list will be 
different. And, indeed, by so doing we obtain a more correct idea of their compara- 
tive importancCj sioce the lengths obtained will correspond more nearly with the 
extent of country drained, or, at any rate, with the extent of their basins from source 
to mouth. It seems unsatisfactory that a river should take a high place en the list 
from mere accidental circumstances which cause it to take a tortuous course. 

The proportion which the true length of a river bears to that of its general course 



T&rles immensely according to sucli circumstances. As a general nilc of ooursc, tlie 
greater the slope of the country, the fewer Tvindings will there be, except where the 
stream U conatAatly deflected, io passiog tliroush a hilly country. Again, a river of 
great volume will, owing to lis width, gain less by the small curves which would 
iM>t appear in an ordinary map. As examples of the two extremes in this respect 
we may take the Bio Funis, wbich along its general course measures only about 
half its true length, and the St. Lawrence, in which the difference is inconsiderable. 
Id an imperfectly surveyed country the true length can be roughly computed, by 
aaoeitaining the average ratio betv,'ceu the two measurements in the case of two well- 
known rivers. Captain Blakiston, from his observations on the Yang-tsze, sug- 
giested 1*3 : 1 as this ratio ; * but owing to the extreme tortuosity of one part of the 
liver, this difference seems slightly above the average. It may be observed that when 
a rivier flows through a nearly flat alluvial plain, the tendency is for the windings to 
be gnuiually increased, as the force of the current wears away the concave side of 
the curve, while the projecting points are lengthened.f 

Of the eight rivers of General Tillo*^ list, those which owe their position in it 
mainly to the windings of their stream, are the Mississippi, Mackenzie^ and Amur,t 
while the Congo takes a lower place than that to which the length of its general 
oouTBe would entitle it. In the case of the Amazon this latest estimate corresponds 
more nearly with the rougher measurement than that given in most lists a few years 
ogcv in wbich, in spite of its great breadth, a proportion of over 1 in 2 was added 
OQ /or windings not appearing in a small-scale map. The order m which the 
■ame eight will be put down on the other plan, and the approximate lengths 
of their general course, will be— (1) Kile, 3100 miles j (2) Yang-tsze-kiang, 2750 j 
(3) Yenesei-Selenga, 2700 ; (4) Amazon, 2600 ; (5) Mississippi and Congo, 2500 ; 
(T) Amur, 2200 ; (8) Mackeniie, 1800. The Mackenzie now falk far short of, and 
the Amur is equalled by several rivers not included m the above list, viz. the 
Hoang-ho, Lena, Obi -Irtish, and Mekong, while the Niger and Parana are very little 
behind these. These measurements are to a certain extent proportional to the 
direct distances from source to mouth, in wliich res-pect the Nile far surjeissea any 
other river. 

It 13 often said that the rivers of Asia are inferior in length to those of America 
owiug to the position of the mountain ranges near the oentre in the former case, and 
near one side in the latter. But from the above figures we see that the Asiatic 
rivers, in spite of the conformation of the country, would quite equal those of 
America, were it not for the much greater tortuosity of the latter. Of course the 
icaiOQ mentioned, together with the fact of the vast area of inland drainage in 
Asia, accounts for the non-existence there of rivers far surpassing those of any other 
part of the world, which the immense size of the continent would lead us to expect. 
Such a river might have existed, even with the present dis|X)sition of the main 
ranges, if the depresaion of Lob Nor had not prevented the drainage of Eastern 
Turkeetan from reaching the sea, or if the drainage into the Sea of Aral had been 
ttrried on into the Obi, which last some have conjectured to have been the case in 
ancient times, 

I may notice that if, as is laid down in the map embodying the results of A — k's 
surveya, the Nak-chu-kha of Tibet flows into the Lan-tsang-kiang instead of 
tbe Lu'klang, the Mekong ought probably to have a place among the eight longest 
rivers in the world. 

Edwaed Hkawood. 

• * The Yang-tse,* p. 296, t Ibid., p. 97. 

♦ At one part of the Upper Amur a voyage of 20 miles hrinp one back to a point 
half a mile from the starting-point (ri**? Batea* * Illustrated Traveli*/ i- p. *i47. 

C 254 ) 


Seventh Meeting, Fehrmry 2Sih, 1887- — General E. Strachby, r.e., f.r,s,, 
Vice-President, in the Cliair. 

Elkctioks.^ — Eev. John F. Bramston ; Capt, Archibald I>rummond (Scots 
Guarda) ; Geo, T. Fernet/hough, Esq. ; Edward John Eaks^ Eiq. ; JJev. H. P. 
Bigginion-Whyts-MeUille ; Lakshmi Nardyanu^ Esq.; Albert Oeorge Parrot , Esq.; 
Itichard Adolf Ploetz, Eaq.y M.A. ; W, P. Simdairf E$q.^ m.p, ; WiUtam Ja$. Joseph 
Spry, Esq, ; J?. E, Tliompsonr, Esq,, b.a. 

PBESBJITATION.^IF. £, ^amUtm, Eaq, 


On opening the bosiness of Ibe MeetiDg, the Chairman announced thatin reiponse 
to a proposal that was made to the University of Oxford lost Btimmer^ the (k»\mcil 
had received a oommuEication to the effect that the UDiTeraitj had determined to 
appoint a Lecturer of Geography for fire yeara ; bo that as regards Oxford ^ the aapira- 
tions of the Society had been realised. He was sure that the Fellows would be glad 
to hear that the UniTersity of Oxford had taken this step. A dmilar application 
had been made to Cambridge, but the negotiations were not sufficiently advanoed to 
enable him to make any definite statement with regard to it He thought, however, 
there was every probabiUty of Cambridge following in the direction ifx which Oxford 
was now leading. 

The following jiaper was read : — " Prejevalaky*s Journeys and Discoveries in 
Central Asia-" By E. Delmar Morgan, Esq, Ante, p. 213. 

Eighth Meeting, March 14ih, 1887.— Frakcis Galtok^ Esq., f,r,s., 
Vice-Presidoiit, in the Chair. 

Elections.— Mayor Patrick Qm. Craigie; Arthur Willis Danthwaiie^ Esq,^ 
ii<D, ; Stankif Edwards, Esq^ ; Mev^ Mithad Graves ; Cdonel Eenry Lumsdai 
(Loud. Scot. E.y.); Menry MocJtford, Esq.; Gerald Statilesf PhUip^ Esq.; [F, 
liat/nwnd. Esq, ; Percy Cliarks Pmd, Esq, ; E. E. Wilson^ Esq, 

Phbskntationb. — N, Prowtr, Esq, 

The jiaper of the evening was •* The Alpine Ilegiona of Alaska." By Lieut. 
H. W. Seton-Karr (92nd Highlanders). 


Oeographical Society of Paris.— February 4th, 1887 : M. Jaksben in the 
Chair.— M. G. Boll and forwarded copy of a paper read by General Perrier belbre a 
recent meeting of the Academy of Sciences^ on the artesian wells and oases created 
by the French in Ued Eir (South Algeria). The correspondent took the opportunity 
of pointing out the complete suooess of this system of irrigation. Already five oases 
hod been formed and planted in this district ; one company hod made seven artesian 
wells and planted 50,000 date-palms, — A note was read from Dr. Labonne with 
reference to M, Feddersen's recent paper given at Copenhagen on the subject of the 



aodeDt TegetatioD of IceL&Dd. I)r. Laboune maintaiDs that the trunkB of great trees 
found there hy M* Feddersen were carried up into the Valley of the GeyaerB hy the 
isea, an arm of which formerly penetrated into the south part of the island, and that 
they were covered over by a volcanic eruption. He points out that all these tree 
tnmlu are found lying horizontally, and that their apeciejj differs from the present 
dwarf bniahwood,-^M, E, Hangsen-Blaugsted informed the Society that the popu- 
lation of Sweden on the 3 1st Decemlxjr, 1886, numbered 4,720,000, accordiag to 
the of&cial report,— Tho Minister of Public Instruction forwarded a letter, dated 
20tL December, 1886, from MM. Capus and Bonvalot, now travelling in Central 
Asia, — An extract from the Chinese Tirnes^ on the opening of the first French 
railway in China, was Bent by M. Decauville. The line runs from Tien-tsin to 
Ching-Yang, a distance of only two miles, hut it is extremely popular among the 
natiree, and will doubtless lead the way for more important undertakings. — 
Writing from Arecife de Lanzarote (Canary lelands), on the 8th January, M, Camille 
Douls announced that he was about to start on a journey across Uad^Dra&t and 
Suss, under the auspices of the Minister for Foreign Affairs. This country had 
been but pftrtially explored, and he would inform the Society from time to time of 
the geographical results of his mission, — The operations of the French in 1886 lu 
the weetem Sudan were set forth in report received from the Upper Niger, — Br, 
Boaire presented a book on behalf of the author, M, Yalery-Mayet, which gives au 
tooount of the explorations of the latter in South Tunis, In commenting upon this 
work Dr, Eouire observed that H. Valery-Mayet, who was professor of zoology at the 
School of Agriculture at Montpellier, was entrusted by the Minister of Public 
Bustiuction with this mission of seientiEc exploration in Tunis. Starting &om Bfax, 
he had travelled over the country between that town and Gassa and then on to 
Gabes and Zarzis. His book was fall of the moat valoable information on the 
fauna and flora of Tunis ; his observations on the gum-tree being very interesting, 
lie confirms the ancient geographers in their description of the conn try ,^The 
Minister of Public Instruction forwarded a letter from M. Ph. Pinellij dated ifom 
Ciudad Bolivar, 15th December, 1B86, according to which M. Chaffianjon, the 
traveller on the Orinoco, had started from San Fernando de Atabspo and was 
then exploring the country in the vicinity of the head- waters of the Orinoco, 
— M, William Huber, Vice-President of the Central Commission and General 
Secretary of the Commisaion on Friaes, announced the awards made by the 
Sodety for the year 1887 ;— Gold Medal to Captain Chae. Bouvier, of the Navy, 
for his geographical and topographical work in the French Congo region ; Gold 
Medal to M, Fritsche, Director of the Russian Observatory at Fekin, for liis 
numerous journeys in the north of China during the last sijEtecn years } Gold Medal 
to M. Joseph Martin in consideration of his Siberian travels and particularly his 
itinerary in the still tit tie* known country between the Lena and the Amur ; Silver 
Medal to M. Alph. Aubrey, civil engineer, for the geographical resulta of his mission 
to Sboa ; the ** La Roquette "prize to Lieutenant A, W. Greely, of the American 
Army, for his expedition to Smith Sound and his meteorological and magnetic 
observations ; the ** Erhard " prize to M. Grcnier, of the Naval Map Depfit ; and the 
" Jomard*^ prize to M, Joret in recognition of his biography of M, Tavemier, the 
great French traveller.— M, Venukoff presented a memoir written by himself on 
the navigability of the riverg of Eastern Europe and also an excellent map of 
the environs of Lake Baikal, published by M* Tchersky, on scale 1 : 420,000, which 
shows the depths. — ^In conclusion, a paper was read by M. J. Renaud, hydro graphical 
engineer, on the harbours of Toaking. The writer dwelt on the factitious develop- 
ment of Haiphong, which he said could never l>e a great port in consequence of two 
sandy bars at tbe mouth of the river, Hon-Gac, in the Bay of Halong, was 



dcstmed to become the harbour of tho future, being in communication with the 
heart of the delta by means of canals ; a railway connectiog it with Hanoi could be 
mado without much difficulty. The roadstead of Haloug was accessible in all 
weather, at all times of the tide and to shipa of the greatest tonnage. Though 
not unhealthy, it^ situation in this respect was inferior to that of Haiphong, — The 
report of the Society's Librarian for 1886 showed additions during the year of 1038 
workB, comprising 1249 volumes, 114 maps in 249 sheets, 42 atlases, and 231G 
photogmphs, besides numerous periodicals. 

February lath, 1887 : M. W. Huber, Vice-President of the Ceotnil 

Commission, in the Chair. — Among the letters read at the commencement of the 
meeting was one from M. W. Martin on the place of Tavernier's death, a question 
which had been before the Society on several occasions* The writer quoted the 
statements of MM* Haag, who assert that the great traveller died at Copenhagen, 
and not at Moscow, as supposed, M* Joret, the biographer of Tavemier, upheld the 
latter view. Tho Chairman suggested that steps should be taken by the Society to 
clear up this point — M. R. du Caillaud sent a risumi of recent articles in several 
religious papers which jiosscssed geographical interest* The following facts may 
be mentioned. The Germans had established a station at a point two hours* march 
east of Mrogoro (Africa). A young Swedish officer had arrived at the latter place 
from the Congo. After a two years' engagement with the International African 
Association^at Stanley Falls, he set out for the East Coast with a few men and hardly 
any provisions. Deducting the time of his residence at the Falls, he had croesed the 
continent by the Congo route in the very short time of from nine to ten months. 
At Benito, on the West Coast, th© ** Mission du Saiol-Esprit '* had established a 
station, — A letter was read from M, Fr, Scbrader, Member of Central Commission, 
on the subject of M. do Saint Sand's paper on the Pyrenees, given at a recent 
meeting. — The Minister of Public Instruction communicated a letter from MM. 
CapuB and Bonvalot, written from Samarkand, and giving the news of their ex- 
IKjdition down to the ISth January last.^The Chairman alluded to the presence 
at the meeting of Lieut. 0. Giraud, lately returned from Tongking, and MM. 
Dufourcq, Becazes, and Ponel, three of the most energetic colleagues of M. de 
Brazza on the Congo. He hoped that the Society would have the pleasure of 
listening to pajiers from these tmvellers at no distant date.— ^In conclusion, M, J. 
Thoulet gave on account of the voyage he had just made along the coasts of New- 
foundland in the ship La Clorinde^ with the object of studying several important 
questions relative to the hydrography and geology of these parts. With regard to 
the banks extending along the sc^uth of Newfoundland, he said that Maurj' had 
attributed their formation to the deix>sit of mineral matter brought down from 
Greenland by the iceberi^s, which here come under the influence of the warm waters 
of the Gulf Stream. M, Thoulet was of opinion that the icebergs had nothing to do 
with this formation, which he stated was due to the erosion by the frost, and the 
carrying away by the coasting ice, of tho rocks on the west coast of Newfoundland 
snd Labrador. 

