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A. Ancient Japanese Rituals, Part IV. Page 

— By Dr. Karl Florenz i 

B. Note on a Long-tailed Breed of Fowls in Tosa. 

— By Basil Hall Chamberlain, Esq I 


llie Jesuit Mission Press in Japan. 

—By Sir Ernest Satow, K. C. M. G I 


The Cultivation of Bamboos in Japan. 

— By Sir Ernest Satow, K. C. M. G i 


Hyakunin-Isshu (Single Songs of a Hundred Poets. j 

— By Clay MacCauley, Esq., A. M i 

Tori-wi~Its Derivation. —By VV. G. Aston, Esq, C. M. G 153 


Minutes of Meetings I 

Report of the Council 26 

List of Members 32 

Constitution and By-I^ws 4I 







Professor of Philology and German Literature in the 
Imperial University, T5kyo. 


?*?■ 5Sfe- Jk 

Part IV. 



In volumes VII and IX of the Transactions of the Asiatic 
Society of Japan Sii* Ernest Satow has published an English 
translation, with commentary, of the Norito, or Ancient 
Japanese Kituals. His three papers on this subject con- 
stitute one of the monumental works of Japanese philology. 
Unfortunately the learned author has not seen his way to 
give us more than the smaller moiety of the Kituals (nine 
out of twenty eight) which is the more regrettable as no 
abler hand could have undertaken the task. It is difficult 
for anybody, and rather bold, to continue a work begun 
by a Satow, for the inferiority of the continuation will be 
only too palpable. As the Norito^belong, however, to the 
most important, interesting and beautiful products of 
Japanese literature, a reliable translation of all of them is 
an urgent necessity, and the present writer has therefore 
ventured to come forward and supply the omission. His 
original intention was to publish the result of his studies 
in German, his native tongue ; having now undertaken to 
produce it in English, he believes himself entitled to a 
certain degree of indulgence on the part of the reader, 
because he labours under no small disadvantage in doing 
a work of this kind in a foreign language. The writer has 
endeavoured to use as much as possible Satow's phraseo- 

2 Ancient Japanese Rituals, 

logy, in order to preserve in the English rendering the 
same uniformity of style which exists in the Japanese text. 
For quotations from the Kojiki and Nihongi the admirable 
translations by Chamberlain and Aston have been placed 
under frequent contribution, though the present writer 
has in all cases consulted the originals themselves, and, 
with regard to the Nihongi, also his own German 
translation and commentary. For students of the original 
text a full glossary will be added. 

No. 10. — Minadzuki Tsugomori no Oho-harahe, or 

Great Purification Celebrated on the Last 

Day of the Sixth Month (and at^o 

IN the Shihasu or Twelfth Month.) 

Literature used : Besides the older commentaries of Ma- 
buchi, Motowori Norinaga and Fujiwi, mentioned by Satow, 
vol. VII pag. 101, 1 have made use of the Noriloshiki-kogi (ili3 
^W&) by Haruyama Tanomu, the NoHto-hemmo (JUSSI^SS) 
by Shikida Toshiharu (5 vols.) the Norito-shiki-kogi by Oku- 
bo (2 vols), the Norito-ryakkai («lia»8?) by Kubo (6 vols), 
and notes of lectures delivered by Motowori Toyokahi in 
the Lnperial University of Tokyo. The big commentary 
Noritokogi written by the late Suzuki Shigetane in 34 vols, 
is unfortunately, like his huge commentary on the Nihongi, 
not yet accessible to the general public. The Government 
would render an invaluable service to all students of 
Japanese archaeology by printing these two works of one 
of the greatest scholars Japan ever possessed. I have 
also had the advantage of consulting a very interesting 
paper on the Oho-harahe by Dr, H, Weipert (Trans, of the 

Ancient Japanese Rituals, 3 

German As. Soc, Heft 58, page 365-375), in which 
special attention has been paid to the ritual as being a 
monument of the most ancient judicial ideas of the 
Japanese, and the learned essay *' The Mythology and 
Eeligious Worship of the Ancient Japanese " by Satow, 
published in the Westminster Keview, July 1898, j). 27-57. 
(Unfortunately this latter paper became known to me, 
through the kindness of its author, only after the present 
essay was finished, so that the valuable information given by 
it could only be made use of in the form of additional notes. 


§ 1. Definition. 
The Oho-harahe or Great Purification is one of the 
most important and most solemn ceremonies of the Shinto 
religion ; by it the population of the whole country^ from 
the Princes and Ministers down to the common people, is 
pmified and freed from sins, pollutions and calamities. 
In the earliest times, i. e. until the beginning of the 8th 
century A. D., the service seems not to have been 
celebrated at fixed jregular intervals, but only when special 
reasons offered (see § 3) ; since then it has been celebrated 
twice a year, on the 30th day of the 6th and 12th months. 
The chief ceremony was performed in the capital, near 
the South Gate or Shvjaku-mon (Gtite of the Scarlet Bird) 
of the Imperial palace, and might be styled the purifica- 
tion of the court, because it was to purify all the higher 
and lower officials of the Imperial court. In a similar way 
the ceremony was celebrated also, at all the more important 


4 Ancient Japanese Rituals. 

(public) shrines of the whole country, and therefore the 
Shintoists speak of an Oho-harahe of the provinces, in 
contradistinction to the Oho-harahe of the court Beside 
the regular celebration on the 30th day of the 6th and 
12th months we find, however, the ceremony not infre- 
quently performed at other times, e. g. on the occasion of 
the Dai'jO'ive (festival after the ascension to the throne of 
a new Emperor), or when the Hsuti hime-miko (an 
Imperial princess, chosen as Vestal) was sent to the 
temple of the Sun-goddess in Ise. 

There are four ways of spelling and pronouncing the 
name ;^St, viz. Oho-harahe, Oho-harahi, Oho-harahe, Oho- 
barahi. The first deserves to be preferred. It is derived 
from oho '* great" (stem of the adjective o/io^i) and the 
verb harafu "to clear away, to sweep." Mi-na-dzuk 
{"^^H water-less month) is an old name of the 6th month 
O. S. (approximately our July), shihasu of the 12th month 
O. S.;. Tsugomori means ** last day " of a month, The 6th 
month is often called nagoshi-no-tsuti *' month of leave- 
taking from summer " (the summer comprised the 4th, 5th 
and 6th months), and so we find for the summer purifica- 
tion also the popular name nagoshi no harahe Sjffi^lK. 

The regular celebrations in the 6th and 12th months are 
designated as Korei Oho-harahe (^J&^St) usual or regular 
O. H. , the extraordinary ones as llinji Oho-harahe (ES^;A:jK) 
occasional O. H. When a year had an intercalary 0th or 
12th month, the last day of the intercalary month 
was chosen. Since the introduction of the Gregorian 
calendar (1st January, 1873), the regular ceremony 


Ancient Japanese Rituals, 5 

has taken place on the 30th June and 31st December. 
The Oho-harahe consists of certain ceremonial actions, 
chiefly the offering and throwing away into the water of 
the so-called harahe-tsu-mono (iR4&) " purification-offerings 
(lit things)," and the reading of a Eitual. 

§ 2. Oho hakahe, Haeahe, ' Misogi. 

The Oho-harahe must be distinguished. 
A) from the simple Harahe, i. e. the purification of 
an individuat person from the pollution contracted by some 
offence, in which case the guilty person himself had to 
provide certain offerings to the Gods. This was originally 
a mere religions ceremony, the offerings provided by the 
offender being, in the beginning, probably only such 
things of his personal property, as were considered to have 
been polluted. They were thrown away into the water. 
But out of this developed, in the course of time, the idea 
of a penalty. Now it is highly interesting to observe, for 
what reasons, in what way, and to what extent penalties 
were exacted from offenders. The archaic Japanese 
society possessed neither law-codes, nor clear descriptive 
rights at all, so that the punishment of offences was left 
entirely to the discretion of the injured individual or 
community. The Kojiki and Nihongi report numerous 
instances, in which an Emperor, or a chieftain, or some 
other individual, metes out punishment to an offender, the 
punishment varying usually between the penalty of death, 
making the criminal a slave, banishment, and wholesale or 
partial confiscation of property. The punishment of 

Ancient Japanese Rituals, 

transgressions being thus, until about the end of the 7th 
century, purely arbitrary, it is no wonder that frequent 
abuses occurred, and that there arose a regular system of 
squeezing under the hypocritic disguise ol a legitimate 
Harahe (purgation). The Emperor Kotoku, the great 
admirer of Chinese institutions, is reported by the Nihongi 
to have issued, on the 22nd day of the third month of the 
second year of his reign (12th April, 646), a decree in 
order to abolish existing bad customs, from which I extract 
the following interesting paragraphs : 

Sometimes a wife who has lost her husband, marries 
another man after the lapse of ten or twenty years and 
becomes his spouse, or an unmarried girl is married for 
the first time. Upon this, people, out of envy of the 
married pair, have made them perform purgation. 

Again, there have been cases of men employed on 
forced labour in border lands who, when the work was 
over and they were returning to their village, have fallen 
suddenly ill and lain down to die by the roadside. "Upon 
this the [inmates of the] houses by the roadside say : — 
Why should people be allowed to die on our road ? ' And 
they have accordingly detained the companions of the 
deceased and compelled them to do purgation [i. e. their 
valuables were taken away from them under the pretext, 
that these had to serve as purification-offerings in the 
ceremony necessary to purify the road from the pollution]. 
For this reason it often happens that even if an elder 
brother lies down and dies on the road, his younger 
brother will refuse to take up his body [for burial]. 


Ancient Japanese Rituals. 7 

Again, there are cases of peasants being drowned in a 
rivei'. The bystanders say :— * Why should we be made to 
have anything to do with drowned men?' They ac- 
cordingly detain the drowned man's companions and 
compel them to do purgation. For this reason it often 
happens that even when an elder brother is drowned in a 
river, his younger brother will not render assistance. 

Again, there are cases of people who, when employed 
on forced labour, cook their rice by the roadside. Upon 
this the [inmates of the] house by the roadside say : — 
* "Why should people cook rice at their own pleasure on our 
road ? ' and have compelled them to do purgation. 

Again, there are cases when people have applied to 
others for the loan of pots in which to boil their rice, and 
the pots have knocked against something and have been 
upset. Upon this the owner of the pot compels purgation 
to be made. 

All such practices are habitual among the unenlighten- 
ed vulgar. Let them now be discontinued without 
exception, and not permitted again. 

It goes without saying that this primitive kind of 
judicial procedure did not long survive the introduction 
of the Chinese system of administration, at least to no 
great extent. Also in a purely religious sense the Harahe 
of single individuals from pollutions contiacted through 
crimes seems to have disappeared. 

B) A second kind of Harahe, generally called Misogi ( jSg) 
* ' ablution," practised in ancient times, has been preserved 
to the present day, viz. the purification of a single 


8 Ancient Japanese Biluals. 

individual or a place from pollutions through coming into 
contact with something c&i'emonially impure, like dead bodies 
etc. Comp. notes 37 and 35 to the translation of the 

C) As a third species of Harahe we may mention the 
purification preceding every greater festival {matsuH) of a 
Shinto shrine, through which the priests and others taking 
part in the Matsuri are purified. This ceremony takes place 
in a hall or open place specially prepared for the purpose, 
called harae-dokoro " purification-place." Tt consists in the 
Kami-oroshi " bringing down the spiiits of the purifying 
deities" (see note 74, 76, 79 and 81) into the himorogi (a 
Sakaki branch with cut paper hangings) which stands on 
an eight-legged table in the middle of the Harahe-dokoro, 
the recitation of the purification-prayer, various sub- 
sequent symbolic ceremonies, and the Kami-age or 
" sending back the gods " (to their abodes). Thereupon 
the priests are considered to be pure, and the Matsuri 
proper can begin. A detailed description of this ceremony 
I shall give on another occasion. Only the wording of the 
prayer addressed to the gods may be mentioned here : 

" In reverence and awe : 

The great gods of the purification place who came 
into existence when the great god Izanagi deigned to wash 
and purify himself on the plain of Ahagi [east] of Tachi- 
bana [near] the river Woto in Himuka in Tsukushi, shall 
deign to purify and deign to cleanse whatever there may 
be of sins and pollutions committed inadvertently or 
deliberately by the officials serving [here] to-day. Listen 

Ancient Japanese Eilulas. 9 

ye to these my words. Thus I say reverentially." 

D) Fujiwi mentions in his Oogoshaku a sort of private 
Edrahe which, like the Oho-harahe, was performed on the 
last day of the sixth month. People fastened yufushide, 
strips of mulberry-tree fibres, to hemp leaves, and taking 
these to the bank of a river performed the purification. 

These statements about Harahe and Misogi do not at 
all exhaust the subject, but will perhaps convey a 
sufficiently clear idea of it. 

§ 3. Age of the Ceremony. 

The earliest historic reference to the ceremony of 
general purification we find made on the occasion of the 
death of the Emperor Chiuai, said to have taken place in 
the year 200 A. D. This date is, of course, entirely 
untrustworthy, like all the dates before the fifth century; 
but this much at least can be inferred from it, that the 
existence of the ceremony is ascribed to a very early time. 
The Emperor had died a sudden death which was attribut- 
ed to the curse of some offended god, and the Empress 
Jingo therefore *' commanded her IVIinisters and func- 
tionaries to purge offences (i. e. celebrate the Oho-harahe) 
and to rectify transgressions etc" (Nihongi). The cor- 
responding passage of the Kojiki enumerates a great 
number of the ciimes with which we shall become 
acquainted in the text of pur ritual. It says : " Then, 
astonished and alarmed, they set [the dead Emperor] in a 
mortuary place, and again taking the great offerings of 
the provinces, seeking out all sorts of crimes, such as 

10 Ancieiit Japanese Rituals, 

flaying alive and flaying backwards, breaking down the 
divisions of rice-fields, filling up ditches, etc., etc. 
evacuating excrements and urine, marriages with cattle, 
marriages with fowls, and marriages with dogs, and 
having made a Great Furijication of the land, the Noble 
Take-uchi again stood in the pure court and requested 
the Deities' commands." (Chamb. page 230). Then there 
is complete silence for a long time, until the reign of 
Emperor Temmu in the second half of the seventh century. 
On the 16th day, 8th month, 5th year of his Emperor 
(i. e. 28th September, G7G) an Imperial edict commanded 
(this and the following quotations are from the NmoNGi) : 

" Let a Great Purification be held in all quarters I As 
for the articles needed for this purpose, there are to be 
forwai'ded as haraJie-tsu-mond^ (purification offerings) by 
the Kuni no Miyatsuko (Country-Rulers) of each province: 
one horse and one piece (Kida, =13 feet) of cloth ; more- 
over, by each district governor : one sword, one deerskin, 
one mattock, one smaller sword, one sickle, one set (L e. 
ten pieces) of arrows, and one sheaf of rice in the ear; 
moreover, by each house : one bundle of hemp. 

This Great Purification was obviously celebrated in 

order to avoid the evil influence of a comet that had 

appeared in the seventh month, seven or eight feet in 

length, and disappeared from the sky in the ninth month. 

The third reference is made in the spring of the 

seventh year of Temmu (678) : " This spring, as the 

Aston's version " to be forwarded to the shrines of purification " 
is based on the text of the Kihongi-shuge ; the editor of this text 
has, however, arbitrarily changed one Chinese character {jS& i^^^ 
jj^li), and I have gone back to the original reading. 

Ancient Japanese Rituah. 11 

preparation for worshipiiing the Gods of Heaven and 
Earth, a Purification was held throughout the Empire, An 
imi-no-miya (Purification-palace or Abstinence Palace, 
for the Emperor) was erected on the bank of the Kuraha- 
shi river (in the Tochi district of Yamato). 

The fourth reference, on the 30th day, 7th month, 
10th year (19th August, 681) runs : " Orders were given 
to the whole Empire to hold a great Purification ceremony. 
At this time each Kuni no Miyatsuko supplied as purifica- 
tion-offering one slave, and thus the purification was 
done. " 

The fifth, on the 3rd day, 7th month, 1st year Shucho 
(28th July, 68G) : " The Emperor commanded all the 
provinces to perform the ceremony of the Great Purifica- 
tion*' The reason for the celebration of the last men- 
tioned ceremonies (fourth and fifth) is not apparent from 
the context. The last book of the Nihongi, treating of the 
reign of the Empress Jito, Temmu's successor, has not a 
single reference to the ceremony. It is next mentioned 
again in the 11th month of the 2nd year of the Emperor 
Mommu (G98), as an occasional performance. With the 
first year of the period Taiho, 701, we come at length to 
the time when the Great Purification was ordered to be 
performed at regular intervals, viz. twice a year, on the 
last day of the sixth and twelfth months. After this date 
the regular ceremony on the fixed days is no more 
specially mentioned by the annals, being considered as a 
matter of course, whilst its perfonnance on other extra- 
ordinary occasions is frequently refen-ed to. "Under the 

12 Ancient Japanese Rituals. 

influence of the increasing power of Buddhism and Chinese 
philosophy during the middle ages and the Tokugawa 
period, the Shinto religion, as a whole, lost much of its 
hold on the people, and naturally the general observation 
of its rites suffered in consequence. The Central Govern- 
ment certainly did nothing for their encouragement or pre- 
servation. But while a number of ancient Shinto customs 
fell thus into complete oblivion, the Oho-harahe has 
always been practised to a certain extents The restoration 
of the Imperial power in the present Meiji era was 
shortly followed by a thorough, and almost extravagant, 
rehabilitation of Shinto in its so-called * ' pure " form, and 
the newly established Council for Spiritual Affairs 
(Kyobusho) issued, first on the 25th June 1871, and 
subsequently on the 18th June 1872, decrees by which all 
public Sbinto shrines of the country were directed to 
celebrate the Great Purification on the last day of each 
June and December as an official ceremony, in the presence 
of the local officials. The latter decree to which I shall 
refer again in § 6, gave also detailed instructions in regard 
to the ceremonial, and a new abridged version of the 
ritual. Another decree, dated the 3rd September of the 
«ame year, fixes the official contribution to the expenses 
for the Oho-harahe ceremony in each Kwankoku-Hei-sha 
(i. e. Shinto shrines whose fetes are observed under the 
direct supervision of the Central Government, or under the 
supervision of the governor of the province respectively) 
as one yen fifty sen. 

Ancient Japanese Bituals, 13 

§ 4. Age of the Kitual. 

The Kitual read at the ceremony of the Great Purifica- 
tion is usually called Oho-harahe no Kotdba " words of the 
Great Purification." It is also called Nakalomi (or Misogi) 
no Kotdba ** purification words of Nakatomi" (see §5) 
which is a very old name, occurring already in the Kooo- 
SHUi (compiled 807 A. D.). Other designations are Naka- 
tomi'{harahe) no saimon (^^t written Shinto prayer), or 
simply Nakatomi'harahe, 

Mabuchi ascribes the Oho-harahe no Kotoba to the 
end of the reign of Emperor Tenji (662-671) or the reign 
of Emperor Temmu (673-686) ; the congratulatory address 
of the chieftains of Idzumo (Norito No. 28) to the reign of 
Emperor Jomei (629-641) ; the service for the removal 
and dismissal of avenging deities (No. 25) and the Luck- 
wishing of the Great Palace (No. 8) to the reign of the 
Empress Jito (687-697) ; the Praying for Harvest (No. 1), 
the service of Hirose oho-imi (No. 3) and the service of 
the gods of wind (No. 4) to the beginning of the reign of 
the Emperor Konin (770-782). All the others are, accord- 
ing to the same authority, later and inferior, the latest 
being the worst. His grounds for assuming these dates 
do not, however, bear any deep critical investigation, and 
we must side with Motowori who rejects his hypothesis as 
untenable. To be quite sincere, we must confess that we 
have not sufficient means for determining the age of the 
Norito. Motowori remarks justly : In the most ancient 
times the Norito cannot have existed in a definite form 

14 Ancient Japanese RUuals. 

but must have been composed anew on each occasion, 
according to circumstances. But what was repeated every 
year at a fixed time, became by and by crystallized into a 
definite form. We cannot now make out when the Norito 
were first committed to writing, and at what time of the 
year they were originally used. Most of the old Norito 
have been handed down to us in their original wording, 
though, of course, some minor changes have been 
unavoidable. Something has probably been omitted, 
something probably been added, and interpolations from 
other texts may have crept in. The collection of the 
Norito, as we possess it embodied in the Engi-shiki 
(promulgated 927) was probably made in the Taiho period, 
or even a little earlier, during the reign of the Emperors 
Tenji or Temmu. Among the Norito there are some 
which were composed for festivals of later origin, or were 
put in the place of older lost rituals. Such rituals are 
inferior in style to the earlier ones, but have been com- 
posed in imitation of them, the old words and phrases 
being used. It is, therefore, not at all easy to determine 
the time of their composition ; at least, not as easy as with 
the later Monogatari (novels) and Jobun (prefaces). In 
the present Oho-harahe ritual some passages seem to date 
from time immemorial (Motowori says phantastically from 
the time of the descent of the Heavenly Grandchild) 
while others seem to have been added in the periods of the 
Mikados Tenji, Temmu and Jito. It is useless and wrong 
to draw any inferences with regard to the age of the Oho- 

Ancient Japanese Eitualn. 15 

harahe ritual from the sporadic occurrence of several 
later expressions in its text* 

§ 5. Kecitation of the Kitual. 

The ritual was recited at the public ceremony of the 
Oho-harahe as well as on the occasion of private purifica- 
tions {watakushi no harae). In consequence of its use for 
the latter purpose, frequent changes took place in the 
wording in order to adapt it to special circumstances, and 
this accounts for the existence of so many corrupted 

The Oho-harahe no Kotoba was recited only once at 
each ceremony of purification, and this is perfectly 
natural. But later on the influence of Buddhism began 
to tell upon it. It is a peculiar custom of the Buddhists 
to read their Sutras again and again, to indulge in an end- 
less and really stultifying repetition of the same text (as 
the Koman Catholics do with the Ave Maria in the prayer 
of the rosary), and unfortunately the Shintoists also were, 
for a long time, influenced in the same direction and read 
the ritual several times in succession. Now they have 
returned to the original method of reading it only once. 

Though the ritual is originally and properly only a 
part of the ceremony of purification, it not infrequently 
happens that it is recited without performing the 

The reader of the ritual was, in ancient times, always a 
member of the NaJcatomi family, a family of priestly character 
(comp. note 51) which derives its origin from the god 


16 Ancient Japanese EUuals, 

Ama no Koyane no Mikoto (meaning Heavenly-Beckoning- 
Ancestor-Lord according to Motowori ; but the etymology 
is obscure. See Satow Vn, 400). This god played a 
conspicuous part in the arrangements made for enticing 
the Sun-goddess out of the Heavenly Kock-cave into which 
she had retired in consequence of Sasanowo's misconduct : 
he was made to recite a grand liturgy. Since that time he 
and his earthly descendants, the Nakatomi, are said to 
have filled the hereditary office of reciters of the Oho- 
harahe no Kotoba and other rituals. Towards the end of 
the ritual the Urabe or diviners are mentioned. Their 
function at the Oho-harahe ceremony was originally only 
to throw the purification-offerings away into the river ; but 
in the middle-ages it became the practice for them to 
recite the ritual itself, in stead of the Nakatomi. At the 
present time, the office of the Nakatomi as reciters of the 
Norito is no longer in existence ; the ritual is now read by 
a priest of the temple concerned. 

§ 6. The Present Oho-harahe Ceremony, according 
TO THE Decree of the 18th June 1872. 

On the last day of June and December, i. e. twice a 
year, the ceremony of purification shall be performed in 
aU public Shinto shrines (fiftJl^T all shrines both those 
supported by the Government and those maintained by 
the people of a particular locality.) The officials of the 
Fu and Ken as well as the common people shall then 
visit the shrine and partake in the purification. 

Ancient Japanese RUiials, 


Main Shrino 
jft (Honsha) 7^ 


( Haiden ) 

Common People. 


1. Seat for the [reader of the] Purification Bitual. 

2. Tables with the purification-ofiferings (harahe-tsu- 

* Give first the description of the modern ceremony, because it is 
easier to nnderstand than the rather fragmentary report on the old 
one, and throws also some light upon it. 

18 Ancient Japanese BUucUs, 

In the court yard in front of the shrine, to the right 
and left, coarse matting is spread, and small round, or 
square mats (Enza or ko-hanjo) are laid down to serve as 
seats for the local officials and priests during the purifica- 
tion. The officials sit on the left, the priests on the right 
hand side viewed from the temple. In the middle between 
them stand tables (ta-katsuwe) on which are deposited the 
purification-offerings (harahe-tsumono), consisting of two 
feet of bleached cloth made of paper-mulberry bark 
(t^cUB) and two feet of bleached linen (^).. Before these, 
i.e. between the tables and the shrine, is the seat for the 
[reciter of the] purification ritual. 

At 2 o'clock p.m. the local officials and priests occupy 
their seats. 

Then the chief priest {guji, or, if there is no gvji, the 
next highest priest) proceeds to the Main shrine (ahinden), 
mounts up [the stairs] and opens the door. 

Then he recites the following prayer, bowing twice : 

** In reverence and awe : In the honorable front of 
the. . . . Shrine, I, the chief priest, of such and such a rank 
and such and such a name, say in awe, in awe: As for the 
various sorts of sins that may have been committed either 
inadvertently or deliberately by the officials of this. . . .Fu (or 
ken), and the divine officials (i.e. priests) serving the great 
god [of this shrine], and moreover by the common people 
of all the Sato under his sway, the sins which we purify 
and cleanse at the setting of the evening-sun of the last 
day of the sixth (or twelfth) month of this year, depositing 

Ancient Japanese Rituals, 19 

in abundance various sorts of purifioation-offerings on the 
tables, — 

I humbly pray to the gods uf the place of purification: 
Deign to consult in divine consultation, and deign to 
purify and deign to cleanse the evils, hIus and pollutions 
of all people. Hear this my prayer [pricking your] ears 
higher and higher like the swift-running horse I Thus I 
say reverentially." *) 

Then the chief priest descends from the shrine and 
occupies again his seat at tbe place of purification. 

Hereupon a priest (^ '^) takes the seat in the middle 
(the above mentioned for the ritual) and turning his face 
towards the people (with his back towards the shrine), he 
recites the ritual of purification. 

(Some changes in the wording of the ancient ritual 
were necessitated by the different conditions of the time; 
but apart from this it has also been abbreviated in such a 
manner, that all the poetic charm of the original text, 
which may be justly called one of the most impressive 
productions of Japanese poetry, has entirely vanished. I 
cannot help calling the new official text a barbarous 
mutilation. It runs as follows : ) 1) 

*) In order to understund all details in this prayer and the fol- 
lowing abbreviated version of the ritnal of purification, the reader is 
requested to look up the corresponding passages in the ancient ritual, 
to which explanatory notes are appended. 

t) My translation is based on the text given in the official 
Jinja-savihiki (miiH:^J^)» published in August 1875. It differs slightly 
in the choice of some expressions from the text in the abov3 mention- 
ed decree (See Horei-zensho ft-^^fS, Meiji 5th year.) 

20 Ancient Japanese Rituals, 

'< I say : " Hear all of jou 1 The various sorts of sins 
tbat may have been committed as heavenly sins, or earthly 
sins, either inadvertently or deliberately by the officials of 

this. . Fu (or ken), and the divine officials (priests) 

who perve in this Shinto shrine, and more- 
over by the common people of all the places (Sato) under 
the sway [of the great god of this shrine ; the sins 
which we purify and cleanse in the great Purification, at 
the setting of the evening-sun on the last day of the sixth 
(or twelfth) month of this year, depositing on the tables 
the purification-offerings, 

will be carried out under mutual consent by the god- 
dess Se-ori-tHu-Hime, the goddess Haya-aki-tsu-Hime, 
the god Ifuki-do-nushi and the goddess Haya-sasura- 
Hime into the river and sea, and breathed away and made 
to disappear without trace in the Root-country, the Bot- 

After they have thus made them disappear, it is to 
be expected that, what one calls sin, (tsumi) and what one 
calls transgression, (toga) will from to-day no longer exist 
with the officials of this Fu (or ken), the priests, and more- 
over the men and women of all the houses in all places, 
and in this expectation I recite [this Norito] and perform 
the purification." 

Hereupon the local officials and priests grasp the 
Kiri-nusa and execute with it the purification. 

The Ktri-nusa ^^ [fit is a wand with hemp-fibres 

hanging from its upper end (on the whole identical 

with the Oohei). After the officials and priests have 

Ancient Japanese Bituals. 21 

taken their seats on the place of purification, the Kiri- 
nusa are distributed, and one is placed before each of 
the officials and pricHts. As for the common people 
taking part in the ceremony, they also manipulate the 
Kiri-nusa in the same way, or simply bow down, if 
they cannot procure any for themselves. 
Then the chief priest mounts up again to tbe main 
bhrine, closes the door and having finished doing this, 
descends from the shrine and returns to his seat. 
Hereupon the priests retire and go out. 

The purification-offerings are now cut into small 
pieces, and thrown away into the river or the sea. 
The same applies to the Kiri-nusa. (If neither river 
nor sea is close by, a tub of water is used instead). 

§ The Ancient Ceremony, According to the 

Ceremonial Regulation op the 

jogwan -period (859-876). 

''As for the great purification in the sixth and twelfth 
months, the officials, of the Department of the Shinto 
Religion (Jingi-kwan), the Imperial Household Departmet 
(Kunai), the Bureau of Sewing and Embroidery at the 
Imperial Court (Nuhidono) etc. shall present themselves 
in the fourth division of the hour of the horse (Le. between 
1^ and 2 o'clock p.m.) outside of the En-sei-mon (a gate 
on the east side of the Dairi or luner Palace). All the 
officials assemble at the spot chosen for the ceremony of 
purification (Harahe no tokoro). Before this, the officials 

22 Ancient Japanese BUuals. 

of the Department of the Shinto Religion, spread out the 
purification-offerings south of the way before the Shnjaku- 
mon (Gate of the Scarlet Bird, the Middle South gate of 
the outer enclosure of the Palace) — distributed at six 
places: the horse stands South, with its head facing the 
North — . The officials arrange the seats at the Sliujaku- 
mon and at the eastern and western Josha (ft #, watch 
houses in front of the gates of the Palace). 

All persons from Ministers, down to officials holding 
the fifth rank, have their seats at the eastern side of the 
platform, facing the West and being drawn up in double 
line according to their rank, from North to South. The first 
space cast of the southern staircase, is the stair for persons 
of the fourth rank downwardn, and the second space is the 
staircase for the State-Counsellors (Sangi) and officials of 
higher rank. The female officials are also on the western 
side of the same platform, separated by a curtain. The 
Fubito of the Geki-kwan (i.e. the scribes and under- 
secretaries of the Council of State) and the officials of the 
Central Department (Nakn-tsukasa), Board of Civil Office 
(Shikibn) and Board of War (Hjobu) have their seats at 
the eastern Josha. facing the West and being drawn up in 
lines according to thtir rnnk from North to South. The 
members of the Board of Police (Danj5) are at the western 
Josha, facing the East and being drawn up in lines ac- 
cording to their rank from North to South. The seat for 
the Norito (i.e. for the reader of the ritual of purifica- 
tion) is at the south-western side of the way, and 
before the seat is spread a cloth as Hizatsuki (small 

Ancient Japanese Rituals, 


square mat to squat upon). In the first division of the 
hour of the sheep (i.e. 2-2^ o'clock p.m.) the secretaries 



ffl D □ □ □ □ D=D 




Inner II 


c z=i 













Ancient Japanese EUuals. 


I 1 




(Geki) take each their seats ; the [officials of the] other 
offices stand at the eastern end of the eastern Josha, etc. 

Ancient Japanese Rituals, 25 

The Geki and their inferiors rise from their seats, go down 
to the southern end of the eastern building (sha) and 
post themselves there. The secretaries (Matsurigoto bito) 
and Clerks (Sakwan) of the Board of Civil Office and Board 
of War take their place at the head of the civil and military 
officials, and stand in lines, facing the West, and being 
drawn up according to their rank from North to South. 
The Secretaries and Clerks of the board of Police go down 
to the southern end of the western building, (sha) and 
post themselves there, facing the East, and being drawn 
up according to their rank from North to South. After 
they have thus posted themselves, the officials of the 
Department of the Shinto Religion distribute the Kiri-nusa 
(cut nusa) i.e. white wands with hemp-fibres hanging from 
the upper ends, the symbol of the primitive offerings of 
greater value) — among the sangi and superiors, these are 
distributed by Clerks, among the officials of the fourth 
rank upwards (but lower than the Sangi) by scribes, 
among the ladies and other officials by Kamu-Tomo no- 
wo.*) Thereupon Nakatomi takes his seat and recites 
the ritual. When he says Jdkoshimese " hear T', all the 
officials exclaim wo ! After the purification is finished, 
the [ceremony viri(^h the] 0/io-r? ii«a f ) is performed. Here- 
upon the Kiri-nusa of the persons from the fifth rank up- 
wards are taken back. Shortly afterwards all go away. 

*) Attendants in the Dei»artment of the Shint5 EeUgion, also 
oaUed Kamihe. There were thirty of them v\ the Department. 

f) A wand {Uushi) with cut paper {shvh). The Oho-nusa is taken 
and nibbed over the body, by which process the sins of the performer 
are believed to be transferred to it. 

26 Ancient Japanese Hituala. 

§ 8. Details on Various Practices. Ci£REmony 


During the middle ages, — it is impossible fix the time 
even oji\y approximatively — , various popular practices 
have sprung up in connection with the purification cere- 
mony and have partly been preserved to the present day. 
I shall proceed to mention some of the more important 
ones of them, in the course of a minute account which I 
am going to give, with illustrations, of the ceremony 
perf. rmed at the Sumiyoshijinja, situated on the small 
island Tsukuda-shima iu the mouth of the river Sumida- 
gawa, at Tokyo. This Shinto shrine, which is a branch 
shrine of the famous Sumiyoshi-jinja of Osaka, is one of 
the few shrines in the country, where, at least iu June 
(the December ceremony is an abridged one), the cere- 
mony is performed exactly in the same way as in the 
middle-jigen. The informations which I have been able 
to gather thereabout I owe mostly to the kinduess of the 
priest of the temple, Mr. Hiiaoka Yoshibumi (^WtTlSC). 

Towards the 25th or 26th of June (or December) the 
parishioners and other believers who wish to be purified go 
to the shrine and get f i om its official a so- called kaia-shv'o 
(ff^ f^), i.e. a white pa| er cut in the shape of a human 
garment. On this the person to be purified, writes the 
year and month of his birth, and his sex ; then he rubs the 
paper over his whole body, and breathes his breath on it, 
by which procedure his sins are transferred to it, and takes 
it back to the shrine before beginning of the ceremony. It 

Ancient Japanese RUuals. 27 

is therefore also called nade-mono (tH 4%) * ' stroke-tbing." 
(The article in Fuzoku-gaho No. 6 reports tbat in the 
Tokugawft-time the people wrote on the kala-shiro such 
phrases as kanaianzen (SjSft^^) ** peace for my house," or 
similar ones). All the kata-shiro brought back are packed 
into two OHhidzidsu (% IS) '' reed-sheath " which are placed 
on a table of black wood (kuroki no Isukmoe) , and are called 
harahe tmi-mono "purification-offering (see above). 

Length about 3''; 
Width about 2 ". 



' Black-wood-table," made of Haji ( 

bound with rattan vine. 
Length 2'; width 1'2"; height 1'. 

) branches. 

28 Ancient Japanese Rituals, 

The Tori'wi in front of the shrine is decorated in the 

following way: 

On the left and right is placed a large 
bamboo, called imi-dake (JfW) 
" sacred bamboo ; ** a shime-nawa 
is stretched across, and the inner 
space of the Tori*wi is filled out 
with a huge chi no wa (S^ O Id) 
" reed-ring,** from the upper part 
of which hang down shide (paper 
cuttings) and kata-shiro. In June 
the ring is made of reed, in 
winter of rice straw. Its circum- 
ference is about 8 ken (=48 


Length about 4' or more ; 

Circumference about 2' 

or more. (2 pieces). 


Cni NO WA (Reed-ring) with IMI-DAKK. 

White flag with emblem 
of a heron {sagi). 

32 Ancient Japanese RituaU. 

The place for the purification-ceremouy proper (the 
Harahe do) is chosen in front of the shrine, in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the border of the river ; it covers a space 
of about three ken (18 feet) square. After the place has been 
made ceremonially pure, imi'dake are erected at its four 
corners, shimenafia are stretched between them, and the 
whole space is covered with ara-komo ** fresh rush mat<s/' 
An eight-legged table {yotsu-aslii no t8ukuioe)i9 put there, and 
thereon the Himorogi (iuto which the gods are called down 
by prayer) is placed. Bound about the purification place 


Length 2' i*'^; 

wiaiii r iy\ 



The mitidle part, the Himorogi proper, 
consist 8 of u Sakaki or Kashi {oak) 
branch, with eight-fold white paper 
shide, and hemp fibres hanging down in 
the middle. Kound about is a kind of 

Ancieni Japanese Rituals. 83 

80-called i-gushi ('&.$) '* sacred Btuken " are planted in the 
ground, and on the side where the rirer flows two ''flags 
of the gods " (ItR shin-ki) are erected. 

8 pieceR (2 on each side). 

(A green bamboo, of about 4' length. The 
paper insected above in Hix-fold, the material 
being hd.sho paper (a kind of five paper, so 
called from its having been used in writing 
the hosho, a letter of instruction issued 
through the secretary of the Kamakura 
Shogunate by order of th e latter. Brinkley's 
Diet.). Hemp ships bound in a peculiar 
way are hanging down from the top of the 
stake on the left and right hand side. 


1) One Thahi-nwihi (Sf±) master of rites. " The chief 
priest of the shrine functionates as such. He opens and 
closes the door of the nmiu shrine (shinden) at the begin- 
ning and end of the service, aud recites the prayer. On 
the purification place he performs the kanii-oroshi, (calling 
down the purification gods into the Himorogi), and 

34 Ancieyit Japanese Rituals. 

kami'oge (sending back the gods), and recites the prayer. 

2) One Kotoshinbito {9A) connoisseur, director of the 

3) One NoritO'shi (ill96iP). He announces to the 
assembled people, on the place of purification, the 
intention of the performance of the Obo-harahe, and 
afterwards recites the Obo-harahe no kotoba. 

4) One Mike no Osa {iHtBiSt) chief of the divine food. 

•I*- ti|, 











Eight-legged Bacrificial table {yatsu-ashi no shinsen-an). Length 8'; 
width 1'5"; height 2' 5". 

Earthen vessel with salt 
disBolyed in warm water. 

Sakaki branch. 


Ancient Japanese RUuals. 


He places the food-offerings to the gods on the saorifioial 
tables in the main shrine, and afterwards takes them again 
away (after the essence of the food has been consumed bj 
the gods). 

A kind of helmet, made 
of paper, and called ehdshi- 
kami, i-e. paper in the 
form of an ehdshi cap. 

Shide (cnt paper), 
eight layers. 

Hemp (asa). 

Two stakes {kushi)^ one 
of plum-troe wood, the 
other of bamboo, on which 
the paper and hemp are 

Octangular stand (cZai) 
tor the Oho-nnsa. 

OHO-NUSA, :A:J||i (lit. big hemp), about 4' high from the top to the 

36 AncieiU Japanese RUuals. 

5) One Shiho-yu-gyoji (Sli6ff¥). He purifies the 
Himorogi with salt-water. The salt-water is in a white 
earthen vessel, this on a Sambd (wooden stand used in 
offering sacriiices to the kami) which the priest holds with 
the left hand, whilst he sprinkles the water with a small 
Sukaki branch held in the right hand. 

6) One Oho-nusa-gydji (;^JRff¥). He parities the 
assembled people with the Oho-nusa (holding it with both 
hands and brandishing it over the assembly, first in the 
direction of his left, then his right, then ugain his left 
shoulder: the so-called sa-yu-sa '* left-right-left"). 

7) Two Shidori ^%, compauions and assistants of the 

8) Te-na ga (^^) "long-armed," assistants in the offering 
of the food to the gods. The various articles of food for 
the gods, placed on a number of Sambo, are kept ready in 
the Shinsen-ya ** divine food-hall " outside the shrine. In 
offering, one Samho after the other is brought from the 
Shinsenya and placed on the sacrificial tables. This is 
done in the following way : The sacrificer proper, the 
Mike no Osa, posts himself directly before the sacrificial 
tables, and from him to the Shinaeiiyaf at a distance of one 

nq Mike no Osa 

c<^-— Tenaga 

Shinseoya Q]d ^^^ ij 

Ancient Japanese RUaals, 37 

Ken from each other, stand a number of Jb-naga, but not 
in straight line : 

The Sambo are passed from one Tenaga to the other 
(who have covered their mouth with a white [paper 
^Weiyfukumen, in order not to pollute the food by tbeir 
breath) with arms out-stretohed at the height of their 
ejes ; the receiver claps his hands once before taking the 
Sambo, in token of his readiness, for it would be a high 
offence to the gods to let anything drop. Finally the 
Mike no Osa receives the Sambo and places it on the table. 
In the same way, the offerings are taken away again : what 
has been brought last, is taken away first, and so on. 
There are fixed regulations for the number of Sambo and 
the kinds of food to be offered on each occasion. The 
first Sambo is placed in the middle, the following ones are 
alternatively placed to the right and left of it. (seen 
by the public). 

9) One Kamu'kotO'Hhi (lt9ISP) player on the divine 
Koto. He plays the so-called Suga-gaki (melody on the 
Yamato-koto, without iiccompaniment of ringing) on the 
Yamato koto (sinico-jap. Wjgon), a six-stringed harp, 
during the opening and closing of the door of the Main 
Shrine and during the kami-oroshi and kami-age. 

Length 4'2". 

38 Ancient Japan^.s", Rduah. 

10) Two Yosohi'shi (fSWfiiP) decorate ra. They bring 
and take the tables and other things used in the ceremony. 

11) Reijin (fp A) musicians ; their number is not 

It may be observed that, though the above list of 
officiating priests is fixed by the regulations, in reality 
several functions are mostly performed by one man, because 
it is rarely the case that so many priests are at disposition. 

Tbe whole service may be divided into two phases: 

A) the preliminary service in the Shinden; 

B) the purification service proper on the Harahe-do. 

A) In the SHINDEN : 

When, at about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, all pre- 
parations have been finished, the divine officials take their 
seats before the Shindt^n at a sign of the drum {dai-ikko 
first drum). 

First, the Jhahi nushi mounts up to the Shinden, 
accompanied by the Shidori who roll up the misu (a blind 
made of fine bamboo strips, hung before the door of the 

Then the Jhahi-nushi btops forward and opens the 
door with a key. Whilst he does so, the two Shidori, 
squatting behind him, bow down and make the keihUau, 
Le. utter three times a long-sustained cry 51, by which 
they warn the peple to be respectful. At the Bame time, 
playing on the koto. < 

Then the Ihahi-nushi bows twice and claps his hands 
without causing a sound (^ ^ Shinobi-le), 

Ancient Japamse liituals. 


Then the Ihahi-nushi and Shidori go back to their 

Then the divine food {shinsen) is offered to the gods 
in the way described under No. 8 (Tenaga), First the 
tables are placed before the sanotuarium, and then the 
Sambo with the food are brought one after the other. In 
thi^ instance nine Sambo are offered, on •which are the 
following articles. 

7 5 3 12 4 6 






















Ancient Japanese Rituals, 

will -. 1: ■, :4 

Doki S^iiki 

(white) (white) 


Stand for the covered with white paper 
Sake-cap that is bound on it 

with a hemp-thread 
(used as wino vessel 
on the Harahe-do). 

The chopsticks are make of willow-tree and placed on 
a mimi-kawarake, Le. an unglazed earthen yessel with 
handles in the shape of an ear. 

The rice is put on a small doki {=kawarake unglazed 
earthen vessel), an oak-leaf being first spread on the doki. 

The sake is kept in 2 bottles {m'Uca) 

The kara-na " sharp-tasting greens " (such as wasabi 
horse-radish, shoga ginger, negi onion, etc.) and ama-na 
''sweet greens" (such as seri Oenathe stolonifera, nasubi 

•Andenl Japaneaea RUualn. 41 

egg-plant, yama-inw mountaiu-potato, ninjln carrot, etc) 
nre placed on a </(Wbi with an oak-leaf under them. The 
Bame is the cat4e with the sea-iish. sea- weed, peaches, biwa 

The Ujrinoko'inochi " egg-shaped mochi (i.e. cakes made 
of pounded glutinous rice) are placed on paper. 

The fiolt \H put on a doki, and the water in a suiki 
( water- vessel). ] 

During the offering, music. 

Then the Jhai-nushi recites a prayer (norito). He in- 
vokes the three gods of Suminoye (Soko-dzutsu no Wo, 
Naka-d2ui8u no Wo and Uha-dzutnu no Wo) produced 
when Izanagi washed himself to clean away the pollution 
contracted in Hades, and the two deities Oki-naga- 
tnrashihime no Mikoto and Adzuina-mi-oya no Mikoto, 
and Msks them to consult with the great gods of the 
purification-place, in order to remove to Hades all 
evils, sins and pollutions from the people of Tsukuda-no- 
shima, the merchants wlio come to the shrine, nnd the fami- 
lies and relations of the officiating priests, and to bestow 
upon them peace, protection and bli^s. 

Then twice double bows (i.e. bowing 4 times: ryoda^i 

Then the Ihahi-nushi and all othern return to their 

Then, on the second signal of the drum, all leave the 
temple hall, the Ihahi-nushi with an Atia-no-ha (hemp 
leaves) in his hand. They go one after the other through 
and round the Chi-no-wa, singing a song, under the 


Ancient Japanese BUuala. 






J. — 


^ mi 


J ^*^ 

ii '^^ 


/'// «**■ 


l ris. 


y\ ' 



leadership of the ^o^o-8/im-&ito, and proceed to the purifica- 
tion-place. The going- 
round the Chi'Tio'iva (chi- 
no-wa wo meguru) is done 
in the following way : one 
steps into the ring, turns to 
the left and goes three 
times round the left pillar 
in the sa-yusa fashion (i a 
once to the left then 
to the right and then 
again to the left) ; then 
he turns three times 
round the right pillar in 
the same fashion, and goes 
on to the Harahe-do. The 
two songs sung when mak- 
ing the round of the Cbi-no-wa, are : 
Minadzuki no 
Nagoshi no harahe 
Suru hito ha 
Cbitose no inochi 
Nobu to ifu nari. 
" The people who perform the Nagoshi no harahe 
(see above § 1) of the watery moon, are said to prolong their 
lives to thousand years. " 

Omof u koto 
Mina tsukine tote 
Asa no ha wo 

(wrapped in white paper which 
is bound with a hemp string). 

Ancitnt Japanese BUuals. 43 

Eiri ni kirite zo 
Harahe tsuru kana. 

What [we] tbiuk, shall all be anuihilated. With this 
intention, cutting hemp-leayes with cuts, [we] have per- 
formed purification/" 

B. On the Habahb-do. 

The Harahe-tsu-mono are brought, laid, as stated 
above, on a table of black wood which is placed on a 
convenient spot^of the purification-place. 

First salt-water {shUu) no yu) is sprinkled. 