Geo^aphical Society of Berlin, — February 6th, 1887 : Professor Sachact 
in tlie Clmir, — A letter was read from Br. Junker, dated from Cairo, January 24th, 
in which the traveller informed the President that he intended to remain some time 
in Cairo to recover his health, and avoid a too rapid change of climate. He woulcf 
then proceed to St, Petersburg, where his relatives resided, and on his journey 
thither would give an account of his travels to the BerUn Geographical Society, — 
Herr Staudinger (Member of the Flegel expedition to the Niger) then addressed 
the meeting on his journey, m company with Herr Harbert, to Sokoto. From Loko 
on the Benu^i the expedition proceeded vi^ Anassarawa, Iveffi and Kashia to Saria 



Aa the chief of Sana would not permit tlie expedition to travel alone and 
wltbout protection lliroagli tbe robber- mfea ted forest district of Katoahena on the 
north-west of Saria, the travellers were obliged against their will to remain soveral 
months in this town, a delay which they profited by fn making an excursion to 
Kano, six days* journey distant, whence it would have been easy to reach Kuka if 
time and money had been at their disposal. On the 9th December, 1885, the 
expedition was at last able to leave, in the retinue of tbe Saria chief, who had to 
take to the 8ultan of Sokoto the customary tribute. At Gidan Goga tbe Sultan 
give them a very friendly reception, and accepted the letter and presents from the 
Emperor of Germany, granting full liberty to Germans to reside and trade in Ms 
country. They had permission to visit Sokoto and Wurna as well as the province 
of Gandii which is governed by the Suitan*s younger brother. The expedition 
returned from Sokoto on tbe 20th April, 1886j by the same route to Loko on the 
Benue, the slender means at their disposal not permitting them, as they originally 
intended, to varj' their route by visiting the hitherto unexplored district extending 
from Bauchi and Muri to Jols* 

March StTi, 1887 : Professor Sachau in the Chair,— A paper was read by 

Dr. Snouck Hurgronje of Leyden, on bis six months' residence in Mecca, where he 
remained in the disguise of a Mahommedan Effendi, from February to August 1885, 
with the object of studying, on a spot free from Earojiean influenoes, the real life 
of Islam and its power over other lands, especially the Dutch East Indies. 
Dr* Horgronje was tbe fifth European who had visited Mecca; previously there 
have been a Si)aniard under the name of Ali ]3ey el-Abbaei, F* L, Burckhardt, 
Capt. R, F. Burton, and J , F. Keane (de Maltzan s * Peleriuage a la Mecquc * 
contains only well-known facta and hearsay inaccuracies). Dr. Hurgronje, more- 
over, is the first traveller who has lived for a long time in the metropolis of Islam, and 
not merely as a pilgrim in the season of the pilgrimage. He made first a stay of five 
months in Jedda, in order to get acquainted with people from Mecca. Tho in- 
hahitanta of Jedda live chiefly on their trade with pilgrims ; every Meccan leader and 
guide of pilgrims (Sheikh) has his agents (Vakil) who form an important class, and he 
deals with a definite class of pilgrims whose languages and customs he understands, 
leading them to the holy city and caring for their living until with lightened purses 
they start on their homeward journey. Many of these sheikhs have twenty to thirty 
subordinates, and 180 sheikhs deal only with the Malayan pilgrims. The road between 
Jedda and Mecca is protected by eight small forts a^nst robbers. The journey can 
he accomplished, on an ass, in fourteen hours. The appearance of the city has changed 
scarcely at all since BuTckhardl*d time. In the middle of the narrow, north and south- 
lying, valley stands the mosque, in an open court, surrounded with a colonnade, in 
the middle of which is seen the Ka'ahaj the sanctuary of the ancient Arabians, The 
mosque covers a s]Tace of 21 hectares. Tbe surface of the city ground is rising gradually 
through the accumulation of detritus washed down into tlie valley by rains from 
the neighbouring heights, but around the mosque tbe soil is kept to the same level 
by artificial means. All rain from the eastward brings floods to the city. The 
" black stone/' five feet high, is built into the eastern angle of the Ka'aba, and bound 
by a silver ring. There are many such black stones in Mecca, which are reverenti- 
ally regarded by tho faithful, though not officially sanctioned. On this account the 
stone cannot well be an aerolite. Ou Abu Gibez, the holy mount to the east of 
Mecca, Dr. Hurgronje found a stone exactly similar. He brought home a sample of 
the water of the holy spring Zemzera, which on being analysed proved to contain a 
considerable quantity of bitter salt. A conduit 50 kilometres in length supplies 
Mecca with fpesh water, and there are public fountains in each street which have 
been perfectly restored through the able Governor, Othman Pasha, the Wali WOlyet 



el-Hidjar, The populatioE is veiy mixed, Hi^iramaut supplies chiefly traders, 
Egypt traders^ handicmftsineDj professors of the healing art, and many iiiarrift^jeable 
girlB* Yemen, Syria, the Magrib, Bokhara aad Afghanistan, India and the Malay 
Archipelago are also numerously represented. This diversified assemblage, however^ 
is quickly asaimilated, and takes the peculiar character of the Koralshite nucleus of the 
population. Eastern aod Central Africa contribute numerous negro slaTes^ who 
are here well treate<l, and after several years* service frequently received into society 
as free men. The Mecca people form numerous corporations, ^ilds, aristocracies of 
Seyyids and Sherifes; but their importance is nullified by the vigorous action of the 
Government, The city is divided into fifteen districts without visible boundaries, 
and fends arising from trifting causes often break out between the inhabitants of 
different districts, which are sometimes fought out with abusive words or knives 
outside the city. The character of the people is generally humane, hospitable, and 
sociable; it is only during the pilgrim months, when each one has to care for himself 
and get all he can during the short time, that they appear greedy and av&ricioug. 
Through an indiscretion of the French Vice-Consul at Jedda in betraying him, Dr, 
Huigronje waa Huddenly seiMd and ejected from Mecca, barely escaping with his 


(By J. SooTT Keltie, Librarian B.o.s,) 

Forel, [Br J F* A, ^ Lc Lac Leman. Precis Scicntifique, 2"*" Edition, revue 

et augment^e. Geneve, 11, Georg, 1886 ; 8vo., pp* 76. [Presented by the Author*] 

This hrochure originally appeared aa a contribution to the volume on Mont- 

* reus, published in 1877, Br, Forel has done well to bring it down to date 

and publish it separately. It is really a succinct but complete account of tlic 

interesting lake in all its aspects, and embraces the results of Dr, ForePs own 

very valuable researches. 

Mahafiy, J» F* — Rambles and Studies in Greece. Third edition. London, 
Macmillan & Co,, 18B7: 8vo,, pp, xviii. and 465, map and illustrations. 
Price IQs. 6d [Presented by the Publishers,] 

KmoMiLf James Oeorge Cotton. -^ The Growth of Freedom in the Balkan 
Peninsula. Notes of a Traveller in Montenegro, Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria, and 
Greece. With Historical and Descriptive Sketches of the People. London, John 
Murray, 1886 : 8vo,, pp. xvi. and 415, Price 10«. 6d. 

Describes the general coudition of things in the Balkan Peninsula, more 
particularly in their political aspect. Some of the matter has already appeared 
m the Times and the Morning AdvertueTj but there is much that is new. 
The concluding chapters of the work deal with the social life of the Bulgarians. 
There is a map of the Balkan States. 

[l^EBiaiiiE,]^ — Annnles de Plnstitut Mdt^orologique de Eoumame, Par Ste&a 
G. Hepites, Directeur. ISSij. Tome L Bucharest, 1886 ; 4to», ppw cxixviii, and 
367, [Presented by M. Hepites,] 

Geographers as well as meteorologists will welcome this volume as a token of 
a serious effort to work out the climate of Roumania. The introduction contains 
a history of meteorological researches in Roumania, 

Temperatur-mittel aus der Periodo 1851-1885 : fur die CaterreichiBcheii Alpen 
und deren Grenzgebiete, 4 to,, pp. 30. 



Conder, Claude Eeignier— Syrian Stoae-Lore ; or. The Monumental History of 
Palestine^ Published for the Committee of tho Pftlestitie Exploration Fund. 
London, R. Bentley & Son, 1886 : 8vo., pp, xiv, and 472, maps. Price 7«. 6d. 
This is a treatise on the ancient condition of Palestine from the earliest 
recorded timea down to the close of the Frank dominion. It diBCtisies the 
social condition of the inhabitants of the country, their race— origina, langnages, 
rdigion% social cnstoma, government^ art, literature, and trade. The anther 
fioiuiida the present review of the reanlta of exploration and research not 
an the Biblical narratives, hut on monumental records ; and endeavours in 
the early chnpters to show what could be known of Sjrria and of ita inliabitants, 
Hebrews^ Hittites, Phoenicians, <&c., were there nothing left to us of a Hebrew 
literature. There are three maps as follows :— 1. Map of Syria in 1300 bx, ; 
2. Map of Syria in 500 A.n. ; 3. Map of Syria about 1180 a.d. 

Biener, [BrJ Carl. — libanon. Gruntllinien der Physischen Geographie mod 
Geologic von Mittel-Syrien. Wien, Holder, 1886 : 8vo,, pp^ x, and 412* Price 

The guiding principle of Dr. Biener's work is tho ^ intimate relation which 
exists between the geology and geography of a limited region like tliat em- 
bf«oed in the volume, Dr, Diener has made a very thorough study of Central 
Syria, and the results are a useful contribution to scientific geography. In the 
first section he gives a general view of the stratigraphical condition of Central 
Syria ; followed by sections on the littoral of Phoenicia and the Lebanon ; the 
deprassion r^ion of Coelo-Syria ; th(* Antilibanna and the system of Palmyra 
ridges; the leading lines of the Lebanon ^stem and their relations to the 
itractTire of Western Asia and the Eastern Mediterraoean basin. The volume 
contains a considerable '.number of fine photographs besides maAy woodcut 
illustrations, sections, and ma|>s* 

Hull, Edward CXL.B., F.E.S.]— Mount Seir, Sinai, and Western Palestine. Being 
a Narrative of a Scientific Expedition. Majia and illustrations. Published for 
the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund by Richard Bentley & Son, 
1885 : 8va, pp. xvi. and 227. Price 10s. 6d. 

The geological results of Dr. Hull's expedition to Palestine have alreadv 
been noticed in the * Proceeeings * for 1886, p, 343. The present volume con- 
tains the narrative of the expedition, and therefore gives many geographical 
detail.^} unsuited to the geological treatise. The maps, sections, and illustrations 
are useful. 

[India.] — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Palieontologia Indica , . . . 
Ser. XIL The Foaail Flora of the Gondwfina System. Vol IT. Part 2. The 
Fossil Flora of some of the Coalfields in Western Bengal, By Ottokar Feist- 
mantel, M.D. Calcutta, Geological Survey Office, Jtc. ; London, Tnibner Sc Co. 
1886 : folio, pp. iv. and 71, plates. 

Ditto. Ser. XIII. SalUBange Fosails. By WiEiam Waagen, ph.d., r.o.s. 

L Productus-Limestooe Fossils. 6. Ccclcnterata, Calcutta, ditto; London, 
ditto^l886: folio, plates. 

Lydekker, Mcbard.— Catalogue of the Eeinaina of Siwalik Vertebrata contained 
in the Geological Department of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Part I. Mam- 
malia. Calcutta, printed by the Superintendent of Government Printing^ India, 

• 1885 : 8vo., pp. X. and 116. 

Ditto. Part IL Aves, Beptilia, and Pisces. Calcutta, ditto, 1886 : 8vo., 

ppw vii and 26. 

Catalogue of the Remains of Pleistocene and Pre-historic Yertebrata con- 

taiced in the Geological Department of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Calcutta, 
ditto, 1886: 8vo., pp. vi. and 16, 


Memorio vnB het Eealtiur iler Nederlnndsch-Indische Maatschappij ran Nijverlieid 
en Laadbouw t© Batavta aan de Directenren der NederlaBdache Maatschappij ter 
bevordetiDg van Nijverlieid te Haarlem over de Pakketvaart in Nederkodscli- 
Inditi. Batavia, Ogilvie & Co*j 1886; 8vo,t pp. 111. 

Tiie Biicred Books of the East. Translated by various Oriental Scholars, and edited 
by F. Max Miiller. VoIb. XXV. and XXIX. Oxford, Clarendon Preaa, 1886 : 
8vo., fi\ (xxv.) cxxxviii. and 620 j (xxix.) 440, [Presented by the Secretarj^ of 
State for India.] 

Van der GhilB, J. A^-^Be Ycatiging van bet NederlandacbeGezagover deBanda- 
Eilanden (1599-1621). TJitgegeyen door bet Bataviaascb Genootscbap van 
Kunaten en Wetenscbflpp«n. Batavia, Albrecbt & Co. ; *s Hage, M. Nijboff, 
1886 : large 8vo., pp. iii. and 18i, map. 

Nederlandscb-Indificb Plakaatboek, 1602-1811. Derde Deel. 1678-1709. 

Uitgegeven door bet BataviaascK Genootscbap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen 
met medewerking van de Nederlandscb-Indiscbe Begering. Batavia, Lands- 
dmkkerij ; 's Hage, M, Nijboff, 1886 : 8vo., pp. 681. 


[Cape of Good HopeJ—The Cape of Gootl Hope Civil Service List, 1887 : con- 
mniog tbe Official Hetorn of the Civil and Military Establisbmeots of the Colony, 
Acts and Ecgulations, Services and Duties of Officers, etc. Also tbe Civil Service 
Calendar, 1887: containing all matters connected with tbe Examinations for 
entry into the Service, and tbe Civil Service Law Examinations, Edited by 
Ernest F. Kilpin. Caj>e Town, J. C. Jiita& Co., 1887: Svo., pp. xii. and 27C, 
map. [Presented by tbe Colonial Secretary, Cape of Good Hope.] 
Collton, [CoL] E.E. — Journal d\m voyage du Caire ^ Kt'oeb, Berenice et Berber, 
et retour yar Ic d^ert de Korosko. [Bulletin de la Soci^td Kb^iviale de Gdo- 
grapbie, 11* Serie, Num^ro 0.] Le Caire, Imp. nationaio, IS86: Svo. 
Tbe journey was made in 1873-74. 
HorowitZi Victor J. — Marokko. Das Weeentlicbste und Tnteresfianteste iiber 
Land und Lento. Leipzig, Friedricb, 1887 : 8vo., pp* 215. Price 4ff< {WiUiams 
(fc Norgnte.) 

Tbis is a useful and careful siunmary of wbat we know concerning Morocco, 
by a member of tbe German Consulate at Tangier. It deals witb the position 
and dimensions of tke country ; cbmate, mountains^ rivers, and division of the 
land ; products ; inbabitants ; mode of life i manners and customs ; religion ; 
industry and trade ; government ; history j most imf tort ant towns. In a few 
concludiuci; considerations tbe autbor maintains that tbe wbole of tbe nortb 
cuast of Africa ought to be occnpied by European ixjwers. 

[Madagascar.]— The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine, No, i., 
Cbristmas 1886, (Part li. of vol. iii.) Edited by the Rev, J. Sibree, f.k.q.s., and 
Rev, R, Baron, f.l,s. Antananarivo, L.M.S. Press, 1886 : 8vo., pp. i v. and 128-260, 
[Presented by Mr. Sibree.] (TriihnerJ) 

Tbe present number consists largely of papers on Malagasy folk-lore, philo- 
logy, poetry, S^c, It, bowever, contains a translation of M. Grandidier's pai>er 
on the channels and lagooos of tbe east coast of Madagascar, to which Mr. 
Sibree odds a supplementary not© referring to Captain Kooke'a boat-jonmey 
along these lagoons in 18(j4 (Proc. R.G,S., December 1885). Mr. Sibree states 
that witb a comparatively small expenditure a continuous and commodious 
waterway might be made along 300 miles of coast, connecting the principd 
ports un the east side of tbe i&Iand, and giving a great impetus to trade. Less 
than 30 miles of canal would be suflRcient for the purpose. More than fifty 
years ago, during the refgn of tbe first Radama, this great work was actually 
commenced ; but the death of that sagacious sovereign put an end to the work. 



[Kessedagliat G. B.l^Diario Storico Mi H tare dellc Ri volte al Sudan dal 1878 in 
poi. Alessandria, V. Penasaon^ 1886 : lai^e 8vo.» pp. 63, maps* [Presented by 
F. BoDolii, General Secretary to the 'Societc KliMivialc de Geographie,*] 

MoUer, P., Pagels, Q„ och Gleerup, E.— Tro Ar i Kongo. Stockholm, 
Korstedt. [Presented by tbo Publishers,] 

This work is appearing in parts of 80 pa^^es eacb, and will when complete 
form two Tolumea. It desoribes the experiences of the three authors during 
their residence on the Congo as employes of the Free State. Two parts have 
appeared, abundantly illustrated* 

EoMfs^ Gerhard-— Quid Novi Ex Africa ? CasseJ, Fischer, 1886 : 8vo., pp, li88. 
[Presented by tiio Aiith<.>r.] 

This volume, without content* or index, oonsiste of a number of detachad 
sketchy papers by Dr. Rnhlfa on a great variety of African subjects, such au 
Towns on the Red Sea ; the Climate of the Red Sea and Abyssinia ; Egypt ; 
Coffee; Jews in Africa; Is there any TCJiBon for believing that the town popu- 
lations of Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli arc of a special character ? France, 
Algeria, and Tunis j the Colonisation of East Africa ; the Hygiene and Cli- 
matology of East Africa, &c. There is no indication that these papers have 
already appeared, though they have mostly the appearance of journalistic 

Ball, JohB, F*Il,S, — Notes of a Natural ist in South America. London, Kegan 
Paul, Trench, & Co., 1887. Price Bs. M. [Presented by the Aiilhor.] 

This vahiaHe and interesting work contains Iktr* Bfill's first impressions of 
South America, during a journey which occupied the five months from March 
to Aui^ust 1882. He went direct from Southampton to Panama, sailetl down 
the West Coast, through the Straits of Magellan, up the coast of Brazil as 
for north as Pemambuco, and then home. 