Then the Ihahi-nushi and Shidori proceed before the 
Himorogi and squat down. 

Then the Ihahi-nushi recites the words bj which 
the gods of purification are called down (kamiroroshi) 
into the Himorogi. Meanwhile the Suga-gaJd is 
plajed by the koto-player, and the sLidori make the 

Then the Ihahi-nushi bows twice and makes the 
shinobi'le (soundless clapping of the hands). 

Then the Ihahi-nushi and Shidori return to their 

Then the Oho-nusa is brought out (from the shrine.) 

Then the Norito aid announces to the people his in- 
tention of performing the Harahe. The people utter their 
consent (lit say ' ' yes, " which means that they are ready). 
The Norilo-shi says: Eore no yu-uiha ni ugonohareru hito 
mina ga ayamachi-okashikemu kusagnsa no tnumi-goto 
wo harahe-do no oho-kamitachi umi-kaha ni mochi-idete 
Ne no kuni Soko no kuni ni ibuki-hanachi sasurahi 

44 Ancient Japanese Riluols. 

usliinabitemu. Kakii ushinaihiteba kefu jori hajimete 
tsurni to ifu tsumi wa araji to harahi-tamahl kijoine 
tamafu koto no yoahi wo moro-moro kikoshimese to noru. 
1.6; *' The great gods of the purificatioD-place will take 
out into the river and sea all sorts of offenoen, that maj 
have been committed either inadvertently or deliberately, 
by the people assembled iti this pure oourt-yard, and 
blow them away and ct»mpletely banish them and get rid 
of them into Hades. Hear you all the circumstance. 
(yoshi) of the. purification [which is performed with the 
intention] that from to-day there will be no longer 
any offence which is called offence, after they have thus 
got rid of them. " 

Then offering of divine food. Meanwhile music. [Thin 
time only iseiyn Sambo are offered, viz. 

6 4 2 1 3 5 7 




Rice Rice 





water Salt 


Than the Ihahi-nushi recites the prayer (r^ori^o) and at 
the same time all proceed forward before the Himorogi 
and squat down. The prayer is directed to the four gods 
of the purification-place, and auks them to bless the people 
by their lofty spirit, totake away their offences without leav- 
ing any trace, and to enjoy the food and wine presented. 

Then ryo-dan saihai (bowing 4 times). All do the 

Then the Nojito-shi recites the Oho-harahe no kotoba 
(our present ritual). 

AnoieiU Japanese Rituals, 45 

Then the Norito-shi bows twice, with shinobi-te. 

Then the manipulation with the Oho-nusa. 

Then the divine food is again removed (in the reverse 
order to that in which it has been brought from the 
Sliinsen-ya). Meanwhile music. 

Then the Thahi-nushi and Shidori proceed before the 
Himorogi and squat down. 

Then the double bow and shinobi-te of the Ihahi-nushi . 

Then the Ibahi-nushi recites the words of the Kami- 
age (Ben<ling back the godf>). Suga-gaki and keihitsu, as in 
the kami-QivshL 

Then the Ihahi-nuHhi and Shidori return to their 

Then the Himorogi is removed. 

Then ushiro-de (jg ^ hand clapping to mark the act of 

Then the Harahe-tsu-mono are packed into a boat 
which is rowed out into the sea in order to throw them away 
there. In the mean- time, after the unhiro-de, the Ihahi- 
nushi and those priests who have not gone into the boat, 
return, to the shrine and again take tbeir seats there. 

Now the Ihahi-nushi ascends to the Main shrine: 
double bows and shiucbi-te. 

Then the divine food offered in the Main shrine is 
removed. Meanwhile music. 

Then double bows and shinobi-te of the Ihai-nushi. 

Then the Ihahi-nushi goes and shuts up the door of 
the Main shrine. Meanwhile Suga-goJct, and keihilsu by 
the Shidori. 

46 Ancient Japanese Rituals, 

Then the ourtniu {misu) is let down again. 
Then ushiro-de. 

Then the IhaJii-nushi and shidori go back to their seats. 

§ 9. The Present Cebemony in the Impebi/il Palace. 

The Ewanpo (Official Gaztte) publishes twice a year, 
towards the end of June and December, regulations with 
regard to two special ceremonies which take place in the 
Imperial Palace for the sake of the purification of the 
Emperor and the officials of the various ministerial 

A) The 2/0 on "breaking [bamboo] joints" ceremony 
for the Emperor. At 12 o'clock (noon) the decoration of 
the so-called Hdd no ma *' Phoenix Hall ", a room of the 
palace in which the ceremony takes place, is undertaken. 
At 1 p. m. the officials of the Eunaisho enter, and the 
Shoten-cho (Grand Master of the Ceremonies) goes and asks 
theE mperor to be pn^seut. He and all his subordinates 
wait for His Majesty under the eaves {hi^ashi ni; at present 
they wait in the corridor). After the Emperor has made his 
appearance, the Shotencho steps forward and inquires 
after His Majesty's health. Then a Chamberlain {jiju) 
hands to the Emperor an arayo cloth ^ ). The Emperor takes 
it, gives it back to the Chamberlain, and this one hands 
it over to the Shotencho. Next, a Shoten (Master of the 
Ceremonies) takes bamboo canes, called ara-yo no take^), 
and hands them fco a Chamberlain. The Chamberlain takes 
with this bamboo five times the measure of the body of the 

Ancfumt Japanese Rituals, 41 

Emperor'), and, this done, be gives the bamboo back to 
the Sboten. Hereupon a Sboten takes an ara-yo no tsubo 
"rough-joint jar" and hands it to a Chamberlain. 'JUie 
Chamberlain hands it to the Emperor, and after his 
Majesty has done with it, the jar is given back to the 
Chamberlain and then to the Shoten. The whole 
ceremony is then gone through a second time, only nigo-yo 
cloih, bamboo, and jnr being used instead of the 
ara-yo objects. Then the Emperor retires. After he 
has gone, the Shoten betakes himself to the Oho-kawa 
(great river, in order to throw away all the objects used ; 
the Sumida-gawa is here understood), and a Shoteu-ho 
Vice Master of Ceremonies) goes with the mi-nusa {MM) to 
the purification-place (haraht^-do). Thereupon all retire. 


^) Ara " rough," in contradistinction to mgo "soft," 
used in the same way as in the Shinto expressions ara- 
mitama " rough or enraged august spirit " (of a god or 
deceased person) and mgi-milama ''soft or propitious 
spirit ; " yo " bamboo joint. " The ara yo cloth is made of 
nunc, which piobably is here equivalent to asa "hemp" (I 
was not able to make it out positively), whilst the nigo-yo 
cloth, mentioned farther down, is made of silk. Wherein 
the material distinction between aroryo no take and ara-yo 
no tsubo on the one side, and nigo-yo no take and nigo-yo no 
tsubo on the other side, lies, I am not prepared to say. 

^) The number of the bamboo canes is nine. 

') In taking the measure of His Majesty's body, one 

48 Ancient Jajyanese EUuals, 

cane after the other is used, each oane being used only 
ODoe. First of all the entire length of the body is 
measured, and the exceeding piece of the cane is broken 
oft, wherefrom the name of the whole ceremony : yo-ori 
"the breaking off of the [suporfliious] joints [of the 
bamboo]/' Then the measure is taken, in the same 
manner, from both shoulders to the feet, then from the 
middle of the breast to the finger-tips of both hands, then 
from both loins (koshi) down to the feet, then from both 
knees down to the feet. The whole action is of course a 
symbolic one. 

^) He breathes his breath into it 

B) The Ohohardlie for iJie officiiUif in the court-yard 
of the place. 

At 1^ p. m. arrangements are made in the yard (teijo) 
for the preparation of a harahe-do, and the harahe-tsu-mono 
are deposited there. At 2 p. m. the Shotencho and others 
take their seats, together with one official of Chokunin 
rank, one of Sonin rank, and one of Hannin rank, of each 
ministerial department respectively. The two Shoten-ho 
put rice into the vii-nusa which is laid on a table standing 
in the yard. Then the Shoten-cho calls a Shoteu and 
commands him to perform the purification. The Sh5ten 
proceeds to the front uf the table and reads the Oho- 
harahc no Kotoba, Then a Shoteu steps forward, takes the 
Olio-niisa from the table, steps back, turns his face to all 
the people sitting in the yard and purifies them standing 
(He purities them by flourishing the Oho-nutfa over them, 
as described above). Having doue, he delivers the Oho- 

Ancient Japanese Rituals. 49 

nusa to a Sii6ten-ho. During this procedure the sitting 
persons stand up. Then the Sboten, turning in the 
direction of the great river, calls out; *' Harahesare ! " 
(purify away !). Then the Shoten-ho takes the harahe-tsu- 
mono and goes with them to the great river (to throw 
them away into the water). Thereupon all retire. 

§ 10. Legendary Origin of the Purification Ceremony, 
AND Character of the Harahe-tsu-mono. 

The origin of the ceremony of purification is ascribed 
by Japanese scholars, to two mythical occurrences related 
in chapters 10 and 17 of the Eojiki, and the corresponding 
passages of the Kihongi. It is hardly necessary to 
remind the critical student that, in point of fact, the two 
mythical occurrences are not the origin of the ceremony, 
but on the contrary the framing of the myths, presupposes 
the existence of the ceremony. The truth is that the two 
myths, represent only the most ancient Japanese tradition 
with regard to this peculiar religious custom, and as such 
they are of the highest value. 

The first occurrence is the ablution of the god Jzanagi 
after his visit to the lower regions, the land of Yomi 
(Yomo) or Hades, whence he bud tried to fetch back his 
deceased wife Izanami (parallel to the Greek legend of 
Orpheus and Eurydice I). After his return from the un- 
successful task which had severely tried his nerves, he was 
seized with regret, and said (Nihongi version) : *' Having 
gone to — Nay 1 a bideous and filthy place, it is meet that I 


50 AncieiU Japanese Rituals. 

should cleanse my body from its pollutions." He accord- 
ingly went to the plain of Ahagi [east] of Tachibana 
[near] the river Wo to in [the province of] Himuka in 
Tsukushi, and purified himself. When at length he was 

about to wash away the impurities of his body, he lifted 
up his voice and said : ' ' The upper stream is too rapid 
and the lower stream is too sluggish, I will wash in the 
middle stream." By his plunging down and washing, a 
number of Deities were produced, some of whom play a 
leading part, later on, in the religious ceremony of 
purification and are mentioned in our ritual. 

Izanagi's ablution is the prototype of the ceremonial 
lustration required after contact with death, birth and 
other things impure. Lustrations are a widespread 
practice, as may be seen from Tylor's Primitive Culture, vol. 
II, pag. 430 seqq. For comparison's sake I will quote two 
especially striking passages from this work:^) Ceremonial 
lustration to expiate a guilt was used in ancient Peru ; 
after having confessed his sins, the Inca took a bath in a 
neighbouring river and spoke the following formula : *'0 
river, receive the sins which I have confessed to-day 
before the Sun, carry them down into the sea and make 
that they never appear again." 

The means most frequently used for removing im- 
purities of the body or soul was the water, the divine 
waters to which the Hindoo prays : *' Take away, ye 

*) Possessing only the German eclition of Tylor's book, I am not 
abte to reproduce the author's exact words. 

Ancient Japanese Rituals. 51 

waters, everything that is bad ia me, what I have done by 
violence, or in swearing or with untruth."^) 

The second mythical occurrence alluded to is the 
jmnishment of the god Susa-no-Wo. After the Gods had 
succeeded in enticing the Sun-goddess out of the 
Heavenly Rock-cave into which she had retired, enraged 
on account of the misconduct of her brother Susanowo, 
the chief text of the Nihongi^) reports : After this all the 
Gods put the blame on Susanowo no Mikoto, and imposed 
on him a fine of one thousand tables [of offerings], and so 
at length chastised him. They also had his hair plucked 
out, and made him therewith expiate his guilt. It is also 
reported that they made him expiate it by plucking out 
the nails of his hands and feet. In the second variant it 
says : After this Susanowo no Mikoto was convicted, and 
fined in the articles required for the ceremony of purifica- 
tion (haralie), |They took] the ends of his hands as 
good things to be thrown away {yoshi-tirahi-mono), 
and the ends of his feet as bad things to be thrown 
away {anhi-kirahi-mono) ; again, of his spittle they made 
white soft offerings, and of his nose-mucus they made 
green soft offerings, with which the purification was accom- 
plished. Finally they banished him according to the law of 
Divine Banishment. The parallel passage in the third 

^) This is verse 22 of hymn 23, first Mandala of the Kig-veda. 
In the original: Idam apah pravahata yat kirn ca duritam mayi, Yad 
"va ham abhidudroha yad va 9epa utanritam. 

') I prefer to quote the Nihongi, because, at least in this 
instance, it furnishes richer material than the Kojiki. 

52 Ancient Japanese Bituals. 

variant shows that by the "ends of the hands and feet" 
are meant the nails of his hands and feet. 

The yoshi-kirahi-mono (yoshi good hirafu to abhor and 
throw awaj) are according to Suzuki Shigetane's Kihongi- 
den, the signs and symbols of the purification, as it is 
performed before every divine service (comp. § 2 under C) 
and we might style them ritual or sacred offerings. The 
ashi'kirahi mono (ashih&d) are penitential offerings provid- 
ed by the offender in expiation of his offence. For in every 
process of purification two sides must be distinguished : a 
good side which aims at procuring luck, and a bad side 
which aims at doing away with calamity. Motowori is of 
the same opinion: under yoshi-kirahi-mono he understands 
the sacred utensils used for the rite (the nusa), and under 
ashi'kirahi' mono the objects which the offender has pos- 
sessed and used, and which, therefore, must be thrown 
away as impure. He says that in the case of Susanowo the 
offence was so grave, that the usual purification-offerings 
were not sufficient ; the nails of his hands and feet had 
therefore to be added. 

The Rui-ju-san-dai-kyaku enumerates four categories 
of harahe-titu-mono, viz. : 
a):^^'^^ Dai no harahe-tsu-mono (great) 28 sorts, 

b) ± „ „ „ Kami ,, „ (upper) 26 „ 

c) * „ „ „ Naka ,, ., (middle) 22 „ 
d)Ty, „ „ Shimo,, „ (lower) 22 ,, 

What kind of objects these were in the most ancient 
time, is shown by the two passages quoted in § 3 from the 
Nihongi : As Harahe-tsu-niono are to be forwarded by the 

Ancitnil Japanese RUttals. 53 

Kuni no Mijatsuko of each province : one horse aud one ) 
piece of cloth ; moreover by each district-governor : one 
sword, one deerskin, one mattock, one smaller sword, one 
sickle, one set of arrows, and one sheaf of rice in the car ; 
moreover by each house : one bundle of hemp. And : 
Each Kuni no Miyatsuko supplied as purification-offering 
one slave, and thus the purification was done. These 
things may fairly be considered asrepresentiog the entire 
property of the primitive household. As for the Harahe 
of a single person, evidently his whole movable property \ 
was thrown away in grave cases ;^) but with the purifica- \ 
tion of the whole people such a sweeping procedure was, 
of course, impossible : certain things were chosen as its 
symbols. In the course of time the spirit of economy 
asserted itself more and more with regard to the Harahe- 
tsu-mono, until they were reduced to the comparatively 
insignificant amount mentioned in § G. 

From what I have said above, the reader will already 
have understood that the lustration of Izanagi and the 
punishment of Susanowo are not two different kinds of 
Harahe, but only two integral elements of one and the 
same process. Offence and pollution are inseparable 
ideas with the ancient Japanese :^) they are in fact 

^) In CoDDection with this point the fact should be noticed that 
in his: flight from Hades Izanngi throws away aU his personal 
wearing : his black head-dress, many-toothed comb, sta£f, girdle, 
npper garment, trowsers and shoes (Nihongi, Aston pag. 25 and 26). 

2) And not with them alone ! Comp. E. g. Wurm, Geshichte der 
iDdischen Religion, png. 96 : The offences against the law through 
which a man is liable to bring down upon himself punishment in a 
future life, are pre-eminently regarded as pollutions. The danger 

54 Ancient Japanese Rituals. 

identical. He who has committed a crime mu&t be 
purified, as well as he who has come into contact with 
something impure ; the purification extends to persons 
and things. The person is purified by lustration, the 
impure thing is thrown away, or, where that is not 
possible or advisable (as e. g. when a temple compound 
has been polluted), it is made pure again by prayer and 
ceremony. The intimate connection between lustration 
and expiatory fine, is especially well shown by an incident 
reported by the Nihopgi in the Annals of Emperor Kichiu 
as having occurred on the 11th day, 10th month 404 A. D. 
(Aston, I 308). An Imperial concubine had died, and 
some one told the Emperor that her death was to be 
attributed to the impious action of a certain Kuruma- 
mochi no Kimi (i. e. Kimi or master of the Cart-keepers) 
who had gone to the land of Tsukushi, where he held a 
a review of all the Cart-keepors' Be, and had taken along 
with them the men allotted to the service of the Deities 
(Eamube no tami). The Emperor straightway summoned 
to him the Kimi of the Cart-keepers and questioned him. 
The facts having been ascertained, the Emperor enumer- 
ated his offences, saying: — *'Thou, although only Kimi 
of the Cart-keepers, hast arbitrarily appropriated the 

always in this conception of sic, is, vrith regard to the Hindoos, 
expressed by Wurm in the following words (same page) : The effect 
of this propensity for external ceremonies has been that the Hindoo, 
in spite of his deeper conception of evil in the Indian doctrine of the 
"Weltiibel, has entirely lost the proper moral idea of sin and guilt, so 
that to-day by sin he understands nothing else bat such external 
pollntions, and is nearly incapable of comprehendiog sin as having 
its seat in the human heart. 

Ancient Japanese Rituals, 55 

subjeots of the Mikado. This is one offence. Thou didst 
wrongfully take them, comprising them in the Cart- 
keepers' Be after they had been allotted to the service of 
the Gods of Heaven and Earth. This is a second offence/' 
So he imposed on him the bad expiatory Jine {ashi-harahe) and 
the good expiatory fine (yoshi-harahe), and sent him away to 
Cape Nagasu,^) there io purify and wash (harahe-misogashi- 
mu). After he had done so, the Emperor commanded 
him, saying: — ''Henceforward thou may est not have 
charge of the Cart-keepers' Be of Tsukushi." So he 
confiscated them all, and allotted them anew, giving them 
to the three Deities." 

Another noteworthy case is told in the Annals of 
Emperor Yuriaku, 13th year (469 A.D.), 3rd month : " 
Hatane no Mikoto, great-great-grandson of Saho-hiko 
[who was again a grandson of Emperor Kogen), secretly 
seduced (okaseri, the same term which occurs so often in 
our ritual) the courtlady Yamanobe no Ko-shima-Ko. 
When this came to the Emperor's ears, he gave Hatane 
no Mikoto in charge to Mononobe no Me no Oho-muraji, 
and made him call him to account for it. Hatane no 
Mikoto purged his ojffence (jgtRllfi tsumi ico harafu) by the 
payment of eight horses and eight swords." 

§ 11. The Eitual of Purification 
Viewed from the Standpoint of Jurisprudence. 

Dr Weipert puts, on page 371, the question whether 
the offences enumerated in the ritual, constitute the 

*) 1 1 the provinco of Settsu. Niigasa (Aston) is a mispriQt. 

66 Ancient Japanese RUudtH, 

categories of the criminal law of the primitive Japanese, 
(die strafrecbtlicben Kategorieen der japanischen Yor- 
zeit), and whether thoir treatment in the process of 
purification can be called a penal resentment (strafrecb- 
tlicbe Abnduug) ? He answers the question in the 
affirmative, without overlooking the fact that the treat- 
ment by purification was not the only metliod of reaction 
against crimes. There are in the Eojiki, and Nihongi, 
numerous instances of arbitrary punishment, inflicted by 
rulers, chieftains etc, or of private revenge (Dr Weipert 
quotes some of them from the Eojiki), but nothing shows 
the existence of fixed punitive laws or conventions. The 
quiet national development of the Japanese criminal law, 
has been obstructed by the introduction of the Chinese 
criminal code of the Thang Dynasty, called Taiho-Bitsa 
(because promulgated in the first year of the period 
Taiho, i.e. 701 A.D.), and though, of course, nobody can 
say in what direction Japanese law would have developed 
if left alone, it is evident that arbitrary punishment and 
private revenge would have been checked considerably in 
the course of time. May I be permitted to conclude this 
chapter by quoting largely from Dr Weipert's own words 
(on page 372 seq. of his essay), as it would be impossible 
to render a more lucid and concise account of this matter? 
Dr Weipert says : 

If we confine ourselves to the prehistoric times of 
Japan, we find in them no other traces of conceptions of 
a binding law, than those handed down to us in the 
rituals dedicated to the gods. It was indeed the power 

Ancient Japanese Rituals. 57 

of the ruler which held the community together, but the 
idea of the society being subject to lawful restraint was 
to be found only in the religious sentiments of the people. 
To the extent of these sentiments alone, can it be said that 
a lawfully regulated community and a consciousness of 
such existed in those days. Now, since we take Criminal 
Law to be the publicly regulated reaction of a community* 
against all acts of its members which are detrimental to 
the common interest, we can scarcely hesitate to describe 
the Oharai (Oho-harahe) as the first source of Japanese 
Criminal Law." 

This statement by no means implies that the acts of 
purification imposed by the rite, are to be considered as 
punishments in the present acceptance of the word. On 
the contrary Motowori is perfectly right in emphatically 
objecting to an interpretation, which would imply that the 
tearing off of Susanow's nails was a sort of corporal 
punishment, or which would make acts of restitution out 
of the offerings imposed. In either case the principal 
and original idea, was to symbolise purification, whilst the 
evils which resulted therefrom to the individual concerned 
were merely an effect. The same has to be said with 
regard to the banishment, which is finally pronounced 
against Susanowo. This measure was merely aimed, at 
the expulsion of the polluted from the community of the 
pure, it was a mere consequence of the purification, and 
not intended as a punishment in itself. 

It will therefore be safe to state that in the case of an 
individual Harahe, a punishment was indeed inflicted on 

58 Ancient Japanese liituals, 

the Avrongdoer ; but it was inflicted for the sake of the 
whole procedure of purification, not for the sake of the 
punishment of banishment as such. This procedure bore 
an entirely religious character, and had no other aim than 
to settle the account with the gods. We may therefore 
conclude that the Criminal Law of ancient Japan belonged 
to the category of the so-called, sacred Criminal Laws 
(** Sacrales Strafrecht "). 

Respecting the prosecution of crime, one may perhaps 
be permitted to emphasize the fact, that frequently repea- 
ted purifications of the whole people were considered 
necessary ; which enables us to arrive at the conclusion 
that the application of an individual Harahe was rarely 
resorted to, and perhaps only in cases of an exceptional 
character, so that private revenge had ample opportunity 

to assert itself. 


[L] Hesaysi): 

'' Hear all of you, assembled princes of the blood, 
princes, 3 bigh dignitaries and men of the bundred 
[TI.] He says : 

*• Hear all of you, tbat in tbe Great Purification of tbe 
[present] last day of tbe sixtb montb of tbe current year, 
[tbe sovran]^) deigns to purify, and deigns to cleanse tbe 
various offences wbicb; may bave been committed eitber 
inadvertently, or deliberately,^) especially by tbe [persons] 
serving at tbe Imperial court, [viz.] tbe scarf -wearin g 
attendants, tbe sasb-wearing attendants [of tbe kitcben],^) 
tbe attendants wbo carry quivers on tbe back,'') tbe 
attendants Avbo gird on swords,'') the eigbty attendants 
of tbe attendants,^) and moreover®) by tbe people serving 
in all offices^®)." 
[III.] He says : Hear all of you : 

Tbe sovran's dear progenitor and progenitrix,^ * ) wbo 
divinely remain in tbe Plain of Higb Heaven; deigned to 
assemble by tbeir command^ ^) in a divine assembles tbe 
eigbt bundred myriads of gods, and deigned to consult in 
divine consultation ^3), and respectfully i*) gave tbe man- 
date witb tbe words :' Our sovran Grandcbild's' ^) august- 
ness sball tranquilly rule tbe Luxuriant Keed-plain Region 
of Fresb-young Spikes^®) as a peaceful country." 

[Tbe divine progenitor and progenitrix] deigned to 
arraign witb divine arraignment tbe savage Deities^'') in 

60 Ancient Jajxinesii Ritada. 

the country thus given in charge ; and deigned to expel 
them with divine expulsion ; and silenced the rocks, and 
trunks of trees, and isolated leaves^ ^) of the herbs that 
[formerly*! had spoken ; and letting him go from the 
Heavenly Rock-Seat, ^o) and dividing a road through the 
eightfold heavenly clouds with a mighty road-dividing, ^o) 
they respectfully sent) him down from Heaven, and 
respectfully gave [the land] in charge to him. 

As the centre of the countries of the four quarters 
thus given in charge, was respectfully destined the country 

Great Yamato, where the sun is seen on high^^), as a 

peaceful country ; and making stout the 

House^^-pillars on the nethermost rock-bottom, and 
making high the cross beams^^) to the Plain of High 
Heaven, [the builders] respectfully constructed the fresh 
Abode^*) of the sovran Grandchild's augustness, in order 
that He might hide [therein] as a shade from the heavens 
and as a shade from the sun, 2') and tranquilly rule the 
country as a peaceful country. 

As for the various sorts of offences which may} have 
been committed either inadvertently, or deliberately by 
the heaven's increasing population,'^) that shall come into 
being in the country, a number o! offences are expressly 
distinguished^'') as heavenly offences;2«) [viz.] breaking 
down the divisions of the rice-fields, ^fl) filling up the 
irrigating channels, 3^)opening the floodgate of sluices, •'*^) 
sowing seed over again, ^2) setting up pointed rods^*) [in 
the rice-fields], flaying alive and flaying backwards, 3*) 
evacuating excrements [at improper places].^'*) [These are 

Ancient Japanese liUiials. 61 

distinguished] as heavenly offences. ^'7) As for earthly 
offences,^®} there will be forthoomiug a number of offences 
[viz.] cutting the living skin, ^'')cutting the dead skin,^^) 
albinoes,^^ being affected with excrescences, ^^ the offence 
of [a son's] cohabitation with his own mother, ^^ the 
offence of [a father's] cohabitation with his own child,* 3) 
the offence of [the father's] cohabitation with his step- 
daughter,* ^ the offence of [a man's] cohabitation with his 
mother-in-law,** the offence of cohabitation with ani- 
mals,** calamity through crawling worms,* <* calamity 
through the gods on high,*^ calamity through buds on 
high,*«) killing the animals [of other people],*®) the 
offence of using incantations. '^ ^) 

If such [offences] are forthcoming, the Great Naka- 
tomi*^) in accordance with the ceremonies in the Heavenly 
Palace, '^^) cutting the bases, and cutting off the ends of 
the heavenly young little trees,* ^) shall [make them] into 
thousand tables**) and deposit [upon them] in abundance 
[the purification-offerings]; shall mow and cut off the 
bases, and mow and cut the ends of heavenly fine strips of 
rush,**) and split them thinner and thinner with the 
needle* <^); and shall recite the powerful ritual-words of 
the heavenly ritual.*'') 

If he thus recites [the heavenly ritual], the heavenly 
gods,* 8) pushing open the heavenly Bock-door,*®) and 
dividing a road through the eight-fold heavenly clouds, 
with a mighty road-dividing, will hear [the ritual- 
words]; [and] the earthly gods*») ascending to the 
tops of the high mountains, and to the tops of the 

62 Ancient Japanese BUiials. 

low mountains, ^^) and tearing asunder the smoke^^ of the 
high mountains, and the smoke of the low mountains, will 
hear [the ritual- words]. ^2) 

If they thus hear [the ritual words], it is to be expec- 
ted that®*^) any offence which is called offence^*) will 
disappear, especially in the court of the sovran Grand- 
child's augustness/^) and [also] in the countries of the 

four quarters of the region under heaven ; 

and it is to be expected that no offences will remain, like 
as the wind of [the wind-deity] Shinato**^) blows asunder 
the eight-fold heavenly clouds ; as the morn- 
ing-wind and the evening-wind blow away the dense 

morning-mist®'') and the dense evening-mist ; 

as one unties at the prow and unties at the stern the large 
ships lying in the large harbour®^) and pushes them out 

into the Great Sea-plain«») ; as 

one clears away the shrubs of the dense bushes yonder''^) 
with the sharp sickle of a tempered sickle'' ^). 

The offences' 2) which [the sovran] ''3) in this expecta- 
tion deigns to purifiy and deigns to cleanse, 

.... will be carried out into the great Sea. plain by the 
goddess called Maiden-of-Descent-into-the-Current '^^), 
who resides in the current of the rapid stream that in 
falling comes boiling down the ravines,''^) from the tops 
of the high mountains, and the tops of the low mount- 

And when she has thus carried [them] out, the god- 
dess called Maiden-of-the-swift-opening,''®) who resides 
in the eight hundred meetings of the brine of the eight 

Ancient Japanese Rituals. 63 

brine-currents, of the eight hundred currents of the brine 
of the fresh brine'''), will take them and swallow them 
down with gurgling sound.'®) 

And when she has thus swallowed [them] dawn with 
gurgling sound, the god called the Lord-of-the-Breathr 
blowing-place who resides at the Breath-blowing-place'^), 
will take them and utterly blow them away with his breath 
into the Root-country, the Bottom-country®*^). 

And when he has thus blown [them] away, the god- 
dess called the Maiden-of -Swift-Banishment ®i), who 
resides in the Root-country, the Bottom-country, will 
take them and completely banish them and get rid of 

And when they have been got rid of, it is to be ex- 
pected that from this day onwards, there will be no offence 
which is called offence, in the four quarters of the region 
under heaven, especially with regard to all people of all ^, 
offices who respectfully serve in the court of the 

Sovran : 

. . . .and in this expectation, having led hither and put 
there a horse,® ^) as a thing that hears with its ears 
pricked up to the Plain of High Heaven, [He] deigns to 
purify and deigns to cleanse ^^) through the Great 
Purification, at the setting of the evening-sun on the last 
day of the watery moon ®^) of this year." 

[IV.] He say: 

*' You diviners of the four countries®*^), leave and go 
away to the great river-way,® 6) and carry away [the 
offences] by purification.'' 

64 AncieM Japanese Riluala, 


1) In the original ^ is read noru by N. Motowori, 
Hirata and Harujama, nori-iamafu by Mabucbi and Sbiki- 
da. Like Satow I bave adopted tbe view of Motowori. 'He' 
is tbe reader of tbe ritual, tbe Great Nakatomi (comp. 
note 51), and word rendered by ' says ' signifies tbat tbe 
speaker is supposed to be speaking tbe words of tbe 
Mikado (Satow, VII page 112, note 1). 

2) iR.£K£ Miko-tachi Oho-kimi'tachi {tachi plural 
suffix). Mi'ko, lit. '* august cbild," or ratber its sinico-jap. 
equivalent S.3E shinno ''prince of tbe blood " is, accord- 
ing to tbe Eciji-Kyo) part of tbe Taibo-Byo) tbe old Japan- 
ese designation of a son of tbe Mikado. Every otber 
prince was styled o/lo-^im^ '* great lord," sinico-jap. ^, o, 
wo, plural Ki sho-o "many kings " =zOhokivii-tachi of our 
text. Tbe distinction between shinno and sho-o seems to 
bave been introduced during tbe reign of tbe Emperor 
Temmu, for it is first mentioned in tbe Nibongi in an 
Imperial edict dated tbe 15tb day of tbe second montb of 
tbe fourtb year of tbis Emperor (16tb Marcb, 675). Tbe 
brotbers and sister of tbe Emperor were also included in 
tbe term shinno. Later on tbis title was applied only to 
tbose princes upon wbom it was specially conferred by Ibe 
Emperor. Comp. tbe present writer's commentary on tbe 
above mentioned passage of tbe Nibongi in bis German 
translation, Book 29 page 10, note 19. 

From ibe fact tbat a distinction probably first made 
under tbe reign of Emperor Temmu, is referred to in tbe 

Ancient Japanese Biluals. 65 

opening words of our ritual, we are by no means entitled 
to conclude that the ritual was composed during or after 
the reign of this Emperor, for the bulk of this and several 
other rituals is no doubt very much older than Emperor 
Temmu's time. The truth is that up to the Engi period, the 
text of the Norito was probably subjected to! various inter- 
polations, of a character not perfectly congruous with 
the spirit and conditions of antiquity. I concur with 
Motowori Toyokahi in regarding the first clause of the pre- 
sent Norito as a later addition. The expression niomo no 
tsukasa (IT W) ** the hundred offices " is, of course, only the 
Japanized rendering of a purely Chinese phrase. 

3) The subject is not expressed, but must be supplied 
from the verbal forms harahi-tamahi kiyome-iamafa " deign 
to purify and deign to cleanse." I agree with Motowori 
and the majority of the Japanese commentators in refer- 
ring the honorific — tamafu * ' deigns '* to the sovran at whose 
command the ceremony of purification is undertaken, and 
who, therefore, figures so to say as the purifier himself. 
Arakida Morikuni, however, in his Oho-harahi no Eotoba 
Shin-kai, refers iamn/u to the Oho-Nakatomi, the reader 
of the ritual, and explains therefore: I (the Oho-Nuka- 
tomi) purify and cleanse. '' He argues that the Nakatomi 
use the honorific -tamafu with regard to his own action, 
because it is undertaken for the benefit of such high per- 
sons as the princes of the (blood etc, and points to the 
similar use of the phrase mawoshi-tamdhaku in two passages 
of the congratulatory address of the Chieftains of Idzumo 
(Norito 27) where Idzumo vo kuni no kuni-no-miyalsuko 


66 Ancient Japa)ie8e BUuals. 

nanigashi kashikomi kanhikomi mo mowoshi'tamahaku, reap. 
kaniU'hogi no yogoto maivoshi'iamahaku to mowosu evidently 
mean: " I, the chieftain of the province of Idzumo, of such 
and such a ELabane and name, declare humbly to the Emperor 
in reverence, in reverence," resp. ** I declare humbly to the 
Emperor the congratulatory words of the divine con- 
gratulation ; [thus] I declare," 

The expression harahi-tamaJii kiyome-tamafu occurs a 
second time in our ritual, in the passage immediately pre- 
ceding the mentioning of the goddess Se-oritsu Hime; 
here again Motowori refers -tamafu to the Emperor, whilst 
Hamyama refers it to the gods who carry away the sins. 
Motowori's interpretation seems preferable, for the 
ceremony of purification which is executed at the com- 
mand of the Emperor extends to the throwing away of the 
purification offerings into the water; only then the action 
of the Gods, in carrying away the purification-offerings, 
the symbols of the thrown-away sins, is supposed to 

4) Ayamachi'Okashikemu kusa-gusa no Isumi ai ^ 4^ a 
1^ ^ ^, I deviate in the interpretation of this phrase 
from Dr Weipert who takes it to mean only ''sins com- 
mitted through inadvertency " and lays special stress on 
this meaning in his note on page 375. I have, however, 
little doubt that my interpretation is the correct one, 
ayamalsu (S) meaning 'Ho do anything amiss, to fail 
through inadvertency,*' like the modern shi-zokonau, and 
okasu (!EL) " to do anything or to transgress deliberately, 
knowingly " (not simply " to commit " in its usual light 

Ancient Japanese Riiuah. G7 

sense ; comp. also its meaning in the phrases quoted notes 
41 — 45), so that ayamachi-okasu is an antithetical, not an 
attributive compound. Some of the best Japanese 
authorities (Shikida, Harujama etc) are of the same opi- 
nion. Satow, W. B. p. 53 : Committed in ignorance or 
out of negligence. 

5) Hire kakuru Tomo-no-wo ** scarf- wearing attend- 
ants," i. e. uneme court-ladies," because the unenie wore a hire 
"scarf " hanging round the neck and shoulders as an 
ornament. Tomo-no-ioo signifies properly the "head of 
a company " {lomo= ffi kuiuz) \oo=wo8a) From the most 
ancient times to the end of the Tokugawa period the 
Mikado was served only by women. Comp. Satow's 
note on Oho-mi-ya-no-me vol. VII, page 122. An illustra- ' 
tion of the hire is given in Modzume's Daijirin. By an 
Imperial decree of the 28th day, 3rd month, of the 11th 
year Temmu (10th May, 682), mentioned in the Nihongi, 

the icneme were forbidden henceforth to wear scarfs. By 
the same decree also, the stewards (see following note) 
were forbidden to wear shoulder-straps. 

6) Tasuki kakuru Tomo-noxvo " sash-wearing attend- 
ants," i.e. kashihade or *' (Imperial) stewards." The steward 
wore a ta-suki ** hand-helper," i. e. a cord passed over the 
shoulders and attached to the wrists, in order to assist 
the arms in supporting a heavy tray. The modern tasuki 
worn by women to keep the sleeves out of the way when 
working, is different from it. The wearing of tasuki was 
forbidden by Imperial decree in 682 (see preceding note). 
When preparing the food for the Emperor, the stewards 



68 Ancient Japanese Ilituals. 

wear to the present daj a fidmmen (=covering the face), 
i.e. a mask of white paper fastened with a string behind 
the ears over the mouth, to prevent their breath from 
touching and thereby polluting the food ; they are also 
not allowed to touch it with the hands, e. g. in cutting 
fish or meat, but must seize the food with hashi 
*' chopsticks " in the left hand, and cut with the knife in 
the right hand. The same holds good with regard to 
the preparation of the offerings placed in the Shinto 

7) Yugi of a iomo-no-wo "attendants who carry quivers 
on the back/' and tachi Jiaku tomo-no-ico ''attendants wha 
gird on swords," i.e. military officers (here perhaps more 
especially palaceguards). Yugi is the oldest word for 
** quiver ; " in the middle ages it is called yanaguhi and 
still later ehira. It was always carried on the back {ofu ; 
ep. also Manyoshu 20 : Masurao no yxigi tori-ohite idete 
ikeba), and its shape, at least of such quivers as were 
carried on ceremonial occasions, may be guessed from 
a passage in the Pi'^&M^^SI^ : ''there were used J 24 
brocade [covered] quivers, length 2.4 feet, width above G 
inches, width below 4J inches, mouth hole for the arrows 
2,9 inches square ; made of Hinoki wood, etc." 

8) Tomo-nO'ico on ya-so tomo-no-wo, i.e. all the atten- 
dants iu the Mikado's court, among whom the above 
mentioned four classes of Tomo-no-wo are also included. 

Yaso "eighty " means simply " many." 

9) xro hazimete I have rendered this by 

"especially and moreover "; more literally 

Ancient Japanese R'duah. 69 

it would have been : beginning from the [persons] serving 
down to the people. 

10) Tsukasa-dzukasa ni tsukahe-matsuru hito-donio, i.e. 
all officials of the country who do no direct service in the 
Imperial palace. 

Section I and II being a senimyd (It fir) ** Imperial 
message,*' from the introduction to the ritual proper 
which is contained in section III. 

11) Sitmera-ga-niittsH kamurogi kamuronii, see Satow 
VIT, page 114, note 6. The mythical ancestors of the 
Emperor, viz. Taka-mi-miisubi no Kami *'the High- 
August-Producing Deity " and Ama-terasu-oho-mi-kami 
**the Heaven-Shining-Great- August-Deity," the Sun-god- 
ders, are meant. Sumera-ga is contracted from aumera aga 
"sovran his," aga referring to the Grandchild. 

12) Mi-koto mochite "by [their] angust word." See 
Satow VII, page 113, note 5. 

13) Taka-mi-musubi and the Sun-goddess assembled 
the other gods in council, in the bed of the Tranquil 
Kiver of Heaven, (the Milky Way) to consider which deity 
should be sent down from Heaven to subdue the uproari- 
ous deities then inhabiting Japan, (the descendants of 
Susa-no-wo no Mikoto) and thus prepare it for the peace- 
ful rule of the Sun-goddess, 'descendants. See Satow IX. 
page 205, note 8, and Chamberain ' Kojiki, Sect. 30-33. 

14) The self deprecatory auxiliary verb — matsuru 
" to serve " is here used, because the mandate is given to 
an august person, the predecessor of the Japanese 

70 Ancient Japanese Bituds. 

15) The Sume-mUma no mUcolo ** sovran (august) 
Grandchild's augustness " is the grandchild of the Sun- 
goddess, Ama'tsu-hiko-Ho-no-Ni-mgi no Mikoto "His 
Augustness Heaven's-Prince Kice-ear-Rudd j-Plenty, " for 

whose fuller name see Kojiki, page 106, note 5. His 

descent and later experiences are described Eojiki, sect. 

33 sequ. His father Oshi-ho-mi-mi no Milcoto was properly 

the son of Susa-no-wo no Mikoto and only adopted by the 

Sun-goddess as her son, therefore really her nephew. 
See Nihongi and Eojiki (sect 13 sequ.) 

16) I. e. Japan. See Satow IX, page 204, note 7. 

17) Kunuchi (contracted from kuni uchi) ni ardburu 

kami-domo, comp. Kojiki, sect. 30 : chihayaburu arahuim 

kuni tsu kami'domo '* violent and savage Earthly Deities." 

The Earthly Deities were those born and dwelling in 

Japan, contradistinction to the " Heavenly Deities " who 

either dwelt in Heaven, or had originally descended to 

Earth from Heaven. The subjugation of the savage 
Earthly Deities, and the silencing of the ' ' rocks and trunks 

j of trees and isolated leaves of the herbs that had spoken/' 

( and the subsequent conquest of Yamato by the Emperor 

I Jimmu, are probably a legendary echo of the eastward 
invasion of the Japanese from Eyushii, into the main 

island of Japan. The Earthly Deities seem to be the 
deified chieftains of tribes akin to the Japanese who 
immigrated into Japan before, and were subjugated by, 
them, whereas the '' rocks and trunks of trees and isolated 
leaves of the herbs that had spoken " seem to refer to the 
original natives of Japan who lived in the forests and 
mountains, viz. the Ainu. 

Ancient Japanese Rituals. 71 

The pacification of these deities was undertaken by 
the two Gods Take-mika-dzuchi no Kami and Futsu-vushi 
no Kami (so the names according to the Nihongi ; in the 
Kojiki, sect. 32 they are Take-mika-dzuchi- 710-100 no Kami 
and Toin-bune no Kami). 

18) Kaki'ha or kaki-ba presents some difficulty. It is 
mostly explained as equivalent to kaia-ha :••• ''single or 
isolated leaves ; " according to Shikida it is an abbrevia- 
tion of akakiha "red leaves." Satow IX, page 194 

translates " the least leaf . " 

19) I. e. his place in Heaven. Ilia "rock" is con- 
sidered to be merely an honorific. 

20) This is related with nearly the same words in 
Kojiki, rect 24. 


22) Mi-ya "august house" means indiscriminately 
the house of a chieftain, the tombs of the dead and the 
temples of the gods. Satow VII, 123, note 29. 

23) Chigi "cross-beams," i. e. the projecting ends of 
the rafters of the roof. Shinto temples build in the 
archaic style, as the temples of Ise, the Yasukuni shrine 
in Tokyo etc. have preserved this peculiarity of the 
primeval Japanese house. See Satow's description of the 
architecture of Shinto temples, in vol. II of these Transac- 
tions and his Handbook, 2nd edition, p. [65]. 

24) Midzu no mi-araka " fresh, i. e. beautiful august 
abode." araka is derived from arw^ a " place where one 

25) This means that the house protects the Mikado 

72 Ancient Iiitiuib<. 

from the weather and the heat of the sun. Satow VII, 
123, note 30. 

26) Ame nu niasu hito-ra '* the heavenly surplus- 
population ** or ' the heavenly increasing population," i. e. 

men. This expression has its origin, in an incident told 
with regard to the flight of Izauagi no Mikoto from 

Hades : Kojiki sect. 9, Aston's Nihongi p. 25. When 
Izanagi had reached the Even Pass of Hades, he was over- 
taken by his wife Izanagi who pursued him. Izanagi 
blocked up the path between himself and her with a huge 
rock, and both standing opposite to one another, Izanagi 
pronounced the formula of divorce. * upon this,' con- 
tinues the Nihongi, * Izanami no Mikoto said : My dear 
Lord and husband, if thou sayest so, I will strangle to 
death the people of the country which thou dost govern, 
athousand in one day. Then Izanagi no Mikoto repliedj 

saying : My beloved younger sister, if thou sayest so, I 
will in one day cause to be born fifteen hundred.' 

27) Nori-icakete from nori-ivakuru: nori ** announcing," 
where the character ffi nori is used phonetically in stead 
of S! nori, and icahiru " to distinguish." In the text the 
expression ama tsu tsumi to ** as heavenly sins '* is put twice, 
once before, and then after the list of the heavenly sins, 
whereby the construction becomes a little cumbersome. 
Haruyama advises to supplement the word idemu *'will 
be forthcoming" of the second list in meaning also to the 
first one; then the literal translation would be: "as 
heavenly sins a number of sins, [viz.] , dis- 
tinguishing [them] expressly as heavenly sins, [will be 

Ancient Japanese BUuals, 73 

28) In the Japanese order of words the term kohodaku 
no tsumi '* a number of sins, many sins " follows the 
enumeration of the seven heavenly sins) ania tsu tsu mi), 
and farther on also, the enumeration of the earthly sins 
' {kunl (su tsumi). In taking kokodaku no tsumi as an apposi- 
tion to what precedes, I agree with the generally accepted 
interpretation. The author of the Gogoshaku, Fujiwi, 
however thinks that kokodaku no tsumi must be connected 
with the preceding words by " and," so that the meaning 
would be : " there are expressly distinguished as heavenly 

sins: breaking down and a number of [other 

similar] sins." As instances of other heavenly sins Fujiwi .. 
mentions: damaging the crop and pollution of pureyj- 
(sacred) buildings (f. ex. temples, or any locality where \ \ 
religious rites are performed). 

The so-called heavenly sins are in reality nothing else 
but those offences which, according to the mythological 
tra^lition, had already been jyeriw.traJtcd by the unruly god 
Susa-no-wo *' Impetuous- Male " in Heaven (see Kojiki, sect. 
15, Nihongi p. 40 sequ. , and especially p. 48), whence the 
name Susa-no-ico is the mythical scapegoat to whom all 
crimes which the primitive Japanese considered as most 
heinous, are attributed ; he is, so to say, the personified 
register of all deadly sins (i. e. sins against agriculture 
and ritual purity ; see the remarks later on) committed by 
men. Compared with the various passages of the 
Nihongi, the list of's sins in the Norito is not 
quite complete. There are not mentioned the '* letting 
loose in autumn, the Heavenly piebald colts and making 

74 Ancient Japanese Rituals. 

tbem lie down in the midst of the rice-fields/' and the 
''stretching division ropes round the rice-fields in autumn, 
when the grain was formed." The former was probably 
omitted from the Norito, because is admits of no generali- 
zation and could not possibly be enumerated as a crime 
perpetrated often by men ; the latter because it was only 
an offence of lighter kind, a mere unlawful claim to the 
ownership of the land, which did not in itself interfere 
with the successful cultivation of the fields and the 
necessary food-supply of the people. The Kojiki, on the 
other hand, is even less explicit than the Norito : it omits 
the lii-lxanachi t kushi-sashl and shiki-maki. The third 
recognized source of ancient Japanese mythology and 
history, however, the Kogoshui (compiled in 807 from 
traditions of the Iniibe family), gives a list of Susa-no-wo's 
misdeeds which is perfectly identical ^vith the list of the 
"heavenly sins" in the Norito. There is an evident 
connection between their statements, and I have no doubt 
but that Iniibe Hironari, the Shinto priest and compiler of 
the KogoshCi, shaped his statement according to that of 
the Oho-hakahe no Kotoba, which was, of course, well 
known to him. 