It will be seen that this embraces a glance at the whole or South America, 
except the Orinoco region treated of by Humboldt, and the Amazons by Bate.s. 
It has often been remarked that naturalists are the best writers of hcioks of travel, 
because they observe more accuratt^ly, and convey iheir own impressions mom 
graphically than other travellers. This work is an additional proof of the 
troth of the observation. In less than 400 pages it conveys a clearer idea of 
South America than the untrained traveller could give if he wrote a score of 
volumes » This then is the book for the general re^ider. But the general 
leader believes, with Pope, that " The proper studj' of mankind is man ; '* so 
when he readies the opening chapter (p. 11), and finds the author say, 
"Next to the vegetable inhabitants, 1 was interested in the black population 
of the island" — he will be apt to stop short, fearing he will hear of little but 
botany. But this fear would be unfounded, for Mr. Ball is better than his 
word. All that is technical in his botanical work he has relegated to the pages 
of the Journal of the Linncean Society. The botany in these *' Notes '* is uf 
general interest, popular in style and interspersed with anecdotes. It is, for 
mstance, something new about the thistle to learn that it now covers large 
tracts of country in Southern Chili, because an Englishman (Query, Scotch- 
jnan), under the strange delusion that it would be useful as fodder, irai>orted a 
sack of the seed and sowed it broadcast. 

On another i>age we read that a Penivian plant called the tupa is alleged by 
the Indiana to i>roduce temporary blindness if the eyes hap|»en to be touched 
after handling tne leaves of the plant. A local liotanist, Mr. Nation, pua'ly 
from a love for science, verified the statement by cxfjeriment. 

When Captain (afterwards Admiral) Fitstroy left York, Fuega, and Jemmy 
in Tierra del Fuego, in 1834, Darwin wrote in his Journal (p. 22C) — ** I fear 
it is more than doubtful whether their visit will have been of any use to them." 
This sad forecast has been realised* Mr. Ball's picture of the drunkenness and 
degradation of the natives in the Straits of l^IagcUan makes it clear that they 
are a doomed race, nnlesa spirits be removed out of their way. 
No. IV.— AriuL 1887.] " u 



It is jsluiiJiiiiit txt (urn io a cuuiitry whore our Jiiitlior Jbtiiid striking cvidcnco* 
uf progress iiud civilfsatiuu — the Argentine llejmblic, for which he has invcutpd 
the conijmct imd aijpropriatc name, Arij^eiitaria. I'he DKust rcuiorkablii fact its 
tliu enormous stream of spontaneous imiiri;L;^ra(h.m fiowh];j; iiihj liic countr}', 
chiefly from Italy. In 1875 it was, as ^imtd by Ur. Ball, 47»50O. In 1886 it 
hiul increased to upwards of 100,000 per annum. As the oxistmj; i>opulation h 
under 5,000,000, this repreaenta a larger ratio of increase by imnji juration than 
any recorded in the history of nfttions — except, perluips, in the California^ find 
Australian rush for gold ; hence the rapid proj^e-ss f>f Ar^a-ntaria in material 
wealth, and the sudden dcveloproent of iigriculture in a country which, until 
recently, was pnrely pastoral 

WeDding his way northward, our traveller then cnterctl that paradise of the 
naturalist — ^Brayib Judl^iog by bis glowing description of the marvels of tropical 
nature, which, however, do not go one hairbreadth beyond the trtith, it is clear 
that if Mr, Hatl bad happened to reverse the order of hia voyage, and taken 
the Brazil coast first, ho would have spent his five months there, and the rest 
of the *' Notes *' would have been unwritten. The world would have been so 
much the poorer; but now that we have secured this book, let us boj^ that 
Mr. Ball's next holiday may be «pent in Brazil, so that it may bo followed at 
no distant day by one on its natural wonders, which he is so well qualified to 
appreciate and deacribe. 

Mr, Ball^ throughout the volume and especially iu the appendices, has eon- 
tribiited much that is of ttie bitiheBt interest to the scientific geographer. The 
first appendiic deals with the fall of temperature in aBceiiding to heights above 
sea-leveL This is followed by another, ol special interest, in which he discuasen 
some ixainta in connection with Dr, Croll's theory of secular changes in the 
i;artb*s surface. While amply recognising the high value of Dr, Croirs work, 
Mr. Ball indicates what he considers as one or two weaknesses in the line of 
argument. One imjiortant point he indicates is that recent observations seem 
to show that facts do not justify the aasumption that the average tempemtitre 
of the fiouihern hemisphere is lower than that of the northern ; if there ia any 
essential diflerence it is more likely to be the other way, Mr* Ball, in connection 
with his very instructive isothermal map in the volume^, refers to the effect 
of the so-called " Humboldt current " in lowering the temperature of the West 
Coast of South America. It will, no doubt, interest him to rem! what 
Mr. Buchanan says with reference to the supposed current in his paper in the 
* Proceedings R.G.S,' for December 1886.— [C. M.] 
[ Bolivia*] ^La Bolivie (Lettres d'un Voyageur Suisse). 8vo. 
Giles, Pearce.^Tlie True Source of the Mississippi, Buffalo, N.Y,, Matthews, 
Northrnp & Co., 1887 : 8vo., pp. 48. 

Ihis is another contribution to the tiresome contioversy concerning the 
8<3urce of the Mississippi ; it is written on behalf of Captain Glazier's claim. 
Uargrff Pierre^— Mdmoircs ct DtKJuments |>our servir h I'Histoire des Origincs 
Franfaisea des Pays Outrc-Mer. D^convertes et fitablissements des Franeais 
dans rOuest et dans le Sud dc rAm^riqno Septentrionalo (1G83-1724)* Tome 
cinquieme. Paris, Maisonneuve Freres et Ch. Leclerq, 1887 : 8vo., pp. clx* and 
607. Price 20«, (Didau.) 

The previous volume of this important publication was noticed in the 
'Proceedings* for 1882, p, 122. The sub-title of the new volume indicates 
the nature of the documents which it contains—" Premiere Formation d'unc 
Chaine cle Fostes entre le Fleuve St* Laurent et le Golfc du MeiiquCt 
(1683-17*.?4)." M. Margry'a Introduction shows the bearing of these docu- 
ments, and gives the history of the period to which the documents refer so far 
as the French in America are concerned. The first part contains contemporary 
documents referring to the subject indicated by the sub-title. Besides this 
there is a document by Lamotbe Cadillac on Missilimakinak (on Lake Huron) 
and the countries beyond, in which the writer adduces a crowd of curious 
reasons for believing that the Hurons were descendflub? of the Jews. From 
the same writer there is a document on the establishment of a post on the 


strait (Detroit) between Lakes Huron and Erie. In the socoDd pirt we have 
various letters by Juchercau de St.-Denys on the communication between 
Louisiana and Canada by the affluents of the Mississippi. Part 3 contains 
many oommunicationH by Lamothe Cadillac and Le Moyne de Bienville on the 
establishment of* the Frcucti on the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico, and by the 
latter and De Panger on the establishment of New Orleans and Balise, the 
embouchure and the passes of the Mississippi. 

[Jan Hayen.] — Die Internationale Polarforschung, 1882-1883. Die ijsterreichische 
Polarstation Jan Mayen ausgeriistet durch seine Excellenz Graf Hanns Wilczek 
geleitet vom K. K. Corvettcn Capitiin Emil Edlen von Wohlgemuth. Beobach- 
tungs-Ergebnisso herausgegeben von der Kaiseilichen Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften. II, Band. IL Abtheilung. [Wien] Karl Geruld's Sohn : 4t<)., 
j*p. 175, diagroma. [Presented by the Imperial Academy of Sciences, Vienna.] 

HomniBen, Theodor* — The Provinces of the Roman Empire from Ctesar to Dio- 
cletian. Translated with the Author's sanction and additions by William P. 
Dickson, d.d., lud. London, Bentley & Son, 1886 : two vols. 8vo. ; vol. i. 
pp. xvi. and 367 ; vol. ii. pp. [iv.] and 366. Price 36«. 

These two volumes are a continuation of Monmisen's well-known History of 
Rome. Apart from their great historical value, they deal so largely with the 
geography of the important period which they embrace, that they will be con- 
sidered a valuable acquisition by the student of ancient geography. The ten 
maps by Dr. Kiepert add much to the geographical value of the volumes. 

BecloSy Elisje.— The Earth, a Descriptive History of the Phenomena of the Life 
of the Globe. Edited by Professor A. If. Keane. London, Virtue & Co., 1886 : 
imp. 8yo., pp. xil. and 500. 

_ ^ The Ocean, Atmosphere and Life. A Descriptive History of the 

Fhenomena of the Life of the Globe. Edited by Professor A. H. Keane. Loudon, 
Virtue & Co., 1887: imp. 8vo/, pp, xii. and 500. Price 21s. each volume. 
[Presented by the Publisher.] 

As there is no preface to these volumes we do not know to what extent 
the reprint of the translation of M. Reel us' well-known works has been 
brought up to date. So far as we can see the main addition to the volume on 
the Earth is Professor Kcane's Appendix on the Progress of Recent Geogra- 
phical Exploration, which is referred to neither in contents nor index. In the 
next reprint some of the Alpine heights and names should be more carefully 
revised. On the whole, 'The Earth' is a very full and trustworthy, as well as 
eloquently written, account of the chief facts of physical geography up to the 
date of M. Reclus' own revision. 

To * The Ocean ' Professor Keane has been able to do much more than to 
• The Earth.' The volume bears evidence of considerable research on his 
]iart,and many of the results of recent ocean investigations have been embodied. 
The Ocean occupies only the first section of the volume ; part ii. dealing with 
the Atmosphere and Meteorology, and part iii. with Life. The two volumes, it 
will be seeo, cover a wide field, and are, no doubt, intended to serve as an 
introduction to M. Reclus' Universal Geography. The illustrations and maps are 
as abundant and beautifully executed as in all the other works that come 
from M. Reclus' hands. 

[Scientific Geography.]— Zeitschrift fUr Wissenschaftliche Geographic, . . . 
herausgegeben von J. I. Kettler (Weimar). Band vi. Heft 1. Weimar, 
Geographisches Institut, 1887. 

We are glad to welcome the revival of this important organ of scientific 
geography, which has been in abeyance for some time. Dr. Kettler's colleagues 

u 2 



are Professors H. Fischer, A, Kirchlioff, 0. Kriimmel, J. Rein, S. Huge, M. 
Schunke, and F. Wieser. The longest article in tbis number is Herr Belter's 
paper on the Antarctic Question, to which wo have referred as a separate publica- 
tion. Dr. 0» Kriimmel contributes a valuable paper on surface temjieratures of 
the ocean, with a map. In a note on the Post and Telegraph School of Berlin 
we are in formed that in the higher classes geography occupiea an important 
jflace, and judging from the programme of aubjecUgi\'en it is of a very thorough 

Guillemaxdi F. H. H- — The Cruise of the Marchem to Kamschatka and New 
rhiioea, with notices of Formosa, Liu-Kiu, and various Islands of the Malay 
Archipelago. By F. IL H. Guillemard, M.A., M*i>. (Cantab.), &c. 2 vols. 8vo., 
maps, and numerous woodcuts and coloured illustrations. Murray, 1886. Price 42i, 

This work will take high rank as a book of travel. The cruise of Mr, C. 
T. Kettlenreir*? yacht Marchesa id the eastern Beaa, of which it is a narrative, 
occupied the months from January 1B81 to April 1884, nnd appears to have 
been planned ivith the design of visiting the least-frequented lands of that part 
of the world, and studying their natural history and the physical and social 
l>eculiorities of the native races. With excellent literary tact Dr. Guillemard 
has chosen to pass lightly over, or say nothing about, places and countries 
which have come within the range of the globe-trotter or have been frequently 
l)efore described. Thus we are f^iiared an accoiint of the voyage out vili Suez 
Canal, of Ceylon, Singapore, Java, Hong Koug, and Japan, whilst ample 
space is given to the stranger region of Kamscbatka, the eastern side of Formosa, 
the Sulu archipelago. North Borneo, Northern Celebes, and the western islands and 
mainland of New Guinea, Many of tbe smaller islands, nnvisited by former 
travellers, and erroneously laid down on the best modem charts, were more or 
less carefully explored, so that tbe craise, to that extent, baa proved to lie one 
of geographical discovery. Though teeming with valuable scientific informa- 
tion and original observation, tbe book is most agreeable reading, any tedium 
that might arise from the sameness of incidents which will sometimes occur in 
the conscientiously written narrative of even the most varitd travel, being 
relieve J by happy touches of humour and lucid descriptions of scenery. Tlio 
work is beautifully illustrated, and tbe jdeasure and profit of reading It are not a 
little enhanced by an abundance of siugle-page maps ; the cx>nvenient plan 
being adopted of giving a general map, with routes, at tbe begin oii^ of each 
main section of the region travelled over, and a s|)ecial map on, of course, a 
much larger scale, for the separate islands or excursions. These maps, gootl 
and useful as they are, might, however, easily have been made bett<.T, for in 
many cases places mentionSl in the text am omitted^ rendering it difficult to 
follow on the map the author's narrative.— {H. W* BJ 

The following works have also been added to the Library : — 

CUTZOEi [Han.] Bobert. — Visits to Monasteries in the Levant. Sixth edition. 
With illustrations. London, John Murray, 1881 : cr, 8vo., pp* xx, and 373. 

Barbler, J. V,— Essai d'un Lexique geographique. Paria, Berger-Levrault Sc Co., 
1880; 8vo., pp. 115, tables. 

Horse, Edward S. — Ancient and Modem Methods of Arrow-Release, [From the 
Bulletin of the Essex Institute, vol. xvU., Oct.-Dec., 1885.] 8vo., pp, 56, 
illustrationt^ [Presented by the Feabody Academy of Science, Siilem, Mass.] 

( 266 ) 

CBy J. Coles, Map Curator, r.g.s.) 
BayeriL — ^Topographischen AUas der Eonigreich -^^^ bearbeitet im topograph. 
Bureau d. K. b. Generalstabes. Scale 1 : 50,000 or 1*4 inches to a geographical 
mile. Blatt 20, Bamberg, Ost— 39, ADsbach, Ost.— 40, Schwabach, Ost and 
West— 60, Dillingen, West. Price Is. M. each sheet (JDulau,) 

Bayern. — Positions-Karte vom E5nigreich. Bearbeitet im topograph. Bureau d. E. b. 
Gencralstabes. 1 : 25,000. No. 543, Landau.— 544, Eichendorf.— 572, Simbach.— 
573, AmsdorC— 602, Diepoltskirchen.— 603, Schonau.— 629, Neumarkt a/B.— 
680, Massing. — 631, Eggenfelden. — 632, Wurmannsquick.— 657, Zangberg.— 658, 
Mdteling. Mimchen. Price Is. 6</. each sheet {Dulau,) 

Bontsehen Seiches. — ^Earte des Herausgegeben von der kartogr. Abtei* 

long der KonigL Preuss. Landes-Aufnahme 1886. Scale 1 : 100,000 or 1*S geo- 
graphical miles to an inch. Sheets : — 41, Wiek auf Riigen ; 90, Zinnowitz ; 518, 
Tropplowitz ; 539, Ewringen ; 573, Earlsruhe ; 587, Hagenau. Price Is. 6</. each 
sheet {Dtdau.) 

Helgoland- — PIaq der Insel -^, von Fr. Aeuckens. Helgoland* Prioa 2s. 

Italia.— Carta del R^no d' , alia scala di 1 : 100,000 or 1 * 3 geographical miles 

to an inch. Istituto geografico militare, Firenze. Sheets : — ^27, Mont Bianco ; 28, 
Aosta; 41, Gran Paradise; 42, Ivrea; 43, Biella; 57, Vercelli; 66, Cesana 
Torioese; 67, Pinerolo; 68, Carmagnola; 69, Asti ; 78, Argentera ; 79, Dronero ; 
80, Ooneo; 81, Ceva; 90, Demonte; 91, Boves; 92-93, Abenga-Savona ; 102, 
San Ramo ; 103, Porto Maurizio; 139, Aquila degli Abruzd ; 140, Teramo ; 141, 
Chieti« Price Is. id. each sheet (Jhdau,) 

Ihlfffiffth'PolCTl-" ^^*"^^*"^ ^ yon , und den angrenzenden GouYemementSy 
YOQa.O'Giadj. Eassel, Fischer. Price Is. {Dtdau.) 