The etymology of the word kokodaka is unknown. 
Mabuchi identifies the first part koko with koko in koko-soko 
" here and there " and says that koko alone has already 
the signification ''many;" daku is derived by him from 
bciku (sic I) which he considers to be a contraction of 
bakan, Motowori is, of course, right in rejecting such a 
fanciful etymology. It occurs also often in the M-\xyoshu 

Ancient Japanese Biluah, 75 

as kokoia, kokoda, kokodaku with the meaning ** thus much, 
in this extent," e. g. kokota tomoshiki ** thus rare," kokodaku 
mo iva ga moru mono "that which I guard to this extent." 
I am inclined to see in koko either the doubled demonstra- 
tive pronoun ko ''this," or rather the compound to-^o 
"this place," and in la, daku an element which is akin to 
the modern dake "as much as, this much." 

The so-called eabthly sins enumerated after this are 
said to have been committed onlj since the time of Jimmu- 
tenno, and to be, therefore, of later origin than the 
heavenly sins. For anybody who is not a strict believer 
in the absolute truth of the ancient Japanese traditions, 
this view requires no refutation. Yet there is a hidden 
point in this assertion which deserves attention. No. 1 
to 5 of the heavenly sins constitute disturbances in the 
cultivation of the rice-fields, and endanger the food-supply 
of the people, so that w^e need not be astonished to see 
them condemned in the first place— as Dr Weipert rightly 
puts it : what to-day appears to us to be hardly worse 
than a somewhat strong kind of rude misdemeanour 
(starke Art groben Unfugs), was then an execrable crime, 
since it threatened the basis of subsistence which even 
apart from that was probably only a poor one. The 6th 
and 7th in the list offend against the idea of rUtial purity, 
the highest moral notion and .watchword of Shintoism. 
The heavenly sins seem consequently to comprise all those 
trespasses, which the Japanese in their most primitive 
state of society considered as crimes perpetrated against 
the interests of the community, and apt to bring down 

7G Ancient Japanene RUuals, 

upon tbem the wrath of the gods. The earthly sins, on 
the other hand, comprise trespasses against the life^ 
welfare, and proi>ertj_of individuaLpersons (cutting the 
living skin, bewitching people, killing the animals of 
other people), incest, bestiality, and several kinds of 
unusual calamity, which were considered to be a punish- 
ment of the offended gods. Only the ** cutting of the 
dead Hkin," (desecration committed on corpses) might be 
enumerated as a direct offence against ''purity,'' because 
every contact whatever with a corpse was, and is regarded 
by the Shintoits as polluting. 

Satow, Westminster Review, p. 49 sequ., adopts the 
opinion of the Japanese commentators, who explain the 
distinction between heavenly, and earthly sins, as based on 
the myth, but gives also another interesting explanation of 
the way in which the division may have arisen : The so- 
called heavenly offences are chiefly such as would be pos- 
sible only in an agricultural community, or to agriculturists 
living in the midst of a population of hunters, and 
fishermen. Now, there is good reason to believe that the 
immigrants from the continent of Asia, who originally 
nettled in the province of Izumo, the seat of the earliest 
Japanese civilisation » were tillers of the ground. They 
conquered and ruled the aboriginal huutei*;^, and fishermen, 
but the two races, instead of amalganmting, for a long 
time separately pnmued their hereditary occupations. 
That n^on who apparently camo from the sea had in 
reality descended from hraven, was an idea easily accepted, 
and a celestial origin being thus attributed to the 



Ancient Japanese Eiluals. 77 

/ superior part of the community, the word heavenly would 
be adopted generally to express whatever was peculiar to 
their mode of life, and in enumerating the offences of the 
whole people, was consequently applied to offences which 
could only be committed by the agricultural class. -- 

The ** heavenly sins " and " earthly sins " constituted 
the regular list of sins in the Oho-harahe no Eotoba, 
whether they had been actually committed or not. But * L.* ". :it 
that is not all. Before the purification ceremony the 
Nakatomi heard the confession of the other persons taking -^r-^' '"' • 
part in it, and enumerated the sins of which he had been r 
thus informed in the Norito, after having recited the 
regular list. (I have this information from Motowori ^^ r*" 

Toyokahi's lectures). / '. ^ 

According to N. Motowori, isumi ** sin, offence'* v^^' ' 

includes three categories, viz. kegare "pollution," ashiki Ji - ' * 

uaza "ill-deeds," and wazahahi ** calamities.'* That "' \ 

certain kinds of wazahahi (see notes 46-48) were included - * 

in the notion of tsumi, shows their being considered as 
divine judgments : they are injuries which come to us ^(y * " 
from the unseen world. In this respect the einico-jap. 
term tcn-kei-hyo i^MM) ^'Heaven's-punishment-disease,*^* 
i. e. leprosy, deserves attention as corroborating our view. 
Kuni'tsu-isumi is literally ** country-sins ; " but in the 
archaic language, kuni had also the wider meaning of 
" earth," especially where it is used in contrast with ame 

For curiosity's sake only, I will quote the etymology 
given by some scholars for the word isumi. They say : 

78 Ancient Japanese Rituals, 

tsumi is properly tsutsumi, from the verb tsiilsumu **to 
cover, to conceal," and signifies generally anything bad 
which one would like to conceal from other persons. 

Whilst I am inclined to think that the ideas of offence 
{ashiki waza) and pollution {kegaie), both not clearly 
distinguished from one another, form the proper meaning 
of the word tsumi, and that the idea of calamity (wazahaJii) 
was included into it only secondarily, because calamity 
was considered to be a divine punishment, Satow in W. B. 
p. 51, takes a somewhat different view. He says : If the 
word tsumi, which we are forced by its modern applica- 
tions to render "offence," had from the first possessed 
that signification and no other, it is difficult to see how it 
could have come to be applied, as we have seen that it 
was, to a large class of occurrences which were either 
unavoidable misfortunes, or at worst, the result of 
carelessness. Moreover, the word tsumi itself conveyed 
at first no idea of guilt, but simply expressed something 
that was disagreeable, whether in the acts or the 
appearance of men. In fact, we have here one of those 
numerous cases discoverable by students of early history, 
in which a word starting with a general, undefined, 
obscure signification, fully corresponding to the vague 
notion of the men who use it, gradually becomes restricted 
in its application, to one of the ideas which emerge out of 
the chaos, and thus obtains a distinct and unequivocal 
meaning, while other new terms are adopted to express 
the remaining products of the medley. 

29) A'hanachi, from a=aze {aze is a compound, whose 

Ancient Japanese Rituals. 79 

latter part Z3 i8=8e " back "), the low, narrow dykes which 
separate the rice-fields from another, and hanatsu "to 
sever." Bj breaking down these divisions, the water is 
made to flow off from the rice-flelds and the rice- plants 

30) Mizo-ume. The mizo ** channels, or drains" 
conduct the water to the rice-fields. 

31) Hi-hanachi, Water for the watering of the rice- 
fields is accumulated in ponds, ditches etc., and the 
floodgates (hi) which keep it back, are of course only 
opened when necessary. If they are mischievously 
opened, the precious fluid flows out and is not available 
at the proper time, so that the fields dry up and the crop 

32) Shiki-mdhi *' sowing repeatedly, sowing seed over 
again," from shild "repeatedly" (comp. the old adverb 
shikU'Ziku "repeatedly,") and maku "to sow." Dr 
Weipert attributes to it the meaning "sowing too densely 
(zu dichtes Besaen) " and explains : Sowing the seeds on 
the fields too copiously or repeatedly, is punished, because 
it brings about a deterioration in the quality of the rice. 
Taken in the abstract, shikimaki could have this sense ; 
but the context in which it appears in the Norito, and 
especially in the Nihongi, shows clearly that its real 
meaning is : secretly and maliciously sowing seed over a 
field which has already been sown by its proprietor, so 
that the first seed is injured by the second one (probably 
tares) and the crop becomes illusory. It is a roguish 
trick, like the three preceding ones and the following. 

80 Ancient Japanese Biluals, 

played by Susa-no-wo upon his sister, the Sun-goddesa 
Comp. in the Nihongi (p, 40 sequ.) the narrative of his 
rude behaviour, especially in the third variant : Therefore, 
Susa-no-wo no Mikoto ^vas jealous and destroyed his elder 
sister's rice-fields. In spnng, he opened the floodgates of 
the sluices (Aston : he knocked away the pipes and 
troughs), filled up the channels and broke the divisions ; 
more over he soioed seed over again. There cannot be the 
least doubt but that the composer of the Oho-harahe no 
Kotoba understood the term shiki'maki in the same sense 
as the popular legend reported in the above passage of 
the Nihongi. 

The reader will probably have observed the paral- 
lelism between this and the parable told by Christ in St. 
Matthew, Chap. 13, verse 24 sequ.: The kingdom of 
heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in 
his field : but while men slept, his enemy came sowed 
tares among the wheat, and went his way. But when the 
blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then 
appeared the tares also ; etc/' 

33) Kiishi'Sashi (Nihongi, Chap. 6, Variant UI of my 
edition, ^iS, in the Norito ^M), The passage of the 
Nihongi quoted in the preceding note continues the 
report of Susa-no-wo's misdeeds : In autumn, he set up 
pointed rods [in the rice-fieds], and made horses lie down 
in the rice-fields. Whosoever has seen how the cultiva- 
tion of the rice-fields is done, by wading about in the 
deep mud with naked feet, will easily understand that 
the hiding of pointed bamboo or other rods in the mud is 

Ancient Japanese Rituals, 81 

a very bad practical joke, so bad that it may eventually 
prevent the peasant from stepping into the field and 
cultivating it or cutting the crop. 

The term kushi-sashi allows of yet another interpreta- 
tion which is accepted by Shikida, Ihida (Nihon-shoki- 
tsushaku), etc. , and is based on no less an authority than 
the KoGOSHiJi. The Kogoshui says in a note : When the 
Sun-goddes was cultivating her rice-fields, Susa-no-wo 
went secretly to those fields, set up rods, and contended 
with her. From this some commentators infer that the 
setting up of rods and the four above-mentioned misdeeds 
of Susa-no-wo did not properly intend an injury to the 
rice-fields of the Sun-goddess, but a quarrel for their 
ownership. Also the Nihongi-Shiei (an old commentary, 
quoted by Aston in note 7, page 48) says that rods (Aston: 
combs) were stuck up in the rice-fields with words of 
incantation, so that if anyone wrongly claimed the fields 
he might be destroyed. The present custom of setting 
up rods in rice-fields whose ownership is disputed arose 
perhaps from this. According to this view the kushi are 
signs set up to indicate that one claims the ownership of the 
field, and are therefore called ffl ft ^a-/ac/a ** field-placards.*' 
Nevertheless I cannot convince myself that this interpreta- 
tion is better than the one adopted by me in the translation. 
The second variant of the account of Susa-no-wo's 
misbehaviour in the Nihongi runs : Now Susa-no-wo no 
Mikoto, in spring, filled up the channels and broke down 
the divisions, and in autumn, when the grain was formed, 
he forthwith stretched round them division-ropes [aze- 

82 Ancient Japanese Eltuals. 

naha, in taken of his ownership]. The claim to the 

ownership of a field was therefore, in ancient times, 

made by stretching ropes round it, and unless it 
can be proved that the setting of kushi was equivalent 

to the stretching round of aze-naha, we are compelled to 
assume that kushi'Sashi does not convey the meaning 

"setting up rods in token of ownership." I may also 

quote a passage of the Kojiki, sect. 15, which is rather in 

favour of my view. It runs : So, though he did this (viz. 

breaking down the divisions, filling up the ditches, 

strewing excrements in the palace), Amaterasu no Oho- 

mi-kami upbraided him not, but said : "What looks like 
excrements must be something that His Augustness mine 
elder brother has vomited through drunkenness. Again, 
as to his breaking down the divisions of the rice-fields 
and filling up the ditches, it must be because he grudges 
the land [they occupy] that His Augustness mine elder 
brother acts thus. " But notwithstanding these apologetic 
icords, he still continued his evil acts, and was more and 
more [violent]. Nothing could show more clearly that 

the Sun-goddess regards Susa-no-wo's behaviour as rude, 
roguish tricks, and jealous Vandalism, which, however, 

with genuine Japanese politeness, she ostensibly excuses 
with the above apologetic words as a sudden nausea and 
ill-directed zeal for the increase of the arable land now 
occupied with things, in his opinion, so useless as 
dykes and ditches. In the variant of this story (Nihongi, 
2nd variant) which I quote in note 35, the Sun-goddess 
does not look at the same trick with the same Olympian 

Ancient Japanese Bituals. 83 

34) Ike-hagl saka-hagi^ explained as " flaying a living 
animal in the direction from the tail to the head." 
Motowori remarks that flaying from the tail to the head 
was the usual way of flaying ; it seems therefore advisable 
not to separate ike-hage "flaying alive " from saJca-hagi 
** flaying backwards/' as if both words were terms for 
different methods of flaying, but to treat them as a com- 
pound word expressing one €Lctioji,=ike-saka,hagi The 
repetition of the substantive hagi is no stumbling block in 
the way of this interpretation, for similar expressions are 
very frequent in the ancient poetic language. In 
stigmatizing '* flaying alive and backwards " as a crime, 
the ancient Japanese will hardly have been guided, as Dr 
Weipert remarks, by the motive of protecting animals 
against superfluous torture, since half-barbaric times do 
not shew such humane tendencies. It is rather to be 
supposed that this way of flaying was regarded as a 
pollution,' probably in consequence of some superstitions 
ideas unknown to us. 

Susa-no-wo committed this crime in a manner which 
aggravated the offence : when the Sun-goddess sat in her 
Weaving-Hall, he broke a hole in the top of the roof and 
flung through it a heavenly piebald colt which he had 
flayed alive with a backward flaying. The compound 
term ike-hagi saka-hagi does not occur either in the Kojiki 
or in the Nihongi, but by comparing the various readings 
it becomes clear that " flaying alive backwards '* is meant 
The Kojiki, sect. 15, has: *'a heavenly piebald horse 
which he had flayed with a bacticard flaying " (ame no 

84 Ancient Japanese Rituals, 

fuchi-koma wo saka-hagi ni hagite) ; the Nihongi in the 
chief text onlj : " he flayed a piebald colt of Heaven ; " in 
the first variant: ''flaying a piebald cold with a backward 
flaying " [sdha-hagi ni hagite) ; in the second variant ^* flaying 
alive a piebald cold " (ike-hag i ni hagite). The information, 
however, which the Kojiki and Nihongi do not give 
directly, is supplied by a gloss in the KogoshCi : ikitaru 
koma xvo saka-hagi ni shite muro-nuchi ni nage-ire-tamafu '* he 
flayed backwards a living colt and flung it into the Hall/' 

Shikida argues at great length that the reading ike- 
hagi, which even Motowori has, in stead of ike-hagi m 
wrong. Comp. also ihe-doriy ike-nihe, ikesu etc. 

35) Kuso-he, from kuso "excrement," and he, a con- 
tracted from of hei'i, stem of the verb /itru *'to eject" In 
the more modern language heini has become hiru (kuso tea 
hiru, he wo hiru), but the form hei^u is still preserved in the 
compound heri-tsukuru , viz. tamago too heritsukuru *'to lay 
eggs," said of small insects. Shikida reads ^uso-fte and 
attacks the usual derivation of he from heri. The Chinese 
character in the text is J^ he (used phonetically), which 
he says has the meaning it he ** house," kuro-be= ** pollut- 
ing by evacuating excrements in a house;" or if one 
gives to the character P the reading to, ^P would have 
been used phonetically instead of Rl& kuso-do ** excre- 
ment-place. " I do not think this explanation is acceptable, 
though Shikida is certainly right in pointing out that in 
the Wamyosho (an ancient dictionary, compiled by 
Minamoto no Shitago in the period Encho, i. e. 923-930)^ 
there occur the expressions kuso-hiri and hc-hiru, but not 

Ancient Japanese Rituals. 85 

kuso-heri or he-heriL The absence of these forms from the 
Wamyosho is, however, no conclusive proof that thej 
never existed, and the above mentioned heri-tsukuru as 
well as the word he "breaking wind, fart," which is 
doubtless related to /uVu, seem to justify our etymology. 

The corresponding misdemeanour of Susa-no-wo is 
related most fully in the second variant of toe Nihongi : 
When the time came for the Sun-goddess to celebrate the 
feast of first-fluits (the Dai.-jo-we festival), Susa-no-wo no 
Mikoto secretly voided excrement under her august seat 
in the New Palace (in which the festival was to be 

celebrated). The Sun-goddess, not knowing this, went 
straight there and took her seat. Accordingly the Sun- 
goddess drew herself up, and became sick. She therefore t 
was enraged, and straightway took up her abode in the 
Rock-cave of Heaven, and fastened its Rock-door. 

Mabuchi refers kiiso-he only to the pollution of a place \ \^ 
sacred to the gods, whilst Motowori gives it a wider scope. 

36) Comp. note 28. 

37) Iki-hada-tachi, i. e. wounding or killing. Wound- 
ing comprises all injuries to oneself or to others, 
especially when blood flows ; for the flowing of blood 
means pollution, Thus, according to the strict regula- 
tion for a Shintoist (which are, however, no longer 
commonly observed), a person is forbidden to go 
to a shrine and worship (Jap. s ankei suru)j for 30 
days, if he has wounded somebody ; for the day 
on which he has accidentally injured himself, so 
that more than three drops of blood have flowed. If 


^^ Ancient Japanese Mituals. 

it was only 1 to 3 drops, he may sankeisuru on the same 
day but must take a bath beforehand (this purification by 
a bath is quite in analogy to the purification by water in 
the Oho-harahe ceremony itself). Similarly, for two 
days, after he has vomited blood or ejected blood through 
the anus ; if he has an abscess, until it is perfectly 
cured ; for seven days after the application of moxa ; 
for three days in the case of the person who has 
applied it. 

It seems to me that the ritual considers the iki-hada- 
tachi as a sin not so much for its being an unlawful injury 
to somebody's life or body, which is the stand-jjoint of 
our penal codes, as for the reason that it causes pollution I 
and seriously ojffends against ritual purity. At any rate 
this latter point of view plays a part in it. Comi). also 
Satow, W. K., p. 50 :" The shedding of blood was held to 
defile both the shedder and the person whose blood was 
shed, an idea which has left its indelible mark in the 
language, where the most common word for wound or 
hurt is Kega " defilement, and a wounded person is called 
a *' defilement-man." 

38) Shini'hada-iacJuy i. e. desecration committed on 
corpses. Any contact, even in the widest sense, with 
corpses pollutes, as will be seen from the following 
regulations : 

Sankei (see note 37) is forbidden during the whole 
mourning period for parents or relatives. 

Sankei is forbidden on the anniversaries of the dyiug- 
day of parents or consorts. 

Ancient Japanese Rituals. 87 

Sanlcei is forbidden for 100 days, if one has assisted 
at the funeral of a relative, for seven days, if at the 
funeral of somebody else. 

Sankei is forbidden for three days, if one has entered 
a house where a dead person was lying. 

If a man or animal has perished in a conflagration, 
everybody belonging to the house in question must stop 
sankei for 100 days. 

Sankei is forbidden for three days, if one has eaten 
anything prepared in a house of mourning. 

If somebody dies on the premises of a shrine {Kei-nai), 
no Matsuri (festival) can be celebrated there for 30 days 
afterwards ; if only part of the dead body was lying on 
the premises, the forbidden time is limited to 7 days. 

If a dog, horse, or other animal has died on the 
premises of a shrine, there can be no Matsuri for 5 days ; 
if only part of the dead body (the head, a leg. etc) was 
lying on the compound, no Matsuri can be held for 3 dayjs. 

For other rules the Kifuku-Kyo, part of the Taiko-Ryo, 
may be consulted. 

39) Shira-hiio or shiro-hilo '* white men," according 
to Motowori, who quotes the Wamyosho people who have 
white spots on the skin of the face or body, including the 
so-called shiroko or shiro-lsuko, i. e. people who are entirely 
white all over the body, albinoes. Mabuchi following his 
master Kada Adzumamaro, gives the highly phantastical 
explanation that shira-hito (sic) means **peopIe from Shiragi" 
(Shiragi is the name of an ancient Kingdom in Korea, 
Silla). Instead of the following kokiimi he reads kokuri, 

88 Ancient Japanese Rituals, 

i. e. people from Kokuri '* (Kokuri, or Korai, or Koma, is 
tbe name of another ancient Korean kingdom), and brings 
both these names into close connection with the list of 
the execrable crimes enumerated afterwards, saying that 
such crimes could not possibly have been committed by 
Japanese, but must have been committed by Koreans, 
people of Shiragi and Kokuri, settled in Japan. Certainly 
a patriotic view of the matter ! The commentator mind 
may have partly been directed to this interpretation by a 
passage of the Nihongi describing an incident of the year 
G12 (Aston II, 144) : " This year a man emigrated from 
Pekche (a kingdom in Korea, called Kudara by the 
Japanese) whose face and body were all flecked with 
white, being perhaps affected with white ringworm (&M 
shira-hada lit *' white skin "). People disliking this extra- 
ordinary appearance, wished to cast him away on an island 
in the sea etc etc/' Kubo in the Norito-ryakkai decides to 
underaieind shira-hage {&%)y SL skin disease by which the 
head becomes perfectly bald, and shira-kalai (fifti) white 
leprosy." For Shikida's entirely different view see the 
next note. 

40) Kohuniiy written only phonetically, probably 
because the meaning of the word was already doubtful at 
the time when the Norito were first committed to writing. 
Kokumi is, according to the Wamydsho, identical in mean- 
ing with amashishi, which is contracted from aman-shishi 
** superfluous flesh, i. e. excrescence." Motozume's Daiji- 
rm enumerates under Kokumi: i6o "warts," urwno me 
** corns or bunions," etc. Haruyama explains Kokumi as a 

Ancient Japanese Rituals, 89 

contraction from hokukumi and says it is a kind of Kdbii 
fusuhe " fleshy tumours and black spots." Satow, West- 
minster Review, p. 51 : " That leprosy and proud flesh 
(Satow's rendering of shira-hito and Kokumi) should have 
continued to be regarded as unclean is no doubt owing 
to the intense feeling of disgust, stronger than pity in a 
barbaric race, which such diseases excite. Whatever may 
have been meant by proud flesh, leprosy at least was 
regarded as contagious, and the leper was held unflt to 
associate with the rest of mankind/' 

Shikida (Norito Bemmo 5,15) wishes to divide SAM A. 
il into shira-hi loko-kumi ** cohabitation in clear day-light" 
{shira white, clear ; hi day ; toko bed ; kumu to come 
together, embrace one another), pointing out that this 
has always been considered to be an impure action, even 
the Emperor being forbidden to cohabitate after the depth 
of the night is over. This interpretation is certainly an 
ingenious one, and not at all impossible, considering that 
the phonetically written iiCo^uwn occurs only here, and 
that the writing fi A. shira-hito may be an old popular 
etymology, or may also be intended to give only the sounds. 
The tern tokokumi finds its analogy in the Kojiki and Ni- 
hongi. On the other hand, however, it must be observed 
that the expression s/iiVa-Zii ** bright daylight" is some- 
what strange and cannot be illustrated by any quotation. 
As both the traditional interpretation, and that of Shikida 
have their weak points, I have thought it safer to adopt, 
the former one, little satisfying as it is. 

41) Ono ga haha (wo) okaseru tsumi. Ono ga haha 

90 Ancient Japanese Rituals, 

" one*8 own mother ;" okaseru attrib. from of okaseri, the 
preterite of okasu which means here " to have forbidden 
sexual intercourse, to abandon onesself to fornication. " 

42 Ono ga ko (iw) okaseru tsumu Ko ' ' child " means 
here the daughter. 

43) Haha to ko to okasejni tsumi, lit." fornication with 
the mother and [her female] child." This means, accord- 
ing to Haruyama, to marry a woman and abandon ones- 
self to fornication with her daughter from a former 
marriage, okaseru refers consequently not to haha, with 
whom the intercourse is legitimate, but to Ko, the step- 

44) Kn to haha to okaseru tsumi, grammatically just the 
contrary of the former expression, okaseru referring to 
haha: — sexual intercourse with the child and the mother, 

«? i. e. with one's wife and her mother, one's mother-in-law. 
These four terms (note. 41 — 44) correspond on the 
whole to our ideas of incest, viz. sexual intercourse 
between relatives (by blood and marriage) in the ascend- 
ing line. It will be observed that the incest between brother 
and sis/er is not mentioned, and it appears probable that 
marriage between brother and sister was allowed in 
ancient Japan. The archaic language has also only one 
word for " wife " and " younger sister/' viz. imo. But too 
much stress must not be laid upon the latter circumstance, 
as, in the classic time, the word imo ** younger sister" was 
often applied as an endearing epithet to one's wife. The 
same is the case in the 8hir-ha-shirim (the Song of Solomon), 
e. g. chapter 4, verse 9 : " my sister, my spouse. ' More im- 

Ancient Japanese Bihials. 91 

portant for our bjpothesis is the fact that, eveu in later 
times, marriages were allowed between children of one 
father by different mothers, though unions between 
children of the same mother were forbidden (a relic of 
matrimonial right). 

45) Kemono okaseru (sumi, i. e. bestiality. The Kojiki. 
sect. 97, when mentioning, for the first time, the ceremony 
of the Great Purification of the country, which was 
performed after the death of the Emperor Ghiu-ai (A. D. 
200, according to the chronology of the Nihongi), 
enumerates in detail the various sorts of bestiality, tIz. 
uma-tahake "marriages with horses," ushi-lahake "mar- 
riages with cattle," tori-tdhahe ** marriages with fowls," 
inu'tahake " marriages with dogs." All these animals are 
kept in the house and are called kemono, which is said to 
be as much as kahi-mono " domestic animals " (from kafu 
to keep and feed animals, mono thing), and is to be 
distinguished from kedamono ''beasts, wild animals." I 
have, however, some doubt whether this distinction 
between keniono and kedamono (probably from ke-tsu-mono, 
tsu genitive particle) be not merely an artificial one, and 
whether ke does not rather mean ke ** hair." 

Dr Wei pert draws attention to the fact that among 
these crimes against morality pederasty is not mentioned 
(though it is alleged to be, and to have been, very common. 
Quite a number of books exist on this subject in Japanese, 
like the Nanshoku-okagami etc.) 

46) Hqfii mnshi no icazahai. For wazahai see end of 
note 28. Bb/u miishi "crawling worms" are snakes. 

92 Ancient Japanese BUuala. 

centipedes etc. In ancient times the houses of the 
common peojjle had neither ceilings nor floors made of 
wooden planks, as at present, and therefore accidents 
through being bitten by venomous snakes, centipedes etc. 
were incomparably more frequent. Even the palace of 
the Emperor was originally nothing but a wooden hut, 
with its pillars planted directly in the ground (not erected 
on broad, flat stones as in modern time) and a yuka, 
"raised floor," which occupied only part of the interior, 
the rest of the space being a mud-floor. As thus the 
inmates of the palace were constantly exposed to the 
attacks of crowling worms, a special service was celebrated 
to obtain the protection of the gods for the sovereign's 
abode, viz. the Oho-tono-malsuri, at which Norito No. 8 
OhO'tonO'hogahi (Satow IX, p. 190-210) was recited. 
Comp. the following passage of this Norito : I repeat the 
names of the gods who tranquilly and peacefully watch so 
that the great House where he sits ruling, [as far as] the 
limit of the bottom-most rocks, may be free from the 
calamity of crawling worms [among] the lower cords [which 
tie it together, as far as the] limit of the blue clouds of the 
Plain of High- Heaven, may not have the calamity of birds 
flying in at the smoke-hole in the roof, etc. 

47) Taka-isu-kami no icazahahif i.e. calamity sent by 
the Thunder-god (being struck by lightning) and the 
Tengu, The Temgu (two in number), lit. " heavenly dogs," 
are goblins with a red face, an enormous nose, claws and 
a pair of wings. They inhabit mountains and forests and 
often carry away people of both sexes into the desolate 

Ancient Japanese Rituals. 93 

mountains, The Tengu belong, like Inari, Hachiman, 
lenjin, Ddjyti etc. to the few Shinto deities whose statues 
are commonly found and used as objects of worship. 

In the ;A: I^ JH 5R :& — , (quoted in Shikida's Norito- 
bemmo) the term mono-no-ke " evil influence of a sprite " 
is explained by : mqjikori "bewitchment,'* kedamono no ke 
"calamity from animals," and takakami no ke "calamity 
from the high gods." The last is identical with our (aka- 
tsu'kami no wazahahi, ke being equivalent to wazahahi; the 
first corresponds to mazimono seru tsumi (note 49), but 
' means the passive sufferance of bewitchment, whilst the 
Norito speaks of its active exercise ; the second seems to 
include what is called hafu mushi no loazahalii and (aka-tsu- 
tori no uazaJiaJii in the Norito. 

48) Taka-tsU'tori no icazdhahi. See also the quotation 
from the 8th Norito in note 46. The roof of the ancient 
Japanese house was thatched, and perhaps had a gable at 
each end, with a hole to allow the smoke of the wood-fire 
to escape, so that it was possible for birds flying in and 
perching on the beams overhead, to defile the food, or the 
fire with which it was cooked (Satow IX, p. 192). The 
defiling things dropped by the birds are, in the first line, 
their excrements which are believed to be poisonous, and 
secondarily dirty things dropped from their bills. 
Haruyama attributes to the term a still wider sense, viz. 
any damage done by birds, and mentions also the carrying 
away of babies by eagles and kites. 

49) Kemono-tafiishi. The above rendering follows 
Motowori's interpretation. He thinks that the people of 

94 Ancien Japanese Rituals. 

old must have Imown and practised a peculiar art (julsu) 
by which they injured or killed the animals of other 
people. He mentions also the popular superstition with 
regard to the existence of evil sprites which are able to 
make animals sick and make them die— the so called 
gyiiba no ekijln {^&^&W) "castle's and horses' 
pestilence-gods " — , but maintains that this does not come 
into consideration here, as foul tricks practised directly 
by men are to be understood. Kemono-tafushi belongs 
therefore, according to him, to the same category as the 
following mazlmono seru tsuniL 

Another noteworthy interpretation, however, and 
perhaps the better one, given by Mabuchi and accepted 
by Shikida, takes this and the following term as one : 
kemono-tafashi-mazimono seru Isumi **the sin of exercising 
witchcraft [by means] of killing animals." It is con- 
sidered to be identical with a certain kind of sorcery 
called ma-^ami (:^ JW) *' dog deity," practiced in Kyushu 
and Shikoku to the present day, in which one pretends to 
be able to invoke evils on other persons through the 
spirit {reikon) of a slain dog. To come into possession of 
this witchcraft, one has to proceed in the following way : 
A hungry dog is chained up, and some food is laid before 
him, but so that he cannot reach and eat it. While he 
stretches out his head to get at it, one cuts ofiE his head. 
The head suddenly flies and swallows the food, whereupon 
it is seized, put into a box and worshipped. Henceforth 
it is a powerful means for exercising various kinds of 
witchcraft to the detriment of other people, the spirit of 

Ancient Japanese Rituals, 95 

the dog being the medium (agent). The place of the dog 
can also be taken by a serjjent, or in the province of Tosa 
by a iveasel (ilachi). See an article on Inu-gami-mochi in 
FDzoku-gaho, fasc. 6, p. 20. Mabuchi declares such 
sorcery as inugami not to be originally Japanese, but to 
have been imported into Japan by foreign barbarians 
givaiban, i.e. Chinese and Koreans), for which reason 
it is found only in southwestern Japan. This imaginary 
foreign importation, in support of which he does 
not bring forth even the shadow of a proof, leads 
him to assert that the present Norito cannot be very 
old : — of course an entirely untenable view which is also 
rejected as absurd by Motowori. The latter scholar 
observes that he, too, was originally inclined to consider 
IcemonO'tafushimazimono seru tsumi as one single expression, 
but that later on he changed bis view. 

50) Mazi-mono seru tsumi. Invoking evils on other 
persons plays still at present an important part in 
Japanese superstition. Comp. the preceding note. 

51) Oho-Nakatomi, the chief of the whole Nakatomi 
family. Nakatomi is probably derived from Naka-tsu-omi, 
which etymology corresponds also to the meaning of the 
Chinese characters (^ E) ''middle minister." Their 
duty was of a priestly character, they were considered as 
mediators between the kimi ''sovereign" and the kami 
"gods," hence another etymology explains the name 
from naka-tori'Omi (i.e. kimi to kami to no naJca wo tori 
mochite kami ni yoroshiku moshi-ko; Motowori and 
Haruyama), or na^a-^o77moc/ii "mediator" (Hirata). 

96 Ancient Japanese Bituals. 

They derive their origin from the god Ame no Koyane 
no Mikoio who played a conspicuous part in the ceremony 
arranged to entice the Sun-goddess from the Eock-cave. 
One of their members, the famous Kamatari, received the 
surname of Fujihara for his meritorious services under 

Emperor Tenji, thus becoming the founder of the 
illustrious Fujihara family, while the rest retained their 

name of Nakatomi. Oho-Nalalomi was adopted as a sur- 
name by Omi-maro, a son of a first cousin of Kamatari. 
The Fujihara family gave up the service of the gods, and 
devoted themselves entirely to politics, while the Nakatomi 
still remained in the priesthood, which explains the fact 

that so many of them were officials of the Jingi-kwan or 
Ministry of Shinto religion (Satow, VII p. 400). 

52) Ama tsu miya-goto, Le. the ceremonies of the Great 
Purification performed in the palace of the Sun-goddess 
Ama-terasu on the Plain of High Heaven. This expression 
shows that the earthly Oho-harahe was considered to be 
only the imitation of an Oho-harahe long ago practiced by 
the Gods in Heaven. 

53) A similar expression is already used in Norito 
No. I with regard to cutting the timber for the construc- 
tion of the Imperial palace : because [the builders], 
having cut the bases and ends of the big trees and little 
trees {wo-gi) which have grown up in the distant 
mountains and the near mountains, etc. In both cases it 

is intended to say that the lower and upper ends of the 

trees, as being of less value, are cut off and thrown away, 

and only the middle and best part of the wood used for 
the pillars or tables. 

Ancient Jajjanese Rituals. 97 

Kanagi ^?N, translated by ** young little trees" 
according to the usual' interpretation, presents some 
difficulty. This view evidently considers €l kana as a 
phonetic element, (perhaps from ko ''child, small," na 
genitive particle, through vowel harmony ka-na ?). 
Others, like Shikida, take ^ kana in its literal sense 
'* metal," kana-gi then: wood as strong and hard as metal. 
Shikida quotes a passage from the :^ I^ ® 5R :& ii* — , from 
which he infers that kanagi is=4[^, which again, accord- 
ing to Giles No. 1223 is a name for the K¥:4c (ten 
thousand years tree) everlasting wood, used (in China) for 
certain parts of carts. 

54) Chi-kura oki-kura. Okiku-ra signifies a stand 
(kura) on which something is put {oku). The first kwa in 
the compound chi-kura is used as a numerative (auxiliary 
numeral). Chi '* thousand " indicates simply a very great 
number. A similar expression, viz. shi-kura-oki-do {do= 
place) occurs in the Nihongi, in the passage where it is 
reported that purification-offerings were demanded from 
Susa-no-wo : After this (i. e. after the Sun-goddess had 
been enticed out of the Heavenly Eock-cave) all the Gods 
put the blame on Susa-no-wo no Mikoto, and imposed on 
him a fine of one thousand tables {chi-kura-oki-do), and so at 
length chastised him. They also had his hair plucked 
out, and made him therewith expiate his guilt. It is also 
said that they made him expiate it by plucking out the 
nails of his hands and feet. When this was done, they at 
last banished him downwards. 

55) Suga-so W9; suga or suge ** rush," so '* fine strips " 

98 Ancienl Japanese Rituals. 

(the character 9 is used phonetically). Brinklej's 
Dictionary explains suga-so by " a kind of brush made of 
rush, formerly used by a Kannushi to cleanse himself and 
the people who are assembled in a shrine for prayer." 
Mabuchi considers so as a contraction of saki " splitting/' 
Motowori as a contraction of sa-ioo (VsSl) '* fine thread." 
I have, however, not much confidence in either of these 
etymologies. There is an archaic word 8o "hemp" (e.g. 
Manyoshu I, 29: uchi-so too Womi no oho-kimi, etc.) which 
we might have here ; besides there is an adjective suga 
''clear, pure nlways used as a prefix (akin to the verb 
sumu **to be clear, to be pure and limpid"). Shikida 
takes suga-so indeed in this sense : ^JfK pure hemp." 

With regard to this passage, which he does not 
translate, Satow, W. R. p. 53, has the following remark: 
The high priest then (i.e. after having enumerated the 
offences) arranges the sacrifices, and, turning round to 
the assembled company, waves before them a sort of 
broom made of grass, to symbolize the sweeping away of 
their offences." This agrees with what Mabuchi remarks, 
viz. that the split Suga was brandished as if sweeping 
away dust I have no doubt that this suga-so is the 
prototype of the oho-nusa {:kM) described in Introduction, 
chapter 8. The hypothesis is supported by a remark of 
the commentator Okubo who says that asa (hemp) took 
later on the place of the suga (rush). 

56) Ya hari ni tori-salUe A #i* IB ^ J^ l£. Mabuchi's 
interpretation of A ya=9i ya, iya " more and more " is 
generally accepted : ya hari ni "more and more with the 

Ancient Japanese liiluals. 99 

needle." Also Mabucbi's interpretation of han by "needle" 
wbicb tbe Cbinese cbaracter #{* conveys, is universally 
acknowledged, except by Motowori, wbo considers if to be 
pbonetical and ascribes to hari tbe meaning sitji ''stripe": 
splitting more and more in stripes. Mabucbi's view 
deserves preference. 

57) Ama-tsu-norito no fulo-norito-goto wo nore, Tbere 
are divergent opinions witb regard to tbe proper meaning 
ot ama-tsu-norito "heavenly ritual." Hirata tbinks tbat 
tbe so-called Misogi no harahi no lotoha ''words accom- 
panying tbe bodily purification" are meant; but tbese 
are, as Motowori Toyokabi remarks, only an abbreviation 
of tbe Oho-harahe no Ivloha, our ritual, and are of later 
origin. Anotber commentator understands by ama-tsu- 
norilo tbe sentence 'Hoho-lami emi-iame you distant gods, 
deign to smile 1" (tame=tamahe) wbicb is used in tbe 
metbod of divination from tbe cracks of tbe sboulder-blade 
of a deer scorched over a clear fire. 

I think, however, that the nearest and simplest 
interpretation is, as usual, also here the[ correct one, viz. 
that ama-tsu-norHo is nothing else but our present ritual, 
the Oho-harahe no kotoba itself. The differences in tbe 
views are partly due to the different interpretation of tbe 
verbal form nore "sball speak" which some consider to 
be the imperative, others the indicative =rJorw ; Fujiwi 
even declares nore to be a mistake for nori There can be 
hardly any doubt but that the meaning conveyed is : Oho- 
Nakatomi is commanded by the Emperor, tbe successor of 
tbe Heavenly Qrandchild, to perform such and such 

100 Ancient Japanese Eiliiah. 

ceremonies and recite such and such words, as were 
performed and recited in the purification ceremony in 
Heaven, and were, therefore, also prescribed for the 
descendants of the Qods, the men on earth. Nore must 
be the imperative. 

58) The gods residing on the Plain of High Heaven 
are contrasted with the gods dwelling on the earth. Lit. 

C9) I.e. the door, constructed of rocks, of their palace 
in Heaven, iha **rock" is by some commentators taken 
only as an honorific. 

60) ^Ul is read hiki-yama {hili=hiL'ui) by Hirata, 
Haruyama and others ; but the correct reading is mizLia- 
yama, given by Motowori, Shikida etc. The latter quotes 
quite a number of passages from ancient texts which show 
that the reading mizika alone is well founded. 

61) Ihori or ihori ''smoke," an ancient word, now 
iburi (verb ihuru '* to smoke "). The clouds and the mist 
hovering around the mountains are meant. The word 
kemiiri, kehuri ''smoke" is probably a compound of ke 
{=:ki, ikif) and iburi. 

62) There was an old tradition (according to 
Motowori Toyokahi) that the gods of Heaven and Earth 
come together at one place in order to hear the Norito. 

63) What I have rendered by the words "it is to be 
expected that " is in the original the simple demonstrative 

particle to ( ai^azi to=it is to be expected that. . . .will 

not be). 

64) Tsiimi to ifa tsumi. This curious expression 
occurs a second time further on. 

Ancient Japanese Rituals, 101 

65) The "sovran Grandchild'* is properly, as already 
stated, Ninigi no MUcoto ; but hero the term is applied to 
the presently reigning Emperor, as successor of Ninigi. 
This is not the only instance of the kind : in the Suinin-ki 
of the Nihongi, 25th year, the term *' sovran Grandchild " 
is used of the Emperor Suinin ; in the Temmu-ki, 1st 
year, of the Emperor Temmu ; and also in the Zoku- 
Nihon-ko-ki occurs a similar use of the word. 

The word rendered by ** court*' is in the original the 
well-known mi-kado, which, however, does not (here) 
designate Emperor, but his court or palace. The 
etymology is uncertain : it may be ?ni-Z a^o "august gate," 
which reminds us of the Sublime Porte, or mika-to 
"august place." There are many different ways of 
writing it with Chinese characters, e. g. in the Nihongi : 
£^, £^, JiWit $^^ (also used hero in the ritual) etc., in 
the Manyoshu: Wfi, fflifflB, Wn etc. 

66) Shinato no kaze ''the wind of Shinato," i.e. the 
wind produced by the wind-god Shinato. Shinato is an 
abbreviation of Shinatobe no Mikoto " the long-breathed 
maiden " {shi " wind," na apocopated form of naga *'long," 
to=isu the generic particle, he=me " woman "). In the 
service of the gods of wind at Tatsuta, the 4th Norito, two 
gods of wind are mentioned: Shinatsu'hii{0 no Mikoto "the 
long-breathed youth," and Shinatobe no Mikoto^ also called 
Shinatsu-hime no Mikoto, For details see Satow, VII p. 
417 sequ. Should it bo possible that the feminine suffix 
he has been omitted in order to include both the male and 
female wind-god in the one name Shinato f The same 

102 A)wient Japanese Eituals. 

phraso Shinato no kaze occurs also in a passage of the 
Genji-moDOgatari, chapter Asagao : Ana kokorou, sono mi 
no tsumi ba mina Shinato no kaze ni toguhe teki to 
notamafu. In later times Shinato has been used as a 
name for the north-west wind (Comp. Chamb. Kojiki, pag. 
27, note 15). 

67) Ashiia no mi-giri (from mi-liri). Mi is written with 
the character ^ " august " which, however, in such com- 
pounds as mi-giri, mi-yama mi-yuH etc. must be translated 
by "deep" or " dense." Whether this mi "deep, dense" 
is etjmologically identical with the honorifics mi and ma, 
or whether it is of different origin, it is dif&cult to decide. 

68) Oho'tsu'be lit " large harbour side. " 

■ 69) :fc i^ JK. Motowori reads oho-wni no hara, Hirata 
and Haruyama oho-wala no hara, Shikida oho-ima-bara. The 
last reading seems to be the oldest. icata and una are 
both archaic words for " sea, ocean." 

70) Wochi-kala "that side, yonder," used here with 
only very slight meaning, icochi is the contrary of kvchi 
"here, this side"; both are often combined into icochi" 
Icochi ** here and there " (f. ex. Manyoshu 4 etc), icochi- 
kaia corresponds in meaning to the modern anata, which is 
contracted from ano kaia ''that side," commonly used as a 
polite pronoun of the second person. Satow, W. R. p. 54 
translates : the trunks of the forest trees, far and near. 

71) Yaki-kama no to-kama, with the repetition of the 
substantive, so much in favour in the ancient poetic style, 
instead of saying simply "tempered sharp sickle." /o is 
the stem contained in the adjective toki * ' sharp " and the 

Ancient Japanese Riluals, 103 

verb iogu '*to whet; " tokama occurs also in the second 
book of the Kojiki (to-kama ni sawataru kuhi). yoki is from 
the verb yaku *' to burn, to roast," which means here *^ to 
harden by fire, to temper/' An analogous expression, 
yaki'tachi " tempered sword," is found in Manyoshu 18. 
Also in yaki'ha (ha edge) ''tempered edge of a sword,'' 
yaki has the same meaning. The readings yaki-kama and 
to-kama are more correct than the nigoried forms kaki-gama 
and to-gama. 

72) In the original only koto (V) " thing " which must 
be interpreted to mean tsumi-koto '^ sinful things, sins." 

73) See note 3. 

74) Se-ori tsu Eime {Mt&^Jt^) is, according to the 
ft !6 lit BE, identical with Ya-so-maga-tsu-bi no kami **Wond- 
rous-Deity-of -Eighty-Evils '* who was born when Izanagi 
no Mikoto, on his return from Hades, went to the plain of 
Ahagi at Tachibana on the river Woto in the province of 
Himuka (now Kyushu), and purified himself from the 
contracted filth in the middle reach of the stream. The 
Nihongi has only the name Ya-so-maga'tsu-bi, whilst the 
Kojiki mentions two distinct deities : Ya-so-magatsu-bi no 
jffawn* and Oho-maga-tsu-bi no Kami ** Wondrous-Deity-of- 
Great-Evils. " In my opinion Ya'SO-maga-tsu-bi snd Oho- 
maga-isu-bi are only alternative names of one and the same 
deity, so that the more correct tradition would be on the 
side of the Nibongi. Se-ori tsu Hime signifies ''Current- 
descending-Princess : " se " swift current, or a place in a 
river where the water is not deep ; " IS ori stands phone- 
tically for T ori "descending." 

104 Ancienl Japanese Biluals. 

75) Sakunadari ni ochi-tagitsu. The latter part is 
clear: ochi from olsxini "to fall," tagitsu, closely related 
to tagiru, " to boil, to foam *' {taH ''waterfall" belongs to 
the same root). The first part sakunadari, however, 
presents great difficulties. There are as many different 
opinions about it as there are commentators, and the 
meaning of the word was probably already obscure at the 
time when the Norito was first committed to writing, for 
it is written only phonetically. I will pass in review the 
most prominent explanations : 

a) sa honorific prefix, like ma ; kuna-=kiLda, supposing 
a sound-change between d and n, which indeed sometimes 
occurs : kuda stem kudaru " to come down ; " /ari from 
taru (tariru) **to hang down, to drop down." Sakuna-dari 
n?==*'in falling." 

b) Shikida considers sakunadari to be a contraction of 
saku'kuna-dari. He gives saku the meaning ift "fierce, 
violent" and quotes a poem from Manyoshu 14, where 
saku-nami is contrasted with hira-se "level current" and it 
must, in his opinion, mean " fierce waves." kuna would be 
an old word for ^ '* valley, ravine," the existence of which 
word he tries to prove by the name of the shrine & A S8 ft 
it ifc SakunadO'jinja, which ought to mean Wi^f9r " fierce 
ravine-place," and by a passage of the Wamyosho. In the 
Sarashina district of the province of Shinano there is a 
Sato called <]> @ which must be pronounced, according to 
the Wamyosho, ^^^ loo-u-na, and this wo-u-na is by 
Shikida considered to bo a transformation from xco-kuna 

Ancient Japanese RUucUs. 105 

c) Haruyama supposes the first word saku to mean $ 
* ' valley, ravine/' and illustrates this by the place-name 
^ ^ W Miya-saku-mura in the Yamabe district of the 
province of Eadzusa, and by orthographies like &^ naga- 
zakuy iB§ koye-saku etc. nadari is =narfare " gradual slope." 