PrtHrUfcww iMoed 4nriag tlie month of Fe1»mry IWt, h — Ckn aml Maps >— 

Vmciamd asd Walks: New Series. Sheets 23S, 237 (oaUine), 290 Oiills), 1«. esdi. 
SamAVo : Sheeu lao. 131 (oatUne), is. M. esch. 

6-iiicll— Oovn^ ]Csps>— 

EMLAn> Ajn> Walks: Badfbrdahire : 26 S.W., 27 NJL. is. each. Berkshire: e, 2i. sd. 
Brecknockahire : 34 ««' '- v w., 43 N,w.; it. €«dL CanabiidireshlT© : 7 S.W., 
1S&&, II &W., 15 N.W., it .^.W., itf iiK, 34 5J.K.. 6t K.fcL, t% N.W., SsW,, &7 N.W^ aW., 
C3 K.E.; U. each. Cardi^ansMre : e &W., li aW, i» EM^ II 5).W.; if, *atb. C»r- 
marthODflhire: 17 N.W., N.E., S.W,S.E^ i« JI.W.. N.E. ; u^icACh. Devon^Mre : ^0 ^y^., 
13S N.W., N.K, S.W., 134 N.W.; ij; e«li. Dpraetahlre i H X\W., la s.W.. sk., it S.W.. 
SJL\ is. each. Qlouoestershire : 4ft aK^ T? >\u\; u.*.M£ii. HjsrefordshiT« : :!4 s.W.. 
31 H.W,38 K.W, N.E^ A'l N.W. ; u, eidt. Himtmjtdcmaliire : n S E.. li N.i:,j u. Mth. 
liSioestttrahire: 3S SuW. ; u. I*kiodliiflliire ; li N. v^ ., N.E.. 54 S Jl, S.w^ s^E^ T2 N.t;, 
fS8.W.,fSH.W.,X.E^S.n^ ^j;^ 113 SLfc:.: Ij. e»di, Merklnetliftllire : 3* S;H, :ii N>1. 
SlR, 3> SwEL; Is. each. ICozunoutkBhirct : 29. 2j. &j. ; %^. is Moiitgt^mezTBMre: 
3 XX, 7 H^ &E-, 11 ^.W., u EiML, ti.H, ao h\W.. VT NX, H,W.; 1*. esch. Norfolk: 
SI N.W.; Is. OzfbrdsMre ; 3»^ u. e<i. K«btbiorsblT# : 34 aw^ 37 N.W.; u. ^^^ii. 
Shropshire: 2« N.W, X Ji., so S,W*; l*. «^. 8omerset«liire ; *» N,W^ XIL^ W N.H, 
w &lC M ji.W.; u. each. StalEDrdshire : 70 &IS.; is. Soflblk: 72 aw.; is. War- 
wickshire: 15 K.£L, 20 &W, 22 M.W.; is. each. Worcestershire: 3 SJL; is. 

86-ineh— FuWillaBa:^ 

Etclaa axd Walis: Brecknockshire: nXL 4, ii. is. XXXIX. 8. XLVL 2, at. cMdi. 
Cambridgeshire: XXVLt. XLL12, UV.8.3«.Mch; LVlll. 3. &«.; Lyill.4. t. 3s. each; 
LIX.i2.4s.;LJL3,3(. Carmarthenshire: XXXV. 11.3s. Devonshire : XLL 3. 7, t, 3s. 
each; XIX 11« 4s.; XLL 13. 14, IS, lAL 11, CVIL 13, CYUL 4. CXIX. 1, CXXXL 1, 2. 5, 3«. CMfa; 
CXXXL f, 4s; CXXXL 10, 14, CXXXIIL S, f. 10, 13. 3s. CMfa; CXXXIIL 14, U, Area Books: 
BridtBenile East, Bridsenile WcaC, Is. cMh; Pprortby. 2s. Qlonoestershire : 1. 14. 4s. 
Area Books: AtciiIds, is. 6d. ; Bonrton 00 the Water, Cherriastoo, Chmth looonb^ Gntt Btaiiv- 



loll, Hiin]wkkt% lltLn^fii It], Vt>. incli; llMrhtcy. ]t. t:tl; Ucuiuh. Uutc llUi*iu;:tuu, 1^. t:.iJLt-ii; Ktii- 
Ghiukuraptori, U. 0</. ; I'l-ljwortU, tIcKtmai'ton, S<jvDiilmiijptiiii, Westcote, Wyck KLMingtuD* 1*. e«di, 
Heref6rdflhlT« : 3L 12, XVIL 8. 12, XXI. 0, u, u, ^IVIL 3, XXXV. 6, 3i. wich, Lincolii- 
shire : V. it, u. ; V. 16» lu, VL 0, XVJIl. 3. m, u, ie» XXXVI. 2. 3, fi, ft, io» XLV. 10, Llll. 6, 
j«. 11. LXIK 1, ^jf. eftch. MontRomervBbire : VIU. 1, 2, 3. 4. a, 6, 7, 9, io» 11, 13. H, 16. itJ, 

xni. 11, 12, xjv. 1. s, u. xxm. a, xxxiV. la, le. xxxv. e, xli. 3, 12, 15, le, 31. pjicii; XLVii. 

4, 5f, ; XLVIL «♦ 14, a*, each. Norfolk: 1. 13, 3*.; VL I, 3, U. cvch; VI, 4, fl, 6, 7. 8, 10. U. 3i. 
Mcb : VI. V\. 4«.i Vr. 14, 15, 16, Vll. 1, a, 5, 6, 3», eacli ; X. 1, 4*,; X. 2, 6, 6, 9, 3*. i-acii; X. 13,4*. ; 
X. 14, 3j. ; XL 1 anJ 5 on one eibeet, fiji. ; XI. 6. 7, P. 10, ll, 5».; XI. 12, 14* 15, 10, XO. 9 a«*l 13 on 
«iuesli(>et, a*.s XVII, lu, 4*. Are* Bookis: AlderToitl, Bri*ley, Bcirlinjfbutn St. Peter, H»>rnijifl;to(l, 
IJmppnl^nc, Litcbium, Ef?(?dLiuu, SparljAm, Swanlngton, 'TbelveUm, Ti)arp« Abboia, TlbeBlimiu, 
Tlttleftbiill, Tivet&bK^ll, Wiwtoi. WhbwnwLt, WiiifjinlilnR ; ix. wch. Northampton: III. i«, 
IX, 6, XXXIX. 4, a, XLV. 2, 13, 3*. ej*ch. Area Houkj: Jiiltun. Sulgruv^ VVliUtwi; U. each. 
Somersetshire: LXIL i, s*, j LXIl. 4, 4*. ; LXII, 6. 5*.; LXII. 7, 4*,; LXII. ii, 12, 3t. ea. U ; 
l.XJI. 1:1, 4ji,| LXII. 1(5, LXllI. 11, 12* 14. 3*. eicb. AreftBuolcj!: Ikirrow Guniev, Cofnpiuu IluinK 
Norton Mftlrtward; 1*. ejicb. StaffonUhlre : LXtL 13, 6t. ed.; LXVIJ. 1, 3<. Suffolk: 
L3£XL m. LXX1X» 4, 8, 4f. CAcb; LXXIK, 1«. 3«. Area Books; tombs, Elmfleit, Elmiwtll. I^'ritu-n. 
Ore4i AfthacitI, HeiTin^eet>U*Trinfr«welLWGolnIt; 1«. euch. Warwickshire: XXXIS. Si. Ki. 
XLIIL 1, B, 7, 10, 13, 3*. tadj; XLIIL H, -*«.; XLV. 2,3f.; XLV, fi. 4*. 1 LI. 1. 2, 6, B^ 1.1, 14, LJl. 
10. LIV. 16, ai. each. Wiltshire: XXVIH. 1, 2, 34. each; XXXIL 4. 4».; XXXVL !i fi. 9. 
XXXVJII. 3, 10, 12, 16. XL. 1, 3#. each; XL. 8, 14, 4*, each; XLI. 1. 2, 3#. Pincb ; XLL 4, 4r ; XLI. 
R, 7, 8, 10, 13, 15, XLll 2, «. 14, XLVL 3, 4, 6, 8, 7, H, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, Ifi, LIIL L5.«.'. 10, IL 1<1. '5^. 

nuch. Woroeatershtre : XXllL 3. 4, 3ju e^ich ; XXVIIL 11, 4*, j XXXVL 13. XL 10. XL^ , 1. 

1 3, 3*. PAcb. Area Buokj 1 Birtnawrton, Gre*t and little HainpUm j U, eadi. 

Town Plana — lO-feetwale: — 

KMfiiJkKD AND Wxlka: AUTTetwItb, VI. Q, s. 12 and 13, 14, IS, 19, 12, 23, 24 { VL13. 3, 4, 8; 2r. 
Bach. Bradford-on-Avon. XXXIL 14. 13, U. Ifl; 2*. each. Trowbridge. XXXVIIL 7* ft. 9, 10. 1 ». 

14. IG, 1«, 19, JO, 2J, 24,26 ; XXX VilL 8. fi, U ; XXX VIU. 11* 3, 4, 51 31. «ftcb, Wchi Hmmwlcli, 
J JtVlll. 14, X 4p lu i LXVUL 15* 1. 6 ; 2i. each. 

(^Btayi/ord, J[ietiL) 


Asien*— "tJebersichts-Karto der etlmographijscljen Terhaltnisse von , und voa 

(leu angrenzeoden Tlieikn Euroim's. Bearbeitet auf Grand lage von Fr. Mullefs 
AUgemeiner Etlinographie und herausgegebon mit Uoterstiitzung der kaiseiiicken 
Akademie der Wi«seiischaften in Wien von Vinzenz v. HaardL Aiisgefuhrt im 
j/eograpliiiclieii Institute v. Bd, Hiilzel in Wien. Scale 1:8,000,000 or 109".^* 
geographical railea to an inch. Wien, 1887. Im Selbst-Verlnge des Verfassersi. 
Fiir den Buchbandcl in Commission bei Ed, Holzel in Wieii, 6 sheets. Price 
1/,105. (Sianford.) 

Tills impoftant map exhibits the distribution of the varioun races of men 
iDhabiting the oontineni of Asia and Western Europe, The difficulty which 
invariably presents itself when it is desired to illustrate graphically tlie 
details of any large subject^ in consequence of the number ol' shades of colour 
which have to be employed, has been overcome in tho present instance by the 
judicious system adopted by the author, which b as follows;— Each different 
shade represents some great division of the human race, the subdivisions uf 
which are indicated by numerals placed on the colours used for the w^hole race. 
Ill all cases where the same tint extends over any krge area the name of the 
jjcople is given in addition to the colour. Altogether the arrangtment appears 
lo be good, and enables any one, with the aid of the very clear explanations 
t^iven wilh the index, to see what special race of men inhabits any particular 
district contained within the limits of the map. Tlie author informs us in the 
titie that this map is based on Fr, Muller s * Allgemeiuer Ethnographie,* aLd 
great credit is duo to Ilerr Vinzenz v. Haardt for the admirable manner in 
which he has placed before the student the information contained in that work. 
Tho scale is sufiiciently large to admit of a fair umoiint of detail j it is well 
executed, and cannot fail to be of valuo to all who may be interested in ethno- 
!ogi«il 8 todies* 

Indian Government Surveys:— 

Indian Atlas, 4 miles to an inch. Qunrter Sheets : 32 N.W, Parts of Bick- 
aneer Native State (Kajputana Agency). 3D S.W, Parts of Districts AhmetU 
11 agar, Kolaba, Poona, Satara, and of Bhor Native State (Bomkiy Presidency). 
40 N.E. Parts of Districts Sholapur, Kaladgi, Satara, Kolhapur and Poona 
(Bombay Presidency), and Paranda Circar (Niauim's Dominions). 07 K.E, Parts 
of Bareilly, KumauD, Tarai and rilibhit (N,W. Provinces), and Nepal (Native 

NEW MAPS. 267 

State). — India, 1883, 80 miles io an inch. 2 sheets. — ^Trigonometrical Branch, 
Survey of India. EiLthidwar, 1 mile to an inch. Sheet No. 6 (2nd edition). 
Seasons 1863-64, 1867-68. Parts of Gohelvdd and Ahmedahad. No. 7 (2nd 
edition). Seasons 1863-64-66-67 and 1867-68. Part of Gohelvdd. No. 12 
(2nd edition). Season 1868-9. Part of Jhilivdd. No. 15 (2nd edition). 
Seasons 1866-67 and 1867-68. Parts of Gohelv^ and N. Kathiawar. No. 16 
(2nd edition). Seasons 1866-67 and 1868-69. Parts of Kdthidwar, Gohelvad, 
and Undsarvaiya. No. 26 (2nd edition). Seasons 1870-71. Parts of Kdthidwdr, 
and Gohelvdd. N6. 27 (2nd edition). Seasons 1870-71. Parts of Edthidwar 
and Gohelvdd. No. 28 (2nd edition). Seasons 1870-71. Parte of Sorath, 
Kathidwdr, Gohelvdd, and Bdbridvdd. No. 32 (2nd edition). Seasons 1873-74. 
Parte of Halar and Machhu-Kdnta. No. 33 (2nd edition). Seasons 1873-74. 
Parte of Hdldr, Machhu-Ednta, and Jhdldvdd. No. 43. Seasons 1874-75. Part 
of Hdldr. No. 52 (2nd edition). Season 1878-79. Part of Hdldr. No. 53 (2nd 
edition). Seasons 1878-79. Part of Hdldr. — ^Trigonometrical Branch, Survey of 
India. Sheet No. 15 of Gujardt (2nd edition). Scale 1 inch to a mile. City 
of Surat, with portions of ite CoUectorate, and parts of the Baroda and Sachin 
States. Seasons 1876-77. — Gujardt Survey, 1 mile to an inch. Seasons 1883-84 
and 1884-85. Sheet No. 184. Parte of the Baroda State, and of the Rewa 
Eantha Agency. — Oudh Revenue Survey, 1 mile to an inch. Seasons 1860 to 65. 
Sheete No. 136. Districte Lucknow, Unao, Bae Bareli, and Bara BankL No. 150. 
Districte Barabanki, Fyzahad, Sultanpur, and Kae Bareli. No. 164. Districts 
Sultenpur and Fyzabad. — Punjab Survey, 1 inch to a mile. Seasons 1853 to SG. 
Sheete Nos. 147, 148, 149, 150, 170, 171, 172. 173, 175, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 
2ll, 212. District Montgomery. Sheet No. 251. Districte JuUundur and 
Ludhiana, and Eapurthala Stete. Season 1884-85. — Bengal Survey, 1 inch to a 
mile. Seasons 1857 to 69. Sheete Nos. 295, 296, 316, 317, 318, 337. District 
Jalpaiguri. — ^Mysore Topographical Survey, 1 inch to a mile. Season 1883-84. 
Sheete Nos. 60 and 61. Parte of Districte Bangalore and Mysore. District Eoliat. 
1880-81-82-83. Scale 4 miles to an inch.— District Lohardugga, Chote Na;;- 
poor, 4 miles to an inch. 1874. 4 sheets. {Stanfordy Agent,) 


Qaeendand. — ^Map of , illustrating ite Mineral and other Productive Capa- 
bilities. Scale 1 : 3,504,000 or 48 geographical miles to an inch. Printed and 
Published at the Surveyor-Greneral's Office, Brisbane, 1886. 

Smnatra* — Kaart van het Eiland en den Riouw-Archipel. Scale 1 : 1,500,000 

or 20*4 geographical miles to an inch. Zamengesteld door W. J. Havenga 
voormalig Chef van den Topographischen dienst in Nederlandsch-Indie, 1886. 
G. Eolff en Co., Batovia ; Institut National de Gdographie, Bruxelles. (Dulau,) 
• This is a beautifully executed map, on which the topography of the island 
of Sumatra is very clearly shown, and all details, such as means of communica- 
tion by land and sea, are laid down. The towns and villages are distinguished, 
according to their importence, by symbols, and the boundaries of the several 
R^idencies are given. The map is a fine specimen of cartography, but it 
would have been better if the coast-line had been marked in a more decided 

Tarawera Volcano, Hew Zealand.— Plan of the Seat of Eruption, 10th June, 
1886. Scale 80 chains to an inch, Surveyor-General's Office, Wellington, 188(J. 

208 ^^^^ KEW MAPS. 


Bacon, 0- W,, F.E.G.S.— New Completo Atkaof the Worlds containing atl Ihel 
latest GeograpWcal Disooveriea tlironghout the various Countries of tho World,] 
with General Deccriptioo, Alpliabetical Index, and Gazetteer of 1000 principal | 
towns. London : edited and publislied by George Bacon, f.b.o^s. Price 2L 15«. 

This Atlas is for the most part composed of the maj^s of the " DispatcliJ 
Atlas/* which was published about thirty years aga Attccnpta have been madal 
to correct these and bring them up to date, but an experienced eye will at oncaj 
detect many errors and omissions. The most accurate portion of the Atlas i 
the manner in which the railroada have been bid down, but even in this respect J 
there are serious errors, as for instanco in the case of ranps 101 and 102, on onoT 
of which the Northern Pacific Bail way, which has been working thniuj^jh fori 
some years, is said to be a proposed line, and on the other the Canadian P^icifiaj 
Raiiway is shown aa incomplete. The topography is very poorly shown and" 
contains numerous mistakes, some of the geography laid down being that 
l^iven in the original mafjs, eadii biting tho state of our knowledge thirty years 

BergliailS' Physikaliacher Atlaa (begriindet 1836 von Heinrlch Berghaus),! 
75 Kartcn in sieben Abteilungen, en thai tend mehrerc hundert Darstellungeal 
liber Geologie, Hydrographie, Meteorologic, Erdmagnetisraus, Pflanzenverbrettung, ' 
Tiervcrbreitimg nnd Volkerknnde. VoUstandig neu bearbeitet nnd untcr 
Mitwirknng von Dr. Oscar Drnde, Dr. Georg Gerland, Dr. Julius Hann, Dr. G, i 
Hartlaubj Dr, W. Marshall, Dr. Georg Neumayer, nnd Dr. Karl v. Zittel, herau»-l 
gegcbeo von Professor Dr. Ocrmann Berghans. Achtc Lieferung, Inhalt: Nr. 30, 
Isotbermen von Eurupa, Nr, -10, Flurenkarto von Afrika nnd Auatralien. 
Nr. 57, Amphibien und Fischc. Qotha, Justua Perthea, 1887- Price 3i. each 
part. (Bidau.) 

British Empire. — The Colonial and Indian Atlas of the . W* & A. K, 

Johnston, Edinburgh and London, 1887. Price 5s. 

This atlas consists of twenty-nine shceti of mapa, fiooe of which ara far 
superior to any that have been prtxiuccd in the cheaper claas of English atlases, of 
which so many have been published during the past and present year. The eight 
maps of the Indian Empire arc specially worthy of notice, and appear to have 
been taken from the Royal Atlas. The maps of Canada and Australia are alao 
good, evident care having l>een taken to use the beat and most recent materiala 
in their construction ; th*.^ Kimc remark applies to the smaller and inset mapA, 
Though not i>art of the British Empire, the wellH^xocuted plan of the SnezOinal 
which is given, is a very useful addition to the Indian and Colonial maps which 
this class of atlas usually contain. As the expense of mounting full-page 
maps on guards would have considerably added to the cost of production, and 
consequently have raised the price, a system of dividing the nrnps by a blank 
inargiii in the centre has been adopted, by which m^ns the whole of the map 
is open lo view instead of being hidden in the oentrCj as it would be if this 
precaution had not been taken* 

PalestiB€. — Pictorial Map of Palestiue, giving a birdVeye view of the Holy Land, 
and showing the jieculiar features of tho country, Jordan valley, the Ravines and 
Towns. Important events indicated by distinctive marks. By Frances H» Wood, 
Size 68 inches by 34 inches. Mounted on linen and varnished, with roller and 
Handbook, Price 9«. dd. To be obtained ^ post free, from tlie author, Beckenham, 

This would more proj)erly have been called a picttire than a map. It is 
very misleading as regards vertical scale, and though it might convey to the 
mind of a child some general notion of the positions of places* of interest, it 
would at the aame time give very false ideas aa to the magnitude of the area 
embraced, and suffacc conditions of the country. It may also be remarked 
that the lettering is very indistinct. 

■ ^ . i -*r 





Tlie Alpine Begions of Alaska. 
By Lieut. H. W. Seton-Karr. 

(Bead at the Evening Meeting, March 14th, 1887.) 
Map, p. 330. 

Alaska, or the north-west comer of North America, was bonght from 
Bnssia by the United States twenty years ago. It is bordered on the 
east by British territory, and extends from 55° north latitude far into 
the Arctic Zone and offers one of the best regions for the study of the 
formation, movements, and extent of glaciers, especially that part of it 
which we visited and explored for the first time. 

Having left England lasit April for the purpose of visiting these 
alpine regions, I found on reaching Victoria another expedition bound 
for the same spot, namely. Mount Saint Elias, and was allowed to join the 
party. It was equipped by the Neio York Times, and consisted of Lieut. 
F. Schwatka and Professor Libbey, jun., of Princeton College, N.Y. 

On the conclusion of this expedition, I went on alone to the north 
and west, instead of returning by the United States man-of-war which 
came back for us in September; and I found that the glaciers were 
quite as extensive on the west of Mount St. Elias as they are on the 
east of it, while one of immense extent, near Cape Suckling, was named 
the Great Bering Glacier, this being the portion of America which that 
explorer first sighted. 

Having now returned from my six months' exploration, and as the first 
traveller in the footsteps of Cook to make a complete circuit of this coast 
from St. Elias to Prince William Sound and thence to the westward, my 
impressions have been, that the St. Elias alpine region offers one of the 
best places for the study of glacial phenomena under the most powerful 
conditions. The air is warmed and charged with vapours by the Pacific 
currents, including the Kuro Siwo or so-called Japan current. It is 
suddenly confronted by a vast range of mountains rising directly from 
the ocean's edge. The result is a snowfall unusually heavy, and the 

No. v.— I^Lly 1887.] x 2 


thickest and moat extensive glaciers after those of Greenland or the 
Arctic regions. 

Along the whole of this difficult coast, bordered aa it is by a 
gigantic wall of icy mountains facing the sea and rising abruptly 
from its brink, from the end of the Inland Passage at Cape Spencer as 
far as Prince William Sound, there are only two spots where any shelter 
exists with a safe landing-place all the year ronnrl^ — ^namely Yakatat 
Tillage and Kaiak. But at seYen other points the Indians can land 
during the fine summer months, namely, at Lituja Bay, at Dry Bay, at 
the river near it, at the head of Yakatat Bay, at Icy Bay, at Cape Yagtag, 
and at a reef near Icy Cape, 

None of the old navigators saw the true character of tbo flat broad 
plains which border this coast. To the east of Yakatat Bay, and to the 
east of Icy Bay, there exist small areaa of flat land which are covered 
with a forest of spruce and cedar. But every other plain or flat expanse 
conaists of ice, and is covered with stones and moraines. In other words, 
the country that intervenes between the range of the St. Elias Alps 
and the sea (from Cross Sound to the Copper river) with the exceptions 
I have mentioned, consists entirely and exclusively of glaciers and 
nothing else. The terminal moraines of these glaciers are so gigantic 
and extensive that the ice itself lies huiied under millions of tons and 
hundreds of iMjuare miles of loose rocks and atones which it has carried 
down with it from the mountains in its slow and gradual advance. 
Large aa are these moraines the bare ice is correspondingly immense in 
its extent. What we named the Great Agassiz Glacier is probably about 
600 square miles in extent, and ita momines between one and two 
hundred ; and what wo named the Great Gnyot Glacier, on the west 
of it, is of quite unknown extent. Where it projects into the sea the 
ice cliff*e are 300 feet high. This forms Icy Ciipe. We saw no icebergs 
here, probably because the current carries to the westward the masses 
that fall off into the sea. 

Vancouver described tho coast between Yakatat Bay and Icy Bay as 
" a barren country composed of loose stones,** No one could have guessed, 
without landing, that all these loose stones were the moraines of the 
glaciers which lay beneath them. But when we landed at Icy Bay and 
inspected ihe so called barren country, it was seen that below tho stones 
and rocks there lay solid ice riinging from three or four hundred feet in 
thickucsa in some placca to six or seven hundred feet in other places. 
These moraines or accumulations of imbble and stones upon the surface 
of the ice at Icy Bay change and move with the ice so slowly, that parts 
are covered with brush and thicket of great density— so dense that it 
cost us many hours of labour to cross a mile of it. 

La Ptirouse, too, like all the navigators who have sailed along this 
coast, mistook the true nature of what he saw. Ho thought tho ice, 
where it protruded from under the stones, was snow lying upon the 


ground. He wrote that *' masses of snow covered a barren soil unem- 
bellished by a single tree ; this plain, black as if burned by fire, was 
totally destitute of verdure." 

Forty miles W.N.W. from Cape Phipps lies Capo Sitkagi, which is 
the Pointe de la Boussole of La P6rouse. Vancouver's Cape Bion, about 
15 miles N.W. by W. of it, is the Low Cape of Tebenkoff. 

Icy Bay is merely a shallow crescent in the coast-line, though 
Tebenkoff marks 12 and 15 fathoms, and 5 fathoms at the head at a 
point on the chart which is now many miles from the sea, and consists 
of the gravelly and partially dry estuary of the river. 

Mount St Elias (according to Prof. Davidson's * Coast Pilot of 
Alaska ') lies in lat. 60° 22' 6", and long. 140° 54'. Dall, the American 
surveyor, makes it 19,500 feet high ; the Admiralty chart, 14,975 feet ; 
the Bussian chart, 17,854 feet; Grewink, 16,754 feet; and D*Agelet, 
12,672 feet. It is thus one of the few mountains whose height 
exceeds the first estimations. It is said to have been in eruption in 
1837 and 1847. If this be true, the eruption could hardly have 
issued from the summit, which is a sharp rocky peak, but rather 
finom what much resembles an old crater on its south-east base, and 
which the maze of crevasses on the glacier prevented our approaching ; 
but we found no traces of volcanic action. In the Beport of the U.S. 
Coast Survey Mr. Ball says, ** After a thorough search I have been able 
to find no trustworthy account of any eruption." St. Elias is, I believe, 
the Bussian patron saint of thunder, which, strangely enough, is very 
rarely heard in the neighbourhood of Mount St. Elias. The massiveness 
of the peak made it appear to me not to be higher than 15,000 feet. 
The breadth of its form and the high mountains behind it have perhaps 
been the cause of its height having been underestimated* St. Elias has 
thus undergone promotion. Mount Hood, in Oregon, has suffered from 
treatment the very contrary, because it stands alone. It was originally, 
by a *^ rough " estimate, 17,000 feet high (I quote from an article in The 
Tme$y A ^^ close" estimate made it 16,000 feet. Some measurements 
by angles dropped it to 14,500 feet, and a triangulation to 13,000. The 
first aneroid taken up was said to have made it 12,000 feet, and after- 
wards a mercurial barometer brought it out 11,225 feet; so that if 
these reducing processes go on. Mount Hood may, in the words of a 
j^oneer of that r^ion, ** finally become a hole in the ground." 

The scene or view of the St. Elias range from Takatat is one of the 
most wonderful in the world. Mount St. Elias, hitherto considered the 
liigliaat mountain in North America, stands upon the ocean's edge, from 
which it rises sheer to 20,000 feet — a mass of snow and ice from base to 
summit — the longest snow-climb in the world short of the Antarctic 
r^pons. Its summit has always been marked in modem maps (though not 
in that of Tebenkoff^ which has formed the basis of all these maps) as 
exactly on the 141st meridian, which is the boundary line, as thou|^ two 



jmtions were chary of claiming a summit which belongs to one of them ; 
and what is more curious still, ae exactly 10 leagues from the nhore. This 
was the extreme limit to which the narrow etrip of coast called South- 
east Alaska could extend inland. If the summit of the watershed came 
witliin that distance, the Ixiundary was to follow that. If the shore-line 
has been correctly charted, I found that the summit was east of the 
meridian of longitude just mentioned. It was also more than ten 
leagues from the shore-line of Icy Bay. Mount St, Elias is therefore in 
the British Empire, It is to be supposed, as a San Franciscan officer 
remarked to me, that war will not ensue with reference to this question. 

Vancouver (July 1704) writes : ** At eight in the evening, Mount St. 
Elias bore by compass N. 73^^ W., and Mount Fairweather, N, 10'' K 
The length of time we had been in sight of these very remarkable lofty 
monntains afforded ns man}^ observations for ascertaining their situation, 
whence the former appeared to be in latitude 60^ 22i', longitude 
219^ 21'. Until past eleven at night. Mount St, Elias was yet within our 
visible horizon, appearing like a lofty mountain ; although at this time 
it was at a distance of one hondred and fifty geographical miles.'^ This 
IB in longitude 140° 39' W. from Greenwich, and more than thirty 
miles from the sea. We left Sitka on July lOtb, in the U,S. man-of*war 
P/tifa, for the Indian village in Yakatat Bay. We reached it on the 
12th. There is a small landlocked harbour here ; five Indian houses 
form the village. After waiting here for four days, trying to hire a 
large canoe, the vessel took us to the foot of St. Elias. Besides two 
white men and an Indian interpreter we had hired from Sitka, three 
Indians were brought from Yakatat, making a total of nine persons. ■ 

Wo were landed on July 17th, at Icy Bay, But not without 
difficulty, for the snrf on this coast is heavy and constant. On the 
beach were an immense numl>er of bear tracks ; one of our men, who 
stayed at the base camp, killed three of these animals, while we saw 
another in the very heart of the ioy region. A number of immense 
torrents reach the sea all along this coast. There are at least three 
between Point Riou and Point Sitkagi. So large is the body of fresh 
water brought from the glaciers by these torrents, that the sea is 
fresh on the surface and fit for drinking more than a mile from 
shore, notwithstanding the constant and strong current which sets from 
the eastward. Bat the extent of the glaciers, whose melting produces 
all this fresh water, is also immense. From the highest point attained 
in our ascent of St. Elias, nothing could be seen in thedietatice but plains 
of ice, much more extensive than I had ever seen before. The largest of 
these rivers issues from under the ice which has bridged it over, ov buiied 
it, just at the meeting of the Guyot and Agassis Glaciers. It was called 
the Jones river; and up this river wo had to mako our way on the 
19th of July. This river spread out into a fan*like delta, the apex of 
which was near what looked like a green wooded hill, which had 



a curiously aneven outline like the teeth of a saw. Meanwhile, we woro 
almoet constantly wading in ice-cold water, and some quickHuiidH had to 
be crossed, than which there is, I suppose, no sensation more unpleasant. 
It seemed as though an elastic crust of glacier mud were floating on a 
liquid mass below, and might break and let one in at any moment. 
But when at last this occurred to one of us, he sank, Uj our n;lief, 
no farther that his middle, saying he had struck bed-rock, or more 
probably the bed of the stream. About five in the afternoon we were 
near enough to the green hill (as we had thought it to be^ to discorer 
that it was nothing more nor less than a very large glacier, which we 
named, as I have said, the Agassiz Glacier, its front part being quite 
buried under enormous quantities of moraine, and overgrown with birch 
and willow. Large streams welled up from between the rocks at itJi frx/t« 
one of which we named the Fee Uiver. This huge moraine must be fnus 
of the most extraordinary in the world. A great thickness of ice lies 
buried underneath it. It is now advancing faster than it can melt 
away, for the forest is being gradually swept down before it. 

After waiting for two days in order to bring up more supplies, we 
started onee more, and afier penetrating for a mile through the thick 
bmahwood on the moraine, we found that Tegetati/jn ceased alt/igether^ 
leaTing nothing but hillocks of stones heaped together cm the ice, and 
more or leas oompacted by a;^e. 