I think that Haruyama's hypothesis comes nearest to 
the truth. But saku might rather be an archaic form of 
saka *' hill, slope," just as we have the double form loaku 
and waka "young," e. g. in the name Waka-musubi or 
Waku-musubL nadari is the indefinite or stem form, used 
as a verbal substantive, of the verb nadaru " to slope or 
incline downwards ; ' it is the old form, whilst nadare is a 
more modem form of the substantive, derived form 
nadaruru (nadareru). If my explanation be correct, the 
literal meaning of saku-nadari ni ochi-iagUsu haya-kaha 
would be : " the rapid streams that fall boiling (foaming) 
down flom the gradual hill-slopes." I have, however, 
closely adapted my translation to Sa tow's rendering of a 
similar passage in the Hirose Oho-imi no Matsuri (Norito 
3, VII p. 415 : the water which the sovran gods deign to 
send boiling down the ravines sakunadari ni kudashi-tamafu 
midzu). It would have been interesting to know Satow's 
view of the etymology, but unfortunately he has not 
appended a note. 

76) Haya-aki isu Hime a? M? W Jt*" ^* (in the original 
the character it hi was wanting, but has been inserted by 
the various editors) signifies, according to the characters 
which are partly ideographic, partly phonetic "Swift- 
opening-princess," and is an offspring of Izanagi no 

106 Ancient Japanesti Bituals, 

Mikoto. It is, however, much disputed whether this is 
the real meaning of the name. The Kojiki and Nihongi 
agree in designating this deity as minato no lami, Le. 
''Deity of the Water-doors," but the Kojiki (see Chamb. 
p. 26) enumerates two deities Haya'dLi'dzu-hiko and Haya- 
aki'dzU'hime, writing aki with the character Ifc "autumn" : 
Prince-of -Swift- Autumn" and ''Princess of Swift Autumn;" 
whilst the Nihongi (Aston, p. 32) has only the name 
Haya-aki-tsu'hi, written aSlfcSt "Sun (i.e. Wondrous 
[Deity] )-of-Swift- Autumn/' which however must be taken 
in a plural sense, as it expressly says minato no Iwni-tachi 
" Gods of the Water-doors.'' It seems that hi " wondrous" 
is the neutral form, including hi-Lo "wondrous child^ 
prince " as well as hi-me " wondrous woman, princess." 
JIaya is probably " swift," but could also mean "brilliant" 
AH is explained as " clear, bright," and tsu as generic 
particle in Shida's Nihonshoki-tsushaku ; but Shikida 
interpretes it in his Nihongi-hyochu : aki "open," tau 
"port, harbour.'' According to the latter view the name 
of the goddess signifies " Swif t-open-harbour-Princess. " 
I prefer to consider ^su as the generic particle: "Swift- 
Opening-Princess " (die schnell sich offnende Fiirstin, as 
also Dr Weipert puts it). This meaning agrees best with 
the part ascribed to her in the purification-ceremony : she 
resides in the great whirlpool of the ocean, or rather is 
this whirlpool herself, and opens her mouth and swallows 
down the waters as well as everything floating in them. 
Satow, W. E. p. 54 translates her name by Maiden-of-the- 
Swift-cleansing. The goddess is also identified with Idzu- 

Ancient Japanese Rituals. 107 

nome-no-kami *'tlie Female-Deity-Idzu." Comp. Chamb. 
p. 41. note 17. 

77) This pleonastic expression is highly characteristic 
of the solemn style of the ancient Japanese poetry. In 
rendering it I was really sorry I could not do so in 
German: die Salzflut-Allzusammenflusstelle der vielhun 
dertstromigen vielen Salzflutstrome der frischsalzfiutigen 
Salzflut 1 In the original ara-shiho no shiho no ya-ho-ji no 
ya-shihO'jl no shiho no ya-ho-ahi. Ara is properly " rough 
but according to Motowori Toyokahi it means here dekitate 
** fresh." ya-ho 800= very many, bIL ji " way" = currents 
of the water, ya-ho-ahi *'800 meetings " is that place of the 
ocean on the farthest border of the visible world where 
all the currents of the water come together and form the 
big whirlpool through which they rush down into the 
land of Hades. Through the same gorge the waters are 
also again spat out, and by this periodic swallowing down 
and spitting out are produced ebb-tide and flood tide. 
Everything bad and impure in the world, is supposed to 
have come from Hades, and by the ceremony of the 
Oho-harahe it is again sent back to its birth-place. 

78) In the original ka-ka nomitemu "will swallow 
down [with the sound] ka-ka'* ka-ka is an ancient 
onmatopoetic (in German ''gluck-gluck/' corresponding 
to the English verb to cluck), for which one now uses 

79) I-fuki-do M.^P '* breath- bio wing-place : " i-fuki 
contracted from iki-fuki *' breath-blow away ; " the reading 
ibuki is not so good, as is shown by the Jimmei-shiki's 

108 Ancient Japanese Rituals, 

(It ^1 ^) phonetic writing E ^ ft i-fa-hi in the name of the 
Shinto shrine Ifuki-jinja in the Kurimoto district of the 
l^rovince of Afumi. ^ to " door " is phonetic for ft to 
** place." The Breath-blowing-place is the place where a 
special deity, and offspring of Izanagi no Mikoto, blows 
away by his breath all sins and pollutions into Hades. 
This god is therefore called Jfuki-do-nushi **Lord of the 
Breath-blowing-place. " An authority identifies this god 
with Eamu-ndho-hi Oho-nalio-bi no Kami "Divine-Rectifying- 
Wondrous Great Rectifying- Wondrous Deity." llie 
Kojiki and Nihongi, in the report of the lustration of 
Izanagi, naake two gods of this : Kainu-naho-bi no Kami 
and Oho-naho'bi no Kami, I think that, as in the case of 
Ya-so-maga-tsu-bi Oho-maga-tsu-bi (comp. note 74), it is 
better to consider them as alternative names of one deity. 

80) tt B i£ B ne-nO'L'uni soko-no-kunL Hades, general- 
ly called Yomi-tsu'kuni or Yomo-tsu-kani, is meant The 
translation " Bottom-Country " gives the meaning of the 
Chinese characters ; the real meaning is probably "distant 
country," from so " there, yonder," and ko " place " : "das 
Jenseits" in German. Whether ne signifies "root" or 
not, it is in reality the name of a place, of an island, 
belonging to Idzumo, Oho-ne-shima. We find in the 
ancient traditions also Yomi no Oho-ne-shima "the island 
Great Ne of Yomi (Hades)," and Ne no katasu kiini "the 
borderland of Ne," Yomi " Hades " itself is the name of 
a place in the Shimane district of the province of Idzumo. 
The Even Pass of Hades, mentioned in the Nihongi and 
Kojiki, was, according to this latter authority, then called 

Ancient Japanese Rituals, 109 

the Jfiiya-Fass in the land of Idzumo. The name I/uya, 
contracted into /^/a, exists still in Idzumo. All these 
places I have mentioned, are not far distant from one 
another. There can hardly be any doubt that the ancient 
Japanese located their Hades in one corner of the province 
of Idzumo ! For further details I must refer the reader to 
my extensive commentary on the Jixdai-ki ** Annals of the 
Age of the Gods (Book 1 and 2 of the Nihongi, especially 
chapter 4th, note 29). 

81) ffaya'Sasura-hinie, also called Susei'l-hime, a 
daughter of Susa-no-wo no Mikoto. She is not mentioned, 
under the former name, in any other ancient text. Hirata 
identifies her, but without good reason, with Susa-no-wo 
no Miipto, Haya signifies * ' swift " or * ' brilliant," and is 
only, as often, an honorific ; sasura-hime seems to be con- 
tracted from sasurahi'hinie according to the rule that the 
same syllable should not occur twice successively ; sasurafit 
means either " to wander about aimlessly or in exile." or, 
as Modzume's Daijirin explains it, "to make" (leng- 
thened form of sasuru, from sum). The compound verb 
mochi-sasurahi'Ushinofu, rendered by '*take them and 
completely banish them and get rid of them," is by 
Motowori explained to mean : ** to lose something so that 
one does not know whither it has come." Toyokahi gives 
to ws^in^a the signification shometsu suru, i.e. '* to make 

In the above notes (74, 76, 79, 81) I have pointed out 
that the four Deities of Purification {harahe no kami-sama) 
mentioned in the ritual, are identified, by the Japanese 


110 Ancient Japanese BUuah, 

commentators, with certain other gods mentioned in the 
Kojiki and Nihongi. We saw that only one of the four 
names is actually mentioned in the ancient records and 
annals ; the identification in the other cases is more or less 
problematical. It seems therefore advisable not to lay too 
much stress on this question and to be, on the whole, 
content with Mabuchi's view that the four deities are 
personifications of the successive places and actions in the 
process of purification. 

82) According to the view of Mabuchi and nearly all 
the later commentators, the horse acts a symbolical part 
in the ceremony of puiification. It is regarded to be an 
animal especially quick of hearing, and therefore its 
presence symbolizes the desire that the Gods of Heaven 
and Gods of Earth may hear, and act upon, the words of 
the ritual, as quickly as a horse hears with its ears pricked 
up. Such a horse is called haralie no uma ** purification- 
horse." In ancient times the number of the harahe-no-uma 
was six, according to the reports of the Sei-gu-ki, Hoku- 
zan-sho and Koke-shidai, and four or five sheaves of rice 
in the ear were placed beside them. The Imperial edict 
of the 5th year Temmu, 8th month, 16th day (28th 
September, 676) commands the Kuni no Miyatsuko of each 
province to furnish one horse for the ceremony (performed 
in their respective provinces) ; the same is required by the 
Jingi-Eyo etc. 

83) The freer translation we (or I) purify and cleanse 
in the name of the Sovran would perhaps be preferable. 

84) Minazuki, sixth month, from mi ** water," na Gen. 

Ancient Japanese Rituals, / 111 

particle (cp. mi-na-to "water-door, harbour"), Isuki 
"month." The interpretafcion *' waterless worth " (na= 
stem-form of naki "is not"), which is sometimes given, 
is wrong. 

85) Motowori, Hirata etc. read 019 ko-kuni "four 
countries or provinces" and understand the provinces 
Idzu, Hi, and Tsushima, the latter being counted as two 
provinces by counting specially its two districts Kami-tsu- 
agata and Shimo-tsu-agata. Others, as Motowori 
Toyokahi, consider U-Jcyo, the right division of Kyoto, as 

the fourth country. The former view is to be preferred, \^ 
because it is reported that there were five diviners {urabe) 
in Idzu, five in Iki. five in Kami-tsu-agata and five in 
Shimo-tsu-agata of Tsushima. The original text has the 
character E9 mo after ^, which has been suppressed by 
Motowori etc., being considered as a later interpolation. 
Shikida, however, restores it and reads yo-mo no kuni, 
taking ^ as a phonetic writing of "^ mo " side, quarter of y 
the compass," so that the meaning would be : the diviners 
of the countries of the four sides, i.e. of all the countries. 

The duty of the diviner (urabe) is to caiTy the purifica- 
tion offerings to the river, after the Oho-Nakatomi has 
finished the recital of the ritual, and throw them away into 
the water. 

86) Oho-kaha-ji. The word j I "way" is added to 
kaha, because the river is the road by which the thrown 
away objects are carried into the sea. As in ancient times 
the capital was frequently removed from one place, and 
even from one province, to another, different rivers came, 

112 Ancient Japanese Rituals. 

of course, to be used for the ceremony by w hich the court- 
officials were purified. At the time when Kyoto was the 
capital, the Kamo Kiver was probably used for the 
purpose, says Haruyama. 

The last clause is, by the commentators, also styled a 








The origin of the breed is not known, but it is believed 
to be at least 100 years old. It has been produced simply 
by selection of the best Specimens ; one highly prized 
variety — the Haku — was produced in this way within the 
last few years. 

The proper general name for the long-tailed fowls is 
Shinoimra-id, derived from the village of Shinowara in the 
district of Nagaoka in the province of Tosa, some 3 ri 
East of Eochi, the capital. Some are still bred in that 
place, others — most, I believe, now — in Kochi itself, 
whence the majority are exported to Kobe and some of the 
finest to Tokyo ; but the very finest are retained by the 
producers. An inferior breed exists at Hiroshima, in the 
main island of Japan ; but these have the long tail-feathers 
only, not the beautiful long body-feathers. 

The following varieties were described to me : — 
Shira-fuji, white head and body-feathers ; tail black as in 
the other varieties. I saw one specimen of this, 2 years 
old, and measured its tail-feathers, 7^ ft. long ; also 
another 14 months old, tail-feathers 4 ft. long, legs grey. — 
Others have black bodies. 

Baku, white all over with yellow legs. 

TOtenkd, red neck and body feathers. 

Dokiri, reddish colour mixed with white of body. 

2 Note on A Lovg-taUed Breed of Fowls in Tosa, 

All these, except the Baku, have black tail-feathers. 

As great a length as 18 ft. has been reached in tail- 
feathers, but 12 ft. is a rarity. From 7 or 8 to 11 ft. is the 
usual length. They grow about 4 inches a month, and 
continue to grow while the bird lives, which may be 8 or 9 
years. The beautiful body-feathers growing from the 
shoulders reach a length of 4 ft. Some of these may fall 
off in moulting, but the tail-feathers never do so. I saw 
the birds in October (1898), when moulting, and only the 
ordinary feathers were gone or going, not the long ones. 

I also saw the hen, a very handsome bird distantly 
reminding one of a hen pheasant, with fawn-coloured 
breast, and white quill to the delicately coloured feathers 
of the back. She, too, has longer tail-feathers than any 
ordinary hen, — sometimes as much as 8 inches. The hens 
lay in spring and autumn, one bird producing 30 eggs 
yearly, which arc hatched by other hens. One, or at most 
two hens, are allowed to each breeding cock. The latter's 
tail-feathers are cut, to allow of his walking about freely. 
He lives a little longer than the others, which must be 
kept shut up ; but all are hardy, bearing both heat and 

The ordinary number of long tail-feathers is 15 or 16 ; 
some cocks have as many as 24. 

The tail-feathers must not be wound up, as people 
ignorantly do, away from Kochi, but must be always 
allowed to hang free, for which reason the cocks are kept 
in high narrow cages quite dark except close to the top ; 
for liffht at the bottom would attract them. When the 

Hate on A Long- tailed BreeA of Fowls in Tosa. 3 

tail-feathers become too long and touch ground in the 
cage, a bamboo is put a little way back so as to form an 
arch and thus make more distance. The birds sit all day 
on a flat perch 3 inches wide, and are only taken out once 
in 2 days, and allowed to walk about for 1/2 an hour or 
so, a man holding their tail all the while to prevent its 
getting torn or soiled. Once or twice a month they are 
carefully washed with warm water, and are then as care- 
fully dried on some high place, — the roof or wherever may 
be most convenient— a man holding their tail till it is quite 

The birds are fed on unhulled rice {kuro-niai) and 
greens, such as daikon-leaiy &c. They must be given 
plenty of water. They are wonderfully tame. 

Two specimens were brought to me in boxes, — long 
narrow boxes like those in which the Japanese put away 
kakemono (hanging scrolls) — in whicli the bird's body is 
laid full-length, the tail twisted round a little. That is 
how they always travel. It is said that they can be kept 
thus as long as 40 days without being taken out. The 
dimensions are about inches square, and 4 ft. 6 inches 
long ; there is a grating for air at one end only and a 
division guarding the feathers. The box is carried 
horizontally. Their narrow cages may be made of any 
wood, and are 6J ft. high, 3 ft. deep, and 6 inches wide. 

The wonderful feathers, both on tail and bod}^ come 
from quills much stouter than any possessed by usual 
barn door fowls. 

My chief informant was Mr. Kitagawa Ushimatsu, an 

4 Note on A Long-taUad Breed of Fowla in Toaa, 

employe in the Local Court of Justice, — an amateur both 
of fowls and horses. Mr. Iwagawa Kametaro also brought 
a specimen, and I saw one or two elsewhere in Kochi. 

Present prices in Kochi : — About $ 15 for a cock with 
feathers under 10 ft. ; $ 25, ii over that length. Good hen, 
$ 1^. Kobe prices are considerably higher. 

There is absolutely no artificial method of making the 
feathers grow. All is done by selection. Any failure to 
obtain good results must proceed from having a bad hen, 
that is, one not of the true breed, and it is in this point 
that buyers are liable to be deceived. Also one must 
know how to treat the birds. 

At Kobe, in November, 1898 I saw three specimens 
at two bird-fanciers*,* — one with tail-feathers 13J ft. long 
(I had it measured), — of the usual mixed colours. I also 
saw the splendid white tail — 10^ ft. long— of a snow- 
white bird, which had been pulled out accidentally, owing 
to the bird falling from its perch and fluttering about. The 
bird itself was brought downstairs to me ; its tail-feathers 
were growing again. The bird-fancier said it was 5 years 
old. He added that the feathers, which grow only at the 
rate of 4 inches a month when the bird is young, grow 
more quickly, — as much as 7 inches — when it is older. 

(The same bird-fancier had numerous specimens of 
the Japanese giant salamander, mostly about 2 ft. long, — 
very sluggish and ugly, spotted creatures. He says they 

* Hftmamoto, at No. 76 Motomacbi, Nichome, aud NiBhimiiru, at 
•249 Motomnchi It-chome. 

Nole on A IjOiig-tailed Breed qt Fowls in Tosa. 5 

come from Hakone ; but no one known to me in that 
district — and I have known the district intimately for 
years — has ever seen any but tiny specimens a few inches 
in length.) 


The contents are 

1. The nrjeaning of the word Christian. 

2. The sign of the Cross. 

3. The Lord's Prayer. 

4. The Hail Mary. * 

5. The Salve Regina. 

6. The Creed. 

7. The ten commandments. 

8. The Laws of Holy Church. 

9. The 7 deadly Sins. 
10. The 7 Sacraments. 

At the end are lists of Corporal and Spiritual Works 
of Mercy, the Theological and Cardinal Virtues, the 
gifts of the Holy Spirit, the Beatitudes, concluding with 
the Confiteor. 

Japanese versions will be found in its pages of the 
Lord's Prayer, the Hail Mary, the Salve Regina, the 
Apostles Creed and the Ten Commandments, which 
may be useful for comparison with modern translations. 

From certain indications it appears that the book 
was intended for the use of educated persons of the 
Samurai class. Such are the passage on f. 21 where 
it is explained that all created things exist in the 
Mind of God as Id,.as, and that on f. 22 explaining 
material objects as compounded of two elements, 
Matter and Form, as those terms are used in the 
scholastic philosophy. The author speaks of another 
work dealing with this subject in greater detail, which 
the catechumen is recommended to study. . Of this work, 

♦ Sub-chapters. 
The Rosary. 
The joyful mysteries. 
The sorrowful mysteries. 
The glorious mysteries. 
The crown. 

however, no trace has yet been found, and Bartoli's 
enumeration of the books printed by the mission- 
aries, quoted in the Appendix to my pamphlet already 
referred to, makes no mention of any such treatise. 
Another indication of the class of persons for whom this 
book was intended occurs on f. 34V., where the author 
in enumerating necessary labours which are not viola- 
tions of the commandment to keep holy the Sabbath, 
mentions taking order of battle, fighting in battle, dig- 
ging trenches, building walls, constructing fortresses, 
or carrying materials therefor, which though fatiguing 
to the body, nevertheless being of importance for the 
conduct of a war, are not prohibited. And a little 
further on the necessity of staying at home to guard 
a castle and the danger of attack from an enemy are 
given as justifiable reasons for not attending mass. 

As this work possesses great interest as a monu- 
ment of the language at that period, while likely 
to be of use to modern missionaries as a standard of 
comparison, it has been thought worth while reproduc- 
ing in entirety in the following pages. 

This precious and probably unique little volume has 
suffered greatly from the ravages of worms, so much 
so that in places whole words have disappeared. The 
photographic reproduction of the titlepage prefixed 
to this reprint gives some idea of the damage done by 
these insects, and it will be noticed that in some places 
the print of an underlying page is visible through the 
wormholes. By the aid of a transcript, made at the 
time referred to, of the co])y in the Minerva library, 
I have been able to supply these lacunae, and also to 
correct the text in a tew instances distinguished by 
square brackets. 

The spelling is that of the Portuguese works on 


Japanese grammar and lexicography of the period, but 
the list of differences between that system of transcrip- 
tion and that mostly employed at present will greatly 
facilitate, and it is iioped even remove, the difficulties 
attendant upon a first perusal. At the end of these 
notes is given a list of the more unusual words which 
occur in the work, all but one of which are to be 
found in the French edition of the Missionaries' 
Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary that we owe to the 
labours of the late Mons. Leon Pages. It only remains 
to be noted that the European theological terms 
employed here and there were adopted from the 
Portuguese language. 

List of Portuguese transcriptions and equivalents now 
generally in use. 

Single kana syllables. 

)' i 

fa ha 

fo ho 

fe he 

vo, uo 


va, ua 





tsu (final) 



vo, uo 


cu, qu 









Soft knva syllables 











z, zu 




Compound syllables 


ni 1 






















re 6 


The most puzzlings spelling perhaps are at first sight 
/aua for haha, mother 2Lnd/a^t for Aaji\ shame. Others 
will be found in the glossary. 


airen, pity 

anguia, pilgrimage {angia) 

ata, enemy 

atari, to behave towards 

ategai, to attribute 

bettai, different substance 
bi, smelling 

bucusasuru, cause to eat 
buji, peace 
bun, sono, so 

ca, smell 

cacayaqu, shine (kagayaku). 

cacayuru, uphold 

caccacu, distinct. 

cacugo, preparation, intention 

canmi, sweetness 

caqibai, lime made from oyster shells 

catague, custom 

caxacu, blows and tortures {ka-shaku) 

chinami, association ; occasion 

chitocu, knowledge 

cofi, queen {kd-hi) 

conbon, principles, elements (komport) 

conguen, origin, beginning (kongen) 

coriocu, assistance. 

conomi, fruit (ki no mi) 

coxeqi, works {kdsekt) 

cunju, company 

curacu, misery and happiness 

curiqi, merit 

cuyacu, labour 

daiji, the earth 
daimocu, matter, subject 
doxin, consent (dd-shin) 

fachibocu, rice {Jiachi-bokv) a sort of pun on the 

Chinese character * 
facocumu, feed {hagokumu) 
fan ni firaqi, to print 
fanji, half an hour 

faxi (occurring after michi, road, on p. lov. prob. 

faxxiqi, laws {hd-shiki) 
faua, mother (haha) 
fenp6, recompense 
fiquan, retainer 
fottanno, initial 
fudai, slave 

funbet, intelligence {fiimbetsu) 
funbet itasu, to understand 
funhoy, poverty (fu-nio-i) 
futai no, eternal 

giogio, things, articles (j6-jo) 

giubon, serious offence {ju-bo7i) 

giuwon, great benefit iju-ou) 

giuxi, to dwell (ju-shi) 

gocuy, foundation of a doctrine, essence {gokui) 

goxo, salvation {go shd) 

goyei, picture 

guecai, this lower world {ge^kai) 

guedat, deliverance {ge-datsu) 

guen, sight {gen) 

guenje, this life {gen-zc) 

guenzai, this world, the present 

guexocu, service, work {ge-shoku) 

guijet, breach of relations (gi-zetsu) 

ichimi, body ; union, 
ippenni, with all one's heart 
ittai, one (numeral of deities) 

jefi, right and wrong {ze-hi) 

jen, virtue {zeri) 

jendocu, virtue {zen-dokii) 

jennhonin, virtuous woman, saint {zefinio-niu) 

jennin, virtuous man, saint {zen-nin) 
jet, taste (zetsu, tongue) 

manabu, imitate 

mandocu, virtues, attributes, goodness 

manzo, all things 

mido, temple 

mogo, lie 

monco, door 

monen, evil thoughts 

moren, lust 

mufen, infinite 

murio, infinite 

musai, boundless, infinite 

nacadachi, mediator 

nacanaca, certainly 

naixo. will 

nannho, man and woman {uan-nid) 

nhonin, woman (iiio-nin) 

nhunan, clement {niu-ftau) 

ni, hearing 

niai no, corresponding, suitable 

ninju, persons {ninzu) 

nozomi, desire 

qenai, family {kanai) 

qenbo, justice {keinpd) 

qendan, judge 

qendon naru, cruel, inhuman 

qengacu, far apart ; vndei qengacu, infinitely different 

{iindei kengakii) 
qenzocu, family 
qeoacu, evil (kidaku) 
qeoge, counsel, teaching {kidke) 
qeracu, joy 


qetqi, vigour of the blood, life {kekki) 

qidocu, miracle 

qio, book 

qiuamaru, to consist in (kiwamarti) 

qiuame, consummunation, last thing {kiwame) 

quafo, blessedness, blessed 

quan, sepulchre 

quan, numeral of prayers, literally 'ring.' 

quangui, rejoicing, joy {kuan-gi) 

quannen, meditation 

quantai, rudeness, offence 

quatai, penalty 

quanzuru, meditate 

quenzocu, misprint for qenzocu, relations 

quodai, great 

rimot, gain (riinotsii) 

riun uo firaqi, to triumph, to j;ain the victory. 

roxi, road {ro-shi) 

royacu, good medicine {ridyaku) 

runin, exile 

ruro, exile 

sacu no mono, works 
saguflD, life, works {sa-gid) 
saxizzu, plan {sashi-dzit) 
soden, tradition 
suguinixi, past (sugimshi) 

tai, substance 

taicut, weariness, discontent {tai-kutsu) 

taixet, love (taisetsii) 

taixite, for the sake of {tai-shite) 

tanomoxiqi, hopeful 

tassuru, to perfect, complete 

tattoqi, holy, glorious, blessed 

1 1 

taxxite, perfectly, completely 

tgugai, member 

tciiyosuru, to be in communication 

teng^u, the Devil 

tenma, the Demon 

toburai, suffrage 

tocu, profit, benefit 

togavocuri, satisfaction for sin 

tonaye, von, benediction 

tonayuru, cruzuo, make the sign of the Cross. 

toriauaxite, intercessor, mediator 

torinaxite, advocate 

yenman, entire fullness 

ygue, etcetera 

yo. manner 

yojo no, important 

yoxi, child by adoption {yo-shi) 

yuzzuri, inheritance (yudzitri) 

vocuri (togauo), make satisfaction (for sin) 

vomocague, mental idea 

vondocu, benefit received 

vqeauaxe, unite, incorporate [jitke-awase) 

vqec.iycxi, redeem 

xebamuru, persecute {sebaniiirn) 

xeccan, chastisement, reprimand {sekkau) 

xefo, worldly customs {se-hd) 

xei, power {set) 

xeibai, put to death {seibai) 

xeicon, faculty (lit. fundamental powers, seikon) 

xeiriqi, powers \seiriki) 

xeitocu, virtue, cfficacity 

xenyo, necessary {senyd) 

xiccai, all [shikkai) 


xidai, four elements {shi-dai) 

xin, feeling {shin^ lit. body) 

xindai, subjects (f. 44v.); existence (f. 28) 

xindaisuru, govern {shintai sum) 

xine, disposition {shine) 

xingo, veneration (skinko) 

xinjin, devotion {shinji?i) 

xinmio, life (shiinviio) 

xiqiso, material object {shiki-so) 

xiqitai, body {shiki-tai) 

xiqixin, body {shiki-shin) 

xitagi, foundation, material {shitaji) 

xojen, virtues, goodness {sho-zen) 

xqjino, living and dead {s/io-shi-fw) 

xojono, pure {shO-jd no) 

xomet, destruction {shd-metsu) 

xoqio, little book {shd-kid) 

xoso, forms {s/io-sdj 

xotai, true substance {shd-tai) 

xotocu, congenital, natural 

xugiacu, immoderate desire (shujaku) 

xugo> governor {shugo) 

xugo no, guardian {sJtugo no) 

zotan, conversation {^zo dan, jo dan) 

(]<1^0LLEGI0 lAPONI^O ^. 
SOCl ET AflSlE^V. 


no jo 

^^mK^^ /Tr///*/ lESV Chris to gozaixeno 
xlM§^ ^/v/^? midexi tacJiini 7iotamai voqitamd 

\~Z^A cotouo vacani toriitqqi vadachiin voxi 

yeqerii goioqu, ifsai vingitenni goxouo 
tasucaru inacotono viichhto firoineyoto 
no rd coto nari. Core mat a gacuxa tachino uobe voqern 
gotoqu, mitcuno guini qmamaruuarL Fitotfutiiua, xijiji 
tatematcuridbeqi coto. Futatfuniua, tanomoxiqu zonji 
tatewatfuriihiqi coto Mit^uiiiua, tfutovie vocond beqi 
coto core nari. Xicarutn xinji tatematfuritbeqi daimo- 
cuto yiiua ninchiJii vyobu ddrino vyenaru giti nareba. 
Fides toyiijenni ataru mono nari. Corerano cotouo xira- 
zuba goxdno michini mayo coto vouocarubexi. Mat a 
tanomoxiqu vomo coto tona Efperanga toyu jenni ataru 
coto nari. Core funauachi Detis yori von yacufocu no 
motte cJiriftani at aye tam&beqi goxdni a tarn fodono 
coto nari. ConoEsperan^a naqt^banci guini vdbeqitoqi, ta 
nomu tocoro naxito chicarauo votofii cotonio aruhcxi. 
Core mat a animano voqinaru fauari nari. fate t<^utome 
vocond beqi cototoua cJiaridadeto yu taixetnojenni ataru 
coto nari. Corerano guiuo cocoroyerjareba, Dens no von 


voqiteuo tabitabi fovtuqti coto arubexi. Carugayuye 
cono mitguno jenna Chriftatuw taineni inoppara naru 
gtiinareba, gacuxato na7io yerarexijennin coreranitguite 
amatafto qi&uo caqi voqi tamo mono nnri, Ima so/io 
vchiyori cliyb nam tocorouo yerabitorite^anni firaqi, ma 
yoiuo terafii cagamito nafu mono nari, Xicareba Chrif- 
tani goxono mop par a nam cotouo voxiye tameni Camp a 
nhia fuperiorno fneiuo vqtte cono xoqiouo amitate naz- 
suqete Doctrina Chriftato yu. Coreftinauachi Chrifthno 
voxiyeto yu cocoro nari. logue Baminni iayafuqu cono 
manetio xiraxenga tameni cotobaua socuno mimini chi- 
taqu, guina Deusno tacaqi cotonariuo arauasu mono na 
ri. Cono cotouariuo fumiyacani vaqimayenga tameni 
Xidexino mondoto naxite ximefu mono nari. Core ifsai 
Christ ano chiyeno manacouo aqiramuru voxiye nareba, 
taremo narai vaqimaye xitte, may oino y amino nogare, 
macotono michijii molo"suqu bexi. 



goto zoto yii coto. 

Xixo. Chriftani naru monoua 

fono voxiye xinjit canyo naru 
monouo chomo furu coto mop- 
para nareba, sono iuareuo nagi 
yoqu qiquya inaya? 

Dexi. Goxeppono vomomuqiuo yoqu chSmo 
xite, Deusno von ficariuo comuri ChristS 
ni nari tatematcuru coto nari. 

X. Sono vaqimayeua ican ? 

D. Fubet xexi coto vouoqi nari. 

X. Sono mune cotogotocu yiini voyobazu, 
tada fubetno fodouo xiru tameni dai ichi 
canyono daimocuuo mofareyo. 

D. Fitotcuniua, ichimot naqi tocoroni ta- 
ne naquxite tenchi mazouo tcucuri araxe 
tamai, yorozzuno facuno monouo voboxi 
mesu mamani goxindai nafaruru fono go 
facu nasareteua xojen mandocuno von mi- 
namoto, facarinaqi vonchiye banji canai 
tamo gojiyu jizaino von aruji Deus go 
ittai maximafu coto. 
Futatcuniua, core funauachi vareraga gue- 

A 3 


je goxe tomoni, facarai jenacuno gofe- 
pouo tadaxiqu ataye tamo von aruji na- 
ri. Cono go ittaiuo vogami tattomi tate- 
matcurazuxiteua goxono vo tafuqeni az- 
zucaru coto farani naxi. 

Mitcuniua, von aruji Deusua Padreto, Fi- 
Ihoto, Spiritu Sanctoto mSxi tatema- 
tcurite, Perfonaua mitcunite maximaxe 
domo, Subftantiato mofu goxotaiua tada 
go ittai nite maximafu nari. 

Yotcuniua, Deus Filho ifsai ninguenno to- 
gauo vocuri tamai, goxouo tafucaru michi 
uo voxiye tamauan tameni amacudari ta- 
mai, Humanidadetote, varerato fitoxiqi A 
nima xiqixinuo v3 mini vqeauaxe tamai, 
fufuno majiuari naqu tattoqi Virgen Ma- 
ria yori macotono fitoto vmare tamai, tcu- 
ini Cruzni caqerare, fitonite maximafu 
votocoroua xixi tamo coto. 

Itcutcuniua, goxono michiua ChriftSno 
voxiyeni nomi qiuamaru nari. Soreni yot- 
te Chriftani narazunba gox5uo tafuca- 
ru coto arubecarazuto funbet itafu coto 
core nari. 

X. Ninguenno cotouoba nanito funbet xe- 
rareqeruzo ? 

D. Ningueua xiqixin bacarini arazu, fatcuru 



coto naqi Ariimauo motcu nari. Cono 
Animaua xiqixinni inochiuo ataye, tatoi 
xiqixinua tcuchi faini naruto yutomo, co- 
no Animaua vouaru coto naxi : tada jen 
acuni xitagatte goxono curacuni azzucaru 

X. Yoqu funbet xeraretari. Catechifmoto 
yu xodanguino cotouari yori focanimo 
GhriftSno xirazuxite canauazaru coto 
vouoqi nari. 

D. Sono guiuo vqelamauareba cofo goqeo- 
qeni azzucaritaqito zonzure. 

X. Core vaga nego tocoro nari. ChriftSni 
nararuru cotoua icanarii fitono xiuaza toca 
xireruya ? 

D. Deusno Gragauo motte Chriftanni nam 
mono nari. 

X. Deusno Gracauo motte toua nanigoto 
zoya ? 

D. Sonogui imada tcubufa narazu, negaua- 
cuua voxiye tamaye. 

X, Deusno Gracauo motte toua, vagami, chi- 
chi faua gofacuno monono chicarani ara- 
zu, tada Deusno v5 jifino vye yori vo aru- 
^ ji lefu Chriftono gocuriqiuo motte Chri- 
ftani naru coto nari. 

D. Fitobito Chriftanni nararuru toqiua, na- 

A 4 


nitaru curaiuo vqeraruruzo, 

X. Deusno goySxi ten no von yuzzuriuo vqe 
tatematcuru mito nam mono nari. So- 
noyuyeua Baptifmono von fazzuqeuo v- 
quru fitobitouo cono curaini ague tama- 
uanto voboximefuni yotte nari. 

D. Sate ChriftSni arazaru fitoua ican ? 

X. Baptifmouo fazzucarazaruni yotte goyo- 
xito naxi tamauazu, tenno von yuzzuri- 
uo vqemajiqi mono nari. 

D. Chriftatoua nanigoto zoya ? 

X. Vo aruji lefu Chriftono vo voxiyeuo xin- 
giu yori Fidesni vquru nomi narazu, coto- 
bato, mimochiuo motte arauafu fito nari. 

D. Nanino yuyenica von aruji lefu Chriftono 
v5 voxiyeuo fidesni vqe, cotoba mimochi 
uo motte arauafu fitotoua yubeqi zoya ? 

X. Moromorono Chrifta vo aruji lefu Chri- 
ftono tattoqi vo cotouo cocoro yori Fides 
ni vqezuxite canauanu nominarazu, c5- 
yo naru toqiua xifuruto yu tomo, coto- 
banimo, mimochinimo arauafu beqitono 
cacugo aru coto moppara nari. 

D. Chriftanto yuua naniuo catadoritaru 
na zoya ? 

X. Chriltouo catadori tatematcuritaru na nari. 

D. Chriftotoua icanaru vo aruji nite maxima 
fu zoya ? 

X. Ma- 


X. Macotono Deus, macotono fitonite maxi- 
[ma]fu nari. 

D. Macotono Deus nite maximafutoua na- 
ri igoto zoya? 

X. Banji canai tamo von voya Deusno ma- 
cotono vo fitorigo nite maximaxeba nari. 

D. Macotono fitonite maximafu toua ican ? 

X. Tattoqi von faua Virgen Mariano ma- 
coto no von fitorigo nite maximafu nari. 
Soreniyotte Deus nite maximafu von to- 
coroua, tenni voite von fauauo mochi ta- 
mauanu gotoqu, fitonite maximafu von 
tocoromo chini voiteua vo chichiuo mo- 
chi tamauanu nari. 

D. Nanini yotteca Chrifto toua tonaye tate- 
matcuruzo ? 

X. Chrifto toua tattoqi aburauo nurare tamo 
toyii cocoro nari. Sonocami teiuo, Sacerdo- 
te, Propheta cono mifamano fito tatto- 
qi aburauo nurare tamaixi nari. Von aru- 

ji lefu Chrifto fitonite maximafu v5 toco- 
roua teiuono vyeno teiuo, Sacerdoteno vye 
no Sacerdote, Prophetano vyeno Pro- 
• .pheta nite maximafu ni yotte cudano tatto- 
qi aburano cauarini Spiritu Sanctono Graca 
uo michimichite mochi tamoga yuyeni, 
Chriftoto tonaye tatematcuru nari, 

Dai ni. 


nitaru curaiuo vqeraruruzo. 

X. Deusno goy5xi ten no von yuzzuriuo vqe 
tatematcuru mito nam mono nari. So- 
noyuyeua Baptifmono von fazzuqeuo v- 
quru fitobitouo cono curaini ague tama- 
uanto voboximefuni yotte nari. 

D. Sate ChriftSni arazaru fitoua ican ? 

X. Baptifmouo fazzucarazaruni yotte goyo- 
xito naxi tamauazu, tenno von yuzzuri- 
uo vqemajiqi mono nari. 

D. Chriftatoua nanigoto zoya ? 

X. Vo aruji lefu Chriftono vo voxiyeuo xin- 
giu yori Fidesni vquru nomi narazu, coto- 
bato, mimochiuo motte arauafu fito nari. 

D. Nanino yuyenica von aruji lefu Chriftono 
vo voxiyeuo fidesni vqe, cotoba mimochi 
uo motte arauafu fitotoua yiibeqi zoya ? 

X. Moromorono ChriftS vo aruji lefu Chri- 
ftono tattoqi vo cotouo cocoro yori Fides 
ni vqezuxite canauanu nominarazu, cS- 
yo naru toqiua xifuruto yu tomo, coto- 
banimo, mimochinimo arauafu beqitono 
cacugo aru coto moppara nari. 

D. Chriftanto yuua naniuo catadoritaru 
na zoya ? 

X. Chriltouo catadori tatemat9uritaru na nari. 

D. Chriftotoua icanaru vo aruji nite maxima 
fu zoya ? 

X. Ma- 



X. Macotono Deus, macotono fitonite maxi- 
[ma]fu nari. 

D. Macotono Deus nite maximafutoua na- 
ri igoto zoya? 

X. Banji canai tamo von voya Deusno ma- 
cotono vo fitorigo nite maximaxeba nari. 

D. Macotono fitonite maximafu toua ican ? 

X. Tattoqi von faua Virgen Mariano ma- 
coto no von fitorigo nite maximafu nari. 
Soreniyotte Deus nite maximafu von to- 
coroua, tenni voite von fauauo mochi ta- 
mauanu gotoqu, fitonite maximafu von 
tocoromo chini voiteua vo chichiuo mo- 
chi tamauanu nari. 

D. Nanini yotteca Chrifto toua tonaye tate- 
matcuruzo ? 

X. Chrifto toua tattoqi aburauo nurare tamo 
toyii cocoro nari. Sonocami teiuo, Sacerdo- 
te, Propheta cono mifamano fito tatto- 
qi aburauo nurare tamaixi nari. Von aru- 

ji lefu Chrifto fitonite maximafu vo toco- 
roua teiuono vyeno teiuo, Sacerdoteno vye 
no Sacerdote, Prophetano vyeno Pro- 
• .pheta nite maximafu ni yotte cudano tatto- 
qi aburano cauarini Spiritu Sanctono Graca 
uo michimichite mochi tamoga yuyeni, 
Chriftoto tonaye tatemat9uru nari, 

Dai ni. 


Daini. Christano xh'uxiio naru tattoqi 
Criizno coto, 

D. Chrifiano xiruxitoua nanigoto zoya ? 

X. Tattoqi Cruz nari. 

D. Sono yuye ican ? 

X. Vareraga vo aruji lefu Chrifto Cruzno vye 
nite varerauo jiyuni naxi tamayeba nari. Ca- 
rugayuyeni izzureno Chriftanio vareraga 
ficarito naru vo aruji lefu Chriftono tatto- 
qi mi Cruzni taixi tatemat9urite, cocoro 
no voyobu fodo xinjinuo motcubeqi coto 
moppara nari. Varerauo toga yori nogaxi 
tamauan tameni, cano Cruzni cacari taqu 
voboximexi tamayeba nari. 

D. Jiyuni naxi tamotoua nanigoto zoya? 

X. Tenguno torauarebitoto naritaru vare- 
raga fudaino tocorouo nogashi tamoni yot- 
te nari. 

D. Torauarebitoto naritaru iuareraua ican ? 

X. Tenguto vareraga togano yatcuco nari. 
Vo arujino micotobani togauo vocafu mo- 
noua tenmano yat9uco narito notamo na- 
ri. Sareba fito mortal togauo vocaxeba, Te- 
gu funauachi fono monouo xindaifuruga 
yuyeni, yatcucoto naritaru mono nari. 
Xicareba Cruzni cacari tamo michiuo mot- 
te fadame tamo Baptifmono fazzuqe uo 



vqe, mataua Con^Sno Sacramentouo 
vqetatemat9ureba von aruji lefu Chrifto 
ataye tamo Gra9auo motte fono fitono mo 
romorono togauo yuruxi tamoni yotte, 
Cruzno gocuriqiuo motte von aruji le- 
fu Chrifto temano yatcucoto naritaru to- 
corouo vqecayexi tambto mofu nari. Sa- 
reba fitono yat9ucoto naritaru monouo 
vqecayexite jiyuni nafu cotoua macoto- 
ni fucaqi giuuon nari. Nauo mata ya- 
tcucoto naxitaru fitono tcurafauo fucaqu 
vomoixiruni voiteua, ima vqe cayefare 
taru tocorono vondocuuo yoqu vaqima- 
yubeqi mono nari. Yatcuco narixi toqi 
no xujin nafaqe naqu ataritaru fodo, v- 
qecayefaretaru vonmo fucaqi mono na- 
ri. Xicaruni vareraga von aruji lefu Chri- 
{tono Gracauo motte teguno teyori toga- 
ninuo toricayexi tamaite jiyiini naxi tamo 
gouonno fucaqi cotoua icabacarino cototo 
vomoya ? 

D. Chriftaua Cruzno monuo icufamani to- 
nayuru zoya ? 

X. Futafamani tonayuru nari. Fitotcuniua, 
miguino voyubi nite Cruzno mouo fitaito, 
cuchito muneni tonayuru nari. 

D. Sono mitcuno monuo tonayuru toqiua 



nanitaru cotouo mSxi aguru zo ? 

X. Vareraga De^ SScta Cruzno vo xiruxiuo 
motte vareraga teqiiio nogaxi tamayeto to 
nayuru nari. Vareraga De^ fglcta Cruzno 
v6 xiruxiuo motteto yu iccuuo tonayete fi 
taini Cruzuo mufubu nari. Vareraga teqi 
noto yu iccuuo motte cuchini Cruzuo tona 
yuru nari. Nogaxi tamayeto mofu iccuuo 
motte muneni Cruzuo tonayuru nari. 

D. Fitaito, cuchito, muneto cono mitoco- 
roni Cruzuo tonayuru cotoua nanitaru xi- 
sai zoya ? 

X. Fitaini tonayuru cotoua, Deus yori mo- 
nenuo nozoqi tamaua tame nari. Cuchini 
tonayuru cotoua acco mogouo nogaxi to- 
mauan tame nari. Mata muneni tona- 
yuru cotoua cocoro yori izzuru axiqi xofa 
uo nogaxi tamaua tame nari. Temaua 
Cruz fodo vofore tatemat9uru coto naqere 
ba, vareraga vyeni Cruzno xiruxiuo t9une- 
ni tonayuru coto cSyo nari. Sonoyuyeua 
temaua Spiritu nareba, icanaru tcurugi- 
totemo voforuru coto naxi : xicaredomo 
von aruji lefu Chrifto Cruzno vye nite xi- 
xi tamouo motte teguuo carame voqi ta- 
mai, fitouo jiyuni naxi tamayeba, careni 
chicazzucanto furu mono yori focani ata- 

uo na- 


uo nafu coto canauanu ybni naxi tam6 ga 
yuyeni, voqini Cruzuo volore tatematcu- 
ru mono nari. 

D. Teguuo carame voqi tamSni voiteua na- 
nitote cafodo fitoni atauo naxiqeru zoya ? 

X. Tatoyeuo motte coreuo iuaba, tcuna- 
garetaru tora, vocamiua, careraga fobani 
yoru mononi iiomi curaitcuquga gotoqu, 
von aruji lefu Chrifto Cruzno vyeni voite 
tenguuo carame tamoto iyedomo, togauo 
motte careraga fobani yoru mononi no- 

mi atauo nafu nari. Izzureno mortal to- 
gauo naritomo vocafu toqiua, tBguno foba 
ni tachiyori, togauo futeto furu toqi, ten- 
guno foba yori xirizoqu nari, Corerano 
coto mina Cruzno vye nite xixitamS v5 
aruji lefu Chriftono go curiqiuo motte 
ideqitaruto t5guua yoqu xiruni yotte, vo- 
qini Cruzuo voforuru nari. S. Hieronymo 
notamo gotoqu, inuua vtaretaru tcuyeuo 
mi voforete niguru gotoqu narito, S. Gre- 
gorio aru ludeoni tcuite caqi taraoua, ca- 
re Fides uomo motazu, Cruzuomo mochi- 
izu, cayette caroximuruto iyedomo, aru 
toqi amatano tengu muragaritaru toco- 
roni iri, voqini vofore atauo nafarejiga ta- 
meni canete yori mine vyeni Cruzno m5 



"uo tonayeqereba, tegu tachimachi nigue 
fatte iuaqu, Fidesuo motazaru munaxiqi v- 
tcuua mono narito iyedomo, Cruzno mon- 
uo tonayuruga yuyeni, atauo nalu coto 
canauazuto lyeri. Xicareba Fidesuo taixe- 
zaru mono faye Cruzno monuo tonayuru 
uo motte tenguuo voifaraiqeruni, yoqi 
Chriftano vycni tonaye tatematcuraba, 
icaga arubeqi zoya? 

D. Fitofamano Cruzno tonayeua fubet xexi, 
ima fitotcuno tonaye y6uo voxiye tamaye. 

X. Ima fitot9uniua, miguino teuo motte fitai 
yori mune made, fidarino cata yori migui 
no cata made, Cruzno mouo tonayuru na- 
ri. Tonayuru cotobaniua, In nomine Pa- 
tris, & Filij, & Spiritus facti. Amen. Co- 
no cocoroua, Deus Padre, Filho, Spiritu 
fanctono ;minauo motteto mbfu cocoro 
nari. In nomine Patris to tonayuru toqiua, 
teuo fitaini faxi, & Filijto mofu toqiua, mu- 
neuo faxi, & Spirituto mofu toqiua fidari 
no cata, SSctito mofu toqiua, miguino ca- 
tani teuo fafu nari. 

D. Cano tonayeua nanino tamezo ? 

X. Varerauo von vtcuxini t9ucuri tamo De^ 
Padre, Filho, Spiritu fancto mitcuno Per- 
fona, goittaino Deusuo arauaxi tattomi ta- 
tematcuru tame nari. 

D. Sono 


D. Sono foca betno xisai ariya ? 

X. Von aruji lefu Chrifto Cruzni voite va- 

rerauo fucui tamo cotouo arauaxi vyamai 

mbfu tame nari. 
D. Cono Cruzno xiruxiuoba icanaru toqini 

tonayubeqi ya. 
X. Cotouo fajimuru toqi, aruiua nefama voqi- 

fama, vaga yado yori ide, aruiua Ecclefia 

ye iru toqi, mataua vojiqino fajime, na- 

canimo nanguini vo toqi, coreuo tonayuru 

mono nari. 

D. Sono xiruxiuo tabitabi tonayuru cotoua 
nanitaru xifai zoya ? 

X. Deus varerauo teqino te yori nogaxi ta- 
mauan tame nareba, nandoqimo nanita- 
ru cotonimo tonayuru coto yoqi nari. 

D. Xofauo fajimuru toqi, tonayuru cotoua na- 
nitaru xifai zoya } 

X. Sono xofauo vareraga teqi yori famata- 
guerarezu Deusno gofocoto, von foma- 
reto naritatematcuru tame nari. 

D, Vareraga teqitoua nanitaru monozo? 

X. Xeqento, tenguto, xiqixin core nari. 
D. Icanaru xifaini yotte cono mitcuuo nin- 
guenno teqitoua iyeru zoya? 

X. Teqitoua Animani xiqirini togauo voca- 
faluru coto canauanedomo, acuuo fufume, 



fono michini fiqi catamuquruni yotte y(x 

D. Cano mifamano teqi yori vocofu acuno 
fufumeto, jenjino famatagueto nam tenta 
cauo Deus yame tamauanu cotoua ican ? 

X. Soreto tomoni teqitai, Deus no go corio- 
cuuo motte riunuo firaqi, fono riunno gofe- 
pouo ataye tamauan tame nari. 

D. Tenguua nanito yoni tentacSuo fufumu- 

X. Cocoroni acunenuo vocoxi, mata togani 
votcuru ni tayorito naru cotouo fono mayeni 
arauafu mono nari. 

D. Sono acunenuoba nanitoySni fuxegu 
beqizo ? 

X. Sono michiua vouoqi nari, nacanimo mi- 
tcu ari. Fitotcuniua, acung vocoru toqi jg- 
neni fiqi cayuru coto. Futat9uniua, muneni 
Cruzno mono tonayuru coto. Mitcuniua 
von tonayeno mizzuuo fitaini fofogu co- 
to core nari. 

D. Togano tayorito naru acuno moto to, fo- 
no chinamiuo nanito fuxegubeqi zo } 

X. Fitotcuniua, fono chinamiuo niguru coto, 

Futatcuniua, Oratiouo mSfu coto. Mi- 
tcuniua, yoqi qeoqeuo vqe, yoqi . qiSuo yo- 
mi agiuS coto core nari. 

D. Xe- 


D. Xeqen no teqi to yuua vareraga tameniua na 
nitaru monozo ? 

X. Xeqeni nafu acuguioto, xefotq, mata acu 
ninuomo nazzuqete xeqento^iizo ? 

D. Xeqenua nanito yoni Tenta9anuo fufumu 
ruzo ? 

X. Miguini moxexi acuguioto, xef6to mata 
ua acuninno axiqi zotan ygueuo midarini co- 
coroni fufume vocafafuru mono nari. 

D. Corerano cotouo fuxegubeqi michiua ican? 

X. Core Deusno von voqiteto von aruji lefu 
Chriftouo fajime tatematcuri, jennin tachi 
no vo cagami, mataua yotcuno qiuameto na 
ru xifuruto, luizo, Inferno, Paraifono qera- 
cuuo vomoiidafu coto nari. 

D. Xiqixinuo teqito yuua nanigotozo? 

X. Ada yori vqe tcuzzuqu fajimeno togani yot- 
te axiqi vmaretcuqino xiqixinuo y(\ nari. 
Sono vye mizzucara naxitaru togani yotte a- 
xiqi cuxeno michimichitaru tocorouo faxite 
nazzuquru mono nari. 

D. Cono xiqixinua nanito Tentacanuo fufumu 

X. Mini aru axiqi vmaretcuqito, axiqi cuxeuo 
motte xingiuni midarinaru nozomiuo vo- 
coxi togani catamuquru mono nari. Coreuo 
motte cocorouo curamaxi acuuo mixiranu 



yoni furu mono nari. Sono vmaretcuqi to 
ua mina fucaqi nozomito, tanomoxiqito, ai- 
furuto, niqumuto, yorocobito, canaximito 
voforeto, icaritono coto nari. 

D. Chriftanno tonayuru cotoua nanigoto zoya? 

X. Tattoqi lESVSno mina nari. 

D. Sono yuye ican ? 

X. lESVS toua vo tafuqeteto mofu cocoro na- 
ri, foreniyotte vareraga nangui daijino ji- 
xet fucuuare tatemat9uranga tameni lefusno 
tattoqi minauo tonaye tatematcuru nari. Ca- 
rugayuyeni lefusno tattoqi minauo tona- 
ye qiqi tatematcuru toqi, fucaqu vyamai ta- 

Dai san. Pater nofterno coto. 

X. Romano Sacta Ecclefia yori voxiye tamb 
Oratiouo voxiyubexi. T9uguini mata 
xinji tatemat9urubeqi giogioto, t9utomube- 
qi guioguiuomo arauafubeqi nari. Core funa- 
uachi Pater nofter, Aue Maria, Salue Re- 
gina, Credo jiccagiono Madametoto Sacta 
Ecclefiano Mandamentoni comoru nari. Co- 
rera mina yurucaxe naqu xite ippenni xinji 
t9utome tatemat9urubeqi nari. 

D. lenacuno xabetuo vaqimayuru fodono toxi 
coro naru Chriftanua nani^rotouo xiru coto 

canyonaruzoya ? 

X. Mi- 


X. Mifamano coto nari. Fitotcuniua Deusuo yo- 
qu tanomi tatematcuri : futatcuniua yoqu 
xinji tatematcuri : mitcuniua yoqi xofauo 
nafu michiuo xiru coto core nari. 

D. Deusuo yoqu tanomi tatematcuru michiua 
nanito xirubeqizo ? 

X. Pater nofterno Oratiouo motte xirubexi. 

D. Taxxite xinji tatematcurubeqi ySuoba 
nanito xirubeqizo ? 

X. Credo aruiua Fidesno Artigouo xirucoto 

D. Guioguiuo tadaxiqu vofamuru michiuoba na- 
nito xirubeqi zoya? 

X. Guioguiuo yoqu vofamuru tameniua Deus 
no von voqiteno mandamentoto, SScta Ec- 
clefiano mandametouo xiri, mata acuuo xiri- 
zoqubeqi tameniua nanatcuno Mortal to- 
gauo xirucoto nari. 

D. Tadaxiqu xinji yoqu tanomi tatematcuri, ma 
ta mimochiuo yoqu vofamuru tameni mi 
guino foca betno cayonaru gui ariya ? 

X. Nacanaca cayono gui ari : core funauachi De- 
us yori giqini atayetamo mitcuno jen ari. 
Tadaxiqu xinji tatematcuru tameniua Fides, 
yoqu tanomi tatematcuru tameniua SperS- 
ca, mimochiuo yoqu vofamuru tameniua 
Cliaridade core nari. Sareba yoqu tanomi 

B 2 


tatematcurii tameniua Pater nofterno Ora 
tiouo xiru coto cSyo nareba ima voxiyubexi, 
Tenni maximafu vareraga von voya mi 
nauo tattomare tainaye : miyo qitari tamaye 
Tenni voite voboximefu mamanaru goto 
qu, chini voitemo araxe tamaye. Vareraga ni 
chinichino von yaxinaiuo connichi varerani 
ataye tamaye. Varera fitoni yuruxi mofu go- 
toqu vareraga togauo yuruxi tamaye. Vare- 
rauo Tetacanni fanaxi tamo coto nacare. Va- 
rerauo qeoacu yori nogaxi tamaye. Amen. 

D. Ima voxiye tamS Pater nofterno Oratio 
uoba tarebitono tcucuritamo zoya ? 

X. Catajiqenaqumo Vareraga von aruji lefu 
Chrifto giqini voxiye tamb Oratio nari. 

D. Nanino tame zoya ? 

X. Oratiouo mofubeqi y5uo voxiye tamauan 
tame nari. 

D. Oratio toua nanigotozo ? 

X. Oratioua vareraga nenuo tenni tcdji von 
aruji Deusni mSxi aguru nozomiuo canaye 
tamS michi faxi nari. 

D. Deusua izzucuni vouaxi mafu zoya "i 
X. Tenchi, izzucunimo vouaximafu nari. 

D. Pater nofteruoba mofu toqiua izzureno co- 
toba yori vareraga nenuo Deusni tctiji ta- 
tematcuru zoya? 

X. Dai 


X. Dai iccumeno tenni maximafu vareraga vo 

voyato m5fu cotoba nari. 
D. Von arujito mSfazu xite v0 voyato mofu 

cotoua nanigoto zoya ? 
X. Von voyato yobi tatematcuruuo motte va- 

rerauo taixetni voboximefu cotouo vomoi 

idaxi, tanonioxiqi cocorouo motte coitate 

matcuru tame nari. 
D. Vaga von voya toua mefazu xite, nani 

tote vareraga von voyatoua yobi tatema- 

tcuruzoya ? 
X. Mina fito qiSdai nite yoqi von voyano co 

narito vomoitorite tagaini taixetni vomoi 

auan tame nari. 
D. Deus teni vouaximafu toua nanigoto zoya? 
X. Vareraga von voyamo, vareraga tanomino 

caqedocoromo tomoni tenni arito vomoi- 

toruuo motte cono xecaino cotouo vomoi 

futcubeqi tame nari. 
D. Miguini Deusua izzucunimo vouaximafuto 

voxiye tamaite, ima mata tenni vouaxima- 

futoua nanigoto zoya ? 
X. Deusua izzucunimo vouaximafuto iyedo- 

mo, tafucari tamo jennin tachini fontaiuo gi- 

qini arauaxi tamauan tameni, Tenni Parai- 

fouo fadame tamoni yotte nari. 
D. Icanaru cotobauo motte Vareraga negaiuo 

B 3 


Deusuye mSxiagubeqi zoya ? 

X. Aitcuzzuqu nocorino cotobauo rnotte nari. 

D. Ainocoru cotobauo motteua nanigotouo 
tanomi tatematcuruzo ? 

X. Xichicagio nari. Dai ichiua minauo tatto 
mare tamayeto, cono cocoroua Deusno mi- 
nato, von fomare xecaini firomare, iffai nin- 
guenno von aruji Deusto, fono vonco von 
aruji lefu Chriftouo mixiri tatematcuri, v- 
yamai tattomi tatematcuru yonito )u coco 
ro nari 

D. Dai nicagidniua nanigotouo coitatematcu- 

X. Miyo qitari tamayeto, cono cocoroua acu- 
jito tcumiuo nogare, Deusto fono von co le 
fu Chrifto yori guejeni voiteua Graca, gox5- 
ni voiteua Gloriauo motte varerauo xindai 
xitamayeto yugui nari. 

D. Daifangagioniua, nanigotouo coitatema- 
tjuruzo ? 

X. Tenni voite voboximefu mamanaru goto- 
qu chini voitemo araxe tamayeto, cono coco- 
roua, teni voite moromorono Anjo Deusni 
xitagai, voboximefumamani gonaixoni canb 
cotouo tcutomeraruru gotoqu, chini voitemo 
iffai ninguen Deusni xitagai, voboximefu 
mamani t9ucaye tatematcurecaxitono gui 

D. Dai 


D. Dai xicagioniua, nanigotouo coitatematcu 
ruzo ? 

X, Vareraga nichinichino von yaxinaiuo conni- 
chi varerani ataye tamayeto, cono cocoro 
iia Animano tame nichinichino v5 yaxinai 
uo ataye tamayeto coitatematcuru nari. 
Core funauachi tattoqi Euchariftiano Sa- 
crameteto, Gracato, jento, Spiritu SSctono 
von atayetono coto nari. Mata xiqixinno fo- 
cufaito, inochiuo t9ugubeqi tamenimo iru 
fodono cotouo ataye tamayeto coitatematcu- 
ru gui nari. 

D. Dai gocagidniua, nanigotouo coitatematcu- 
ru zo? 

X. Varera fitoni yuruxi mSfu gotoqu, vare 
raga togauo yuruxi tamayeto, cono cocoroua 
varerani taixite fito yori caqeraruru chijo- 
cu, mataua quantai ygueuo yurufu gotoqu, 
vareraga Deusni taixi tatematcurite vocafu 
toga, ayamariuo yuruxi tamayeto tanomi ta- 
tematjuru gui nari. 

D. Xicaruni voiteua fitoni taixite motcu to- 
corono yconuo futezunba, vareraga togauo 
yurufaruru coto arumajikiya ? 

X. Nacanaca fono bun nari. Vs aruji lefu Chri- 
fto notamSua ; fitoni taixite motcu tocorono 
ycOuo futezunba, tenni vouaximafu vaga v5 



voya, fono fitono togauo yuruxi tamb coto 
arubecarazuto nari. 
D. Xicaraba fito yori caqeraruru chijocuuo yu- 
rufanu monoua miguino tattoqi micoto- 
bauo mofu toqi, varerani caqeraruru chi- 
jocuuo yurufanu gotoqu. vareraga togauo 
mo yuruxi tam5 becarazuto mofu cocoro na- 
runi yotte, cono Oratiouo mofu coto cano 
majiqiya ? 

X. Sono guini arazu: fitono chijocuuo yurufa- 
nu fodono qendonnaru fito narito yutemo, 
cono Oratiouo mofu coto xenyo nari. Sono- 
yuyeua cono Oratiouo motte, fitoni taifuru 
ycouo futcuru tameno gocoriocuto naru Gra- 
cauo coitatematcuruni yotte nari. Sono v 
ye facta Ecclesiano von coto moxi tatema- 
tcuru jennin tachi fito yori caqetaru chijo- 
cuuo yuruxi tamo gotoqu, vareraga togauo 
yuruxi tamayeto m6fu cocoro nareba, mi- 
guino Gratiauo m5xiaguru cotomo vagami 
no fonto naruniua arazu. 

D. Dai roccagioniua, nanigotouo coitatematcu- 
ru zoya ? 

X. Varerauo Tentacani fanaxi tamo coto na- 
careto : cono cocoroua ixxSno aida jenjino 
famatague acuno fufumeto naru Tentaca 
yori xemeraruruto yutomo, foreni maqe- 



zaru ySni, Deusno gocSriocuuo tanomi tate- 
matcuru cocoro nari. 

D. Dai xichicagi6niua, nanigotouo coitatema- 
tcuruzo ? 

X. Varerauo qedacu yori nogaxi tamayeto : 
cono cocoroua Animano atato naru toga 
to, xiqixinno vazauaiuomo nogaxi tama- 
yeto yu cocoro nari. 

D. Pater nofterni mafaritaru Oratiomo ariya ? 

X. Coreni mafaritaru Oratio betni naxi: core 
faijSno Oratio nari, fonoyuyeua Deusni coi 
tatematcurubeqi fodono xenyo naru giSgio 
uo cono Oration i come tamaite, vo aruji le- 
fu Chrifto midexi tachini voxiye tamS O- 
ratio nareba nari. 

Daixi Aiie Mariano coto. 

D. Deusni taixi tatematcurite nomi Oratiouo 
mSfubeqiya ? 

X. Sono guini arazu: vareraga vontoriaua- 
xete tenni maximafu moromorono jennin, 
nacanimo acuninno tameni, nacadachito 
naritam6 vonfaua Virgen Sancta Ma- 
rianimo Oratiouo moxiaguru nari. 

D. Virgen Sancta Mariani mSxiague tatema- 
tcuru fadamaritaru Oratio ariya ? 

X. Aue Mariato yu Oratio nari. Tadaima vo- 



Gra^a michimichi tam5 Mariani vS reiuo 
naxi tatematcuru : von arujiua v5 mito to- 
moni maximafu : nhoninno nacani volte 
vaqite go quafo imijiqi nari. Mata gotai- 
naino v5mi nite maximafu lefusua tattoqu 
maximafu. Deusno von faua Sancta Maria 
imamo vareraga faigonimo, varera acunin 
no tameni tanomi tamaye. Amen 

D. Cono Oratioua tareno tcucuri tamo zoya? 

X. Sa Gabriel Anjo tattoqi Virgg Mariani gjo 
tcugueuo naxi tamS toqino micotobato, Sa 
eta Ifabel Virgen Mariani g5j8 nafaretaru 
cotobani mata fancta Ecclefia yorino coto- 
bauo foye tamSuo motte, amitate tamS O- 
ratio nari. 

D. Vg faua Virgen Mariaua tarebito nite vo- 
uaximafu zoya ? 

X. Deusno von fauano tameni yerabiidafare, 
tenni voite moromorono anjono uyeni fona- 
yerare tamai, xojen michimichi tenno von 
qifaqi no curaini aguerare tam5 tattoqi le 
nhonin nite maximafu nari. Coreniyotte v6 
CO lefu Chrifto no von mayeni voite, mo- 
romorono Beato yorimo fugurete gonaixdni 
canai tamayeba, vareraga mSxiaguru coto- 
uariuo voxe canayeraruruga yuyeni, vonovono 
no Chriftao fucaqu xing5 xitatemalcuru mo- 
no nari. 

D. Nani 


D. Naniniyotteca von faua Sacta Mariaye ta- 
ixi tatematcuri, fiacu gojippBnno Rofairo ma- 
taua rocuju fanbeno Coroano Oratiouo m5- 
xiaguruzo ? 

Tattoqi Virgen Mariano Rofairotote Jia- 
cu gojippenno Orationo coto. 

X. Von faua SScta Mariano Rofairoto mSfu 
ua, Pater nofter jiigoquan, Aue Maria 
gojicquan nari. Coreuo von aruji lefu Chri- 
ftono gofagueoni ategai tatematcuri, jugono 
quannenni vaquru nari. Fajimeno gocagioua 
v5 faua Sancta Mariano von yorocobino dai- 
mocu naruni yotte, funauachi yorocobino 
quannento cb furu nari. Nacano gocagioua 
von arujino go Pafsiouo S^cta Maria fucaqu 
goxdtan naxitamoni yotte, von canaximino 
quannento mofu nari. Nochino gocagioua 
von aruji lefu Chrifto yomigayeri tamaite 
yori, Sancta Maria goquangui fucaqiga yu- 
yeni, Gloriano quannento nazzuquru nari. 
Sareba conb Orationo mSxiySto yuua, maz- 
zu Pater nofter icquan, Aue Maria jippen 
zzutcu mSfu aida ni, jtigono quanneno vchi 
iccagio zzutcuno quannen xite, fono toqi 
arauaxi tamS gotaixet, von fericudari, go 
cannin, von canaximi, von yorocobi, fono 



foca niaino jen, mataua Sancta Maria von 
cocoroni voboye, tcutome tamS tocorono 
gojendocuuo Deus yori vareranimo ataye cu- 
dafaruru ySni tanomi tatematcurubexi. Mo- 
xi cono fiacu gojippenno Oratiouo maini- 
chi tcutome tatematcuru coto canauanuni 
voiteua, xemete fono ^fanbunichl naru 
izzureno gocagio naritomo, nozomini xita- 
gatte quannen xite, Pater nofter goquan, 
Aue Maria gojippen mSfubexi. 

Von yorocobifw quannen gocagibno coto, 

Dai ichi. Anjouo motte von tcugue nafa- 
re, Von aruji lefu Chrifto Virgen Sancta 
Mariano gotainaini yadori tamo coto. 
Dai ni. Tattoqi Virgen Sancta Maria Sancta 
Ifabeluo vonmimaito xite vomomuqi tamS 

Dai fan. Von aruji lefu Chrifto go tanjono 

Daixi. Von arujino gotanjo yori xijunichi- 
meni, von faua Sancta Maria go fattoni ma- 
caxe, von co lefu Chriftouo midoni fafague 
tamo coto. 

Daigo. Von faua Sancta Maria von aruji le- 
fu Chriftouo junino von toxi mivxinai ta- 
maite, fannichimeni midoni voite gacuxo 



no naca ni von voxiyeni tcuite, toi cotayeuo 
naxi ytamouo goranjitcuqe tamo coto. 

Canaximino quannen^ gocagiono coto. 

Dai ichi. Von aruji go Pafsioni nozomi ta- 
mo toqi. Gefemaniano morino vchini- 
te vonchino axeuo nagaxi von Oratio nafa- 
retaru coto. 

Daini. Von aruji lefu Chrifto ixino faxira 
ni carametcuqeraretamai cazucazunochS- 
chacuuo vqe coraye tamo coto. 
Daifan. Von aruji lefu Chrifto von cbbeni 
ibarano camuriuo voxicomare tamo coto. 
Daixi. Von aruji lefu Chrifto Cruzuo ca- 
tage tamai, Caluarioto iyeru yamaye nobo- 
ri tamo coto. 

Daigo. Von aruji lefu Chrifto Cruzni ca- 
qerare xixitamaitaru coto. 

Gloriano quannen gocagiono coto. 

Dai ichi. Von aruji lefu Chrifto xixitamai- 
te yori, fannichimeni yomigayeri tamo 

Daini. Von aruji lefu Chrifto yomigaye- 
ri tamaite yori xijiinichimeni Oh'uetoto 
iyeru yama |^ori gojoten nafaretarucoto. 

Dai fan. 


Daifan. Von aruji lefu Chriftono gojoten 

yori tocameni Spiritu Sancto von faua Sa- 

eta Maria, vonajiqu midexi tachino vyeni 

qitaritamo coto. 

Daixi. Von faua Sancta Maria goj6tenuo 

togue tamo coto. 

Daigo. Von faua fancta Maria tenj6ni voi- 

te Gloriano von camuriuo itadaqitamo coto 

core nari. 

Coroano Orationo coto. 

Migui Rofairono focani tattoqi Virge Ma- 
riano Coroato m6xite, rocujufanno v5 
youaini taixi, pater nofter rocquan, Aue 
Maria rocuju fanguan moxiaguru cotomo 
ari : xicareba Pater nofter ichiquan, Aue Ma- 
ria jicquan gotoni quanneuo naxitaquua, mi- 
gui Rofairo jugocagiono vchiyori, izzureno 
cagiouo naritomo ategote quSLzubexi. 

D. Von faua Virgcn Mariano fajimeto xite 
fonofoca Sancto tachino goyeiuo Altarni fo- 
naye tamo cotoua ican ? 

X. Tenni maximafu von faua Sancta Mariato, 
Sancto tachiuo vomoi idaxi tatematcuri, ba- 
ji fono gocoriocuuo coitatematrari, von a- 
ruji Deusno von mayeni voite, von toriaua- 
xeuo tanomi, fono gocoxeqiuo vomoiida- 



fuuo motte xojenni fufumi, manabl tate- 
mat9uranga tame nari. 

D. Altarni fonaye voqitamo goyeino cazuca- 
zu, aruiua mocuzS, aruiua caqitaru goyei na- 
reba, monouo mi qiqitamS coto arumajiqi 
ni, Chriftan coreuo vogami, tanomi tate- 
matcuru cotoua ican ? 

X. Chriftan taru fodono monoua Altarni fo- 
naye voqitamb amatano goyeiuo vogami m6- 
futote, monouo mi qiqi tam8to vomoite 
vogami tatemateuruniua arazu : tada SScto 
tachino von vomocagueuo arauaxi tam5 to- 
corouo vogami tatematcuruuo motte, tenni 
maximafu fono Sanctouo vogami tatema- 
tcuru mono nari. Cacaru Sancto tachiua te 
yori vareraga nagueqiuo goranji, moxiagu 
ru nenguanuo qiqi tamSgayuyeni vyamaj vo 
gami Orationo mSfuuo motte von toriaua- 
xeuo tanomi tatematcuru mono nari. 

D. Cono Virgen Sancta Mariano goyei fono 
xina vouoqi gotoqu, fono von taimo amata 
vouaximafuya ? 

X. Sono guini arazu : tada tenni vouaximafu 
von fjtori nomi nari. 

D. Xicaraba fitobito nanguini voyobu toqi, a- 
ruiua auaremino von faua, aruiua gocorio- 
cuuo nafarete, aruiua canaximu monono vo 



yorocobaxete nadoto famazamani yobi ta- 
temat9uru cotoiia nanigoto zoya ? 

X. Betno xifai naxi : tada von fauano von tori- 
naxi, Deusno von mayenite yocu canai ta- 
mayeba, von aiiaremino von faua nite vo- 
uaximafu vye yori, xujuno gouonuo ataye ta- 
m6ni yotte, cacuno gotoquni tonaye tate- 
mat9uru nari. 

]). Aue Mariano Oratio voba tareni mucaite 
moxiague tatematcuru zo ? 

X. Tattoqi Von faua Virgen Mariani moxi a- 
gue tatematcuru nari. 

D. Nanigotouo coitatemat9uru zo ? moxi va- 
reraga togano von yuruxito, Graca goxono 
tafucariuo coitatemat9uruca ? 

X. Sono guini arazu : tada von aruji Deusni no- 
mi coitatematcuru nari. 

I). Vo fauaniua nanigotouo coitatematcuruzo ? 

X. Corerano cotouo motomenga tameni, vo 
CO nite vouaximafu Von aruji lefu Chrifto 
no von mayenite von toriauafeuo tanomi 
tatematcuru nari. 

Daigo, Saluc Reginano coto, 

D. Von faua V^irgen Mariano von toriauaxe 
uo, tanomi tatematcuru Oratio betni 

ariya ? 

X. Naca- 


X. Nacanaca Sancta Ecclefia yori mochii tamo 
Oratioua vouoqi nacanimo toriuaqi Salue 
Reginato mofu Oratio core daiichi nari. 
Ima coconi voxiyubexi. 

Auaremino Von faua cofinite maximafu V5 
mini von reiuo naxi tatematcuru. Vareraga 
ichimei, canmi tanomiuo caqe tatemat9iiru 
von miye voreiuo naxi tatematcuru. Runin 
tonaru Euano codomo vomiye faqebiuo na- 
xi tatematcuru. Cono namidano tani nite v- 
meqi naqitc vomini negaiuo caqetatematcu- 
ru. Coreniyotte vareraga vo torinaxite aua- 
remino von nianacouo varerani mimucauaxe 
tamaye. Mata cono rurono nochiua gotaina- 
ino tattoqi minite maximafu lefusuo varera 
ni mixetamaye. Fucaqi gonhunan, fucaqi go- 
airen, fugurete amaqu maximafu Virge Ma- 
ria cana ! Deusno taltoqi Von faua Chriftono 
von yacufocuuo vqetatematcuru mito naru 
yoni tanomitamaye. Amen. 

D. Cono Salueno Oratiouoba tarebitono voxi- 
ye tamo zoya ? 

X. Sancta Ecclefia yori voxiyetamo nari. 

D. Von faua Virgen Maria yori focani betno 
Beatonimo xinjinuo motcu coto ariya? 

X. Izzureno Beatonimo xinjin arubeqi coto 
moppara nari : nacanimo xugono Anjoto, va- 




ga nani tcuqitaru Beatoni xinji[n]uo motcube- 

qi coto canyo nari. 
D, Xingo t9ucamatcuru Beatoni taixite nanlta- 

ru Oratiouo mofubeqiya ? 
X. Sancta Ecclefia yori voxiye tamb forefore ni 

ataru Oratio ari, mata Pater nofter, Aue 

Mariauomo mofu nari. 
D. Miguini no Oratiouoba Deusye mSxi 

ague tatematcuru to ximexi tamauazuya ? 
X. Sono bun nari. Sarinagara Beatoni taixite 

Paternofterno Oratiouo mofu futat9uno xi- 

fai ari. Fitotcuniua, fono Beatono gocuriqini 

yotte Deus von auaremiuo tare tamayeto ta- 

nomi tatemat9uru coto. Ima fitotcuniua cono 

Oratiouo Vareraga tameni Deusye fafague 

tamayeto Beatoye moxiaguru coto core nari. 
D. Sareba Beatoni taixite xinjinuo mochi, fono 

gocoriocuuo tanomitatematcuru cotoua iz- 

zureno jibunni xicarubeqiya ? 
X. Soreua fudano coto narubexi : faredomo bet- 

xite Sacta Ecclefia yori fono Beatono iuai 

uo voconai tamo toqi nari. 
D. Sancta Ecclefia yori Beatonichiuo iuaitam5 

cotoua nanino yuye zoya? 
X. Amatano xifai arito iyedomo, nacanimo 

itcutcuno gni ari. Fitot9uniua, Beatouo mot- 

te cono xecaini arauaxi tamo goqidbcuuo 



mitatematcurite, Deusuo tattomi, vyamai 
tatemat9uru tame nari. Futat9uniua, Sancta 
Ecclefia yori guecaini volte, iuiitamo Bea- 
tono von vyamaiuo mite, tenni voite fono 
Gloriano voqinaru cotouo funbet itafu tame 
nari. Mitcuniua, Beatono gofagrueo, gojedo- 
cuuo xirite, varerato vonajiqi fitonite voua- 
ximaxeba, gocoxeqiuo manabi tatematcuru 
beqi tame nari. Yotcuniua, xinjinuo vocoxi- 
te vCtoriauaxeuo tanomi tatematcurubeqi ta- 
me nari. Itcut9uniua, gozonjono toqi Von 
faua nite maximafu Sancta Ecclefiani taixite 
xifuru cotouomo cayerimi tamauazu, cocouo 
tcucuxitamo von co naruni yotte, xixitamo 
ato mademo agame tamauan tame nari. 

Dairoat, Credo iiarabzni Fidesno Artigo 
710 coto. 

D. Miguino cotouariua Deusuo Oratiuo mot 
te yoqu tanomi tatematcuru youo voxiye 
tamayeri : ima mata taxicani xinji tatematcuru 
michiuo voxiyetamaye. 

X. Credoto foreni comoru Fidesno giogiouo xi- 
rucoto nari. Ima coreuo voxiyubexi. Credo 

Banjicanaitamai, tenchiuo tcucuritamo 

von voya Deusto, fono von fitorigo vareraga 

von aruji lefu Chriftouo macotoni xinjitate- 

C 2 matcuru 


matcuru. Cono von co Spiritii Sancto von 
qidocuuo motte yadofare tamai, Virgen Ma- 
ria yori vmare tamo. Pontio Pilatoga xitani 
voite caxacuuo vqe coraye, Cruzni caqerare 
xixi tamaite, miquanni vofamerare tamo. Dai 
gino focoye cudari tamai fannichimeni yomi- 
gayeri tamo, Tenni agarltamii banjicanaitamo 
von voya Deusno von miguini fonauari ta- 
mo. Soreyori iqitaru fito, xixitaru fitouo tada- 
xi tamauan tameni amacudari tamobexi. 
Spiritu Sactouo macotoni xinji tatematcuru. 
Catholica nite maximafu Sancta Ecclefia. 
Sanctos mina tcliyo xitamb coto. Togano 
von yuruxi. Nicuxin yomigayerubeqi coto. 
Vouarinaqi inochitouo macotoni xinji tate- 
matcuru. Amen. 

D. Tadaimano Credoua nanigotozo ? 
X. Xinji tatematcurubeqi Fidesno canjinno 
giogio nari. 

D. Credoua tarebitono tcucuri tamozo ya ? 

X. Von aruji lefu Chriftono Apoftolo tachi 
Spiritu Sanctono von michibiqiuo motte ix- 
xoni atcumari tamaite Von aruji lefu Chri- 
ftono vocuchiyori giqini qiqitatematcurare- 
taru muneuo trarane tamo mono nari. 

D. Nanino tameni tcurane tamo zo ? 

X. Fidesni vqetatemat9urubeqi giogio vare- 



rani voxiye tamauan tame nari. 

D. Fidestoua nanigotozo ? 

X. Deus Varerani t9ugue xiraxe tamo fodono 
cotouo Sancta Ecclefia yori ximexitamS go 
toqii, cataqu xinji tatematcuru yoni Chri- 
ftano Animani Deus ataye cudafaru nin- 
chiuo coyetaru gouonno ficariuo cacayaqu 
jen nari. 

D. Deus tcugue tam5 toua nanigoto zoya ? 

X. Sancta Ecclefia yori xinji tatematcureto 
arauaxi tamb fodono cotonari, nacanimo Cre- 
doni comoru Fidesno giogio funauachi core 

D. Credoni comoru Fidesno giogioua nanga- 
gio zoya ? 

X. Coreuo tcurane tam6 Apoftolo juninin naru 
gotoqu, fono cazumo junicagio nari. Mata 
coreuo tcubufani vaqete juxino giogioni ca- 
zoyuru cotomo ari. Nanat9uniua Deusno v5 
tocoroni atari, mata nanatcuua lefu Chrifto 
no fitonite vouaximafu von tocoroni atari ta- 
mo nari. Xicaritoiyedomo coconiua Cre- 
douo voxiyuruga yuyeni. junicagioni tcumo- 
rite arauafubexi. 

Daiichiniua. Banji canai tamai, tenchiuo tcu- 
curi tamo von voya Deusuo macotoni xinji- 
tatematcuru coto. 




Daini. Sono von fitorio^o vareraga V5 aru- 
ji lefu Chriftouo macotoni xinji tatematcu- 
ru coto. 

Daifan. Cono von co Spiritu Sanctono von 
qidocuuo motte yadofare tamai Virge Ma- 
ria yori vmare tam6 coto. 
Daixi. Pontio Pilatoga xitani voite caxacuuo 
vqecoraye, Cruzni caqerare, xixi tamaite 
miquanni vofamerare tamo coto. 
Daigo. Daigino focoye cudari tamai, fanni- 
chimeni yomigayeri tamo coto. 
Dairocu. Tenni agari tamai, Banji canaita- 
mo von V03 a Deusno von miguini fonauari ta- 
mo coto. 

Daixichi. Sore yori iqitaru fito, xixitaru 
fitouo tadaxi tamauan tameni, amacudari ta- 
mbbeqi coto. 

Daihachi. Spiritu Sanctouo macotoni xinji- 
tatemat9uru coto. 

Daicu. Catholicanite maximafu Sancta Ec- 
clefia, Sanctos mina tcuyo xitamS coto. 
Daijii. Togano von yuruxino coto. 
Daijuichi. Nicuxin yomigayerubeqi coto. 
Daijiini. Vouarinaqi inochiuo macotoni xinji 
tatematciirii coto. 
D. Saixono cagioni banji canai tamai tenchi 
uo tcucuri tam6 von voya Deusuo macotoni 



xinji tatemat9uruto m6fu cocorouo arauaxi 

X. Macotono Deusua tada goittaino foca voua- 
ximaxazu, core funauachi Padreto, Filho- 
to, Spiritu Sanctoto moxi tatematcurite Per- 
fonaua mit9unite maximaxedomo, Siibfe 
tiato mSfu goxStaiua tada goittai nite maxi- 
mafu nari: core funauachi vonovono Chri- 
ftan xinji tatematcurade canauazaru coto 
nari. Padretoua von voya, Filhotoua von 
CO to moxi tatematcuru cocoro nari : Spiritu 
Sanctotoua von voya Deusto. von co Deus 
yori idetamo tagaino gotaixetnite maxima- 
fu nari. Cono faixono iccagioniua mit9uno 
vchi ichibanno Perfonanite maximafu von 
voya Deusno von cotouo fataxi tatematcu- 
ru mono nari. 

D. Deus mitcuno Perfona nite vouaximaxi na- 
gara, goittai narito iyeru cotouariua fun- 
bet xigataxi. 

X. Soreua tattoqi Trindadeno Mifterio tote va- 
reraga Fidesno daimocuno vchiniteua, go 
cuy faijbno tacaqi cotouari nari. Sonoyuye- 
ua Deusua murio quo-daini vouaximaxi, vare- 
raga chiyeua vazzucani cagiri aru coto na- 
reba, funbetniua voyobazu tatoi funbetni 
voyobazuto yu tomo, Deusnite vouaximafu 




von aruji lefu Chrifto giqini ximexi tamo v- 
yeua macotoni xinji tatematcurazuxite ca- 
nauazaru gui nari. 

D. Cono guiuo yoqu funbet furu tameni fono 
tatoye naxiya ? 

X. Tatoye ari : vareraga Animaua tada ittai 
nite arinagara, mitcuno xeicon ari ; fitot9U- 
niua Memoriatote voboyetaru cotouo vomoi- 
idafu xei, futatcuniua Entendimento tote je 
acuuo vaqimaye funbet furu xei : mitcuniua 
vontadetote yoqito vomo cotouo nozomi, 
axiqito vomo cotouo qirai, monouo aifuru 
xei. Cacuno gotoqu Animaua ittai narito iye- 
domo, mitcuno xeicon aru gotoqu Deus go 
ittainite vouaximaxi nagara Padre. Filho, 
Spiritu Sancto mitcuno Perfona nite voua- 
ximafu nari. 

D. Banji canai tamai tenchiuo tcucuri tamo 
toua nanigoto zoya ? 

X. Sono cotobano cocoroua Deus banji canai 
tamoni yotte tenchi manzouo ichimot naqu 
xite tcucuri idaxitamai, von mino K^yquo 
vareraga tocuno tameni cacaye, vofame fa- 
caraitamoto mSfu gui nari. 

D. Von aruji Deus ichimot naquxite techi ma- 
zouo tcukuriidaxi tamoto aru cotouo funbet 
xezu : Sonoyuyeua gofacuno monoua mina 



Deusno von chiye, gofunbet yori idaxi ta- 
m5to miyuru nari. Xicarutoqinba ichimot 
naqu xite tcucuri tamotoua nanigoto zoya ? 

X. Cono fuxinuo firaqu tameni, fitotcuno co- 
coroye ari : foreto yuua Deusno go fubetno 
vchiniua gofacuno monono taiua fitot9umo 
naxito iyedomo, foreforeno xof6 comori ta- 
mbnari, coreuo Ideato yu nari. Cono Ide- 
ato y(i xosoua facuno mononi arazu, tada De- 
usno von tai nari. Xicaruni manz5uo tcucuri 
tam5 toqi, Deusno gofunbetni mochi tamo 
Ideani vojite gofacuno monoua von taiuo va- 
qete t9ucuri idaxi tamoniua arazu, tada ichi- 
mot naquxite tcucuri tam5 nari. Tatoyeba 
daicuua iyeuo tateto (urutoqi mazzu fono fa- 
xizzuuo vaga funbetno vchini mochi, foreni 
vojite iyeuo tcucuruto iyedomo, iyeua fun- 
betno vchino faxizzuno tainiua arazu, tada 
cacubetcuno mono nari : fonogotoqu Deus go 
funbetno vchini mochitam6 gofacuno mo- 
nono Ideani vojite tcucuritamSto iyedomo, 
gofacuno monoua fono Ideano tainiua arazu, 
tada banji canai tam6 von chicarauo motte 
ichimot naquxite tcucuri tamS nari. 

D. Deusno go funbetni mochi tamS faxizzuni 
vojite facuno monouo tcucuri tamoto iyedo- 
mo, facuno monoua Deusno von taini arazu, 



tada cacubetno tai narito fibet xeri : Ichimot 
naquxite tcucuri tamotoua nanigoto zoya ? 

X. Ichimot naquxite monouo t9ucuruto yuua 
nacarixi monouo dogumo, xitagimo, ta- 
nemo naquxite xutrai fafuru toqi, ichimot 
naquxite tcucuruto yu nari. Xicaruni Deus 
ua banji canaitamo fontainite maximaxeba, 
banbutuo tcucuritamauan tameni xitagimo, 
tanemo, dogumo irazuxite, tada areto vo- 
boximefu bacariuo motte tcucuri tamSga yu- 
yeni, ichimot naquxite tcucuri tam5to m8fu 
nari. Tatoyeba daicuua faxizzuni vojite iye 
uo tcucuruto iyedomo zaimocu, dogu ygue 
naquxite areto vomo bacariuo motte tcucu-" 
rucoto canon i voiteua, fono iyeua macotoni 
ichimot naquxite tcucuritarito yu majiqiya ? 

1). Deus ichimot naquxite banbutuo toucuri 
tamai, facuno monoua von taini arazuto yu 
cotoua funbet xeri : Deusno fontaito facuno 
monono taito fono xabet ican. 

X. Deus to gofacuno monono xabetto yuua 
voqinari, vndei qengacuto yiimo nauo ama- 
ri ari. Sono yuyeua Deusto moxi tatematcu- 
ruua, Spiritual to mofu fontai nite fajime vo- 
uari maximafazu, banji canaitamai, facari- 
naqi von chiyeno minamoto, xojen madocu 
yenman, mufaino minamoto nari. Gofacuno 



monoto yuua, aruiua xiqifb ari, mata muxi- 
qif 6 arito iyedomo. mina fono caguiri ari : 
xomet furu coto can6 nari. Sono xeiriqimo, 
chitocumo fucunaqi nari. Carugayuyeni go- 
facuxato facuno monono xabetua, facarina- 
qi qengacu nari. 

D. Migui Deusto, gofacuno monono xabetua 
vqe tamauarinu. Ima mata gofacuno monoua 
izzuremo tagaini ittaica ; bettaicato yu co- 
touo arauaxi tamaye. 

X. Gofacuno monoua izzuremo bettai nari. 
Sonoyuyeua Dcus yori tcucuri tam6 toqi fo- 
reforeni vojitaru cacubetno xeiuo ataje ta 
mayeba nari. Sono xoconiua facuno mono 
ni arauaruru caccacuno xeitocu ari. Cono gui 
uo yoqu funbet fubeqi tameni cocorovbe- 
qi coto ari. Soreto yuua xiqif6 aru yorozzu 
no facuno monoua futatcuno (^nboauo mot- 
te vag5 xitaru mono nari. Fitotcuniua Ma- 
teriatote fono xitagino coto. Fulatcuniua 
Formatote fono xei core nari. Miguino xi- 
tagito yuua, xidaiuo motte vagoxi, arauaru- 
ru xiqifo nari. Mata Formato yuua yorozzu 
no mononi x6taito, xeitocuuo fodocofu mo- 
no nari. Meni miyeru gofacuno monoua 
xidaiuo motte vag6 xitaru fitotcuno xitagi 
naredomo, x6taito fono xeitocuuo fodocofu 



Formaua caccacu naruni yotte, mina bettai 
nam mono nari. Carugayuyeni chicuruito 
xidai vagono fono xitagiua fitotra narito i- 
yeclomo, fitono xotaito chicuruino x6tai cacu- 
bet naruni yotte bettai naru mono nari. Co- 
rerano cotouo cuuaxiqu funbet xitaqu vomo- 
uaba, betno xoni nofuruga yuyeni yoqu do- 
cuju xeyo. 

D. Sono von fitorigo vareraga von aruji Chri- 
ftouo macotoni xinji tatematcuruto m6fu 
cocorouo arauaxi tamaye. 

X. Von aruji lefu Chrifto Deus nite vouaxi- 
mafu von tocoroua, von voya Deusto vonaji- 
qi goxotai, von chiye, goxe[i]riqi fitotrato 
xite cauaru coto naqi macotono \on fitorigo 
nite vouaximafuto m6fu cocoro nari. 

D. Deus nan to yoni von couo xoji tamozo ? 

X. Deus von couo xoji tamoto qiqi tatema- 
tcuru toqiua, ninguenno vazano yoni iyaxi- 
qi michito vomobecarazu. Spiritual Von 
taito moxite, xiqisouo fanare tamo xojono 
von tainite vouaximaxeba nari. Deus von 
couo xoji tamo cotoua quodai mufenno En- 
tendimento tote, facari naqi gochiriqiuo 
motte xoji tamo nari. Cono guiua ninguen 
no vfuqi chiyeniua voyobu tocoroni arazu. 

D. Tatoyeuo motte cono guiuo xoxo arauaxi 

X. Voyo- 


X. Voyobazu nagara fitotjuno tatoyeuo yli- 
bexi. Cagamini muco toqiua, vaga cagueno 
foreni vcabuga gotoqu, von voya Deus vonmi 
no fontaiuo xojen mandocu tomoni taxxite 
funbet xitamayeba, vagamini cagueno v- 
tcuruga gotoqu, vonmino Entendimentoni 
nibano Perfonato m5xi tatematcuru von co 
Deusuo vt9uxi idaxi tamo nari. Xicareba 

von voya Deusto, vonco Deusno Perfonaua 
caccacunite mamaxedomo, fstaiua tada goit- 
taino Deusnite maximafu nari. 

D. Daifanno cagioni cono von co Spiritu San- 
ctono von qidocuuo motte yadofare tamai, 
Virgg Maria yori vmare tamoto mofu co- 
corouo arauaxi tamaye. 

X. Von voya Deusno macotono von co nite 
vouaximafu ninbanno Perfona tattoqi Vir- 
gen Mariano gotainaini voite vareraga ni- 
cutaini cauarazaru macotono xiqixinto, ma- 
cotono Animauo vqe auaxe tamaite maco- 
tono fitoto nari tamSto iyedomo, Deusnite 
vouaximafu von tocoroua cauari tamS coto 
naqu, itcumo vonajiqi Deusnite vouaximafu 
nari. Cono Virgen Sancta Maria yori vma- 
re tamouo nazzuqete lefu Chriftoto mSxi 
tatematcuru nari. Mata cono guxuxxeua 
fitono xiwazauo motteno cotoni arazu : ta- 


da von voya Dcusto, vonco Deus, mata Spi- 
ritu Sanctono goqidocuuo motte facarai ta- 
moto iyedomo, gotaixetno von xiuaza naru- 
gayuyeni, Spiritu Sanctono von qidocuto 
mSxi tatematcuru nari : yuye icanto nareba 
von voya Deusniua banji canai tam5 von 
tocoro : von co Deusniua facari naqi von chi- 
yeno tocorouo ategai tatematcuru gotoqu, 
gotaixetno von tocoroua Spiritu Sanctoni ate 
gai tatematcuru mono nari. Spiritu Sancto 
no von qidocuuo motte facarai tamo coto 
nareba, Spiritu Sancto yori yadofare tamoto 
moxi tatematcuru nari. Vonajiqu von faua 
Virgenmo ninguenno xofauo motte goquai- 
nin nafarezaruga yuyeni, gotanj6no nochi 
mo ai cauarazu Virge nite vouaximafu nari. 