The moniBes of the Great Agassiy Glacier were mostly composed of 
gnnite, and those of the Great Gnyot Glacier <d *Lae. A wid6 depression 
in the glacier marks their line of pmctir/iL, nnder which« nnmp^ai and 
unheard, &ws the great r.ver. 

A% dnik we were OTorsght to a standsiill >>y a large lake fX0renA with 
i cabcrg a , wiu^ we nam&l after the Presi'iebt of the Italian Geo^p'Sk- 
phicni Sociecy tCasf mi/, Bey-Ad h lay a nn^e ^A iJii^ whifii we suuned 
the ClMix HiHa, after the veneiabLe dwiia profta^/r of girigrafphy^ At 
this point, one ai tfie party g»^ti&;^ knt detaintd im if/r two days. This 
wns caap r.mrJf^r Hirt^ Prr>fs29tt.>r Libcey ikad thoa;paa tics iar^e lake 
conid <»kT Ift pHsed t,j viz be^in^ to the east. I f^jmiAanA iith weat 
b> he the uaei wisj. We botii tiierifore le^ ont in opf^ucte dir>i^rt>.i«ji t// 
Bnke tpss^ Tut ^z^/jba/^r^ as I bare saiL wm lad^xmsjMkj ^Ciseft.t l>r 
two ^Tft witLom btix^ a^«u& v^ isiA a f r^tkahie r^ite. ISnx iai0saa:tM^. 
I hnd iioaii a wvy '^c ^> tai*: « Jlaix fiilk. TiJt way aj aer^isa a ffkteh 
cc finaiFr wofi^ saxner.^ecilj aKaaae ac. ittadvi, Mt wsift& wimc I £/»t 
iiMBii ii was ace ao. jt^iSksA a: a. L •>& <»i& tiie i: waa 'v«f:>t9i^ c^ t&^ 
ke-<afii ^ lae z^itdifs^ soaI ^jSi^SLt^ Mouxr^a^^ u!iC w€f»L ii aiui t^ C&asx 
fiui* cic a ar:aii ^iik^ :c £::a.7-ii. ^i£<e ta^ itaoLp Mi c^ a 'jxn» rrr^x. or liikie 
}flrt «if tje ir.c^ ju. '.^ liLft jaict;. "lixj!: 'w:^uiz% \t mzcjx. ift^Au»ii to id(7^ mJk 
aescw -aiicr tiiauil Iti-r^L L«sa -Ui*a tw*tLt7-i-,n3 oi-^crs la6*r taos n-Ter- 
3«ii — dsr flbiiL ri wm — isni «?T*E»ft =.7 3', i*^ ',*f aii^ity vai«sv nwuji^r 
e fC4!efL ^ jsMujli! ^ wiszk 5: aotfier]^ smi cdmsl A kry; 



cham of lakes hai been dammed up and had Immt loose again. Tlie fires 
we had made along ita banks to guide the lust one hack to camp had 
set the email forest ablaze* 

The ice was j^radually advancing, and the pin© trees were in process 
of being mowed down by the advancing glacier and ground up into 
Kiere heaps of matchwood. Three destmctive agenciee were tbns at 
work at the same time within a yard or two of each other — fire, water, 
and ice. This breaking loose of the river accounted for the marks of 
sudden risings and fallings in the water-level on the distant flat-land of 
ley Bay, whei-e the vast mud-flats were always damp^ as if from 
periodical inundations. 

Our Doxt dny'a march took us right to the base of Mount St. Elias, up 
a great glacier descending from the face of tbe moontainj which we named 
the Tyndall Glacier. The mocdsains of our lodians were now for the 
geoond time worn out. But in any case they would have refused from 
superstitious fear to proceed with us any farther. 

At half- past four next morning, we left our fifth and last camp 
for the final ascent. The party then consisted of LieuL Frederick 
Schwatka, Joseph Woods (one of our two hired men) and myself. As 
the only one with any alpine experience, I tied Mr, Schwatka in the 
centre of the rope, and Woods and myself at the ends. As we 
jipproached the great bend and ioe-fall of the Tyndall Glacier, the 
crevasses became oovered with fresh snow. Mr, Schwatka*s great 
weight-=eighteen stone — would bave made it very difficult for us had 
any of the snow bridges over the crevasses given way, and as it drew on 
towards midday these became quite soft. 

We were now aiming for one of the bare rocky ridges wliich descend 
direct from the upper snow-fields. We soon found wo were wasting 
much valuable time in trjdng to thread the labyrinth of crevasses 
without advancing at all nearer to the peak itself, which now was 
clouding over. Only one day s provisions remained. This was hardly 
enough even for an immediate return. We now felt the consequences 
of our delay of two days during the loss of Prof. Libbey. If the snow 
over any of the fissures had given way under Mr. Schwatka, we might 
have had very gre^t difficulty in raising him to the surface again. 
With a couple of Swiss guides, and a whole fortnight, or even a week, 
at one's disposal, a great height would have been attained, if not the 
oon(|Uest of the actual summit. The state of the weather, and the time 
thai would be wasted in passing the icefall, compelled us at last 
to attack the rocky ridges of the west spur, which seemed to present no 
difficulties which we could not overcome. Mr. Schwatka was unable, 
through illness, to ascend beyond a certain point, but I continued the 
ascent up a steep arete. 

At a height of 6500 feet I could see the country to the north-west 
and south-east. It consisted entirely of plains of ice. Above the height 


of 6900 feet I was in the donds, and tlierefere saw nothing. It was 
only obrkyos that the summit of the ridge was reached hy the fact that 
the ground in front commeneed to fall awav to the westward. 

It was now afaont six in the erening, and I was alrjne upon the 
summit of the western ridge or spur of Hoont St. Elias. 

As shown hy aneroid, the altitode was 14d0 feet abore where I had 
left Mr. Schwatka, who had retained one of the two large mercurial 
Dtain faaraneters. Pnxfeasor Libbej was meanwhile making simnl- 
( oliservmtioiis below at oar fourth camp, with the secxmd of these 
large instruments. The readings were afterwards connected with those 
at the base camp at lej Baj, and gare for the point I had reached a 
total hei^t of 7200 feet abore the sea-lereL To tnrene the ridge 
itself towards the main peak was impracticable. The onljr thing thai 
remained was to retrace one's steps and rejoin the other two who were 
waiting befew. It was claimed in Xew York papers that this was the 
highft dimb above the snow-lerel hitherto recorded. AimI where is the 
fliow4evel oo Mount St. Eilas t If the snow-line is defined as the Hani 
downwards of the region of perpetnal snow — in other wc«ds^ as the 
he^t abore the se^-lerd below which all the snow that fells ammally 
melts dnring snmmer — ^then we were of opimon that the snow-line on 
thesoathmdeof St. Elias is obIt 400 feet abore the se»-leTeL Itrsonlj 
€B the coast that there exists sach a hcarj snowfelL The sMith-east 
winds are the rain-winds^ Here the moistare thej bear is 
and precipitated fer the first tiaae. Farther inland the hsmiditj ] 
be less. 

It woajd pn>faaUT be below iLt mark to nimf two thriasind fear 
handr ed i^iiuOj •jaare miles as the area of the fiat glacaezs whidi boaibl 
the nnaar between Croas Soand and the CopfKr rirer, < n law re of tha 
^Mwrfiflis id the mage, or the inland giariffm. 

I wvaid dastzibate this area as kmkmm : — 7'» iqaare aulea butatta 
Cross Soasd azhd Yakatat, 7-» theaee to St. £uai» aad lOW bt t amm 
St. £2ias and the Copper rrrer. 

At maaigai <m tAe »xk Jahr w^ tried to leare 1st Baj to recarm 
to Yakataz xa oar wulfr-boat, wxath utlcakged to ik^ Pa^m^ Bat the 
caif was too hesTj. aikd we were awaaiped at mtdr^igrri. The da ikataa 
cf the xigxit asbd tiie €T.nhnaiTig fridwai of Vbfc water <4f Ifj Baj ^Mtfi 

The feik^wz&g engirt or mhrr at eariy dawx oii ikjk !«: of Aagaal, 
■ L am ■ii M iiaa f i l jit Making gar vmruyt firjm Ivj Baj, tMagii at ihe etat 
cf ahsEndosiiig Tuemt <£ tiie hsig^fe^ We atsLi xi«e litcann tmoL fer 
tMse -"'^ laser ca. Tic^ sarrmrnifiT iii tmtj^j^z i^i'saoL awax in mrrtfa 
^B- — r'''"**f vjoitt weekft ijr iii!: aaif to aalandp 

The vjm wiik& laifl uea k£i wixii as vr tiie U^ msai-<iif-«ac^ aias 
la w^aj isfiirT tii& 'jms^ woA itssmrj fur idxxe subl l> C2a^ wigtm JX 

WitttfiEX aadae dtttsj- is wxaud ittve hfc& 



impossible to procure a large caucxj from the Yakatat Indiana^ and 
althoui^iL we waited for several days in hope of doing so, the result 
only served to strengthen the impression we bad formed of this tribe, 
and to emphasisG the oft-repeated advice, that a sporting or exploring 
party should have the ability to render themselvcB independent of 
their assistance. 

It should be mentioned that we found Icy Baj^ a shallow iodentation 
in the coast-line, quite xm deserving in every way the name of a bay, and 
with nu protection even in the mildest weather from the long curling 
breakers that sweep in from the wide racific. It was almost tho only 
thing which the natives had told tho truth about ; though from their 
evident desire to exaggerate eveiy obstacle we had not i)laoed much 
faith in their representations. 

The man-of-war returned, as promised, early in September. Mean- 
while, a Hmall trading schooner had called, belonging to four Swedes 
who had settled on Xaiak Mand for the purpose of hunting sea-otters. 
There are many places^ especially near the Aleutian Islands^ where 
Scandinavian hunters have made a temporary abmle. They form the 
finest race of settlers that can anywhere be found. 

I left the expedition at Yakatat, and on the 9th of August, I 
started on a journey to the north and west in this small schooner U) 
Kaiak Island, and from thence in a canoe by the Copper river to Prince 
AVilliam ijound. When I left Yakatat and Bailed westward I had thought 
that Icy Cape was the last great glacier which reached the sea from the 
8t, Elias Alps* But 1 found that a plain of ice as large or larger than 
the Agassiz Glacier exists to the eastward of Cap© Suckling, which I 
named Great Bering Glacier- 
After sta3'ing with these hospitable Swedes on Kaiak Island, I went 
on in a large Cduoe, accompanied by two of the Swedes, an Indian 
medicine-man, and three Indians^ to reach Cape Martin, the east 
corner of the great estuary or delta of the Copper river* Here, just as 
at Yakatat, is an Indian village, where a strong spirit is distilled from 
sugar. The whole village was drunk, and tho inhabitants veiy rude 
and boisterous. After a considerable delay we sncoeeded in getting 
away from them. Wo next beached the canoe not far to the west- 
ward, and dragged it over the sandbars into the tidal lagoons of tho 
Copper river, A vaat expanse of mud was found, over which it was 
easy to drag the canoe with small fatigue. When the tide rose, recourse 
waa had to paddling. 

From our camp on the 23rd of August, 1880, on an island in the 
centre of the tidal lagoons of the Copper river estuary, a wide panorama 
was spread out before us. Northward tho eye plunges for 50 miles into 
a valley from which tho river issues. From Capo Martin, the south-east 
ptjint of the delta, to the spot w^here the hills on each side first com- 
mence to close togetlier — a distance of 20 or 25 miles — tliere stretches a 


low dark range, from 3000 to 4000 feet in height, on which I counted 
eighteen small glaciers on the summits and four large ones in the 
valleys below. This line of mountains is broken midway by a gap 
eight miles wide, which allows a glimpse of an extensive snowy range 
lying behind it. The highest peak seems at least 13,000 or 14,000 feet 
high, with six others not quite so lofty. 

The opposite or west shore of the delta of the Copper river is of 
much more remarkable formation. From the spot where the valley 
opens out, as far as the middle point of this west side, the mountains 
project out into the tidal alluvial plain. On this part I counted fifteen 
small summit glaciers and two large glaciers in the valleys, spreading 
out after the manner of Alaskan glaciers in the shape of an extended fan 
to the level of the river. But from this point westward to Cape Whitshed 
(25 miles) the shores form a deep wide bay, with hills thickly timbered 
below and devoid of glaciers above. Here are placed the two small 
Indian villages of Oodiak and Alanuk. But though, just here, there is 
no ice on the summits, there are three large valley glaciers descending 
from a group of snow-mountains lying behind ; one of these is a double 
glacier. From this point westward the mountains are not so high, 
until Cook's Inlet ia reached. 

Nuchuk is an Indian village on a large island at the entrance to that 
wonderful inlet. Prince William Sound. 

We reached Nuchuk on the 26th of August. A white trader lives 
here. It was one of the old Bussian fur-trading posts. The schooner 
was expected daily, but it was not until the end of October that she 
arrived. I had long given up all expectation of seeing any vessel until 
the spring, and was preparing for a winter's journey round Prince 
William Sound. The Sound is surrounded by moderately high moun- 
tains on the east side; few reach to 10,000 feet. Those of the Eenai 
Peninsula are lower and less bold in shape. Everywhere the north sides 
are bare. The south sides are thickly wooded to 1000 feet with spruce 
and alder. 

After crossing the Sound on the 25th October to the Indian village 
of Chenega, we left it through one of several channels which exist 
between Montague Island and the Kenai Peninsula. As we skirted the 
Eenai Peninsula I could see many glaciers reaching the sea. The 
mountains from which they descend seem to protect Cook's Inlet from 
the rain which is so prevalent in Prince William Sound. 

The summer in Cook's Inlet is one long spell of clear warm weather, 
and it has earned the name from the miners who have visited it of 
*^ Summerland." The west shore of Cook's Inlet is mountainous and 
wooded up to a height of 1000 feet. The eastern shore is flat. Canoe 
travel is very rapid in Cook's Inlet at the commencement of the flood 
tide, when the incoming water covers the sand, which apx)ears to vanish 
beneath it like a sinking stone. 



Mount llyamna (12,000 feet) and Burnt Mountain (11,200 feet) are 
both on the western side of Guok 8 Inlet, and both actLVG volcanoefi. 
AugUBtin Isiand* close by, lb ako active, and broke out a short time ago 
with great violence, covering the aea with dust, 

Ivan Petroff who made a census of most of the Indian tribes in 1879, 
and who waa sitting by my side during the fearful mnrder, at our supper 
table, by a Kussian madman, of the general agent of tho Alaska Com* 
mercial Company, is the only person who has set foot upon the aides of 
Mount Ilyamna, The fierce brown bears of Alaska are very nn merons in 
these volcanic regions : the explanation of this is to be found in the 
fact that the natives w^ill not approach any of the volcanoes. The deer 
and boar — the latter more particularly — seek these "regions instinc- 
tively, untrodden by man's foot as they are, and nntrodden as they will 
ever be by the foot of any Indian, 

John Bremner, a miner (whose simple diary I found at Nnchuk, 
recording the extraordinary events he witnessed among the Copper 
River Indians, and his life for seven months with this depraved and 
dissolute clan), found that it was impossible to persuade any one of the 
tribe to approach within several miles of Mount Wrangel, a volcano 
which rivals St. Elias in height- He however, alone, and in the dead 
of winter, made an attempt to reach its orator, when one of his snow- 
shoes breaking, he was compelled to return. The part of his diary 
referring to this daring adventure is as follows (the spelling being 
corrected) : — ** Nov. IGth, 1884. I made the attempt to get to the volcano 
(Mt. Wrangel) and failed. I got within about one mile of tho crater 
when one of my 8now*8hocs broke, and I came very near passing in my 
checks. Before I could get back to tho timber several of my toes froze, 
and my ears jou ought to see them ; they would match a government 
mulcts. 1 do not think it is possible to make the ascent in the winter, but 
1 think it w^ould be easy in the summer. I could not get any of the 
natives to go with me. They are afraid to go anywhere near it*** 
Still more is this the case on Unimak Island, where in addition to the 
feeling of reverence and horror with which Mount Shisaldin inspires 
them, the superstitious thoughts which the story of the Bussian 
massacre has left in their minds, is an additional cause of fear, and 
this large island is totally uninhabited* 

I add another extract from Lis diary i — 

" Feb. 3rd, a beautiful day, not a cloud in the sk}', I was treated to 
a sight to-day that 1 wish you could have seen ; the Volcano has been 
very quiet a good while, but to-day it i^ sending out a vast column of 
smoke and hurling immeojse stones hundreds of feet high in the air; 
the masses it is throwing up must be very large to be seen here, at least 
thirty miles in an air-line distant from the mouth of tho crater; it has 
made no loud reports, only a sort of rumbling noise. — Feb. 4lh, a little 
colder, but pleasant. Tho Yolcano has stopped throwing stones or 


making a noise but is still sending out an immense clond of smoke. 
It is Teiy beantifulf not a breath of wind, and the smoke ascends to a 
great height in an immense column before spreading out.** 

Mount PaTlov is another Tolcano near the ^end of the Alaska 
Peninsula, which broke out into eruption last August with great 
Tiolenoe, and destroyed a portion of itselfl None of these Tolcanoes 
have been examined or explored. 

The admixture of Bussian blood seems to hare prolonged the life 
of the Indian races in Prince William Sound and Cook's Inlet. Tbejr 
seemed a far finer set mentally and physically than the Takatats, who 
are pure Indians. The character of the Yakatat Indians has not 
Taried much since Ismaelof and Belcharof (1780) gave the following 
description of them: — ''They cut their beards and paint their faces 
with stripes of Tarious colours. These people hare neither laws nor 
religion. They worship, howerer, crows, from which they aflect to be 
descended. Among other objects of barter, the natires offered two boys 
about twelve years old." When we arrived, the Takatat Tni^M^nd had 
lately been tearing up their blankets, as they do each spring after a 
period of debauch. 

There remains in the alpine regions of the Xorth Pacific a wide 
field for ezpUners. Mounts Crillon, Fairweather, and La Pfonise, 
reqwctively 15,900, 15,500, and 11,300 feet high, are not quite so 
striking as St. Elias, but much nearer to civilised settlements. Probably, 
it would be easier to land at the wonderful inlet of Lituya Bay, than 
at Icy Bay, and it would certainly be easier to leave. There is no per* 
manent Inidian village here, but the natives put in to camp sometimes. 

Lituya Bay is d' ae to Mount Fairweather. The vessel of the UJS. 
Coast Surrey entered it and compared it to the Toaemite Tali^ in 
Galifioniia with the addition of ^adeiiL La Perouae entered it and 
kat a boat and its crew, throngh misfortune and ignorance, on the tnr 
at the cntnnee. Indians can land at Dry Bay, or at the month of n 
nsHMleas ixver near at hand. At this point exists the only paas kaciwn 
orer the SC Biaa Alpa— known to the Indiana, and known to tbeai 
akme. and tmv^enahle only in winter. 

Dry Bay, froaa Indian report, arast be nearly as intercnting sa 
liaya Bay. It ia neady certain that a large Ix«iian vxlla^ exMte 
wi ■liiiir in tke neighbonrhood ; and by taking a snull light csMis 
ha%«efxialdRnc&TakBtatbyBcnns of tke ames of kgmw behind 

There is a large Uask apaee upon tke saap of AJadca, lyia^ between 
Cck1:*s Iiilit aoid tke great Yukon rfver. It is aa nnknown m any ^ 
t^ nnexpasand reg>:mf «n tfte ^-^^ Indian report aroa iLat lim 
\ of vvy lofiy si^nxiaiasL and &at rrreia lead io limsm ^ 

SL mm Hmm 


ebould l>e in tlio party experieneeJ mountaineers, and it should land 
either on tho west Hitle of Yakatat Bay, or at Cape Yagtag, near Icy 
Cape, where there is said to be a reef which affords protection against 
the Burf. It Bhonld .unraber at least six persons^ bo as to l>e iiidependent 
of the Indians^ or at least not wholly dependent on them. If Yakatat , 

Indians are hired, as many of them as poBsihle should bo engaged up to 
ten ; hut if Indians are brought from Chilcat not so many will be 

The main object should be to he able to camp long enough on the | 

spot to ascertain the easiest way of ascending Mount St. Elias, by i| 

"packing" with this object enough provisions to the base (three days' 
travel) to last fur a fortnight. If the monotain is to be ascended at all, 
it will only be accomplished by experienced alpinists. 

We next touched at Kodiak, where occurred the murder, to which I 
have alluded, of the general agent of the Alaska Commercial Company. 
Wo were seated in a small room after dark at supper. As the meal was 
nearly finished a shot was fired at us from the outside through a double 
glaea window, which was smashed to atoms, filling the room with 
smoke, covering the table with fragments of broken glass, and killing 
the general agent, who was fitting by my side, besides severely 
wounding another occupant of tbo room. An insano Russian had fired 
into a crowd of unsuspecting men with a charge of buckshot I He had 
evidently aimed at the agent. 

The schooner remained some days at Kodiak, and then sailed for 
San Francisco, where 1 arrived on the 15th of November, 

The following diacusaioD ensued : — 

Mr. B, PacsHFiELD regretted that he could not add anytliiog to Lieut. Seton- 
Karr's narrative from peraoiml kDo\vletlge of the mountains of Alaska. But as 
tlio paper read had been somewhat hrief, the meetinj: would perhaps alluw him to 
oflfer some genend remarks on the present position of mountaineering as a hranch 
of geo;^phlcal research. He would then take in detail certain points raised by 
Mr. !ieton-Karr, and he wouW conclude hy quoting soma valuable notices of the 
REime region, recently published in America. He had sometimes been tempted, while 
listening to the papers read at the Society's meetings, to amnae himself by inventing 
fancy claaaifications of the travellers who appeared before them. A learned German 
supplieil bim with the first classification. Ilerr Schwarz* said that there were 
two great classes of travellers, those w^bo sought for lateral progress and those who 
strove for vertical advance— the ordinary traveller who tried to get m far ns possible 
from his fellows, and was, therefore, something of a misanthrope, and the moun- 
tameer whose endeavour was to get a little nearer to the angels, anil who miirht l>e 
called a philangehst Another authority divided travellers into seafarers, landfarcrs, 
and gnowfarers, Such a division might serve to enforce at least one useful lesson, 
that the craft of goin^ above the ffnow*level was as distinct a craft as tliat of navi- 
gation, and that it k as impossible to explore efficiently snow-mountains without it. 

* * ITeher Fels und Firn ; die Bezwingung der miichtigsten Hochgipfel der Enle duich 
den Menschen,* &e.^ Leipzigt 1884. 



as it is for a laodsman to explore beyond low-water mark. Some people found it 
hard to uaderstjind thi;! ; and great nonsftase was frequently talked by those who 
librgat Ihat mountain people were not necessarily mountaineers, that they were 
[often incapable of giving tlie gmallest assistance to mountaineers, and that their 
[testimony as to the practicability of ascents was worthless. Before the days of 
[DeSaussor© no Alpine peasant had ascended any Alpine a now-mountain. At the 
^'preaent time it waa proper to call attention to De Saussure, because thifl year was 
something more than a jubilee, it was the centenary of the ascent of Mont Blanc 
by the illustrious Genevese. His was not the first ascent of Mont Blanc, for that 
mountain had been climbed the year before by Balmat and Dr. Paccard, but it 
was the first properly recorded ascent, and^ therefore^ the ascent that had been most 
Talnable to, and was best remembered by, the world. Its value was not, however, 
immediately manifesL Two fellow-citizens of De Saussure — Rousscnu and Voltaire — 
«et men's brains spinning in a different direction. It was not till within the last 
thirty years that De Saussnre'a travels had borne full fruit in the thorough 
^ Bubjugation of the Alps, By the present generation the exploration of the Alps 
had been taken in hand and finiahed, the secrets of the snow had been explored, 
and the icy wastes had been turned into the health-^ving playground of Enrope. 
The word 'MEaccensible'^ had been banished. From the Maritime Alps to the 
Gross Glockner not a single pinnacle rmised its head unconquered. Anjs^ustus 
raised a trophy on the Maritime Alps above Monaco and in&cribed it — " Dcvictis 
Alpinis gentibus a mare supero ad inferum *' ; now a monument could bo 
raised to De Saussure, ** Devictis Al|jibii8." He did not desire to exa;];gerate 
the part of mriuntaineenng in the exploration of the earth, the portion of 
which uniler snow was comiiaratively Kmall. But he wished to show that moun- 
taineers had been well empJoyed, although their laboura had occupied but a 
small space in the 'Proceedings' of the Geographical Society. A double reason 
might be given for that. First, they had been chiefly engaged in completing the 
task before them — exploring the Alps. The ice-craft learnt in Europe had as 
yet only been brought to bear in a few isolated insUncea on more distant 
ranges. Secondly, the Geographical Society had kept its eyes fixed beyond 
Europe, and had excluded from its sphere EurO|x>an travel and research. In 
Germany it would be found that Payer's Alpine and Arctic papers equally found a 
place in the leading geographical magazine.* When he first frequented the Royal 
Geograplilail Society ho was astonished to find that they had not the maps made by 
his friend the late Mr. Adams Reilly of the chain of Mont Blanc and the southern 
slopes of the Pennine Alps in their Map-room I He believed that the Society's pjold 
medals had been given for much less hard labour and geographical research and 
accurate and artistic map-making tlian were embodied in these sheets.! But now 
the Royal Geogra]>liical Society and the Alpine Club were about to be forced into 
connection, Tiie Club had done its work in Europe and would have to turn to other 
plaoee. The maiden peaks of New Zealand, the Caucasus, the Himalaya, and the 
Andes would no longer be the objects of the occasional pursuit of a few chart^Tcd 
libertines; they would be constantly run after by a crowd of admirers. South 
America had already found its De Sauesure in Mr. Whym|>cr, whose long-promised 
work they must all look forward to with great interest. He was sorry that he could 
not say that North America had yet found a De Sanssure. The journeys of Mr, 
Solon-Karr and Lieutenant Schwatka must rather be compared to the travels of 

• Petermann's * GeographiBche Mitteilungen/ Ergftnzungsheft No. 17, and passim, 
t Mr, Adums Reilly's MS. maps are now, by the permif<8ion of the Alpine Club, on 
view for a short timo in the Mup-ixKJiu, 


Pococke and WindhftTn, the two adventarcms toiirista who went to Chamonix forty 
years before De Sauaamne, and visited the Montenvers. The party whose adventures 
httfl jimt been described were doomed to failure, for tlie expedition was not suffi- 
ciently provided with moimtaineera* Lieut* Seton-Karr^s own Alpine experience 
was limited^ and lie hud with him a companion of eighteen atone; and to attempt 
to take such a compftoion up a mountain 19»000 feet hig^h was a Quixotic enter- 
prise. He did not tbink that Lieut. Seton-Ktirr need have felt any anxiety aa to 
the tronble he might have had in lifting Lieut, Schwatka out of a crevasae, Alpine 
ropea had been thoroughly tested, aad none of the ropea in use would besr the 
shock of an eighteen-stone tnan fallincr suddenly. To come now to some of the point* 
m the paper, he would first refer to the name of the mountain — Mount St, EUaa, 
It was curious to find in such a region the name of St, Elias, Why should the 
prophet Elijah be connected with that great mountain? Wherever the Eastern 
forms of Christianity prevailed, the prophet Elijah or Elias seemed to be the peculiar 
patron of moan tain pcskE, If they looked at the map of Greece they would find 
his name and chapel on the top of many mountains ; and on Olympus, instead of an 
altar to Zeus, there were conventa dedicated to St, Elias. In the Caucaans the 
primitive tribes who had been driven into the hill-fastnesses by the Circassians, 
were said to believe that the prophet Elijah frequently appeared on the highest 
mountains, and to appease him with milk, butter, and beer,* V^arious explanations 
were given of this connection. Some people thought it was because the (rreek Church 
attached so much importance to Elias's part in the Transfiguration ; others said that 
Elias the pmphet had, through a similarity of name, succeeded to the altars of 
Itelios, the sun.f Another possible explanation might be found in a survival of 
the belief attributed (2 Kings ii. 16) to the sons of the prophets, who sent out a 
searcb expedition of "fifty strong men'*' to look for Elijah, because they thought, 
** Peradventure the Spirit of the I-*ord hath cast him upon some mountain," Of all 
the mountains on whicli the prophet's name had since been cast Mount St. Elias 
must be the farthest and the loftiest. With regard to the height of St. Elias, 
19,500 feet might now be fairly taken as settled. Mr. Elliott, in his recently 
published ' Arctic Province,* spoke of Mr. Baker, who made the trian^lation, as 
**one of the most accomplished mathematicians in the United States Survey," 
Another accomplished surveyor, Lieut, Allen, had, he states!, ascertained that Mount 
Wrangiel rose 18,4C0feet over the forks of the Copper river^ and that those forks were 
over 2000 feet above the sea. That would make Mount Wrangel 1000 feet higher 
than Mount St, Elias, so that after all the United States might be happy in possessing 
the higheat peak of the North American continent. He need hardly say to any- 
body in the room who had any cxperieoee in mountaineering that he utterly dis- 
believed in the ascent of Mount Wrangel by the miner, quoted by Lieut. Seton- 
Karr, He did not believe that he got anywhere near the top of the mountain, or 
even much further than its base. That a solitary man should ascend nearly to the 
summit of a peak of 20,000 feet, in that latitude, in winter, was absolutely incre- 
dible. With regard to the statement in the paper that the snow-level on the seaward 
slope of Mount St, Elias was only 40O ftet, Mr, Elliott described the forests of 
Prince William Sound, a little farther west, as rising to lODO feet, and the snow* 
level as between 3000 feet and 4000 feet ; and another explorer had collected 
liotanical specimens at between 1000 and 3000 feet. 'IT^e atcent of Mount St. 
KMas would probably prove the longest snow tramp in vertical height on the 
earth's surfiice. But, whatever the snow-level might be> the lieight reached by 

• Klaproth, * Voyage ftn Caucase/ vol. i. eh, 13. 
t Bent's ' Cyclttdea.* 


Lieat SetoD-Karr above the sea-levd did not equal that of the sammits of Elbruz 
above the Caucasian snow-level ; and the pretensions of the New York newspaper 
with regard to this ascent mnst therefore be dismissed. He wished to ask Lieut. 
SetoD-Earr if there was any chance of an explorer being able to cross the Indian pass 
from Dry Bay and get round by the lakes north of Mount St Elias to the forks of 
the Copper river near Mount Wningel ? Such a tour, combined with the ascents of 
Mount St. Elias and Mount Wrangel, would probably be the most interesting 
mountain excursion possible in North America. He regretted very much that, 
owing to the non-anival of the photographs that Lieut Seton-Earr expected, he 
had been unable to illustrate his paper with the lantern. He hoped that mountain 
travellers in future would take photographic machines with them and make good use 
of them. It was a very easy thing to do. He had himself carried Mr. Donkin's 
camera nearly up Mont Blanc, and every one knew what superb plates Mr. Donkin 
produced. With regard to the accessibility of the region described in the paper, he 
had recently received an illustrated pamphlet, published by the Northern Pacific 
Bailroad, and written by Lieut Schwatka.* It contained a promising account of 
the facilities soon to be afforded to travellers. It was in contemplation to build an 
hotel at Glacier Bay, close to Mounts Crillon and Fairweather, and to run excursion 
steamers from Sitka to Icy Bay. When travellers frequented these coasts the 
weather promised to be as great a topic of conversation on Alaskan steamers as it was 
at Swiss Uble d*h6tes. The rainfall at Sitka was 85 inches, but there were said to be 
100 fine days in the year. At Gbicier Bay, Mr. Wright, in August, out of 29 days, 
had 14, or nearly half, ** beautiful beyond description." The witnesses were very 
contradictory, for another officer described the weather ss " boisterous winds chronic, 
and howling gales frequent." Mr. Seward, on the contrary, thought the climate was 
infinitely superior to that of Northern Germany ; but he was a politician, and not a 
disinterested one (for he had had a share in the purchase of Alaska), and therefore 
was politically biassed, and could hardly be expected to tell the truth. In conclusion, 
he woold give very briefly the main facts contained in an important note which had 
been published in the 'American Journal of Science' (January 1887) by Mr. 
Wright, who made some prolonged observations at the head of Glacier Bay, on a 
Urge glacier called the Muir Glacier. It was found that that glacier occupied a vast 
smphitheatre, with a diameter ranging from 30 to 40 miles, with nine main and 
seventeen smaller branches. The main trunk was two miles wide. It entered the 
uoean with a sea-front of a mile, rising in cliffs 300 feet in height Bergs containing 
40,000,000 cubic feet broke off from it From measurements taken with care at 
the eiid of summer, the period of greatest motion, the vdocity of the ice was 
ascertained — and this was a fact well worthy of attention — as 70 feet a day in the 
centre, and 10 feet in the margin of movement ! Now, 1} foot a day was aboat 
the motion of the Mer-de-Glaoe, and 55 feet in the year that of the Aar Gladen. 
The only observatioos at all comparable in their results with those of the Moir 
Glacier were tbon of the Jakobshavn Glacier in Greenland, where the motion 
was said to be 3f miles a year.f De^te this rapid motion, Mr. Wright stated that 
a period of glacier decrease was going on in Alaska, corresponding to that in the Alps 
and in the Caocasos, apparoitly just terminated. A still more remarkable (act was 
ascertained in the discovery of a forest boried in sand, from which the ioe had recently 
letieated. Mr. Wright showed that the sand had been deposited by streams dammed 
by a side glacier during a long previous period of advance of the ice. The ioe had 

* * Wooderland, or Alaska and the Inland PSsMge,' by Lieot Sehwaika. 
t See ' Alpine JoumsL' voL xiL pp. 229-30, for a summary of the most reeent state- 
ments and eoDdasioiis as to gkricr bmHioq. 