D. Daixino cagioniua Pontio Pilatoga xitani 
voite caxacuuo uqe coraye, Cruzni caqerare, 
xixitamaite, miquanni vofamerare tamoto 
m6fu cocorouo arauaxi tamaye. 

X. Von aruji lefu Chrifto Deus nite vouaxi- 
mafu von tocoroua caxacuuo vqe coraye tamo 
coto canaitamauazuto iyedomo, fitonite voua- 
ximafu von tocoroua, Pontio Pilatoga xu- 
go naru jidaini gojiyiino vye yori ifsai nin- 
guenno togauo vocuri tamauan tameni, 
Cruzni caqerare xixitamoto mbfu cocoro nari. 

D. Fi- 


D. Fitonite vouaximafu tocoroua nanito ySni 
xixi tamozo ? 

X. Deusni atari tatematcuru von tocoroua von 
Animanimo goxiqixinnimo fanare tamauazu, 
fitoto naritamb von tocorono von Animaua 
goxiqixinni fanare tamSni yotte, xixitamai 
miquanni vofamerare tamSto mbfu gui nari. 

D. Von CO Deus fitoni naritamai, ninguenno 
togani taixerarete, Cruznite xixitam5 coto 
ua nanino yuye zoya, togauo yuruxi tambbe- 
qi bechino michi naxiya ? 

X. Samazama arubexi : xicarito lyedomo co- 
no Cruzno michiua amatano d8rini yotte 
daiichi (bubno michito yerabitori tamb 
mono nari. 

D. Sono dbriuo xoxo ximexi tamaye. 

X. Mazu fitotcuniua, varerani taixerarete go- 
taixetno fucaqu fanafadaxiqi fodouo xiraxi- 
me tambuo motte Deusuo gotaixetni zon- 
zuru cotomo fucacaran tame nari. Futatfuni- 
ua togano fucaqi cotouo vaqimayefaxe tama- 
uan tame nari : fono yuyeua Deus fitoto 
nari tamai xixitambuo motte yuruxi tamo 
fodono von coto nareba nari. Mitcuniua 
cono gouonno fucaqi tocorouo xian xi, fono 
von reiuo naxi tatemat9urubeqi tame nari. 
Sonoyuyeua Deus cafodono von curuximiuo 



coraye tamauazuxite, Tada carifomeni yu- 
ruxi tamoni voiteua, fitobito fafodo govbn 
uomo mixiri tatematcuru majiqini yotte na- 
ri. Yotcuniua Deusno goqenbS tadaxiqu 
maximafu cototo, mata togani ataru quataino 
fucacarubeqi cotouo xiraxime tamauanga ta- 
me nari. Sonoyuyeua Von aruji lefu Chri- 
fto macotono Deusno von co nite maxima- 
xeba, moto fodono von togamo riiaximafazu 
xite, tada vareraga togauo vort mino vyeni 
vqe cacari tamai, xuju famazamano qax^cunp 
xinaiio tcucuxite vonmini vqecoraye tama- 
yeba nari. It9ut9uniua tenguna jenacuiio 
vaqimayefafuru conomiiio bucufafuruuo mot- 
te vareraga xenzouo tabacarifumaxi, mata 
Adan fitorino togauo motte iflai ninguguo 
vaga xindaini naxitaru gotoqu, ima goichinin 
Cruzno qini cacari tambuo motte tenmaua 
riuo vxinai, fono vye von co Deus fitono 
taiuo von mini vqe auaxe tamouo motte iffai 
ninguenuo cano tenguno te yori torifanaxi 
tamai. jiytj guedatno mito naxi tamauan ta- 
meni von aruji Chrifto cacunogotoqu nari 
tamo coto mottomo loubno michi nari. Ca- 
reto coretono dorini yotte Deusno vo co va- 
rerani taixi tamaite fitoto nari, xixitamauan 
tono gonaixo nite vouaximaxexi mono na- 

D. Daigo- 


D. Daigono cagioni, daigino focoye cudari ta- 
mai, fannichimeni yomigayeri tamSto mSfu 
cocorouo arauaxi tamaye, 

X. Von aruji lefu Chrifto Cruznite xixitama- 
yeba, von Animaua daigino focoye cudari 
tamb nari. V5 arujino goj5ten madeua mu- 
caxino jennin tachi j5ten xeraruru coto ca- 
nauazaruga yuyeni, daigino foconi voite fo- 
no goxuxxeuo machi tatematyurarexi fitobi- 
touo mexiague tamauanga tameni cano to- 
coroni cudaritamaite jennin tachino Ani- 
mauo fore yori mexiidaxi tamb mono nari. 

D. Von aruji lefu Chriftono v5 Animano cuda- 
ri tamb daigino focoto yiiua nanitaru toco- 
ro zoya ? 

X. Daigino foconi yofamano tocoro ari. Daiichi 
no fucaqi focoua Infernoto yite, tenguuo fa- 
jimeto xite Mortal togauo motte xixitaru 
zaininrano yru tocoro nari. 
Futat9uniua fucoxi fono vyeni Purgatorio 
tote Gracauo fanarezu xite xifuru fitono A- 
nima guSjenite fatafazaru togauocurino tcu- 
cunoiuo xite fore yori Paraifono qeracuni 
itarubeqi tameni, fono aida come vocaruru 
tocoro nari. 

Mitcuniua, Purgatorino vyeni Limbotote 
Baptifmouo vqezu xite imada Mortal togani 



votcuru funbetno naqi vchini xifuru vara- 
beno itaru tocoro nari. 

Yotcuniua cono Limbono vyeni Abrahano 
Ceoto yd tocoro ari. Cono tocoroni inixiye 
no jennintachi goxuxxeuo machi yraretaru 
tocoroni von aruji lefu Chrifto cudari ta- 
mai, cano Sancto tachino Animauo cono to- 
coro yori mexiague tamb nari. 

D. Sannichimeni yomigayeri tamb toua nani- 
gotozo ? 

X. Sexta feriani von aruji lefu Chrifto xixi 
tamo toqi, tattoqi von Anima goxiqixinuo 
fanare tamai, t9uguino Domingoni von A- 
nimaua miquanni vofamerare tamo von 
xigaini iritambuo motte narabinaqi goy- 
qubno cacayaqi yomigayeri tamai, amatano 
midexini mamiye tamoto iyeru cotomo co- 
no cagioni arauaruru nari. 

D. Dairocuno cagioni, tenni agari tamai, banji 
canai tamb von voya Deusno von miguini 
fonauari tamoto mbfu cocorouo arauaxi ta- 

X. Von aruji lefu Chrifto yomigayeri tamaite 
nochi, tenni agari tamayeba, fitonite maxi- 
mafu von tocoroua von aruji Deus yori mo- 
romorono Beato tachino qeracuuo fito- 
tcuni xitaru yorimo nauo narabinaqi qeracu 



mandocuuo ataye tamSto mSlu gui nari. 

D. Nanitote von miguini gidxi tamStoua mo- 
xi tatematcuruzo ? Deusnimo von migui fi- 
darito m6fu coto ariya ? 

X. Von aruji Deus goxiqifo fonauari tamaua- 
neba, go fayuto mSfu cotoua naqeredomo, 
von aruji lefu Chrifto fitonite vouaximafu 
von tocoroni ataye tamo von curaiua moro- 
morono Anjo, moromorono Beatono curai 
yorimo farucani coyete ataye tam6ni yotte 
miguino c8j6to mochiiruga yuyeni, cacuno 
gotoqu moxi tatematcuru nari. 

D. Daixichino cagioni iqitaru fito, xixitaru fi- 
touo tadaxi tamauan tameni amacudari tamo 
beqito mofu cocoroud arauaxi tamaye. 

X. Von aruji lefu Chrifto xecaino vouari lui- 
zono fi iffai ninguenno xofauo goqitimei na- 
fare, foreforeni vojite futaino gofepouo 
ataye tamauan tameni, Deus nite vouaxima- 
fu von tocoroua mofuni voyobazu, fitonite 
vouaximafu von tocoromo narabi naqi goy- 
quouo arauaxi tamaite amacudari tamobe- 
xito mofu gui nari. 

D. Daifachino cagioni Spiritu Sanctouo maco- 
toni xinji tatematcuruto mofu cocorouo a- 
rauaxi tamaye. 

X. Cono cagioniua tattoqi Trindadeno fanba 

D 2 


no Perfona nite maximafu Spirjtu Sanctono 
von cotouo arauaxi tamo mono nari. Cone 
Spiritu Sanctoua von yoya Deusto, vonco 
Deus yori idetamS tagaino gotaixet nite 
maximafu nari. Cono Spiritu Sanctono Per- 
fonaua von voya Deusno Perfonato vonco 
Deusno Perfonato caccacu nite maximaxe- 
domo, fontaiua von voya IJeusto, vonco De- 
usto Spiritu Sancto tada goittaino Deus nite 
maximafu nari. 

D. Daicuno cagioni Catholicanite maximafu 
Sancta Ecclefia, SSctos mina tcuy6 xitambto 
mQfu cocorouo arauaxi tamaye. 

X. Cono cagioni futatcuno cotouo ximexi ta- 
m5 nari. Fitot9uniua Catholica nite maxi- 
mafu Sancta Ecclefiano von coto. Futatcuniua 
Sancto tachi tctiyo xitamo coto core nari. 

D. Catholica nite maximafu Sancta Ecclefia 
toua nanigoto zoya ? 

X. Ecclefiatoua lefu Chriftouo xinji tatematcu- 
ri, tomoni von voxiyeuo fsden xi arauaxi ta- 
temat9uru moromorono Chriftanno cojuuo 
nazzuquru na nari. Cono Chriftanno ichimi 
xecai xocucuni vacare yruto iyedomo, voxi- 
yeto Fides fitotcu naruga yuyeni fitotcuno 
Ecclefia Catholicani ataruni yotte ichimini 
tatoyuru nari. Sono t9ugaiua Chriftan i- 



chinin zzutcunite caxiraua Romano tattoqi 
Papanite vouaximafu nari. Mata cono Ec- 
clefiauo Catholicato mofu cocoroua fubete 
xecaino Christanuo fitotcuni xite yii cocoro 
nari. Cono Ecclefiaua von aruji lefu Chri- 
ftono notamo gotoqu Spiritu Sancto vofame 
tamoga yuyeni, Sanctatomo nazzuqe tatema 
t9uru nari. Spiritu Sancto niayoi tamo coto 
maximafanu gotoqu, cono Ecclefiamo ma- 
yoi tamS coto canai tamauazaru nari. 

D. Sancto tachi tcbyo xitam5to aru cocoroua 
nanigoto zoya ? 

X. Coreuo nattocuno tameni, fitotcuno tato- 
yeuo yu bexi : Gotaino tcugaiua tagaini chi 
carauo ye. xiqixinno qetqiuo jexinni cubaru 
j^otoqu, iffaino Chriftan ichimino tocoroua 
ixxinno cocoro nareba, Ecclefiano tcugaito 
nari tatematraruga yuyeni, tagaino Fides, Sa- 
crameto, jcnji jenguiS t6no ,cudqi mina tcli- 
y6 arito yii cocoro nari. Mata Tenni vouaxi- 
mafu Sancto tachino Purgatoriono ninju 
mo cono Ecclefiano tcugai narixi fito nareba, 
corenimo tcliyo arito m5xi tatematcuru co- 
coro nari : Sonoyueua von aruji lefu Chri- 
fto, narabini Beato tachi fono von toriaua- 
xeno Oratioto, fono curiqiuo varerani fo- 
docoxi tamai, mata vareraga Oratio, to 

D 3 


bura-no curiqitouomo Purgatoriono animano 
tameni von aruji Deusye tamiiqe tatematcu- 
ru yuye nari. 

D. Daijuno cagloni togano vtm yiiruxito am 
cocorouo arauaxi tamaye. 

X. Baptifmoto Penitenciano Sacrametouo mot- 
te Gra9auo ataye tamai, toorauo yuruxi ta- 
mbni yotte togano von yuruxiua xinjit San- 
cta Ecclefiani nomi arito mofu gui nari. Ca- 
rugayuyeni togani votcuruto yutomo tano- 
moxiqiuo vxino coto hacare : nandoqinari 
tomo Confiffanuo moxi, macotono cbquaiuo 
nafuni voiteua, yuruxi tamobeqi coto vtagai 

D. Daijuichino cagioni, nicuxin yomigayeru 
beqitono cocorouo arauaxi tamaye. 

X. Xecaino vouari luizono fi iflai ninguenno 
Anima Infernoni vochi itarumo, Paraifoni ma 
ximafu Beato tachimo nocorazu motono mi 
ni yomigayeri, vaga naxitaru jenni yotte A- 
nimani cSmuru Paraifono qeracuuo guenje 
nite jejinno coriocuto naritaru xiqixinmo to- 
moni vqe. mata Infernoni vochitaru Anima 
no curuximimo togano coriocuto naritaru 
xiqitai tomoni vqubexito yu gui nari, 

D. Pai focorito naritaru xiqixin yomigayeru 
beqi cotoua nanito canobeqiya. 

X. Banji 


X. Banji canai tamS vS aruji Deusno go xofa 
nareba canai tamauazuto yu coto naxi. Sono 
yuyeua ichimot naqu xite saye tenchi ma- 
zouo araxe tamayeba, icani iuanya xitagi aru 
ninguenno xiqixin, tatoi fai focorito nari ta- 
rito yutomo, icadeca yomigayexi tamaunza- 
ranya ? Corerano xoco nichinichi meno ma- 
yeni arauaruru mono nari. Chini vochitaru 
gococimo taneua cufaruto iye domo, motono 
miuo xbzuru mono nari. 

D. Daijunino cagioni, vouari naqi inochiuo ma- 
cotoni xinji tatematcuruto mofu cocorouo a- 
rauaxi tamaye. 

D. luizo Geralno fi yomigayerubexi iffaino nin- 
guen fononochiua futatabi xifuru coto aru 
magiqito yu coto nari : tadaxi jennin acunin 
no moyo fono xindai vndei cauarubeqi nari. 
Sono yuyeua vo aruji lefu Chriftouo mixirita 
tematcurazaru monoto, axiqi Chriftatoua vo- 
uari naqu Infernono curuximiuo vqete naga- 
raye, Gracani fanarezu xite vouaritaru Chri- 
ftanua tcnni voite tanoximiuo qiuame, futai- 
no inochiuo motcubexito iyeru gui nari. Mi- 
gui giogioua von aruji Deus yori tcugue xira- 
xe tamoni yotte, xinjezuxite canauazaru gui 
nari : fonoyuyeua manacouo motte miru co- 
to yorimo cono Fidesno giogio nauomotte 

D 4 


taxicanaru coto nareba nari. 

D. Deus yori tcugue tamoto yu cotoua tarebito- 
no tcutaye zoya ? 

X. Macotono Deus nite maximafu von aruji 
lefu Chriftouo fajimeto xite, Spiritu Sancto 
yori michibicare tamo Sacta Ecclefia yori ca- 
cunogotoqu voxiye tamo nari. Cono Sancta 
Ecclefiaua Spiritu Sancto yori vofamerare- 
tamo coto nareba, mayoi tamo coto fucoximo 
canauazaru mono nari. 

Daixichi. Deusno von voqite touono tnadanten- 
tosno coto. 

D. Miguiniua faya yoqu taxxite Deusyc mo- 
nouo coitatematcuri. xinji tatematcuru 
tameni canyo naru guiuo arauaxi tamaixi nari. 
Imamata jenuo tcutomuru michiuo voxiye ta- 

X. Tamotcu tameni Deusno govoqiteno Ma- 
damento to, Sancta Ecclefiano Madamento 
uo xiri, vonajiqu xirizoqubeqi tameniua Mor- 
tal togauo xirucoto moppara nari. 

D. Deusno von voqiteno madamentos toua nani 
goto zoya ? 

X. Banmin coreuo tamotcubeqi tameni von 
aruji Deus yori giqino fazzuqetamo go voqi- 
te giogio nareba nari ; Mandamento toua von 
voqiteno coto nari. 

D. Go- 


D. Govoqiteno Mandamentoua nangagio ariya ? 

X. liccagio ari. Core funauachi futatcuni vacaru 
nari. Fajimeno fangagioua von aruji Deusni 
taixi tatematcurite tcutomubeqi michiuo vo- 
xiye, ima xichicagioua, fitoni taixiteno michiuo 
voxiyuru mono nari. 

^ Govoqiteno Ma7idamentos. 

Daiichi. Goittaino Deusuo vyamai tattomi ta- 

Daini. Deusno tattoqi minani caqete munaxi- 
qi chicai fubecarazu. 

Daifa. -Goxucunichiuo tcutome mamorubexi. 
Daixi. Bumoni coco fubexi. 
Daigo. Fitouo corofubecarazu. 
Dairocu. lainuo vocafubecarazu. 
Daixichi. Chuto fubecarazu. 
Daifachi. Fitoni zanguenuo caqubecarazu. 
Daicu. Tano tyumauo coi fubecarazu. 
Daijb. Tamotuo midarini nozomubecarazu. 
^ Migui cono jiccagioua fubete nicagi6ni qi- 
uamaru nari. Fitotcuniua goittaino Deusuo ba- 
jini coyete taixet ni zonji tatematcurubeqi co- 
to. Futatcuniua vagamino gotoqu Proximouo 
vomoyeto ) li coto core nari. 
D. Daiichino Mandamentouoba nanito y6ni tcu- 
tomubeqiya ? 

X. Ma- 


X. Macotono Deus goittaiuo vogami tatema- 
tcuri, gofocouo nuqinde, vareraga gocbriocu 
to, go fepouo tanomoxiqu machi tatematcuri, 
vareraga qichijino minamoto nite vouaxima- 
xeba, corerano cotouo tanomi tatematcuru 
bexi. Mata gofacuno monouo Deusno gotoqu 
vyamauazaruuo motte cono Mcidamentouo 
tamotcu mono nari. 

D. Virgen Sancta Maria, mata fonofocano Be- 
ato tachiuoba nanitoybni vogami tatematcu 
rubeqiya ? 

X. Deusno gotoquniua faixi tatematcurazu, ta- 
cla Deusno Gracauo motte guenjenite jen- 
gui6uo tcutome tamai, qidocunarti goxofauo 
nafaretaru vonfito nareba, ima Deusno gon;u'- 
xoni canai tam5ni yotte vareraga vontori- 
naxiteto mochii, vogami tatematcurubexi. 

D. Dainino Mandamentouoba nanito mamoru 
beqiya ? 

X. Macototo jenno tameto, irubeqi toqi yori fo- 
caua chicaiuo furu coto naqiuo motte cono 
Mandamentouo mamoru nari. 

D. Macotoni chicaiuo furutoua nanigotozo ? 

X. Itcuuarito xirinagara, xeimQuo furucoto, 
mataua macotoca itcuaricato vtagauaxiqi 
cotoni chicaiuo furu cotoua Deusuo qiogonno 
xoconi tatemofuni yotte, tatoi caroqi dai mo- 



cu narito yutomo, Mortal togato naru nari. 

D. Jenno tameni xeimQ furutoua nanigotozo ? 

X. Tatoi macoto naru cotoni xeimoniio furuto 
yutomo, yoqicoloni arazunba, fono dal mo- 
cuni yotte Mortal togaca, Venial togacani naru 
mono nari. Tatoyeha Mortal togauo vocafe 
tono chicai naraba, Mortal togato nari, Veni- 
al togauo vocafantono chicaiuo nafaba Veni- 
al to naru mono nari. 

D. Irubeqi toqitoua nanigotozo ? 

X. Tatoi xinjit yoqi cotoni xeimon furuto yu 
tomo, irazaru toqini chicaiuo nafu cotoni. yo- 
rite Mortal toganiua arazuto yu tomo, Veni- 
al togauo moruru coto arubecarazu. 

D. Deus yori focani bechino mononi caqete xei- 
monuo furu coto ariya ? 

X. Nacanaca ari : tatoyeba Cruz, Beato tachicpa, 
mataua tattoqi cotoni caqeteca vaga inochlni 
ca. fonofoca izzureno gofacuno mononi caqe 
temo chicaiuo furu cotomo ari. 

D. Sorajeimonuo fumajiqi tameno tayorito na- 
ru coto ariya ? 

X. Tcuneni xeimon xezaruyoni taxinamu coto 

D. Xicaraba monono jippuuo cotouaru tameniua 
icaga yubeqiya ? 

X. Aruiua xinjit, mataua vtagai naxi, fitgio narito 
yu cotobauo motte teffubexi. 

D. Dai- 


I). Daifanno Mandamentouoba nanito mamo- 
rubeqiya ? 

X. Coreuo mamoruni futatcuno coto ari. Fito- 
tcuniua Domingoto, Ecclefia yori furetamS 
iuaibini xoxocuuo yamuru coto nari : tada- 
xi nogarenu xifai aru toqiua, xofauo xitemo 
togani narazaru coto nari. Futat9uniua ca- 
yono fiua ichizano Mfsauo fajime yori voua- 
ri made vogami mofu coto nari. Coremo vaz- 
zuraica, mottomo nam xifai arutoqiua, voga- 
mazu xitemo toganiua arazu. Corerano xifaiua 
ygo Ecclefiano it9utcuno Mandamentono v- 
chini arauafubeqereba, foreuo yoqu mibexi. 

D. Daixino Mandamentouoba nanito mamoru 
beqiya ? 

X. Voyani yoqu xitagai c5c5uo itaxi, vyamaiuo na 
xi, v6 arutoqiua chicarauo foyurucoto, mata 
fitono guenin taru monoua fonomino xujin, fo 
nofoca tcucafataru fitobitoni xitagoni yuru- 
caxe naqiuomotte cono Mandametouo ma- 
moru nari. 

D, Bumo, xuijn, tcucafataru fitoyori togato naru 
cotouo xeyoto iy tcuqerarg toqimo xitagS be- 

X. Voya, xuijn, t9ucasataru fitoni yocu xitagaye 
toyu cotoua togani narazaru cotouo iuaren to- 
qino coto nari. Deusno go voqiteuo fomuqi ta- 



temat9ureto iuarentoqino cotoniua arazu. 

D. Daigono Mandamentouoba nanito manioru 
beqiya ? 

X. Fitoni taixite atauo nafazu, gaixezu» qlzuuo 
t9uqezu, corerano acujiuo fitono vyeni nozo- 
mazu. yorocobazaruuo motte tamot9U mono 
nari. Yuyeicantonareba fitoua mina Deusno 
von vtcuxini t9uciiri tatnayebanari. 

D. Fitoni atauo naxi, xeccan xi, mataua gaifuru 
coto canauazuto imaxime tambni voiteua, 
coccauo vofamuru michiua icaga arubeqiya? 

X. Cono go voqiteno cagi6uo motte lugunaru 
daimocu ari totemo, yumiyauo torubecarazu, 
mataua qendanno fitoyori toganinuo xeccan 
xi, xeibai furucotono nacareto imaximeniua 
arazu, cayette zaininuo xeccanxi, xeibai furu 
coto naqunba, fono toga qendanni cacarubeqi 
mono nari. Tada cono cagidua fono yacuni 
atarazuxite murini fitouo coroxi, atauo na- 
fubecarazu tono gui nari. 

D. Xujinto xite fiquanuo xeibai furu coto cano- 
majiqiya ? 

X. Vaga xindaifuru mono domono vocaxitaru 
togauo qiSgiuni xitagai niaino xeccanuo cu- 
uayuru coto canSto iyedomo, corofu cotoua 
mottomo fucaqi daimocu aran toqi, taxicani 
qitimei xite fitouo corofu fodono taxicanaru 



yuruxiuo mochitaru fito naruni voiteua, curu- 
xicarazaru gui nari. 

D. Mottomo fucaqi dalmocuto, vonajiqu fitouo 
corofu fodono taxicanaru yuruxitoua nanigo- 
tozoya ? 

X. Fucaqi daimocutoua, yorozzuno xeccSno na- 
cani fitono inochiuo fatafucotoua ichidaijino 
xeccan nareba, fucaqi ayamari naquxite coro- 
fu coto mottomo fido naru coto nari. Mata 
fitouo corofu fodono taxica naru yuruxito yti- 
ua tarenimo are fitouo corofucotoua dorini 
fazzure, coccano tameni narazu, tada vye yori 
taxicanaru yuruxi aru fitoni nomi ataru gui 

D. Fitono vyeni acujiuo nozomazaretoua icana- 
ru cotozo } 

X. Fitoni taixite yconuo fucumi, atauo naxitaqu 
vomoi, aruiua nacauo tagai, cotobauo cauafanu 
cotoua cono Mandametouo fomuqu gui nari. 

D. Dairocuno Mandamentouoba nanito tamo- 
tcubeqizo } 

X. Cotoba xofauo motte nannho tomoni inrino 
togauo vocafubecarazu, mataua mizzucara 
vocafu cotomo vonaji toga nari. 

D. Nanitote cotoba xofauo mottetoua notamSzo ? 
Cocoroni coreuo nozomu cotomo vonajiqi 
togato narubeqiya ? 

X. Xin- 


X. Xingiuni nozomu cotomo toga naredomo, 
foreua daicuno Mandamentouo yaburu be- 
chino toga nari. 

D. Cono Mandamentouo tamotcu tameno tayo- 
rito naru coto icani ? 

X. Von aruji Deus yfori lifuno v5 fadameuo dai 
ichini naxitamal, fonofoca amatano cotono na- 
cani cuimono, nomi monouo acumadeni xeza- 
ru coto, axiqi tomoto majiuariuo yamuru coto, 
coino vta, coino fdxiuo yomazu, coino vtaiuo 
vtauazu, canSni voiteua qicazaru coto nari. 
Nauo canyo naru cototo ytiua, cono Manda- 
mentouo tamotcubeqi tameni von aruji De- 
usye von chicarauo tanomi tatematcuri, mata- 
ua togani votcuru tayorito naru cotouo xiri- 
zoqubeqi coto. 

D. Daixichino Mandamentouoba nanito tamo- 
tcubeqiya } 

X. Taninno zaif6uo nani naritomo fono nuxino 
doxin naquxite torucotomo, todome voqu co- 
tomo arubecarazu : fitonimo corerano cotouo 
fufumezu, fono cSriocuuomo xezu, fono ta- 
yoritomo narubecarazu. 

D. Fitono monouo nufumitaqu vom5 cotoua co- 
no Madamentouo yaburu togani arazuya ? 

X. Toga naredomo foreua dai jiccagi6 meno 
Mandamentouo fomuqu bechino toga nari. 

D. Dai 


D. Dai fachino Mandamentoua nanito tamotcu 
beqiya ? 

X. Fitoni zanguenuo lycaqezu, foxirazu, fitono 
cacuretaru togauo arauafubecarazu. Xica- 
ritoiyedomo fono fitono togauo fiqi cayefafu 
beqi cocoroatenite t9ucafataru fitoni tcugue 
xiraxe mbfu cotoua cano nari : fitono vyeni 
jafui xezu, qiogOua yubecarazu. 

D. Daicuno Mandamentouoba nanito funbet i- 
tafubeqizo ? 

X. Taninno tjumauo coixezu, fonofoca renboni 
ataru cotouo nozomubecarazu, Inranno mo- 
renni cumixezu, mataua foreni yorocobi, xii- 
giacu furucotomo arubecarazii. 

D. Inranno nenno vocoru tabigotoni togato na- 

X. Sono guini arazu, fono nguo yorocobazu, fo- 
reuo futcuru toqiua cayetle curiqito naru mo- 
no nari. Moxi mata fono nenni ddxin xezu* 
to ytitomo, cocoroni todome yoroccjbu toqiua, 
togato naru nari. 

D. Daijuno Mandamentouoba nanito cocorou 
beqizo } 

X. Taninno zaifouo midarini nozomubecarazu. 

D. Ima cono jiccagidno Mandamentoua fu- 
tatcuni qiuamaruto iyeru cotouo ximexi ta- 
maye : fono futatcutoua icanaru cotozo? 

X. Ban- 


X. Banjini coyete Deusuo gotaixetni vomoita- 
temat9uru cototo, vaganiiuo vomo gotoqu, 
Proximoto naru fitouo taixetni vomo coto 
core nari. 

D. Banjini coyete Deusuoba nanitoySni gotai- 
xetni vomoi tatematcuru beqiya ? 

X. Zaifo, fomare, bumo, xinmiS corerano co- 
toni taixite Deusno govoxiteuo fomuqi ta- 
tematcurazuxite, tada ippenni gotaixetni vo- 
moi tatemat9uruni qiuamaru nari. 

D, Deusno govoqiteuo mamoru tameno tayo- 
riua izzure zoya ? 

X. Sono tayoriua vouoqi nari : toriuaqi neyauo 
voqiagarite yoriua Deusno govonuo zonji 
idaxi, vonreiuo moxiague tatematjurube- 
xi. Mata fono fi govoqiteuo fomucazu xite 
gonaix5ni xitagai, miuo vofamuru tameni 
von mamoriuo tanomi tatematcuri, Oratiouo 
moxi tatematcurubexi. 

D. Nefamanimo yocotarazu fonobu tcutomu- 
ru tameniua nanigotouo fubeqiya ? 

X. Mazzu nefamani fono fino cocoroto, cotobato 
xofano qi6meiuo xi, coquaiuo motte vocaxeru 
togano von juruxiuo coi tatematcuri, vona- 
jiqu Gracauo motte xindaiuo aratamento vo- 
moifadame, niaino Oratiouo mSxiagubeqi co- 
to nari. 

D. Pro- 


D. Proximoto nam fitouoba vagamino gotoqu 

niua nanitoybni vomdbeqiya ? 
X. Deusno govoqiteni xitagatte vagamino tame- 

ni nozomu fodono yoqi cotouo fitoni taixite- 

mo nozomubeqi mono nari. 
D. Deusno govoqiteni xitagatte toua icanaru co- 

X. Coconi xifai ari : Deusno govoqiteni fomuqite 

fitono tameni nanigoto naritomo nozomu 

toqinba, tatoi vagamino tameni nozomu ma- 
' jiqi coto narito ytitomo, vagamino gotoqu ni 

fitouo vomSniua arazu : tada vagamiuo ni- 

cumu gotoquni fitouo nicumu coto nari. 

Da'^achi. Tatloki Ecclefiano govoqiteno coto. 

D. Deusno govoqiteno Mandamentouoba fa- 
ya arauaxi tamainu : ima mata tattoqi 
Ecclefiano mandamentotoua ican ? 

X. Ecclefiano Mandamentoua vouoqi nari. Sono 
nacani Mandamentoni yotte fono Ecclefiani 
ataru cotomo ari. Core fiinauachi Concilioca, 
mataua xecaini voite vonaruji lefii Chrifto 
no gomiSdainite vouaximafti Papano von fa- 
dameno Madamento nari. Core iflaino Chri- 
ftan tamotazuxite canauanu Mandamento 
nari. Mata fono tocoroni xitagatte fadamari 
taru Mandamentomo ari. Coreua fono toco- 



rouo Bifpo yori fadame tamo nari. Core fo- 

no tocorono Chrifta tamotazu xite canauanu 

Mandainento nari. Sono Ecclefiani ataru a- 

matano Mandamentono nacauo toriuaqi go- 

cagioni agerariiru nari. 

^ Daiichi. Domingo iuaibini xoxocuuo yamu 


Daini. Domingo iuaibini Miffauo vogami ta- 


Daifan. Tattoqi Ecclefia yori fazzuqe tamo 

toqi, leiuu p itafubexi. Mata Sexta Sabathoni 

nicujiqmo fubecarazu. 

Daixi. Negiuni fitotabi Csfiffauo mofubexi. 

Daigo. Pafchoa jengoni tattoqi Eucharifti- 

ano Sacramentouo fazzucari tatematjuru- 


D. Daiichiuo Mandamentouoba nanito funbet fu- 
beqizo ? 

X. Deusno Mandamento fanbanmeni arauaxita- 
ru gotoqu, Domingoto, Ecclefia yori luretamS 
iuaino fini xoxocuuo yamuru coto nari. 

D. Sonobun nareba biSjani t9ucaye/ xigaiuo vo 
curi, xocubutuo totonoye, furumaino.itonami 
qiuji xi, fonofoca xiqitaino xinr6ni ataru xo- 
faua tatoi xezuxite canauazaru xofa narito- 
mo t9utomuru coto canomajiqiya ? core ma- 
cotoni naru cotoni arazu. 

X. Sono 
E 2 


X. Sono guini arazu: fonoyuyeua Saticta Ecclefia 
ua Chriftani gorenmin fucaqu maximaxi, ba- 
jiuo yauaracani facarai tamayeba, cono Man- 
damentoni t9uitemo jifino xofa naruni voite- 
ua, tatoi xiqitaino xinrSto naru biSjano mimai 
cabi5 XI, xininuo vocuri, fono itonami nadouo 
imaxime tam5to yu guini arazu. Mata xin- 
miSuo yaxinai fudatcuru tameni cany6 naru 
xofa ; tatoyeba vonjiqiuo totonoye, furumaini 
qifiji xi, vmanitemo cachinitemo michiuo yu- 

qucoto : mata roxini motazuxite canauazaru 
nimotuo motafuru coto : xotaino d6guuo to- 
tonoye, ginni tachi caxxen xi, foriuo fori, tcui- 
giuo tcnqi. xirouo coxiraye, mata coreni iru 
beqi monouo ninai catague nado furu cotoua 
xiqitaino tameniua voqinaru xinrfi tarito 
iyedomo, fono icufani mottomo cany6 naruni 
voiteua, core mata imaxime tam5ni arazu. 
Xicanomi narazu iuaibini cariuo xi, monouo 
caqi, aruiua fitoni voxiye, yeuo caqi, mataua co- 
touo fiqi, biuauo tanji, fonofoca cacunogotoqi 
no cotouo rimotuo motomuru tameni xe- 

zu, nagufamino tame madeni xeba, coremo 
von imaximeni arazu : tada vonimaximeno 
xofaua guexocu bacari nari. Sono vchini ri- 
motuo motomen tameno xofano aico- 
moru nari. 

D, lyeuo 


D. lyeuo cacaye fudatcuru tameni iuaibini xin- 
ro, guexocuuo xezareba aicanauazaru fodono 
finnaru mono, mata nani nitemo are xofauo 
xifajimetaru mono iuaibini faxiuocaba, ta- 
chimachi fonxit fubeqiga yuyeni, fono coto 
uo nafuto yiitomo, cono Mandamcntouo fo- 
muqubeqiya ? 

X. Vajj^a fin yuye quezocuuo fagocumi, fudate, 
aruiua nenguuo vofame,. aruiua xujinno cuyacu 
uo tcutomezu xite canauazaru fodono mo- 
noua iuaibini atatte xinrouo furuto yutomo, 
cono Madamentouo fomuquni arazu ; xicarito 
iyedomo Pafchoa, Natal nadono voqinaru 
iuaibiniua, miguino xinronaru xofauo yame 
fono iuaiuo mamorucoto xicarubeqi nari. Vo 
najiqu cotouo xifajimete foreuo faxiuoquni 
voiteua, foxitto narubeqi toqi, foreuo xi- 
tcuzzuquru totemo cono Mandamentouo fo- 
muquni arazu. Cacunogotoqino xofato yuua 
chauan, fara, cauara, caqibai, xiuono ruiuo 
yaqucoto to nari. Vonajiqu jibunno fazzure- 
^ taru coto narazaru reo funadorino taguyua 
iuaibinimo fono tcutomeuo nafucoto curu- 
xicarazu : yuyeua fono toqiuo tagayuruni vo- 
iteua riuo vxinai, fonto narubeqini yotte nari. 
Mata mugui, comeuo tcucuri, aruiua caru co- 
tomo moxi yocujit made voqite ame furaba, 

E 3 


focujini fonxit fubexito xiruni voiteua, von 
iuaibi totemo, migui dojenno cocoroye ta- 
rubexi. Xicarito iyedomo canSbeqi fodoua 
corcrano von iuaibini Miffauoba vogami ta- 
tematcurubeqi cocorogaqe moppara nari. 

D. Xujin yori von iuaibini cuyacuuo v6xet9u- 
qerare, mata xinrono itonamiuo faxeraren 
toqi, fiquan taru mono fono guejini xitagoni 
voiteua govoqiteuo fomuqubeqiya ? 

X. Xujin Chriftanno v5 voxiyeuo iyaximuru co- 
coroate naqu, tada bechino yojono xifai arite 
miguino xofauo guegi xeraruru toqi, qiguenuo 
foconai axiqu atarubeqito vomouaba icaySno 
fagaritaru cotouo tcutometemo togatoua na- 
razu : fonoyuyeua Sancta Ecclefiano von co- 
coroatemo vagamino fon ayauqi cotoni voyo- 
butomo, jefini von iuaiuo mamori tatema- 
tcuretono guini arazu. Sonovye xujin toqito 
xite caySno von iuaibini miguino xofa nadouo 
iytfuqeraruru totemo murini arazaru xifai- 
mo arubexi. Mata guenintoxite iytcuqeraruru 
coto aqiracanaru toqini arazuba foreuo tCuto- 
mete yoxiya inayauo tadaxivaquruni voyo- 
bazu : fono qiumeiua Chriftan taru xujinni 
aiataru gui nari. Soreniyotte farigataqi daiji- 
no xifai naquxite Chriftanno xujin xinro na- 
ru xofauo gueninni iytcuqeraren toqiua, xu- 


jinno togatoua naruto yti tomo, xitago gue- 
ninniua toga naxi. Fuxi fiifuno aida migui d6- 
jenno cocoroyeuo nafubexi. Coreuo motte 
cono Mandamentoua tamochigataqi guini 
arazuto xirubexi. Tada Sancta Ecclefiano 
von cocoroateua corerano luaibini mino ata 
fonxitto narazunba guexocuuo yame, Ecclefi- 
aye fanqeixi, fono fini atatte Deusyeno von 
vyamai uo naxi, mata xeqenno cotoni fima 
uo aqe, goxono negaiuo itaxetono "^on coto 

D. Dainino Mandamentouoba nanito funbet 
fubeqizo ? 

X. BiSjaca mataua Miffauo vogami tatematcuru 
coto canauazaru fodono faxiuo daimocu naqun- 
ba, Domingoto Sancta Ecclefia yori mochii ta- 
mS finiua fajime yori vouarimade xinjinuo 
motte Miffauo vogami tatematcurubeqi coto 
moppara nari. 

D. Ecclefia yori mochii tamS fiua izzurezoya ? 

X. Negiuno Domingoto, Bifpono von fadameni 
xitagatte Padre yori ChriftSxuni firome tamS 
beqi fi nari. Sonoyuyeua memeno cacaye tam5 
tocoroni voite mochii tatematcurubeqi fiuo 
firomefaxe tamoua Bifponi atari tamo yacu 
nareba nari. 

D. Miffauo vogami tatematcurazutomo, curuxi 

E 4 


carazaru fodono daijino xifai naquba luaibini 
Miffauo vogami tatematcuru bexitono guiuo- 
ba taga funbet itafubeqiya ? 

X. luaibini Miffauo vogami tatematcurazu 
tomo, Sancta Ecclefiano Mandamentouo fo- 
muquni arazaru xifai amata ari. Miguinimo 
iyxi gotoqu, Sancta Ecclefia faxite fitono ta- 
mochigataqi Mandamentouoba fazzuqe ta- 
mauazaruni yotte, farigataqi yqjono xifai aran 
toqiua, Miffauo vogamazutomo curuxicara- 
zuto voboximefu nari. 

D. Sono farigataqi yojotoua nanitaru coto zoya ? 

X. Mazzu Sancta Ecclefiano von cocoroateua 
Miffauo vogami tatematcuruuo motte fucaqi 
nanguini ai, fonuo xi, aruiua daijino famatague 
aritomo, jefi Miffauo vogami tatematcureto- 
no guini arazu : carugayuyeni bionin, roxa, 
aruiua daijino xifai arite vaga iyeuo izzuru 
coto canauazaru mono, aruiua funeni nori, cu- 
gauo ariqubeqi mono Miffauo vogamuni voi- 
teua tayori michizzureuo vxinauato vomoca, 
mata cacunogotoqino canauazaru xilai aran 
toqiua Miffauo, vogamazutomo curuxicarazu. 
Mata Miffauo voconai tamo Sacerdoteno fu- 
cunaqi tocoroni yru monoca, mata Ecclefia 
yori vaga yado touoquxite Miffauo vogami 
ni Ecclefiani fanqei xeba, qenai vagamino fu- 


caqi xinro f3 taran toqiua, Miffauo vogamazu 
tomo Madamentouo fomuquni arazu. Vona- 
jiqu jefi jeacuuo vaqimayuru toxicoroni voyo- 
bazaru varanbeua Ecclefiani mairi, Miffauo 
vogami naruru coto mottomo yoxito iyedo- 
mo, vogamazuxite canauazutono guini 
arazu. Mata vottouo mochitaru v5na codomo, 
gueninto vaga votto, voya, xujin yori iyeuo 

izzubecarazuto iyidafaruruca, mataua Miffa 
uo vogamu coto canauazu, nogaregataqi coto 
uo lytcuqeraren toqiua, Miffauo vogamazuto- 
mo curuxicarazu : fonoyuyeua daijino farigataqi 
xifai naquxite xujin, voya, votto miguino go- 
toqino guegiuo naxi, Miffauo vogamaxezunba, 

fono iytcuqeteno togatoua narutomo, xitagS 
monono toganiua arazu. Vonajiqu ayauqi bio- 
ninni tcucauaruru mono Miffauo vogamini yu 
qu atonite bionin fitori nocoriyba, nanguini 

voyobanto vomoni voiteua, Miffauo vogama- 
zuxite canauazuto yu guini arazu. Mata fSni 
voyobitaru quaininno vonna, aruiua itoqena- 
qi couo mochitaru fauauoya fono couo fitori 

yadoni nocoxi voqitemo, Ecclefiaye tcure ma- 
iritemo ayauqi cototo vomo xifai aru toqiua, 
Miffauo vogamazutomo curuxicarazu. Ma- 
ta xirono ban, iyeno rufuyuo furu mono, ma- 
taua teqiuo mochi, fonofoca xifai arite yado 



yori izzuruni voiteua ayauqi cototo vomo mo- 
nonimo jefini Miffauo vogami tatematcureto 
no guini arazu. Mata vaga voya qiSdai tcu- 
ma, codomo xixitaru toqi vaga yadouo ideza- 
ru catagui fono tocoroni aruni voiteua, fono 
aida Miffauo vogamazu tomo curuxicarazu. 
Vonajiqu votoco, vonnani yorazu vaga xin- 
xoni niaino yxouo motazu, fono nari nitemo 
yado yori izuruni voiteua, fucaqi fagi taranto 
vomo toqiua Miffauo vogamazutomo curu- 
xicarazu. Xoxen Miffauo vogamaba, vare fito 
no fucaqi fon nangui aranto vomo dori aran 
toqiua, cono mandamentouo jefini tamotcu 
bexitono guini arazu. 

D. Miffatoua nanigotozo '^. 

X. Von aruji lefu Chriftono goxiqixinto vonchi 
to tomoni Sacrificiotote fafaguemonoto xite 
Deus Padreni iqitaru fito, xixitaru fitono ta- 
meni fafague tatematcuraruru nari. Core fu- 
nauachi von aruji lefu Chriftono goixxogaino 
go xofato, go Pafsionuo vomoi idafaxe tama- 
uan tameni fadame voqi tamo mono nari. So- 
reniyotte Chriftanua Miffauo vogami tate- 
matcuru toqi, von arujino go Pafsionuo quan- 
nen xi, tcuxxinde vogami tatematcurubexi. 
Corerano guiua fidarini Euchariftiano Sacra- 
mentoni tcuite fata xen toqi arauafubexi. 

D. Xin- 


D. Xinjinuo motte Miffauo vogami tatematcu- 
ru tameniua nanigotoca tayorito narubeqiya ? 

X. Sono tayori vouoqi nacani Miffano vchini mo- 
no iuazu : mata cocorouo faran fafuru fodono 
cotouo yamuru coto nari. 

D. Padre Sanctifsimo Sacrametouo fitobitoni vo- 
gamaxe tamo toqino Oratio ariya ? 

X. Nacanaca ari, von aruji lefu Chrifto tattoqi 
mi Cruzno michiuo motte xecaiuo tafuqe ta- 
m5ni yotte cuguio faifai xitatematcuru, vaga 
togauo yuruxi tamaye tanomi tatematcuruto 
mbfu Oratio core nari. 

D. Calixuo vogamaxe tamS toqiua, izzureno O- 
ratiouo mbfaruruzo ? 

X. Von aruji lefu Chrifto ifsai ninguenuo tafuqe 
tamauan tameni Cruzno vyenite, nagaxi ta- 
mo tattoqi vonchiuo vogami tatematcuruto 
mSfu Oratio core nari. 

D. Cono Miflano tattoqi facrificioua icanaru co- 
coroateuo motte fafague tatematcuraruruya ? 

X. Sono cocoroateua mitcu ari. Fitotcuniua go- 
vonno vonrei toxite fafague tatemat9uru na- 
ri. Futatcuniua vareraga togano tcucunoito 
xite fafague tatematcuru nari. Mitcuniua na- 
uo iyamaxini govonuo vqe tatematcuran ta- 
meni fafague m5fu mono nari. 

D. Miffano Sacrificioua icanaru fitono tocuto na- 
ri tamozo ? 

X. Xecaini 


X. Xecaini iqinagarayuru fitono tame bacarini 
arazu. Purgatorioni iraruru Animano tame 
nimo voqi naru tayorito naru mono nari. So- 
reniyotte xbjino fitono tameni Miffauo voga- 
nii, voconauaxe tatematcuru cotoua v6qi 
naru curiqito naru nari. 

D. Daifanno Mandamentoua nanito funbet fu- 
beqizo ? 

X. Nijuichino toxicoro fuguitaru Chriftan izzu- 
remo mina mottomono xifai naru fauari na- 
qunba Quarezma, xiqino leiun, fonofoca SS- 
cta Ecclefia yori vonfadameno ftno leiumuo 
mamorazuxite canauanutono gui nari. 