No. v.— Hat 1887.] y 



tlien passeJ over tbe saud without diBturbio^ it» In this instance the ice had heen 
partiftlly supported by a spur of rock, and therefore its whole weight had not pressed 
t>n the sand* But Mr. Wrii»ht went on to say tlmt ** the caimcity of the ice to move 
without disturbing them over such gravel depoisits as cover the forests, is seen in the 
present condition of the south-west corner of the glacier itself. As the ice-front 
has retreated along that shore, large masses of ice are still to be seen Inpping 
over upon the grave!. These are portions of the glacier still sustained in place by 
the underlying grave!.*' This^ of course, was ira^xirtant evidence wnth regard to the 
boring faculty of glaciers. It seemed aa if it would prove a confirmation of much 
that was written m Mr. Whymper's Alpine volume. He (Mr Fresh field) had never 
been disposed to believe in the enormous powers attributed to glaciers as bores. Tbey 
scraped and polished to a great extent, but he did not think that they dug deeply. 
They were not so much the sculptor's workman as the sculptor himself. Their share 
in hill structure was to give it artistic merit; to round a corner and polish a boss. 
Thoise who were interested in glaciers should not fail tt) study a very beautifully 
llustrated official report, published at Washington,* on all tbe glaciers in the 
United States, excluding those of Alaska* The conclusion that Englishmen would 
arrive at would be that the glaciers of the rest of North-west America were a very 
poor lot — -hardly worth looking at from the picturesque point of view, and scarcely 
equal to those of the Pyrenees. Another result would be to make Englishmen envy 
tbe Americana the amount of money which their government could afford to devote 
to tbe illustration and publication of scientific reix>rts. lie congratulated Lieut. 
Seton-Karr on the success that ho had obtained in approaching the mountain and 
visitinjT the more remote parts of the Alaskan coast. Those who went first, and 
opened the w^ay, were not less entitled to credit than those who came afterwards, and 
reaped the fruit of their predecessors* labours. 

Mr. Clikton DnxT (l^resident of the Alpine Club) said he had been very much 
interested in the paper, for it dealt at once with mountain and geographical explora- 
tion. He could fully endorse what Mr. Freshfield bad said, that, to attack a 
mountain 19^500 feet high, with the very remotest pmsj^ect, not of success, but of 
attaining any height whatever, the expedition must be specially equipped. There 
must he no one in the party who was not a mountaineer. With regard to trusting 
to the natives, experience in Alaska would prove to be the same as in the Andes, as 
originally it was in the Aif«, and as he had the opportunity last summer of finding 
it was in the Caucasus. Until the natives were educated to liecome mountaineers 
they would never be of the least use. The Swiss peasants had, however, been 
educated until tbey had become instructors of those who educated them. Among 
the natives in mountainous countries there was always at first an amount of super* 
Eitition, and which resulted in a dread and abhorrence of attacking the higher peaks. 
It followed that to attain any success, even apart from reaching the aummit of 
such a formidable mountain as Mount St. Elins, the explorer must be provided with 
those who could act the part of porters, and who were thoroughly reliable. From 
the description that had been triven of the mountain, he fancied that the ascent 
must be one of a most forraidablo nature from its great length, and be considered 
that the route which bad so far been followed was hardly likely to jirove the right one. 
It appeared to him to be a very long way round, affording no opportunity for bivouack- 
ing suPuciently high. From the last camp the party seemed to have started with an 
idea that tbey could go up a height of something like 15,000 feet in a day, hut in 
such cases 600O feet was an exceedingly sood day'« work. With Mr. Freshfield, 
he congratulate<i Lieut. Seton-Karr on having broken new ground, and ^n Laviug 


* Report of the GeoloijicftI Survey/ 1883-4. 



thown that in Alaska there were glaciers and moimtaiDS of the Iiigk^t ioterest to 
every one coonected, not only with geography, but also with the sister science, wbick 
be hoped geography would adopt » oro;:^raphy, 

Lieut. Seton-Karr said the Indians had a pass from Cbilcat to the north of St. 
Eh'as to ilocnt Wrangel down the Cluchitka river. The Copper river had been 
ascended by Lieutenant Allen in 1884. Tbe Indians, however, only crossed the i>a3S 
in winter when the streams were frozen, but it might perhaps be done in eummer. 
The snow-level depended on the stiow-fall, and the conditions of St, Ellas were «nch 
that the snow-fall was very heavy. Damp winds came up from the Pacific, and were 
coriJensed on the snow mountains which were immediately at the ocean's brink ; 
the result Tvas a very heavy snow-fall, greater tbau in any other pai t of Alaska. 
There was^ therefore, more snow to melt, and consequently tbe snow-lioo descended 
lower. Ho judged it to be 400 feet, hat other travellers might make it even lower. 
ICo doubt some of the glaciers were decreaaing, but others at Mount 8t EUas were 
vancing and getting larger. All the forest land which ho saw was being destroyed 

their advance. With regard to the w^eather, as a rule, June and July were line. 
There wag not a single drop of rain during the whole fortnight he remained on the 
slopes of Mount St. Elias, although it was cloudy. After that bad weather set in, 
and it rained the whole time he was in Alaska. 

Tbe CiTAiEMA?i (Mr, Francis Galton) congratulated Lieut. Seton-Karr on the 
opportunity ho had had of exploring: a country where the tbrc^s of nature wore to U? 
seen acting on a very large scale. The journey had evidently been performed under 
circumstances of great difficulty. We rni^ht expect a more detailed account in the 
nsrmtive of his journey which he is about to publish. He experienced many 
difficulties which he has not mentioned in his paper, and on more than one occasion 
he was in ]>eril of his life. It was to be hoped that Alaska would be further 
explored, and that fuller knowledge would be obtained of its moat interesting 

Between the Nile and the Congo ; Dr, Junker and ihe ( Welle) Makua, 

By J. T. Wills. 

(Read at the Eveuiug Meeting, March 2Sth, 1887.) 
Map, p. 330. 

I NEED hardly remind you that in the fertilo part of Central Africa, 
in the belt of tropical rains and rich vegetation which stretcheB from 
the Zambesi to Senaar and Lake Tsad, river navigation is tho oiily 
means of cheap transport : and hoats almost the only altenmtive to slave 
porterage. Hi vers are here tho trade rontes and tho lines upon which 
European inflnence must advance; and the big navigable rivers^ 
with tho exception of the Niger Benuo and Zambesi, al 
cme of three points, Berlxsr, Lake Tsad, and Stanley Pc 
last is alone at present accessible to us. 

Let ns first look for a moment to the history of 
round the region in qncstion. The first central A< 
explored and need was the Nile. Eighteen ceutur 
tbe Emperor Nero, two Koman centurions ej' 
Kile 500 miles beyond Khartum as far as th 


the river closed in bj reeds and morasses, full of tall graea into whidi 
there was no mefins of penetrating either hy boat or on foot. This sudd 
region in a swamp uf vast extent, where matted weeds and floating 
grasses choked with fine mud, and knit together by the tangled roota of 
aquatic plantB, form rafts or inlands of floating sod^ on which other tall 
grasses grow, and which jamb and block the deep channels, like floating: 
ice ill jtolar fieas» while all around |)apyma and other reeds grow thick on 
the ehallo^v swamps and inundated flats. The block so formed is variable 
and intermittent, and when exploring expeditions in 1831>, 1840 and 1841, 
penetrated for the first time beyond the point reached b}' Nero's cen- 
turions, little hindrance was expt rienced, then or for the next twenty-five 
years; but in 1870 Baker's expedition had the greatest dilliculty to get 
through, and the block of sudd that formed in 1878 continued on and off 
for thieo years, and after nearly frustrating Gcssi'a campaign in th© 
Bahr Gazal, eventually caused his death in 1881. Emin Bey very 
postibly * owes his safety now to the re-formation of this siuld in 1884, 

When European ivory traders in and after 1845 followed the tracks* 
of the Egyptian expetiitionB beyond the sudd, two navigable branches* 
of the Kile were found ; eno navigable at all seasons as far as Gondokoro 
(Lado), and the other as far as Meshera el Eek, The custom was to sail 
up from Khartum to cither of those points* in the dr}^ season or w^inter, 
and to sail down again in Juno upon the flood. Tlie winds are strong 
and steady from the north and K.N.E, for three or four months as far as 
Meshera, and for one or two aa far as Lado ; and they arc nearly equally 
strong and steady from tho south during an equal period, lesserdng in 
strength and duration up north towards Berber, as the winter north 
winds do towards Lado. Consequently the clumsy Khartum nuggers 
of 40 or 50 tona, with a 20 fixit Learn, low maets, and rotten, spliced, and 
cranky yards, often average up to the sudd some four or five miles an 
hour against a stream that generally runs two miles an hour. They thus 
do 48 to DO miles a day, and in nine or ten days get to the sudd. 
Schweinfnrth describes Lis nugger often staggering under bare poles, 
when the wiud was best, for fear of breaking the yard.f This is the 
chesi pest river navigation in Africa^and according to Gesei, freights from 
above Meshera to Khartum were only 27. a ton. It costa at present 
between 30L and 401. a ton to get porters' loads carried up from the £ea 
to Stanley Pool, and it need to cuat 10^. a ton by camel from Suakin to 

We all know how these trade-winds soon became slave-trade winds; 
how soon after the discovery of the great lakes and souicea of the Kilo 

• 1 bc{^ kuv© to niter roy ophiioti. News from tlie Soudun allows that the Khnlif nt 
Khiirtum hiia neilber k-isiire nor i«>wer lo attack him* Nor hau uny oud vUc. I do not 
iKliLve there ortf any rebels or A labs now in i\w Bahr Gazal e:tcej.t a few ecore of petty 
tela VI -bun tore, aufl those without jioliticBl support The rtopciiiug of trade with tho 
Bcjudan, boweTcr, will (juk'kly iucriofie Ibeir numbers,— J. T. W. 

t The yardH, if mude of fir, ha?e to be imported front Trieate, 




Sir S. Baker was sent up in 1870 to stop slaving on the Lado branch 
where it was least vigorous, and how he was followed by Gordon in 
1874-75-76, while Zebehr and many other smaller slave-hunters con- 
tinued their devastations practically unmolested in the Bahr Oazal. 
And we know how Nile explorations led to other explorations; how 
Livingstone traced the Zambesi to its source, and Barth visited the 
countries round Lake Tsad. In 1870 Schweinfurth went through 
the Bahr Gazal with an ivory trader and reached the big Welle 
Makua in Honbuttu, beyond the Nile watershed, just at the same 
time that Livingstone explored Lake Bangweolo, Lake Moero, and 
the Lnalaba down to Nyangwe. Schweinfurth reported that his 
river was supposed to run to the Shari, Livingstone supposed his 
to be the Nile. Three years later, Cameron disclosed by his overlund 
march the south watershed of the Congo, and Nachtigal got important 
but hearsay information of the south watershed of the Shari. The 
mouth of the Congo was known, but no one had got past the rapids 
between the sea and Stanley PooL In 1875 Gordon was on the Upper 
Nile launching steamers * (which are still in working order) on the upper 
Dufle and Lake Albert reach, which is separated from Lado by over 
100 miles of land transit. He established the government which Emin 
Bey now maintains, Long, his lieutenant, navigated a considerable 
unknown reach on a still higher level in our enemy's country; and 
Stanley sailed round Victoria Nyanza, which pours its waters in Long's 
reach orer more cataracts. Stanley then went to the slave-hnnters at 
Xyangwe, and prepared to embark on the unknown river there in 
October 1876, just when Gordon went down to Egypt to say that be 
would not go back to the Nile unless he had full powers over the 
whole Sondan slave trade. 

When Stanley emerged on the west coast and made known the 
Congo, Gordon, as Governor-General, was preparing to pat dowrn at laat 
the roaring slave trade of the Bahr Gazal ; and Zebehr was writing to 
his son there to rebeL That TehtUi/m barred farther expUvatiMi of the 
WeUe Makna. Bohndorf^ CAce Gordon's and afterwards Junker's 
servant, went by himself io ex{4are in Zebehr's omDirj^ Uit was made 
to swear on the Kcffan, and was finally robbed and left naked. I>r. 
ianker, wIm was already in the Bahr Gazal in 1877, had Uj keep well 
Io the east, wbeie great hardships broke his health, and frxobi him Uj 
retire for a year to Khartom and Egypt. 

Stanky. as we knvw, retnmed to the Ccngo, made ^rm his vaj, and 
took np his ftteaaaer to Stanley Poci], and in Ibh^i nrmtitd for the fifvt 
umt tLe great are of tLe Congo ^aU^e Kwa nnoiith «, which he bad 
jaddWd own six yean before. He went akffkg the sonth bank ^A the 
Ce^<&. wiJe^ is ijere ^ne^hr so wide <'and also fmll<4' is«anday thai the 
uher bazJL 2» kc^ssL j b&k#w the horizon abi imt of sight ; when at 
* OaeKMIcKilnS' 



length hd crofised over and reached the month of a big tribntarjr on the 
north eide^ and fonnd from the friendly natives that they were in 
possession of certain |>6culiar and numiBtakable Italian beads (which 
had come down this river throngh the Watumba from traders who cam© 
from the north), he was surprised more than interested, and passed on 
to view with dismay the presence of Tippu Tib'8 Nyangwe slave-hunterft 
at Stanley Falls, and at the month of the Aruwimi. 

These beads were Rafai's beads : the big river which Stanley was 
told came far from tiie north or north-east, and was so wido above that 
one could not see the other shore, was the Loika (or Itimbiri ), and was 
found last year to bo navigable for at least 100 miles at all seasons from 
its month. It is identical with the big water or lake reBWjhed by Eafai, 
six days' journey sonth from the Makna across the oountry of the 
Ababua, where Eafai had a secnre trading post. Petermann*s Mitthcil- 
tingen had published Rafai'a news (which Lupton had sent) a full 
year before, and I am rather surprised to find that atich items of news 
were not forwarded with the usual letters through Belgium to Stanley 
on the Congo. 

Hicks, VI itli hi8 army of 10,000 men, had been slain four or five days 
before Stanley appeared on the Loika (on Xovcmber lOth, 1883), Lupton, 
at Dem Suleiman was receiving, as a precious gift, 300 percussion caps 
from Bohndorf, Dr. Junker's servant, who had hurried off with news of 
his master to catch the expected steamer— th