D. leiumto yuua izzureni qiuamaruya? mata co- 
no Madamentouoba nanito tamotcubeqiya? 

X. Mazzu leiuua futatcuno cotoni qiuamaru nari. 
Coreuo mamoraba Mandamentouo tamotcu 
nari. Soreto yuua mazzu leiumno fini Eccle- 
fia yori imaxime tam6 xocubutuo tamotcu 
coto : Sono xocuua fojite nicuno taguy nari. 
Quarezmaniua torino caico, qedamonono chi 
nite t9ucuritaru xocubutmo von imaxime nari. 
Tadaxi Quarezmano focano leiumua corera 
no xocubut von imaximeni arazu. Ima fito- 
tcuno guiua, fono fini ichijiqiuo furucoto, ma- 
ta foremo tocoroni mamori qitaru jibunni 
xocufubexi. Sonoyuyeua fobet leiumno fine 



xocuno jibunua tairiacu firuno fanji fodo ma- 
ye naredomo, cunini yotte fono tocorono xo- 
cubut caroqu youaqi yuye, mataua fono fito- 
bitono xb youaquxite fifaxiqu matcucoto cana 
uanu yuyeni, yori fobetno fadameno jibun 
yorimo fanjica, fitotoqi fodo fayaqu xocu furu 
cotomo cano naritono vonyuruxi ari. 

D. Sate leiumno finiua miguino xocuno focani fa- 
qe, yu, chauo nomu cotomo vonimaxime na- 
riya inaya ? 

X. Sono guini arazu, leiuno fitotemo nandoqini 
yorazu, mizzu, yu, cha, faqeuo nomu coto 
canb nari. Vonajiqu facazzuqiuo faxi, fafaruru 
cotomo naru nari. Saredomo fono fiua cayono 
nomimono bexxite faqeuoba fugofazaru taxi- 
nami moppara nari. Mata leiuno fi yugureni 
tocorono yoqi Chriftanno cataguino gotoqu, 
fucoxi monouo xocufuru cotomo cano nari. 
Vonajiqu mino yojSno tameni cufurito naru 
fucoxino monouo nomi cu cotomo leiuuo ya- 
buruni arazu. 

D. Miguini notamaixiua nijuichino toxicoro 
fuguite izzureno Ghriftamo mottomono xi- 
fai naru fauari naqunba, leiuuo mamorazu xi- 
te canauazaru tono guiuo cuuaxiqu ximexita- 

X. Miguinimo iyxi gotoqu Ecclefiaua Chriftano 



vyeni aire flcaqu maximaxeba, fitono tamochi 
gataqi cotouoba fazzuqetamauazu : cono leia 
uo xitemo mino nangui, atato narazaru mono 
bacarini tcucamatcuretono gui nari. Saruni 
yotte fito nijuichi madeua xeijin furuni yotte 
fono tameni xocubut canyo nareba, fono ai- 
daua leiuuo faxetamauanu nari. Saredomo yo- 
xono toqi yori voriuori leiQuo xi naruru coto 
yoqi nari : core fononochi leiiino govoqiteuo 
nSguito vomouazu, cono leiGno jenuo t9Uto- 
muru tame nari. Mata rocuju yori vyeno r8tai 
ua xidaini xiqitai youari yuquni yotte, leitt 
uo mamorazarutomo, curuxicarazu : tadaxi fo- 
no toxicorono fito taritomo chicara ari. fucu- 
yacani xite leiumo mino atato narazaru fito 
naraba, cono govoqiteuo mamorazuxite ca- 
nauanu nari. Mata biojaca, aruiua chicaqu va- 
zzuraite imada chicarazzucazaru fito, mataua 
vmaretcuqi youaqu xite leiuuo xeba fucaqi 
mino atato naruyb naru fitoua tatoi yamai na- 
qutomo, leiuuo xezu xitemo curuxicarazu. 
Quaininno vonna, mata chinomigouo mo- 
chitaru vonna nadoua monouo xocufuru co- 
to canyS nareba, corerano nhoninnimo leittuo 
tcucamatcuretono guini arazu. Mata leidno 
fini ichijiqini miuo yaxinS fodono xocubut 
naqi finin naraba, coremo leiunuo xezutomo 



curuxicarazu. Mata voqinaru xinrono xofa, 
yacuuo furu monomo ichijiqi niteua cana- 
uanuni yotte leiumuo mamorazu xite cana- 
uanuto yu guini arazu : foreni yotte ta fa- 
taqeuo vchi tagayefu mono vaga tenite voqi 
nam xinr8, xigotouo furu mono, cachinite na- 
gamichiuo ayomu mono, xujinno guegiuo mot 
te qi taqeuo qiri facobi, fuxin, zSfacu nado 
no xinrouo luru mono, vonajiqu faixi qen- 
zocuuo mochite foreuo yaxinai fudatcu ta- 
meni xinrb xezu xite canauanu mono, vaga 
xujin mata monouo vqeuoitaru fitoni taixite 
tcutomezuxite canauanu gui aru fito izzure- 
mo mina leiumuo xiteua fono coto narigataqi 
toqiua furuni voyobazu : fono yuyeua corerano 

fitobito leiumuo xen tameno xinrS xigoto 
uo yamubexitono guini arazu : xicaredomo 
corerano xifai arite leiumuo faxiuocan cato 
vomo toqiua, vaga Confeffor, tocorono Padre 
no goyqenuo naru fodo vcagbbeqi coto mop- 
para nari. 

D. Sateua cono leiuno govoqite fafodo mamo- 
rigataqi cotoni arazu, leiumuo xezutomo cu- 
ruxi carazaru toqi, niciyiqi fonofoca von ima- 
ximeno xocuuo mochiyuru coto canobeqiya ? 

X. Sono guini arazu, leiuuo xezutomo v5 imaxi- 
meno xocuuo mochiyuru coto canauazu, fare- 



domo biojaca, mataua bechino xifai araba, xo- 
cu furu cotomo canobexi. Miguini iyxi goto- 
cu leiunto yuua futatcuno cotoni qiuamarii 
nari : ichijiqiuo furu coto ; mata fono fini von 
imaximeno xocubutuo xocuxenu coto nari. 
Soreniyotte ichijiqiuo mamoru coto canaua- 
nu toqimo vonimaximeno xocubutuoba tata- 
zuxite canauanu gui nari. 

D. Quarezma, xiqino leiunno vprifuxi leiunuo 
todoquru coto canauazuto yu tomo, xemete 
vaga chicarani vqjite fono vchi tabitabi le- 
lumuo xezuxite canomajiqiya ? 

X. Mottomono xifai naru fauari. araba, leiumuo 
xezutomo curuxicarazutp iyedomo, nagaqu 
vchitcuzzuqu leiuno vorifuxi fono vchi tabi- 
tabi leiuuo xitemo mino atato narazaru mo- 
noua xezuxite canauanu gui nari. Saruniyot- 
te Quarezmano leiuno toqi vaga chicarayo- 
uaqu xite leiumuo todoquru coto canauanuni 
voiteua, nanucani nido fando yotabi fodo leiu 
uo fubexi : vaga chicarano fodouo facariga- 
qu vomoi, icafodo leiuuo xezuxite canauaza- 
ruya tono guiuoba naru fodo Padreno goyqe 
uo vcagai, foreni macafubeqi gui nari. 

D. Daixino Mandamentoua nanito funbet fu- 
beqizo ? 

X. leacuuo vaqimayuru fodono nenrei naru Chri- 



Chriftaua izzuremD Ecclefiano vonfadame 
no gotoqu, Conficanuo qiqi tamSbeqi Padre 
ariai tamauan toqi, xemete ichinenni fitotabi 
Conficanuo mofubexi. Moxi Padre ariaita- 
mauanuca, mataua qicaruru coto canauazu 
xite Confi9anuo mbfazuua, cono Mandamen- 
touo fomuqini arazu. 

D. Nanitote xemete ichinenni fitotabitoua nota- 
mbzo ? 

X. Fitoto xite tabitabi togani votcuru gotoqu, 
Conficanuomo tabitabi mbxeto Sancta Ec- 
clefia yori nozomi tamayedomo, xemete i- 
chinenni fttotabito fadame tamb mono nari. 
Sonoyuyeua mino xiguequ qegaruru tabigo- 
toni qiyomuru gotoqu, Animamo acuuo motte 
tabitabi qegaruruni yotte, tabitabi Confican 
uo mbxite qiyomubeqi coto moppara nari. 
Mata xifuru nSguini voyoba toqito, tattoqi Eu- 
chariftiauo fazzucari tatemat9urato vomoi ta- 
tcu toqi, Conficanuo mbfubexi. Core fu 
fi.mauachi mortal togauo vocaxiqeruto aqiraca- 
ni vaqimaye, mataua vtagb cocoro aruni vo- 
iteua, Deusno vonfadameni xitagatte Con- 
ficanuo mbfubeqi nari. 

D. Conficanuo qiqi tamb Padre ariai tamauanu 
toqitoua nanigotozo ? 

X. Padre foconi yai tamauanuca, mataua ariaita- 



moto iyedomo, Chrifta vouoqiga yuyeni, vo- 
novono ichidoni Conficanuo qiqitam5 coto 
canauazaruni voiteua, nengiuni fitotabi Con- 
ficanuo mSfazu tomo, cono Mandamentouo 
fomuquniua arazu, farinagara canobeqi toqiua 
Conficanuo mofubexi. 

D. Taxxite Conficanuo mofu tameni moppara 
naru cotoua nani zoya ? • 

X. Moppara naru coto mitcu ari. Fitot9uniua fe- 
ricudaru coto. Futatcuniua xinjit x5jiqini a- 
rauafu coto. Mitcuniua togauo nocofazaru co- 
to core nari. 

D. Nanitoyoni fericudarubeqiya ? 

X. Conficanuo mbfu fito vaga xingiuni acunin 
narito vomoi, togano von yuruxiuo c5muru 
veqi curiqi naxito vaqimaye, Deusno von ma- 
yeni giqini mSxiague tatematcuruto cocoro- 
ye, fucaqi vyamai, voforeuo motte, coquai xi, 
vareto mino vttayeteto narite vaga togauo 
fangue fubexi. 

D. Xinjit xbgiqinito aruua ican ? 

X. Vaga vocafanu togauo arauafazu, mata faz- 
zucaxiqu vomo yuyeca, mataua nanitaru xilai 
ni yorite naritomo, vaga togauo cacufazu a- 
qiracani fSguexi, fitono xingitj mademo coto 
gotoqu xiroximexi tfucuxi tamo Deusye gi- 
qini arauaxi tatematcuruto cocorovbexi. 

D. Mor- 


D. Mortal togauo nocofazutoua ican ? 

X. Vagamino Csfcientiauo comacani qiumei xite 

vomoiidafu fodono togauo fangue furu co- 

to nari. 
D. Confcietiauo yoqu qiiimei furu tameni chica- 

michi ariya ? 

X. Nacanaca ari. Mazzu vaga coxicata ytaru to- 
coroto, yoriaitaru fitoto, naxitaru xofato, vo- 
najiqu itaru tocoro niteua nanitaru cotouo xiqe 
ruzo ? Yoriaitaru fito tomoni nanitaru cotouo iy 
qeru zoto yti cotouo xian furu tameno fima- 
uo fadame, govoqiteno Mandamento, Ec- 
clefiano Mandamento, nanateuno Mortal to- 
ga, jtixinojifino xofani t9uite ayamari ariya ina- 
yauo tadafubexi. Core daiichi canyono coto na 
reba yurucaxe naqi ySni cacugofubexi. 

D. Daigono Mandamentouoba nanito funbet fu- 
beqizo ? 

X. Tattoqi Euchariftiani von aruji lefu Chrifto 
vouaximafu cotouo vaqimaye, tattomi tate- 
mat9uru fodono chiye am Chriftanua izzu- 
remo Pafcoano jengoni Bifpono gofatto 
ni macaxe ichinenni fitotabi Euchariftiauo v- 
qe tatematcurubexitono gui nari. Xicaredo- 
mo foreua Conficanuo qiqi tamo Padreno go- 
d6xinuo motteno gui narubexi. 


F 3 

Daicu. Nanatcuno Mortal togafio coto. 

D. Deusno govoqiteno Madamentoto, Sancta 
Ecclefiano Mandamentouoba faya voxiye 
tamaiiiU : fate mata Mortal togaua icutcu ari- 

X. Togano xinaua vouoxita iyedomo, yorozzuno 
togano congLiento nam togaua nanatcu ari. 
Fitotcuniua coman. Futatcuniua toyocu. Mi- 
tcuniua jain. Yotcuniua xiny. Itciitcuniua tQ- 
jiqi. Mutcuniua xitto. Nanatcuniua qedai co- 
re nari. Coreuo fubete Mortal togato yu nari. 

D. Corerano togauo fojite Mortal togato yu co- 
to ican ? 

X. Voyofo core mina Mortal toga narito iyedo- 
mo, cotoni yorite Venial togato naru coto vo- 

D. Mortalto iyeruua ican ? 

X. Mortaltoua inochiuo tatcuto yu cocoro nari. 
Naturano vye naru Animano ichimeiua De 
no Graca nareba, Mortal togaua fono Gracauo 
Anima yori torifanafuni yotte, cacunogo- 
toqu yu mono nari. Xicaredomo Animano 
xotaiua vouarucoto naqi mono nareba, Mor- 
tal togauo vocafu tote, xixi fat9urucoto arito 
vomo coto na[ca]re : tada Animano inochito 
naru Gracauo vxinoga yuyeni, coreuo faxite 



furuto yu nari. 

D. Mortal togaua Aniiniahd tamerii icanaru fonto 
haru zoya ? 

X. Sono fon voiioqi nacanimo toriuaqi gofacuxa 
Deusni fanare tatematcuri, Gracato, von ya- 
culbcuno Gloria naru Paraifono qeracu. mata 
ua von arujino vonchiuo motte fucui tam5 
vaga Anima xiqixin tomoni Infernono ninju 
to fadafnari, v5 aruji Idfu Chriftouo go Pafsi5 
no gocuriqito, mata Mortal togani qegare- 
zuxite ytaru aidani tcutomexi tocorono jen- 
jino cudocuuomo vxinS mono nari. 

D. Mortal togauo vocafu toqiua, Fidesuomo vxi 
nSya ? 

X. Sono guini arazu : miguini iyxi gotoqu Mor- 
tal togauo motte Deusno Gra9auo vxinSto i- 
yedomo, Fidesuoba vxinauazu : fonoyuye- 
ua Fidesuo vxinS michiua Fidesno cotouo iz- 
zure naritomo, xinji tatemat9uranu coto nari. 
Soreniyotte Mortal togauo vocafutotemo 
Chriftanuo firugayefu cotoniua arazu. 

D. Mortal togauo motte Deusno Gracauo vxinai 
tatemat9uruni voiteua, Ecclefiaye mairi, O- 
ratiouo mSxi, jenji jeng5uo itafu cotomo ye- 
qi naxiya? 

X. Sucoximo fono guini arazu : fono toiqi cofo i- 
yoiyo ayomiuo facobi, Oratiouo mSxi, chica- 

F 3 


rano voyobufodo jejiuo fubeqicoto cSyo nare. 
Sonoyuyeua fono toqi nauo nanguini v6 yu- 
ye nari : fonofoca jenji yori izzuru cudocu co- 
re vouoxi : toriuaqi vagamiuo cayerimi, toga 
uo coquai xi, ygo futatabi vocafu majiqi tame, 
mata v5aruji yori focufaito, fonofoca guezai 
no yoqicoto touo ataye tam6 tameno voqina- 
rutayorito naru nari. 
D. Mortal togauo yurufaruru michiua ican ? 

X. Togaua Deusni taixi tatematcuriteno rojeqi 
naruni yotte, foreuo cui canaximi, ygo futata- 
bi vocafu majiqito vomoi fadame, Confican 
uo mSfuca, xemete jibunuo motte Confican 
uo m6fubeqi cacugouo naxi, togauo cui cana- 
ximu coto core Contri9an tote togauo yuru- 
faruru michi nari. 

D. Venial togatoua nanigotozo ? 

X. Mortal toga yorimo caroqi toga nari. Core 
funauachi Deusno Gracauo vxinauazuto iye- 
domo, Deusno gotaixetto, gofoconi fufumu 
cocorouo yurucaxeni nafuga yuyeni, mortal 
togano faxito naru nari. 

D. Sorerano togauo Venialto nazzuquru cotoua 
ican ? 

X. Venialto yuua yuruxi yafuqito yu cocoro nari. 
Cono togauo Deus yori tayafuqu yuruxi ta- 
moni yotte Venialto yu nari. 

D. fono 


D. Sono togano vCyilruxiuo cSmuru michiua ican? 

X. Nanitaru SacramSto haritomo fazzucari, Mi- 
ffauo vogami, ayamarino Oratiouo mSxi, c6 
(^uaiuo motte Bifpono Becanuo vqe, Agoa be 
tauo fofoqi^ muneuo vchi> xinjinuo motte 
Pater nofterno Oratiouo m5xi, fonofoca nani- 
taru xofanitemo are Cstri9ano xiruxito naru 
cotouo furu toqiua yuruxi tam6 nari. 

A. Acuno conbonto naru miguino togauo xiri- 
zoqubeqi tameno tayori ariya ? 

X, Amatano tayori ari. Cono nanat9uno togani 
muc5 hanatcuno jen nari. Sonofoca Animano 
mitcuno Potentiato naru xeic5 xiqixinno Se 
tidos naru guen, ni, bi, jet, xinuo mamori, 
taxinamucoto nari. 

D. Sono nanat9uno togani muc6 jeua izzurezoya ? 

X. Fitotfuniua, c5manni muc6 Humildade tote 
fericudaru coto. 

Futat9uniua, tonyocuni muc6 Liberalidade 
tote yoqu fodocofu coto. 
Mit9uniua, jain ni muco Caftidade tote tei- 
xinno coto. 

YotcLiniua, xinyni muco Patientia' tote cSnin 
no coto. 

Itcutcuniua, tonjiqini mucb Temperanca tote 
chdybno coto. 

Mutcaniua, xittoni muco Caridade tote tai- 
xetno coto. 

F 4 Nanat9uno 


Nanatcuniua qedaini mucS Diligentia tote 
jenno michini yurucaxe naqu fufumu coto. 
Cono qedaito yiiua Deusno gofdcono tameni 
midarinaru canaximi, taicutno coto nari, ' 

D. Animano mitcuno Potentiatoua nanigotozo ? 

X. Fitotcuniua Memoriatote fuguixi cotouo vo- 
moiidafu xei, Futatcuniua Entendimento tote 
monouo xiri vaqimayuru xei. Mitcuniua Vota 
detote nicumi, aifuruni catamuqu xei core nari. 

D. Nanitote coreuo Animano Pot5tiatoua yuzo ? 

X. Animani fonauaru x6tocuno mityuno xeicS 
naru yuye nari. Coreua xiqixinuo fanarete 
nochimo Animani tomonai yuqu mono nari. 
Coreuo motte funauachi goxbno curacuuo v- 
quru mono nari. 

D. Xiqixinno Sentidosua icutcu ariya ? 

X. Itcutcu ari : guen, ni, bi, jet, xinno coto na- 
ri. Core funauachi xiqixinni tomonb mono 
naruga yuyeni, mino fatcuruto tomoni fat9u 
ru mono nari. 

Daijii. Sanda Ecclefiano nanatcuno Sacra- 
mento no coto. 

D. Goxouo tafucarubeqi tameniua imamade 
ximexi tamo tocorono yoqu monouo ta- 
nomi tatematcuru coto, taxxite Fidesuo ye 
tatematcuru cototo, xindaiuo mafaxiqu vo- 



famuru coto : cono fangagid bacari nite xic- 
cai taiTuruya inaya ? 
X. Sono guini arazu : foreuo tamochi voconS ta- 
meni, Deusno Gra9a moppara nari. 

D. Sono Gracauo Deus yori cudafaruru tameni 
nanitaru michi ariya ? 

X. Von faua Sancta Ecclefiano moromorono Sa- 
cramento core nari. Cono Sacramentouo yo- 
qi cacugouo motte vqe tatematcurubeqi coto 
canyd nari. 

D. Sono Sacramentoua icutcu ariya ? 

X, Nanatcu ari, Fitotcuniua Baptifmo. Futa- 
t9uniua ConfirmacSL Mityuniua Euchari- 
ftia. Yotcuniua Paenitentia. Ityutcuniua Ex- 
trema Vnca. Mut9uniua Orden. Nanatcu- 
niua Matrimonio core nari. 

D. Cono nanat9uno Sacramentouoba tarebitono 
fadame tamSzo ? 

X. Von aruji lefu Chriftono vonmino Gra9ato, 
gopafsigno gocuriqitouo varerani ataye ta- 
mauan tameni fadame tam5 mono nari. 

D. Sono Sacramentouoba nanitoySni vqe tate- 
mat9urubeqiya ? 

X. Euchariftiano Sacramentouo fazzucari tatema- 
t9uru fitoua Mortal toga araba, cdquaino v- 
yeni Confi9anuo mbfu coto moppara nari. 
Yono Sacrametouo vquru fitoua, xemete C5- 



trijanuo motte vqubeqi coto narL Tadaxi 
Conficanni mSfuni voiteua, nauo taxxitaru 
coto nari. 
D. Cono nanatcuno Sacrametono vchini daiichi 
ua izzure zoya ? 

X. Mazzu daiichiniua Baptifmono Sacramento 
nari, Cono Sacramentoua Chriftanni naru ta- 
meto, mata yono Sacramentouo vqetatema- 
t9uru xitagi monco nari. 

D. Baptifmotoua nanigotozo ? 

X. Baptifmotoua ChriftSni naru Sacrameto nari." 
Coreuo motte Fidesto, Gracauo vqetatema- 
tcuri, Originaltogato,. fonotoqi made voca- 
xitaru fqdono togauo yuruxi tamo Sacrame- 
to nari. Core funauachi arubeqi michi yori vqe 
tatemat9uruni voiteuano coto nari. 

D. Icanaru cacugouo motte cono Sacrametouo v- 
qe tatemat9urubeqiya ? 

X. lefiuo vaqimayuru mono naraba, maz- 
zu Chriftanni naranto nozomi, fuguinixi to- 
gauo cui canaximi, foreyori von aruji lefu 
Chriftono govoqiteuo tamochi tatematcuru 
bcqitono cacugouo motte cono Sacrametouo 
vqurucoto canyo nari. 

D. Cono Sacrametouoba nanitoySni fazzuqe ta- 
mozo ? 

X. Coreuo fazzucaru fitono cobeca, xemete fo- 



no fitono minovyeni mizzuo cacuru tomo 
ni Pedro toca, Pauloto naritomo nauo tcuqete 
cono m5uo tonayubexi. Tatoyeba icani Pedro 
Padreto, Filhoto, Spritu Sanctono minauo 
motte forcgaxi nangiuo arai tatemat9uru, 
Amento, ytibexi. Coreuo qi6monno tona- 
yeniua : Petre, Ego te baptizo in nomine 
Patris, & Filij, & Spiritus Sacti, Ameto 

( cacunogotoqu Chriftano izzurrno nauo na- 
ritomo tfuqete nochi tonayubexi. 

D. Moxi fito arite cono mduo tonayezuxite miz 
zuuo caquruca ; mataua cotobano fanbunuo y(x 
ca, aruiua fono cotobano vchi fitotcu naritomo 
caqite mizzuuo caquruca, aruiua m5uoba coto 
gotoqu tonayete mizzuuo caquruto iyedomo, 
mizzuuo caqezaru mayeca, nochica miguino 
monuo tonayuruni voiteua icaga arubeqiya ? 

X. Mizzuuo caquruto tomoni tonayezQba Baptif 
mouo vqetaruniua arubecarazu. Mata mono 
mo taxxite tonayurucota caydnarito iyedomo, 
aruiua foregaxitoyu cotobaca, Amentoyu co- 
tobaca, aruiua Baptifmouo vquru fitono nauo 
ba iuazutomo, Baptifmoto naru nari, Cono mi- 
tcuuo nozoqite yono cotobano vchi fitot9u na- 
ritomo caquruni voiteua, Baptifmouo fazzu- 
caritaruniua arazu. 

D. Baptifmouo fazzucarazuxjtemo tafucaru mi- 
chi bechini ariya ? 

X. Vo- 


X. Voxinabete gox5uo tafucaru tameniua conofa- 
zzuqe naquxite canauazaru michi nari. Caruga 
yuyeni canSnivoiteua, taxxite fazzucarubeqi co- 
to moppara nari. Sari nagara moxi canauazuxite 
xifuru fitono tameniua v5 aruji Deus j'ori niata 
futafamano Baptifmouo fadamevoqi tani5 nari. 
Fitot9uniua, nozomino Baptifmo : futat9uniua 
chino Baptifmo core nari. Nozomino Baptif 
motoua, xljit Baptifmouo fazzucaritaqu nozo 
muto iyedomo, fono tcuideuo yezu, fonomino 
yudan naquxite yoqi cacuguuo motte xifuruni 
voiteua, tatoi mizzuno Baptifmouo fazzucara 
zutomo, nozomino Baptifmoto narugayuyeni 
tafucarubeqi mono nari. Chino Baptifmotoua 
fito arite vonaruji lefu Chriftouo Fidesni vqe- 
tatematcuruto iyedomo, Baptifmouo fazzuca- 
rubeqi xiauaxe naqu. fono Fidesni taixite coro- 
faruru coto aruni voiteua, fonomino chiuo na- 
gafuuo motte Martyrno curaini narugayuyeni, 
gox6uo tafucaru mononari. Coreuo funaua- 
chi chino Baptifmoto yd nari. 

D. Baptifmoucba tarebitono fazzuqetamSzo ? 

X. Xiqixinniua Baptifmouo fazzuquru coto Pa- 
dreno yacu nari. Sarinagara cono Sacramen- 
toua goxouo tafucaru tameni, naquxite cana- 
uazaru michi nareba, von aruji lefu Chrifto yori 
Padreno naqi tocoroniteua votoco vonnani 



yorazu cono Saciramentouo fazzuquru vonyu- 
rixiuo ataye tamSniyotte, tarenaritorno fazzu 
quru CQto canB mono narl Core mata vonaru 
ji lefu Chrifto voxiye voqi tamb gotoqu, co 
reuo vqetatemat9urubeqi tameni miguino 
cany 6 naru guiuo tamotcuni voiteuano coto 
nari. Padreno naqi tocoro nitemo cono von 
fazzuqe xiguequ iru coto nareba, Chriftanua 
izzuremo Baptifmouo fazzuquru michiuo na- 
robeqi coto moppara nari. 

D. Dainino Sacram^ntoua izzure zoya ? 

X. Confirmaclno Sacramento nari : coreuo ma- 
ta Crizmatomo yili nari. Crizmatoua Baptis- 
mouo fazzucaritaru fitoni Bifpo yori fazzuqe 
tamS daijino Sacramento nari. Cono Sacra- 
mentouo motte Deus yori ataraxiqi Gracauo 
ataye tamai, Baptifmono toqi vqetaru Fidesuo 
t9uyome tamai, irubeqi toqini, bSlmino maye 
ni fono Fidesuo . arauafu tameni v5 chicarauo 
foye tam5 Sacrameto nari. Carugayuyeiii iz- 
zureno Chriftamo fono xiauaxe aruni voite 
ua, fazzucarazuxfte canauazara gui nari. 

D. Daifanno Sacramentotoua nanigotozo ? 

X. Comunia tomo iy, Euchariftia tomo mSfu Sa- 
cramento nari. 
D. Sono Sacramentono xjfaiuo ximexi tamaye ? 

X. Cono Sacramentoua faijono cotouari nareba, 



cotobani noberarenu gui nari. Padre MifTauo 
voconai tamo toqi, vonaruji lefu Chriftono 
giqini voxiye tamo micotobauo Calixto, Hos- 
tiano vyeni tonaye tamayeba, fono toqi made 
Pan tarixiua focujini lefu Chriftono macotono 
goxiqixinto naricauari tamai, mata Calixni a- 
ru tocorono budbno faqeua lefu Chriftono ma- 
cotono vSchito naricauari tam6 cotouo xinzu- 
ru coto canyo nari. Xicareba fore yori Panto, 

budono faqeno iro, ca, agiuaino vchini von a- 
ruji lefu Chriftono goxotai tenni vouaximafu 
gotoqu, fono tocoronimo vouaximafu nari. 
Soreniyotte giqini lefu Chriftono fontaiuo 
vogami tatematcuru gotoqu cono facari- 
naqi Sacramentouo vyamai tatemat9uru coto 
canyo nari. 

D. Pato budono faqeua lefu Chriftono goxiqixin 
to, von chini naricauari tamo coto nanito ca- 
nai tamo beqiya? Mata fono iro cauo agi- 
uai mitalematcureba, budSno faqeno iro ca 
agiuaimo mayeni tagauazuxite arito zonzuru 
nari : core voqini fuxigui naru coto nari. 

X. Satecolo cono Sacrametoua fucaxigui daiichi 
no guito moxi tatematcure. Sono xifaiuo tax 
xite xirucoto canauazuto iyedomo, macotono 
minamotonite vouaximafu vo aruji lelu Chri- 
fto cacunogotoqu voxiye tamo vyeua fu- 



coximo vtagauazu xinzuru coto moppara nari. 
Corerano guiuo Sancta Ecclefia yori voxiye ta- 
mai, mata von aruji lefu Chrifto cono Sacra- 
mentono macoto naru cotouo arauaxi tamaua 
tameni Euchariftiani t9uite famazamano goqi 
docuuo arauaxi tam6 mono nari. Vareraga ma 
nanconiua Panto, budSno faqeto nomi miyu- 
ru xifaiua bechino gui naxi, tada iroca agiuai 
funpomo motono gotoquni vouaximafuni yot- 

te, Panto budono faqe nomi manaconi caca- 
ruto iyedomo, Fidesno ficariuo motte xinzuru 
cotoua Panto bud6no faqeno iro cano cague- 
ni Panto budono xotaiua naqi nari. Tada vo 
aruji lefu Chriftono giqino goxotaito, v6 
chi nomi nite vouaximaiu nari. 

D. Panno iroca agiuaino nacani lefu Chriftono 
goxiqixin vouaximaxi, bud6no faqeno iro ca 
agiuaino nacani vochi vouaximafuto iyeru co- 
to nanigotozo ? moxi Hoftiani vouaximafu lefu 
Chriftono goxiqixinua Calixni vouaximafu 
von chini fanare tamS ya ? 

X. Sono guini arazu ; foreuo icanito ylini Hoftia 
nimo Cah'xnimo von aruji lefu Chrifto go 
xiqixin von chito tomoni fanare tamauazu 
xite tenni vouaximafu gotoqu comori vouaxi- 
mafu nari. Sarinagara Cruzni voite von chi 
uo nagaxi tam6 toqi, fono von chiua von mi- 



uo fanare tanibni yotte, cono facari naqi go Pa- 
fsionno xidaiuo voconai tatematcuraruru Mi- 
fsani vonaruji yori Hoftiato, Calixno vyeni 
caccacuni monuo tonayeyoto voxiye voqi 
tam6 mono nari. Sono micotobano go- 
xeiriqiuo motte Panno xbtaiua von arujt lefu 
Chriftono fontaini naricauari 'tamai, budo no 

faqeno xStaimo vonarujino vonchini narica- 
uari tam6to iyedomo, vonaruji lefu Chrifto 
goxiqio yori yomigayeri tamaite nochi, goxi- 
qixinto von chito caccacuni mafimaza- 

ruga yuyeni, Hoftianimo, Calixnimo fanare- 
te vouaximafu coto naqi mono nari. Tada Ho- 
ftiani lefu Chriftono von chito goxiqixin v5 
Animato tomoni mattaqu Deusnite maxima- 
fu von tocoromo vouaximafu gotoqu, Calix 
nimo vonajiqu vouaximafu nari. 

D. Cono Sacramentoua vonaruji lefu Chrifto go 
ittainite vouaximaxi nagara, vonaji toqini a- 
matano Hoftia amatano tocoroni maximafu 
cotoua nanitaru cotozo ? 

X. Sono fuxin mottomo nari, farinagara cono gui- 
uo vaqimayerarubeqi tameni, fitotcuno ta- 
toye ari : naninitemo are fitotcuno monouo 
amatano cagamino mayeni voquni voiteua, iz- 
zureno cagaminimo fono fugata vtcuru ta- 
mexi ari : core faye cacunogotoqu naru to- 



qinba, iuanya banji canai tamS macotono De' 
nite maximafu vonaruji lefu Chriftono v8 mi 
goittai nite maximafuto mSxedomo, amatano 
tx)coroni voite amatano Hoftiani vouaxima- 
fucoto canaitam5 majiqiya ? 

D. Hoftiauo futatcuni vaqe tam6 toqiua v®aruji 
lefu Chriftono goxiqixinmo vacari tam6 
coto ariya ? 

X. Sono guini arazu, 1 loftiauo icut9uni vaqete 
mo vonarujino goxiqixinuo vaqe tatematcu- 
ru cotoniua arazu : tada Hoftiano bunbunni 
mattaqu fonauari maximafu nari. Tatoyeba 
vomocagueno vtcuritaru cagamiuo funzunni 
variito iyedomo, fono vomocagueuo varuni 
ua arazu, tada cagamino qireguireni fono vo- 
mocagueua mattaqu vtcuruga gotoqu nari. 

D. lefu Chriftono votl taqeiia yonotcuneiio fito 
fodo maximaxexini. chiifaqi Hoftiatliua nani 
to xite mattaqu comoritamS zoya ? 

X. Cono facari maximafanu Sacramentoua xe- 
caino dbrino Vyeno cotouari haruuo xiite va- 
qimayento furuua Irazaru nozomi nari : tada 
fucaqi fericudariuo motte xinji tatemat9uru 
coto ttloppara nari. Xicarito iyedomo mi- 
guino cagattilrto tatoyeuo motte fucoxi nari 
tomo vaqihiayerarubexl. Miguini lyeru go- 
toqu, cagamino vareua chiifaqi morio naredo- 




mo, foreni vtcuru monoua fitono taqe fodo 
naru monoua yuni voyobazu, taifan nitemo 
are, nocorazu vtcuru mono nari : guenzaino 
michi faye cacunoj^otoqu naruni voiteua ca- 
guiri naqu maximafu von aruji lefu Chriftono 
goxiqixin nadoca chiifaqi Hoftiani comori ta- 
mauan coto voboximefumamani canai tama- 
uazuto mofu coto aranya ? tadaxi cono tatoye 

uo mottemo arinomamaniua arauaxi gata- 
xi : fonoyuycua cagaminiua fono vomoca- 
gue nomi vtcuruto iyedomo Hoftianiua von 
arujino goxStai cotogotoqu giqini maximafu 
mono nari. 

D. Cono Sacrametouo yoqi y5ni vqetatematcuru 
tameni nanigotouoca tcucamatcurubeqiya ? 

X. Mortal togauo vocaxitaru mono naraba, na- 
nitaru toga naritomo, imada foreuo Confican 
ni mofanuni voiteua,' fucaqi coquaiuo motte 
fangue furu coto moppara nari, Sono foca 
mayeno yono yafan yori nomimono cuimo- 
nouo mochiizu, moxi fucoxi naritomo yumiz- 
zuuo nomitaru coto araba, fono afaua vqe 
tatematcuru coto canauanu nari : Mata cono Sa 
crametouo fazzucari tatematcuru toqiua, vo- 
qiagarite yori fucaqi fericudariuo motte co- 
no Sacramentoni comori tamo vocataua tare 
nite maximafu zoto y(i cotouo xian itaxi, core 



funauachi vonaruji lefu Chriflo macotono De- 
us, macotono fito varerani taixerarete fama- 
zamano caxacuuo vqefaxerare, tcuini goxiqio 
nafareqereba, corerano govonno giogiduo ca- 
yerimi tatematcuru coto canyo nari. Mata v- 
qetatematcurite yoriua vaga Animani qitari 
tamaixi govonuo fucaqu quannen xite vonrei 
uo moxiagubexi. 

D. Dai xicagi6meno Sacranientoua nanigoto zo ? 

X. Poenitetiano Sacramento nari. Core funauachi 
Baptifmoua fazzucarite ygo Animano yamai 
tonaru togauo nauofaruru tenno r6yacu nari. 

D. Poenitentiaua icutcuni qiuamaruya? 

X. Mitcuni qiuamaru nari. Fitotcuniua Contri- 
can tote fottanno coquai. Futatcuniua Con- 
ftcan tote cotobanite fangue furu coto. Mi- 
tcuniua Satiffacantote xofauo motte togauo- 
curiuo furu coto core nari. 

D. Contricantoua nanigoto zoya ? 

X. Contricanto yuua fito togauo motte Deusuo fo- 
muqi tatematcuritaru tocorouo fucaqu cuicana- 
xinii, futatabi vocafumajiqito cataqu vomoifa- 
dame, jibunuo motte C6fi9anuo fubeqi cacu- 
gouo naiu coto nari. 

D. Nanino yuyenica Deusuo fomuqi tatematcuri- 
taru tocorouo fucaqu cui canaximuuo Contri- 
cantoua notamo zoya } 

X. Sore- 
G 2 


X, Soreni fucaqi iuare ari\ xinjitno coquaito yiiua 
banjini coyete gotaijcetni zonji tatemat9uru 
beqi Deusuo fomuqi tatematcuritaru tocoro 
uo canaximuni qiuamaru nari : coreuo Con- 
tricanto y(i nari : moxi faua naqu xite togani 
yotte vqubeqi Infernono curuximi* fono foca 
toga yori izzuru vazauaini ficarete cdquai furu 
ni uoiteua, xinjitno Contricanniua arazu, xin- 
jitno coquaito y(iua, von aruji Deusuo ippeni 
fucaqu gotaixetni z5ji tatematcuru yori izzu- 
ru mono nari. 

D. Xicareba Infernono curuximiuo vofore, arui- 
ua toga yori izzuru fono focano vazauaiuo vo- 
forete coquaixi, futatabi vocafu majiqito vo- 
moi fadamuru cotoua yoqi c6quaini arazu, v6 
yuruxiuomo c6muru majiqiya ? 

X. Soreua Attricanto iyte yoqi coto naredomo, 
fore nomi nite togauo yuruxi tamS coto naxi : 
tadaxi fono vyeni Coficanuo t9utomeba, mi- 
gui coquaino fufocuuo Contrican nite tafTuru 
ga yuyeni, goxamenuo cbmurubexi. Xica- 
redomo xinjit Cotricanno coquaiua imada c5- 
ficanuo xezaru yjennimo togano v5 yuruxiuo 
c6muru nari : tadaxi coremo jixet itarite Con- 
fi9anuo fubeqi cacugo naquba can6becarazu. 

D. Mijjui futafamano coquaiuo miruni, izzuremo 
coquai nari, mata ygo vocafu majiqitono cata- 


qi vomoi fadamemo ari, xicaruni Contrican 
ua imada Confi9anni voyobazaru maye yori, 
von yuruxiuo cSmuru Atrijanua Confican na 
quxite canauazarutoua icanaru cotozo ? 
X. Sono iuareua Contri9anno coquaiua tajini ca- 
cauarazu, tada Deusuo fomuqi tatematjurixi 
tocorouo nomi cuyamuga yuyeni, De^uo taixet 
ni zonji tatematcuru cocoro yori vocoru coquai 
nareba, taxxitaru coquai nari : mata xinjitno 
coquai nari. Xicaruni Atricanno coquaiua to- 
ganiyotte mino vyeni mucbbeqi curuximiuo 
voforete, vocofu coquai nareba, Deusno go- 
taixet yoriua vocorazuxite mino fiiqiyori vo- 
coru mono nari. Carugayuyeni, coreua taxxi- 
taru coquai ni arazu, mata xinjit tomo yube- 
carazu. Xicaredomo Deusno vonjifi fucaqu 
maximaxeba, Conficanno michiuo fadame 
tamaite cono fufocuuo taxxi tam5 mono nari. 
Cocouo motte quanjeba, futat9uno cotouo va- 
qimayubexi. Fitotyuniua, Confijanno michi 
uo fadame tamo gonaix6no arigataqi coto, 
mata Mortal toga aru mino tameni fanafada 
canyo narito yb cotouo : yuyeicanto nareba tatoi 
fito togano coquaiuo nafuto yutomo, fono co- 
quai Contri9anni voyobazareba, farani yeqi 
aru coto naxito iyedomo, Confi9anuo t9uto- 
muruuo motte fono fufocuuo ai taxxite go- 

G 3 


xamenni azzucareba nari. Futatyuniua 
jita tomoni togauo coquai xe toqiua, tajini ca- 
cauarazu, tada Deusuo fomuqi tatemat9urixi 
cotouo moppara cuyami, Contricanuo vo- 
cofanto naguequbeqi coto nari. Sonoyuyeua 
Contrican aruni voiteua, faxiuo coto arite 
Confi9anuo furu coto canauazuto y6 tomo to- 
gano goxamenni azzucarubeqereba nari. Ca- 
gayuyeni cocoro aru Chriflanua yogotoni 
inezaru mayeni I'uguixi catano t9umi toga- 
uo Contricanno michiuo motte cui canaximu 
coto mottomo tocu fucaqi t9Utome nari. Mata 
cono xinjitno Contri9anni itaru tameni, mop- 
para tayorito naru coioua varera iffaino nin- 
guen Deusuo taixetni zonji, tcucaye tatema 
t9urazuxite canauanu dori vouoqi cotouo 
moi xianfuni coto nari : foretoytiua ichimot 
naquxite varerauo von vt9uxini tcucuraxera- 
re, imani itaru made Anima xiqitai tomoni 
cacaye fudate tam6 coto: mata gotaixet fucaqi 
von vye yori gojixxinite maximafu v5 aruji 
lefu Chriftouo varerani cudafare, xoninno to 
gano cauarito xite vO inochiuo foroboxi tam5 
coto : fonovye gozaixegitini vareraga tameni 
xinogui tam6 goxincuuo quanzuru cototo na- 
ri. Cono quannenuo t9utomeba, cafodo fucaqi 
govonuo vqetatematcurixi voncatauo banjini 



coyete gotaixetni zonzubeqi coto fony taru 
beqini, lawa naquxite fomuqi tatematyurita- 
ru cotono cuyaxifa yo to, macotono Contri^ 
canno michini itarubeqi mono nari. 

D. Conficanuoba nanito mbfubeqizo ? 

X. Mazzu fajimete mbfu Confican naraba, Bap- 
tifmono ygono toga yori fono toqi madeno 
cotouo mSfubexi : fitotabi mSxite ygono Cs- 
fi9an naraba, mayeno Confican yori mata fo- 
no toqimade vocaxitaru togano vyeuo xian 
xite fitotcumo nocofazu mSfu coto canyo na- 
ri : cono cotono tameni miguino cucagio meni 
arauafu cotouo tamotcubexi. 

D. Satisfacantoua nanigotozo ? 

X. Vareraga togano tcucunoiuo vonaruji lefu 
Chriftoye totonoye tatemat9uru coto nari. 
Core funauachi vareraga coquaiua xingitino 
itamito. Padre yori fazzuqe tam6 togauocu- 
riuo motte totonoyuru mono nari. 

D. Daigono Sacramentoua nanigotozo ? 

X. Extrema Vn9an tote Bifpo yori tonaye tamo 
tattoqi Oleauo motte fazzucari tatematcuru 
Sacramento nari : Cono Sacramentoua xifu- 
runi nozonde bi5ninuo mini fazzuqe tamo 
Sacramento nari : cono Sacramentouo motte 
vonaruji lefu Chrifto von mino Gra9auo ata- 
yetamai, Animani nocoritaru togano qegareuo 

G 4 


qiyome,rinjuno nanguiuo yoqi ybni corayen ta- 
meni v6chicarauo foyetamo Sacramgto nari. 

D. Dairocuno Sacramentoua nanigotozo ? 

X. Ordento y\x Sacramento nari : cono Sacrame 
touo motteua Bifpo yori Sacerdoteto Sacrame 
touo fazzuquru curaini fitouo ague tam6 mono 
nari : cono Sacrametouo fazzucari tatematju- 
ru fitobitoua fono yacuuo yoqiySni tcutomuru 
tameni von aruji lefu Chrifto yori Gracauo 
ataye tam6 facramento nari. 

D. Daixichino Sacramentotoua nanigotozo ? 

^. Matrimoniono Sacramento nari : cono Sacra- 
mentoua Ecclefiano vo fadameno gotoqu tcu- 
mauo mbquru coto nari : coreuo motte fufu 
tomoni buji taixetni nagaraye, toga naqu 
xite xifon fanjbno tameni Gra9auo ataye ta- 
m5 Sacramento nari. 

D. Sono toqi fufu tagaini fadamaritaru yacufo- 
cuno gui ariya ? 

X. Core mottomono fuxin nari : tagaini nafazu 
xite canauanu mitcuno qibixiqi yacufocu a- 
ri. Fitot9uniwa fitotabi yenuo mufubite no 
chiua nannho tomoni ribet furu coto canaua- 
zu. Futatcuniua yono fitoto majiuaru coto 
cat9ute canauazu coto. Mitcuniua Matri- 
moniono Sacramentouo motte Deus yori ta- 
gaini fanarezaru tobaito fadame tamayeba, ta- 



gaini fono fufocu ^ru tocoroni chicarauo aua 
xe, mata codomono vyeni irubeqi fodono coto 
uo ataye, couo fudat9uruni fucoximo yurucaxe 
arubecazutono govoqite core nari. 

D. Fitotabi yenuo mufubite nochi ribet furu coto 
canauzarutoua ican ? 

X. Sono iuareua x6toqu vonaruji Deusiio von 
fadameuo motte Matrimoniono yacufocuua ta- 
gaini itcumademo vacaruru coto aru majiqito 
no cataqi chiguiri nareba nari. 

D. Core amarini qibixiqi von fadame nari : fono 
yuyeua tagaini qini auazaru coto aran toqinjo, 
ribt t furu coto cano majiqiya ? 

X. Core mottomo cataqi coto narito miyuruto 
iyedomo, Matrimoniono yenuomufubu toqi 
vonaruji Deus yori ataye cudafaruru Sacra- 
mentono voqinaru Gra9auo motte fufu tagai 
ni taixet fucaqi mufubiuo naxi, foi todoquru 
coto tayafuqi mono nari. 

D. Deus nanitote fitotabi yenuo musubite yori fa- 
narezaru ybni fadame tam6ya ? 

X. Cono von fadame betni arazu, tagaini to- 
ganaqu xite xifon fanjS xi, conjo gox5 tomo 
ni lono govoqiteni xitagai tatemat9uruuo 
motte fono coni itaru mademo goxSuo tafu- 
cari : fono vye fufu tagaini ixxinno gotoqu 
vomoi ai, y6jo arantoqi, chicarauo foye auanga 



tame nari : cono guiuo taxxen tameniua carifo- 
me niteua canauazaru gui nareba, nagaqu chi- 
guirazQba arubecarazu : moxi ribet furu co- 
to cocorono mama naruni voiteua, votocoua 
vonnani cocorouo fedate, vonnaua votoconi 
cocorouo voqi, fufuno naca fucoximo yafuqi 
coto naqu, qizzucai nomi tarubexi : fonofoca 
nanitaru ydjo aran toqimo tagaini tayorito na- 
rii coto arubecarazu, bexxite bifiqino jixet, 
mataua nanguino toqimo chicara naqu tano- 
mu cocoro nacaru bexi : fonovye mata vaga 
cono fudatcuru cotoni tcuqitemo famazamano 
fufocu ideqitarubexi : foreuo icanito yiini mo- 
xi qini auazaru toqi, cocorono mamani ribet 
furu coto canoni voiteua, fono miguiri nanxiua 
chichini tomonaite mamafauani soi, vqimeuo 
coraye, mata nhoxiua fauani tcuqiyuqi, mama 
chichini aite icafodono funhoyuoca xinogube- 
qi! cayono fufocu nacaran tameniua it9uma- 
demo tayezu chiguiri naqunba, fono couo 
xinjitno fucaqi taixetuo motte fufocu naqi 
yoni fudatcuru coto canSbecarazu : nauo cono 
vyeni xianuo meguraxite miruni voiteua, cono 
vyeni rini moretaru coto yoni arubecarazu : 
yuye icato nareba figoro chiguiri voqixi fufu 
no nacauo fucoxino caroqi coto yuyeni va- 
care mata bechino vonna, bechino votoconi 



cocorouo vt9uxite vaga xinjitno fadamarita- 
ru fufuno nacauo faquru coto coreuo tayori 
to iuaya ? michini fazzuretaru cotono faij6 na- 
ri. Xox5 fore yori izzuru tocorono fcuo miruni 
mazzu itcumademo foitodoqumajiqito vo- 
mouaba, tagaino ayamari qizzucai naru cotouo 
corayuru coto arubecarazu, fate mata fono ri- 
bet yori izzuru tocorono fonuo miruni, mazzu 
xinruini tagaino yconuo fucumaxe, aruiua fono 
muneuo fanjenga tame xetgaini voyobuca, 
mataua fono ichimon tagaini ^uijet xite vomo 
uazaruni vondeqito nari, mata fono q»-»nzocuno 
vchi yori chicara naqi minaxigoto naru mono 
core vouoxi : fono tameni Cliriftanni arazaru 
getiono vyeui aqiracani arauaruru mono nari. 

D. Coremina mottomo fuguretaru d6ri nari, fari- 
nagara cacunogotoqino qibixiqi govoqiteua 
fitoni yotte mino tame voqinaru ata narito 
vom6 mono vouocarubexi. Sonoyuyeua vaga 
qini facai, cocoroni canauazaru mononi nani- 
toxite foi todoqubeqiya ? caySno monouo tju- 
mato fadame, fufuno qeiyacuuo xe yoriua xi- 
caji tjumauo taixezar^niuato vomo mono vo- 

X. Sono fux! mottomo nari, xicaritoyedomo foji 
te xeqeno fonimo izzureno fattouo naritomo 
iadamuru toqi, banninno tocuuo facarite fono 



fattouo voqu mono nari : moxi fono vchini fito 
arite bSLminno tameniua fa mo araba are vaga 
tameniua faxxiqi fuca narito vom8 monomo 
arubexi. Tatoyeba cocuchu yori tacocuye fa- 
chibocuuo idafu coto arubecarazu tono fattouo 
vocaruru toqi, baibaiuo mopparato fiiru mono 
no tameniua fuxonaru faxxiqi tarito iyeclomo 
fono cunino tameniua voqinaru tocuno motoi 
nari. Sonogotoqu De^ yori fazzuqetam6 govoqi 
temo amanequ fitono tocuto narubeqi cotouo 
facari tamai, rini xitagaite fadame voqitamS 
mono nari. Cono matrimoniono Sacramentouo 
motte fito mina fucaqi tocuuo yeruto iyedomo 
fono vchinimo rini more, amaqiuo qirai nigaqi 
uo conomu monomo xoxo core arubexi. 
D. Tadaimano cotouariuo vqetamauarite yori 
funbetuo aqirame mofu nari. Ima mata nauo 
cocorono vtagaiuo faraxi mofubeqi tame, fito- 
t9uno cotouo tazzune m5fubeqi Miguino bQ- 
naruni voiteua tatoi fono votococa, mata v5naca 
mimochi ranguiSnixite govoqitenimo xitaga- 
uazu, bechini t9umauo taifuruca, mata fauana- 
xito iyedomo nininno vchi izzurenitemo x5to 
cu xine axiqi mono naruni voiteua nanito fube 
qiya, foretotemo ribet furucoto canSmajiqiya ? 

X. Core mottomo canyono fuxin nari. cacunogo 
toqu naruni voiteua, Ecclefiano vonfadameno 



muneni macaxe tagaini fono nacauo faquru co 
tomo cano nari. Sarinagara ribetxitemo yono 
titoni mata yoriuocotoua canauazu: coremo 
dorini yotteno coto nari. Soreuo icanitoyuni 
cayono itazzuramonoua mata bechino tcu- 
mauo mot9uto yutomo, mata miguini fataxe 
xi tocorono fucaqi foxituo xiidafubeqini yot 
te futatabi fono vazauai nacaran tameni fu- 
fiuio taixezaru yonito fadamevoqitamo nari. 

D. Core fuguretaru cotouari nari : ima conoguiuo 
chomonxite fumiyacani cocorono yamiuo fara- 
xi mofii nari : tadaimano vonoxiyeno coto- 
iiarini motozzuqi xianuo cuuayete miruni 
fono ribet yori ideqitaru tocorono fonxit- 
ua bacutaini xite govoqiteni xitagai, miuo 
vofamuru yori rnotomeyeru taitocuua naca 
naca aguete cazobecarazu. Coreuo motte ichi 
banno yaciifocuto, mata fanbanmeno yacufo- 
cunio fanafada can\'6 narito yu guiua yoqii 
fubet xinu : ima mata fono nibanno yacufo- 
cuno cotouuriuo ximexi tamaye ? 

X. Core bechino guini arazu, fufuno Matrimoni 
oua vonaruji Deiis yori xifon fanjbno tameno 
v6 fadame narel:)a, fono famatagueto nam ta- 
bonuo imaxime tamayeba nanho tomoni va- 
ga tcumani arazaru tani fadayeuo fururu coto 
mottomo fucaqi giubon nari. 

D. Cono 


D. Cono nanatcuno Sacramentoua goxouo tafuca- 
ru tameni fazzucarazuxite canauazaru coto 
nariya ? 

X. Sono vchi fuyeno nicagioua Ecclefiani voite 
naquxite canauanu coto narito iyedomo, men 
men vagamino nozomi naqereba, vqezuxite 
canauanu cotoniua arazu. Sonoyuyeua tareni 
temo are Ordenuo vqeyo, mata fiifuuo fa- 
dameyo tono guini arazu, tada fonomino 
nozomini macaxeraruru mono nari. Sareba 
Baptifmoto, Poenitentiano Sacramentouo iz- 
zureno Chriftglmo fazzucarazuxite canauaza 
ru mono nari. Core migui cono futatcuno Sa- 
cramentono vyeuo nobexi tocoroni tcubufani 
arauarubexi. Mata Euchariftiano Sacramen- 
toni voiteua tunbet aru nenreino monoua Co 
fefforno faxizzuni macaxe, jixetni vojite faz- 
zucarubeqi mono nari. Coremo migui Eccle- 
fiano gobameno Madamentoni aiarauaruru 
mono nari. Ainocoru futatcuno Sacramento 
Confirmacanto, V^ncanua miguino Baptifmo, 
Euchariftia, Poenitentiano Sacrameto fodo go- 
xono tameni canyo narazuto iyedomo, fazzu- 
carubeqi xiauaxe, mataua fazzuqete ma- 
ximafuni voiteua, fazzucarazuxite canauaza- 
ru mono nari. 

D. Corerano Sacramentoua tabitabi fazzucari 
mofu coto canoya inaya ? 

X. Bap 


X Baptifmoto, Confirmacan, Orden cono mi- 
tcuno Sacrametoua fitotabi yori focaniua faz- 
zucarazu : fono focaua tabitabi fazzucari mo 
fu coto cano nari : nacanimo Poenitentiato, 
tattoqi Euchariftiano Sacramentoua vareraga 
tameni daiichi canyo nam coto nareba, tabitabi 
fazzucari tatematcuru coto moppara nari. 

D. Xicaraba Matrimoniono Sacramentomo ta- 
bitabi fazzucari mofu coto canobeqiya ? 

X. Tarenitemo ari Matrimoniouo vqetaru tcu- 
mano zonmeino aidani bechino tcumauo fa- 
dame> cono Sacramentouo fazzucaru coto fu- 
coximo canauazu. Xicaredomo fufuno vchi 
ichinin xifuruni voiteua, mata bechino fiifu 
uo fadame fazzucaru cotomo cano nari. So- 
nofoca Extrema Vncanno Sacramentouo faz- 
zucaritaru fito fono vazzurai yori quaiqiuo 
yete ygo, mata rinjuno toqini voyonde faz- 
zucaru cotomo cano mono nari. 


Christa7i7ii ataru caiiyoiio giogio. 

I). Cono focanimo nauo Doctrinani ataru coto 
ariya ? 

X. Nacanaca : Mifericonliano xofa, Theologa- 
lesno Virtucles, Cardinalesno Virtudes, Spi- 
ritu Sanctono Dones, Bcnaucntcuranca, Con- 

ficanno Orationo coto nari. 


^ lifino xofaua jiixi an : fajimeno nanatcuua xi 
qixinni atari, nochino nanaicuua 
Spirituni ataru nari. 

Nanatciuio coto. 


Fitotcuniua, Vyetaru mononi xocuuo ata- 

yuru coto. 
F'utatcuniua, Caxxitaru fitoni nomimonouo 

atayuru coto. 
Mit9iiniua, Fadayeuo cacuxicanuru mononi 

yruiuo atayuru coto. 
Yotcuniua, Bioninto, roxauo itauari mimo 

Itcutcuniua, Anguiano mononi yadouo ca- 

fu coto. 
Mutcuniua, Torauarcbitono miuo vquru coto. 



Nanat9uniua, Fitono xigaiuo vofamuru coto 
core nari. 


Naiiatqiino coto. 

Fitotcuniua, Fitoni yoqi yqSuocuuayuru coto. 
F'utatcuniua, Muchinaru mononi michiuo vo- 

xiyiiru coto. 
Mitcuniua, Canaximi aru fitono cocorouo na- 

damuru coto. 
Yotcuniua, Toga aru fitouo ifamuru coto. 
Itcutcuniua, Chijocuuo yiirufu coto. 
Mutcuniua, Proxiniono ayamari, fufocuuo 

cannin furu coto. 
Nanatcuniua, Iqitaru fito, xixitaru fitoto, va- 

rerani atauo nam monono tameni Deusuo 

tanomi tatematcurucoto core nari. 


desto yu luiicnno jcn ari. 

Fitotcuniua, F'ides tote Deusno vonvoxiye 

uo mac otoni xinji tatematcuru jen nari. 
F'ulatcuniua, Efpt ranca tote goxouo tafucaru 
brqi cotouo tar.cnuxiqu vcmoi tatema- 
tcuru jen nari. 
Mitcuniua, Char:da'-e tote bajini coyete De^ 
uo gotaixetni 7.cnji tatemairuri, Proximo 



uomo Deusni taixi tatematcurite taixetni 
vomo jen core nari. 


desto yni yotcmio joi art, 

Fitot9uniua, Prudentia tote qenriono jen. 
Futat9uniua, luftitia tote qenbbno jen. 
Mitcuniua, Fortaleza tote tcuyoqi cocorono 

Yotcuniua, Tempera ca tote xiqixinno vye- 
. ni chuyouo manioru jen core nari. 

dones tote von atayeiia naiiatcu ari. 

Fitotcuniua, Sapientia tote guenjeno cotouo 
vomoi fague, goxono guiuo fucaqu vomS- 
ji, agiuaini motozzucaxe tamo von ataye 

Futatcuniua, Entendimeto tote, Fidesno vye 
yori xinzuru cotouariuo yoqii vaqimayuru 
tameni funbetuo aqirame tamo von ataye 

Mitcuniua, Confilio tote, goxono qeracuni 
itaranga tameni tayorito naru cotouo yo- 
qu yerabitoru vonataye nari. 

Yotcuniua, Fortaleza tote, jcnjino famata- 
gueuo qengoni fuxegui, fono michini to- 



doqu chicarato, tanomoxiqi cocorouo vo- 
cofaxe tamo von ataye nari. 

Itcutcuniua, Scientia tote, goxono tayorito 
naru cototo, fauarito naru cotouo yoqu va- 
qimayefaxe tamo vonataye nari. 

Mutcuniua, Piedade tote, Deusuo gotaixet 
ni vyamai tatematcuri, Proximono tayo- 
rito narubeqi ! cotouo tcutomuru cocorouo 
fufume vocofaxe tamo von ataye nari. 

Nanat9uniua, Timor Dei tote, Deusuo gota- 
ixetni zonjitatematcru vye yori, fomuqi 
tatemat9urubeqi cotouo fucaqu vofore fa- 
xe tamo von ataye nari. 


yatcu ari, 

Fitotcuniua, Spirituno finjaua tennocuni fo- 

no fitono naruni yotte quafo nari. 
Futatcuniua, Nhuua naru monoua chiuo 

xindai fubeqini yotte quafo nari. 
Mitcuniua, Naqu monoua nadame yoroco- 

baxeraruruni yotte quafo nari. 
Yotcuniua, luftitia tote goxoto jenno qicat 

aru fitoua boman faxe tamobeqini yotte 

quafo nari. 
Itcut9uniua, lifi aru fitoua von jifiuo vqube- 

qini yotte quafo nari. 

H 2 Mutcu- 


Mutjjniua, Cocoro qiyoqi fitoua Deusuo mi 
tatemat9urubeqini yotte quafo nari. 
Nanat9iiniua, Buji am fitoua Deufno v5 co 
to yobauarubeqini yotte quafo nari. 
Yatcuniua, luftitia tote jjoxoto, jenni taixite 
xebameraruni cotouo xinogu fitoua teno 
cuni fono fitono naruni yotte quafo nari. 


Banji canai tam6 Deusno fajime tatematju- 
ri, itcumo Virijeno Sancta Maria, San Mi- 
[juel Archanjo, San loan Bautifta, tattoqi A- 
poftolono San Pedro, San Paulo, moromoro 
no Beato, inata vonmi Padreni cocoro, coto- 
ba, xiuazauo motte vouoquno togauo voca- 
xeru cotouo arauaxi tatematcuru : core vaga 
ayamari nari, core vaga ayamari nari, vaga 
fucaqi ayamari nari. Coreni yotte tanomi ta- 
tem.it9uru, itcumo Virgenno Sancta Maria, 
San Miguel Archanjo, San loa Bautifta tat- 
toqi Apoftolono San Pedro, San Paulo moro- 
morono Beato, mata vonmi Padre vaga ta- 
mcni vareraga vonaruji Deusuo tanomi ta- 
maye. Amen. 










^^fjuCtC^ . 



§1, Of the Bamboo in general 

2 Madake 

3 Moso-chiku 

4 Hachiku 

5 Me-dake 

6 Ya-dake 

7 Hakone-dake 

8 Kanzan-chiku 

9 Tsu-shi-chiku 

10 Ne-zasa ... 

11 Goma-dake 

12 Kan-chiku 

13 Hotei-chiku 

14 Kikko-chiku * 

15 Madara-dakc 

16 Kuma-zasa 

17 Suzu-take 

18 Bungo-zasa 

19 Jitchiku* 

20 M6-rai-chiku 

21 Tai-san-cbiku 

22 Tai-min-chiku 

23 Narihira-dakc 

24 Taisho-chika 

25 Sbibo-cbiku 

26 Kimmei-cbiku 

27 Ogon-chiku 

28 Suwo-cbiku 

29 Shikaku-dake 

30 Koko-chiku 

31 Kanayama-dake 

32 Kawasbiro-dakc 

33 Magari-dake* 

34 Futamata-dake* 

35 Okina-dake 

36 Riusu-cbiku 

37 Sosetsu-cbiku * 

38 Sosbi-chiku* 

39 Cbigo-zasa 

40 Mari-dake * 

41 Rakanjo-cbiku * 















Shakuhachi-dakc * 
















Sakasa-dake* ... 






The asterisks denote doubtful species and fporta. 

List of Illustrations (drawn in colours from nature by Watanabe Kawataro). 



J i an c hi hi or 



hindsii var. graminea 


Simoni (2) 










I lenonis 




Quilioi (2) 


N. 15. The drawing of Inflorescence of Phyllostachys Quilioi is from a 
specimen kindly given me by Professor f. Matsumura of the Imperial 
University, Tokio. E. M. S. 

Minutes of the Meeting of the Asiatic Society of Jajxin at which the above 
paper wa^ read. Page i. 


A great deal has been written about the bamboo from the 
economic aspect, and its esthetic value has been frequently 
dwelt upon by the authors of books of travel. The bamboo is 
a familiar object in the Japanese landscape, in kakemono and 
on the tables of epicures. Yet it is seldom to be found in the 
gardens of foreign residents in this country, and only recently 
has it been cultivated in England in the open air. For a long 
time it was supposed that the climate of Great Britain was too 
raw and cold for such delicate plants. But within the last thir- 
ty years it has become rather the fashion to grow bamboos, and 
horticulturists are now eagerly seeking for hardy species. To 
Japan they have naturally turned, because its climate, though 
possessing on the whole a higher summer temperature, is sub- 
ject to correspondingly greater cold and more frequent frosts in 
winter. The result has been in the highest degree successful. 
In a garden situated almost in the heart of the midlands, close 
to the junction of Oxfordshire, Worcestershire, and Glostershire, 
and not far from Stow-on-the-Wold, noted for the severity of its 
winter climate, some fifty species have been found to flourish 
exceedingly well, though .ourse \ * reaching the stature and 
dimensions they do in this countr}\ Of these a very conside- 
rable number have been introduced from Japan, though not 
originally natives of this country, while others have found their 

way to Europe from China and the Indian hill-districts. This 
cult of the bamboo has given rise to a considerable export 
business from Tokio and Yokohama, and it may interest some 
of my readers to know that it is perfecdy easy to transport pro- 
perly prepared plants from this country to England through the 
tropics, and that every year more of these elegant plants are 
being sen t out by florists. 

My object in preparing this paper has not been to give an 
account of the uses to which the dry cane may be turned, but ra- 
ther to supply information that may be useful to cultivators 
of the living plant, and in some cases to furnish the means of 
determining the right nomenclature of those already introduced 
into our home gardens and parks. 

The following pages mainly consist of a translation of the 
Nihon Chiku-Fu, or Manual of Japanese Bamboos, by the late 
Katayama Nawohito. It was published in 1885, and a Dutch 
translation with illustrations was prepared some years ago by 
Mons. Leon van der Polder, Secretary and Interpreter to the 
Netherlands Legation in Tokio. A French translation also 
was made by him, but still remains in manuscript A new 
version in the English language, it seemed, might not be 
regarded as superfluous. Some omissions have been made of 
unimportant matter, such as the different methods of preparing 
bamboo sprouts for the market, and the chemical analysis of 
bamboo seed, used as food in years of scarcity of rice in 
mountainous parts of the country. Care has been taken to follow 
the text as closely as possible, but in doing so the translator 
has naturally failed to produce an elegant version, and he may 
sometimes appear to have missed representing the author's 


exact meaning. For this his excuse must be the long interval 
during which other occupations prevented his continuing those 
studies which were formerly the constant delight of his leisure. 
As the Japanese author evidently based his work, which it 
would be scarcely unfair to call a compilation, on an earlier 
and more elaborate book, the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu of an 
anonymous writer, the latter has been compared throughout, 
and extracts from it have been given where necessary. Here 
and there a note derived from personal examination has been 

The labour involved in the preparation of this paper 
would certainly not have been undertaken but for the recent 
publication of the *' Bamboo Garden'' by Mr. A. B. Freeman- 
Mitford, by whom the translator was inoculated with the 
bamboo-growing mania. In that work will be found descrip- 
tions of many of the species mentioned by Katayama, as they 
have been grown by him in central England. But the 
difference of climate and soil gives rise to considerable variety 
in the bamboo, especially as regards size. It is well known 
that many plants thrive better when naturalized in a foreign 
country than they do in their native habitat, especially when 
care is bestowed on their cultivation, whereas when left to 
develop spontaneously they fail to attain that luxuriance of 
growth for which they are really adapted. Of such plants Rosa 
rugosa, the hania-nasu of Japan, is a familiar instance to those 
who have tried it in gardens in Tokio, where it is a wretched 
stunted bush, or have seen it straggling along the shores of the 
north west coast of Japan or on the island of Hokkaido. The 
Oleander on the other hand may be seen attaining the size of a 

tree in Japan, whereas in its native stream-beds in Morocco it 
does not exceed the dimensions of a large shrub. The Berberis 
Thunbergii or kolori-iomarazu grows more luxuriantly and 
develops a much richer colouring in England than it does in 
its native haunts in Japan. It must be admitted, however, that 
most of the Japanese bamboos cultivated in England 
are far from reaching the size they do here, and this is 
especially the case with those which, though long ago natu- 
ralized in Japan, are nevertheless exotics. In fact they are 
sometimes scarcely recognizable, and I have had pointed out to 
me as mbsb-chiku (Phyllostachys edulis, or mitis) a plant which 
presented, as far as I could judge, none of the characteristics 
which distinguish that species. Under such circumstances it 
is not to be wondered at that gardeners and cultivators should 
find it difficult to determine the plants which are sent to thein 
from this country. They arrive usually in poor condition 
and three, perhaps four, years may elapse before they develop 
sufficiently to allow of their being recognized. In the mean- 
time however they have been named by the dealers, sometimes 
in a manner that leads to 'great confusion. Often the labels 
become illegible in transit, or being detached by accident, are 
afterward assigned to the wrong plants. Hence, as the reader 
\vho consults Mr. Mitford's book will learn, there exists a con- 
siderable amount of uncertainty as to the proper scientific 
equivalents of the Japanese names, which is further increased 
by the multiplicity of synonyms given to them here. It seems 
for instance highly probable that the hakone-dake, shino-dake, 
and mejiro-dake are one and the same plant. Of these the first 
name has been given by dealers to the canes which are obtained 


from the mountainous district known as Hakone. But the 
people who cut and send them to market do not know them by 
that designation. To them they are onna-dake. Close by Atami, 
however, what certainly looks like the same plant, slightly 
altered in certain of its dimensions by difference of soil aild 
elevation above the sea, is called mejiro-dake^ and sometimes 
me/iro. Another species is called medake or onnadake at the 
caprice of the person speaking of it. Then there is the multipli- 
city of garden varieties, which have rather hastily, it would 
seem, been assumed to be distinct species, the number ot 
imaginary bamboos treated of by the native botanists, and 
peihaps in another case, though of that I do not pretend to 
speak with authority, two entirely distinct species have been 
confounded, one being treated as a mere variety of the other. 
To present therefore to European collectors and botanists as 
full an account as possible of each species known in this 
country, in which the characteristics are described with as 
much accuracy as is ordinarily attainable, so that they may 
possess a basis of comparison with the plants under cultivation 
at home, cannot be altogether useless. 

After having spoken of Mr. Mitford's book, it would be 
unfair not to acknowledge the merits of the list of Japanese 
plants compiled by Professor Matsumura of the Imperial 
University of Tokio.. Published in 1895, it contains the 
names of all the botanical species known in this country, and 
not properly to be excluded as exotics, distinguishing as far as 
possible the indigenous species from those which have been 
cultivated for so long a time as to be fairly regarded as 

Professor Matsumura's work gives the names of 22 
species of Bamboo distributed under the genera Bambusa, 
Arundinaria and Phyllostachys. Of the first he enumerates 
eleven, of the second three and of the last eight. Out of all 
these, however, it turns out that only five or six are to be 
regarded as indigenous, the rest having been introduced 
at various times. Although most of the economic species 
have become so thoroughly naturalized that they can withstand 
the severity of a Japanese winter as far north as Nikko and even 
further, and an altitude of 2000 feet above the sea, one or two, 
such as the Bambusa vulgaris or iaisan-chiku^ are not strictly 
hardy here, and less so in England. Professor Matsumura's 
scientific names in some instances disagree with those given in 
the list at the end of Mr. Mitford's book, and therefore in the 
following paper when the Japanese name heads a section, both 
the specific names have been given, distinguished by initials. 
In some cases it will be found that no Latin names have as yet 
been assigned, and it may be that the Japanese names merely 
represent garden varieties. There is good ground for believing 
that in one case, Phyllostachys heterocycla, what is merely a 
sport, or perhaps even an artificially produced deformity, 
has been dignified by a specific name all to itself. 

We learn from Mr. Mitford that Bambusa is distinguished 
from the other two Japanese genera (including naturalized 
species) by the possession of six stamens, the others having only 
three. Unluckily, however, we are here confronted by a practical 
diflicully, namely that most bamboos flower very rarely, and 
as far as is known, of the native Japanese species only the 
dwarf-bamboo {kwna-zasa or Bambusa Veitchii) and the s.vctt- 

take (Bambusa senanensis) blossom from year to year. The 
exotic and^naturalized species, with the exception of the ma- 
dake (Phyllostachys Quilioi), mosb (Ph. mitis) ha-chiku (Ph. 
Henonis) and kan-chiku (Bambusa marmorea) probably do not 
flower at all in Japan, at least in the central regions of the 
country. Hence it is scarcely likely that in the case of those 
species of which the genus is as yet doubtful any opportunity 
of determining it will occur for many years. 

Mr. Mitford has pointed out to me that Phyllostachys is 
generally to be distinguished from Arundinaria by the groove 
that runs along one side of each internode from the insertion 
of the branches up to the next node above, while the Arundin- 
arias exhibit a smooth cylindrical stem without a groove. The 
absence of a groove by itself is not, however, sufficient to 
warrant us in saying that a species belongs to the Arundinarias, 
for the shino-dake (alias Hakone-dake), kumazasay suzulake, 
ho-o chiku and suwb chiku all present this characteristic, though 
ranked as Bambusae, and with respect to one of them, namely 
the kuniazasa, I can vouch for its being correctly named 
Bambusa, for it bears six stamens. I observed this fact in my 
own garden at Chiuzenji in the summer of 1898. 

Perhaps one of the most j)ermanent characteristics of any 
Bamboo is the form of the sheath, with its attendant 
pseudophyll. It is true that the proportion between the length 
of the sheath and pseudophyll varies according to the part of 
the stem examined, but the general outline is the same, and the 
form of the base of the pseudophyll, the presence or absence of 
hairs, do not vary. Hence, most bamboos may be recognized 
at once if a young shoot can be secured before the sheath has 


fallen off, or in the case of ihoss which have persistent sheaths, 
before the pseudophyll has been lost. Phyllostachys loses its 
sheath very early, always in the first year, sometimes as soon as 
the culm has reached its full height. On the other hand the 
sheath is very persistent in the case of the Arundinarias and 
the Bambuseae, sometimes remaining for two or three years. 
The reason of this is the extreme tenacity with which it 
embraces the stem, rendering its separation very difficult. 

Another point to be noticed is that the Arundinarias 
develop their branches beginning from the top, and descend- 
ing the stem, while Phyllostachys develops the branches 
from below upwards. 

What has been referred to as a pseudophyll may be re- 
garded as a false leaf; it increases in size towards the top of 
the culm, and the last three or four present the appearance of 
true leaves. But they fall off at the end of the year, when the 
branches begin to develop. As a general rule the younger the 
plant, the larger are the dimensions of the leaves, and it is not 
until the third or fourth year that the leaves are reduced to their 
proper size. Hence the size of the leaf, not being a constant 
fact, cannot be relied on for assistance in determining the 
name of the plant. It may be remarked in passing that this 
difference in the size of the leaves on a young and on an old 
plant is by no means confined to bamboos. It is particularly 
to be noticed in the case of the kiri (Pawlonia imperialis). 
The leaves developed on a first year's green stem are many 
times larger than those borne on a mature tree that has a 
woody stem encased in bark. 

Another point that assists us in identifying the genus is 


ihe form of the joint or node. In some species this is very 
prominent, and as the Japanese author observes, resembles a 
crane's knee, while in others it is almost level with the rest of 
the stem. To the former class the Japanese give the name 
o-dake or male, to the latter that of me-dake or female bamboo, 
and the distinction is not a bad one, corresponding as it does 
to the difference in robustness and power of resistance that 
distinguish them. It may also be observed that as a rule the 
prominent node is a feature of the genus Phyllostachys, the 
smooth being characierislic of the Arundinareae. 

It is not proposed, however, in this paper to go further into 
botanical questions, which may be studied to advantage in 
Chapter 5 of * * The Bamboo Garden." 

It was stated above that professor Matsumura enumerates 
22 species of bamboo known in this country, only seven of 
which he apparently regards as exotic, though I think that the 
estimate should be larger, and one of his list, Phyllostachys 
heterocycla, the so-called kikko-chiku, must be regarded as a 
mere 'sport,' while Arundinaria Hindsii seems to be properly 
separable into two species, or at any rate well established 
gardeners' varieties. The Japanese author whose work is 
translated in the following pages has a list of 5 1 sorts, but of 
these at least a dozen are either doubtful species or mere 
'sports,' leaving only 39 real species. Out of these I have 
twenty growing in my own garden or in pots, but mostly in 
the ground, and doing fairly well. 

Of the bamboos grown in Japan three only usually attain 
a great size, the moso, madake^ and hachikuy all of which are 
valuable for economic purposes. The first supplies the bamboo 


shoots used as a vegetable, the sepond is commonly employed 
for water pipes, scaffolding poles, roofing poles, and many 
other purposes, being perhaps the commonest of all, the third 
though less common being equally adaptable to the same 
uses. The first is often denoted the feathery bamboo by 
foreign residents, from the manner in which its plumes bend 
over, and the yellow stem and yellowish -green foliage render it 
a picturesque object in the landscape. Of the larger species it 
is certainly the most decorative. Next to it in point of beauty 
I am inclined to place the tai-niin-chiku^ which also has a 
drooping habit, and perhaps the hanzan-chiku on account of, 
the deep green of its tall, straight stems. The latter is much 
planted in Japanese gardens. If the sheaths, which are very 
persistent, are stripped off" by the gardener, it looks better than 
when left in its natural state. Nari-hira-dake is also much plant- 
ed in Japanese gardens, perhaps on account of ihe name, which 
is that of a celebrated poet and devoted admirer of the fair sex. 
That yadake should also be a common ornament of Japanese 
gardens is perhaps somewhat surprising. The very persistent 
sheaths are certainly not a beauty, and the only point that 
recommends it to us is the bushiness of the head. Hoiei-chiku 
is probably cultivated for the sake of the great variety of the 
deformed stems. Of the dwarf bamboos the kumazasa is a 
great favourite. In the spring it puts forth new fresh shoots, 
yihxch bear bright green leaves, but when the frosts of winter 
come on, these begin to decay from the edge, until in the 
following spring they present that curious appearance so much 
appreciated by Japanese artists, and so often imitated in metal 
>vork. It is a most useful plant for covering banks under 


trees, where nothing else will grow but weeds. Smaller 
varieties are also seen in Japanese gardens growing on the 
ornamental rock work. Kimviei chiku^ stnvo-chiku, okina-dake 
(a rare sort) and iaisan-chiku are usually grown in pots. They 
are all more or less delicate plants. Taisan-chiku will not bear 
exposure to the cold of a Tokio winter, and must be placed in 
a greenhouse as soon as the frosts begin. The first two, if 
protected from the north wind and from frost, may be left out 
in verandahs wilh a southern aspect, but if planted in the 
open ground are liable to lose their foliage. But they are 
beautiful varieties for the decoration of interiors, and on that 
account should not be neglected. Bungo-zasa and hotei-chiku if 
carefully trimmed make excellent hedges, but the latter is apt 
to send out spreading roots in all directions, and so requires 
to have this disposition severely checked. Kanchiku grows 
best in a moist situation, and is therefore not usually available 
in gardens. The square bamboo, shikaku dake, the black 
stemmed kuro-chiku and the grooved bamboo shibo-chiku are 
curiosities, which a collector will do well to plant here and 
there, but they are not adapted to landscape gardening. 
Gardeners' varieties of Hakone-dake, Kan-zan chiku, and Bungo- 
zasa, bearing leaves variegated with white, are sometimes to be 
met with, but they are mostly delicate plants. Of species 
described by the author other than those here mentioned few 
have come under my notice, and it is probable that they are 
not to be found, at least in Tokio or Yokohama nurseries. 



The Bamboo has many Japanese and Chinese synonyms. 
Of the former there are Chihbo gusa (thousand fathom plant), 
Kawa-tama-gusa (river-gem -plant), Yu-tama-gusa (evening- 
gem-plant), Ko-yeda-gusa (small-branch plant), Takasa (tall 
plant), of the latter *This noble-one' (jftiS"), *Rain and wind 
swept noble-one (81® &), Hu-lu-sun (^ftfii), ^ enveloped knot 
noble-one (Jfeffll'fl*).^ Its Chinese name is Chuh and in Korean 
it is tai^ the European word is bamboo. In the Linnean system 
it belongs to the first order of the 6th class, and in the natural 
classification it belongs to the loth family of the Gramineae. 
An evergreen endogenous plant, its common scientific name 
is Bambusa graminea. 

The Chinese character It is a pictorial representation. 
According to Kaibara in his ''Japanese etymology (H4^j!8),' 
take is from iahaki, tall, ke and ka being interchangeable, the 
derivation thus being perfectly natural. There are a great 
many varieties of bamboo. The Japanese Encyclopaedia' 
(5BI 81 ^ :3f H >&) estimates them at sixty one, while the Pi- 

* My inquiries as to the meaning or derivation of this name have 
been fruitless. [Trans.] 

2 All of these are poetical names. In common usage there is take in 
Japanese, Chu in Chinese, alone. [Trans.] 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 13 

ch *iian H wa-ching (IK ff ?£ tt) enumerates thirty nine. Those 
known to exist in Japan exceed fifty in number. Both in 
Japan and China a large numbe/ of works have been written 
on the bamboo from first to last. But while some are confined 
to its description from the side of horticulture and floriculture, 
and others go no further than the names and descriptions 
of species, or merely furnish pictorial representations, no book 
exists upon the cultivation of the plant. We have therefore, 
in spite of our incapacity, ventured to bring together what is 
to be found in various works and the results of our own limited 

The uses of the bamboo, of whatever size, are extremely 
numerous. The callings of the agriculturalist and artizan in 
recent times have made rapid progress, and the applications 
of the bamboo in the arts have increased correspondingly. 
The sales in Tokio alone (we quote from the statistics collected 
in 1878) were 134,144 bundles of bamboos of all sizes, the 
value being 126,380 silver dollars. The extent of its use may 
be inferred from these figures, and the best method of its 
cultivation has become a subject of constant inquir)'. We 
shall begin therefore by describing species noted for their 
numerous useful applications, and then proceed to speak of the 

The bamboo flourishes best in a warm climate, but owing 
to the progress made in recent times in the methods of culti- 
vation it has become possible to grow it in colder regions. 

Bamboos may be broadly divided into two classes, firsdy 

> A Chinese work, in six volumes; the preface is dated 1688. 

14 Nihon ChikU'Fu. 

those which can be utilized for various purposes, secondly the 
decorative varieties, suitable as ornaments for our garden^ 
and the gratification of the eye. 

Dr. Dupin a Frenchman once observed to me that 
while many plants grow with great rapidity, none is com- 
parable to the bamboo in this respect. It will grow as much 
as six feet or more in a single night When the sprout is 
still tender, it draws its nourishment from the rhizome, but in 
a few days reaches a height of from eight to ten feet. As soon 
as it becomes able to absorb moisture from the ground through 
its fibre-like roots, its rate of growth becomes more energetic, 
and each internode rapidly lengthens, so that in a single 
night it will grow as much as six feet. In the case of trees, 
however, the most rapidly growing species do not grow 
more than six or seven feet in a whole year. Till ten years 
after planting, even a plantation for firewood or charcoal will 
not yield any return. But the bamboo, if planted in suitable 
soil and properly cultivated, in a few years becomes a dense 
thicket and can be annually thinned out, so that the profit in 
a single year is equal to that obtained from other plantations 
in ten or fifteen times that period. The prices and profits 
of bamboos are here given for the information of those 
interested in planting. 

size. price. number, 

circumference i ft and over i dollar i 

,, 8 to 9 sun'^ „ 2 

7 Sim ,, 4 

* 5//;za 1.19 Engl, inches. 

Xihon Chiku-Fu, 15 

circumference 6 sun i dollar 6 

5 ^«« M to 

the value per ian (\ acre) of a plantation of bamboos of 
5 sun circumference at most, 10 dollars, 
ditto 6 5«/i ,, at most, 30 ,, 

„ 6 sun ,, and upwards 50 ,, 

The above represents the average annual yield from the 
culms, young shoots, and sheaths of madake (Phyllostachys 
Quilioi) and ha-chiku (Phyllostachys henonis). The culms 
of goma-dake (Phyllostachys nigra) and the young shoots of 
mbsb-dake (Phyllostachys mitis) show an even greater profit. 
Consequently whether planted at the foot of hills, in valleys, by 
ponds, by the side of streams, on moorland, in gardens, on banks 
of rivers and reservoirs, the bamboo is a source of considerable 
profit. When planted in our gardens or under our windows, 
its sombre green and grateful shade afford us delight. In 
pots its elegance is worthy of admiration, and its close neigh- 
bourhood casting a verdant shade on our dwellings protects 
us from sickness and refreshes our energies. We must ac- 
knowledge that learned and simple are justified in their 
appreciation of it. One of the ancients said '*How can this 
noble plant be dispensed with for a single day ? ", and I, in 
compiling this litde book, say the same. 


Take-nO'kOj takanna, karaiama, suzu-no-ne are Japanese 
names for the young shoot. In Chinese it is written 15 or P, 
and has half a dozen synonyms. The Japanese Ency- 

1 6 Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

clopaedia observes that the shoot after sixteen days growth 
resembles the parent plant, whence the name ^ fit ?C (plant 
like its mother). The same work informs us that the bamboo 
is of either sex, which can be detected from the first branch 
it puts forth. Those which grow in pairs are invariably 
female. It puts forth sprouts, and those soft ones >yhich are 
dug up when the root-stock is spreading are called root-stock 
sprouts. Those which are dug up at the root of a full-grown 
bamboo in winter, before they appear above ground, are called 
winter sprouts, and are much appreciated. The same work 
states that the consumption of bamboo sprouts is like com- 
pounding medicine, fixed rules must be observed in order to 
benefit by it, otherwise they are harmful. In digging them 
up wind and sun should be avoided, for if they be exposed to 
the sun the core becomes hard. If water is admitted the 
tissue becomes tough. The flavour is developed by boiling 
after the skin has been removed. If cut with a knife while 
yet raw it loses its softness. It must be boiled long. Eaten 
raw it is decidedly unwholesome. Such as have an irritating 
taste are bad for the throat, and they must first be thoroughly 
boiled with wood-ashes over and over again to remove this 
irritating quality. The sprouts of the madake (Phyllostachys 
Quilioi) are esteemed the best. 

But the pole is the most important part of the madake, the 
shoot being of less value. All the books say that its shoot is 
bitter, and yet the flavour of the shoot of this species surpasses 
that of any other. It is therefore called the 'bitter-sweet 
shoot' The inhabitants of Tokio do not eat the madake 
shoot if gathered afler the beginning of July, on the ground 


Nihon Chiku^Fu, 17 

of its being unwholesome, while the Kioto people regard the 
pole of a bamboo that has sprouted afler that date as inferior, 
and they use the shoot for food instead of letting it grow up. 
This is merely a difference of opinion between the East and 

However the madake is principally to be valued for the 
pole, and its use as food is of secondary importance. No 
bamboo has such a large and succulent shoot as the mbsb-dake 
(Phyllostachys mitis), and it is better to plant this species if the 
object is to make money out of the shoots. The virtues and 
preparation thereof will be found in the section dealing with 
the nwsd-dake, 


These are used for fencing, for making brooms, for fish 
stews, ^ as poles to support climbing plants and a multitude 
of other purposes. 

In modern limes the saltburners regard the finer branches 
of the bamboo as the best for covering the boilers. They 
say that the boiling point is sooner reached, and that they are 
more durable. 

The branches of nara (Quercus glandulifera), kash 
(Q, acuta) and keyaki (Zelkowa acuminata) are used as stakes 
for the green seaweed known as tiori (Ang. laver) to attach 
itself to, but they are of no use afler the first year, whereas 
bamboo branches not only last for three years, but also the 

» Boxes or cages constructed so as to float in water, and used for 
keeping live fish in till required for the table. 

1 8 Nihon Chiku-Fu. 

nori which adheres to bamboo branches of two years old and 
upwards is said to have a belter colour. 

In the oyster culture bamboos with their branches attach- 
ed are planted for the oysters to fix themselves on. The 
branches of ordinary trees soon decay, but not so those of the 
bamboo, which are therefore better for the purpose. There is 
the additional advantage that the oysters can be more readily 
detached from them, and they last longer. 

For collecting igisii^ ^ the branches of the madake are cut 
off in June, and a bundle made of thirty or forty, weighted 
with stones. The apparatus is then sunk in the sea, and the 
weed which is found to have collected on the branches when 
they are hauled up is collected and prepared for the market 


The sheaths of the madake are of a light yellow ^ colour, 
with black spots. In size they range up to i foot 5 or 6 
sun in width, and over two feet in length. Their use is 
manifold, for making hats, sandals, sandal-thongs, burnishers 
or the block-printer, as wrappers for meat, poultry, fish, cakes, 
vegetables and fruit. There are some thirty or forty dealers in 
bamboo sheaths in T5ki5 alone, and the quantity annually 
dealt in may be estimated by tens of thousands. For the soles 
of the best class of bamboo-sheath sandals and of wooden clogs 
the smaller sheath of bamboo branches, commonly known 

* Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyceae), a red seaweed. 

* That is, when dried ; while fresh they are rather of a light brown, 
the pscodophyll or blade green with a purple edging. [Trans.] 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 19 

as cda-gawa, is preferred. Its colour is pure white. It was used 
for the class of sandals formerly known as seiia and the soles 
of what are now called geia (wooden clogs). Bamboo sheaths 
are treated at length under the section Kawa-shiro-dake, 


According to the Japanese Encyclopaedia, knots are the 
points at which the internal communication of the bamboo is 
interrupted. The Somoku Sho-fu (IJC^lctt Jff)^ asserts that the 
knots of the bamboo are affected by the waxing and waning of 
the moon. If cut during the first ten days of the moon the 
centre of the septum is found to be convex : if cut during the 
next ten days flat, and during the last ten concave. If cut at the 
full or new moon, it is likew ise flat. It is added that experi- 
ment shows that the male* bamboo generally has the septum 
concave, the female has it convex. The vulgar belief is that 
professors of the tea-ceremonies in cutting tea-scoops, and pro- 
fessors of flower-arrangement in cutting their bamboo vases, are 
guided by this theory. But the experiment has been tried of cut- 
ting stems of bamboo both before and after the 15th day of the 
month. On splitting them it was found that some of the septa 
were convex and others concave, while others again were flat. 
There was no uniform rule. Both young and old stems were 
examined, and it was found that the first seven or eight knots 

* 3 vols., 1827. The passage referred to is in vol. III. f. 26 v. 

* Tlie expressions * male * and * female,* as usually understood in 
botany, are not correctly applied to the bamboo. But as used in Japanese 
they respectively indicate bamboos that have prominent nodes and flat 
nodes ; or as we might perhaps say, the genera Phyllostachys and Arundi- 

20 Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

above the root had flat sepia, the next two or three were convex, 
the next five or six were either flat or concave. The same 
result was obtained by cutting up some young shoots. There 
is of course no reason why, after the shoot has grown and 
matured into a stem hard throughout, the septa should change 
their form with the phases of the moon. It cannot be denied 
that her influence is felt in the case of living animals such as 
crabs and crayfish, which grow fat or lean with the waxing and 
waning of the moon, but it is impossible that the septa of the 
bamboo should undergo a similar change. All that can be 
said is that the common people give currency to extravagant 


According to the Chu-pu Siang-lu (It Iffl^JI)* bamboos 
have two sorts of roots. Firsdy, those which spread send out 
underground stems the first year, from which the shoots and 
upright stems are developed the following year. Secondly, 
the caespitose kinds, without waiting to send out roots, put forth 
shoots every year which form culms, but in their case the branches 
and leaves are not developed till the following season. The for- 
mer class are those that have a creeping root-stock, from the 
nodes of which spring the shoots. To this belong the madake, ^ 
hachiku,^ mosddake,^ medake,^ kanzan-chiku,^ Eakone-dake,^ 
nezasa, "^ goma-dake^ ® Jcan-chiku, » Hotei-chiku, ^ ^ suzu-dake, ^ ^ 
kumazasa, ^ ' and Bungo-zasa, ^ * If the rhizome of any of 

« Phyllostachys Qtiilioi, a P. Henonis, » P. mitis, * Arundinaria 
japonica, » A. Hindsii, • Bambusa Laydekeri, f [not identified] « P. nigra, 
» B. marmorea, >o P. aurea, »» B. Senanensis. »* B. palmata. »» P. 
ruscifolia. F. M. 

* A Chinese work on bamboos. 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 21 

these kinds be transplanted when the shoots are just springing, 
they will invariably do well. i/The csespitose kinds are such as 
shoot up either from the top of the root of the parent plant, or 
from its end, or from a knot on the stem, such as the iaizan- 
chiku,^ Hdrai'ChikUy^ kokdchiku,^ Shakoian-chikii^ , and Kana- 
yama dake. Some of the mc-dake"^ sorts likewise belong to this 
class, which can easily be propagated by transplanting three 
or four old or new stems of the parent. 

Even in the case of the ;w r;5r7, tna-dake Tind ha-chikuy which 
produce a large stem, the shoot comes originally from a very 
small knot on the root-stock, suddenly developing in size when 
it has attained a growth of about an inch. In most cases, while 
yet underground, from six to a dozen of the knots will throw 
out thick bundles of fibre-like roots, the knots being quite close 
together, and these fibre-like roots being produced in great num- 
ber. Those which are grown in poor soil, or which though 
having only creeping root-slocks, send up comparatively slender 
stems, generally have six underground knots. The me-dake 
and the caespitose species have from three to nine subterranean 
knots, the rest being above ground. It the depth of soil is so 
little as not to allow of these fibre-like roots growing naturally, 
they sometimes develop above the surface. For plantations 
of such species, it is best to lay down more soil. 

The development of the bamboo is said to be on the 

ternary system. The stem attains maturity in three years, and 

attains old age in six. After thirty or sixty years as the case 

* Bambnsa vulgaris, * Bambusa nana (M.) disticha (F. M.), 

» [not identified] ♦ Arundinaria metallica. According to Mr. Freeman- 

Mitford this and the next name are synonyms for one species. Arun- 
dinaria japonica. 

22 Nihon Chiku-Fii. 

may be it flowers and produces seed. The number of the 
knots is also divisible by three. The shortest underground 
roots have three or six knots, the deeper ones nine or twelve. 
The whole number of knots in the longest stems is sixty, sixty 
three, or sixty six. No matter what the height may be, in nearly 
all cases the knots will be numbered by threes. 


In Chinese medicine the leaf of the bamboo has been used 
as a lotion for the eye. We are not aware whether this practice is 
observed any longer, but it is quite possible that the virtues of the 
leaf may come to be utilized more and more. In growing 
ginger and mioga (Amomum mioga) if bamboo leaves are used 
as a covering to protect the root from the direct rays of the sun, 
the colour will be a brighter red, and a better price will be ob- 
tained. If the branches are piled up after the bamboos have 
been cut and the leaves allowed to fall off and then collected, 
ihey will make an excellent manure not only for spreading 
about the plantation, but also for application to rice fields and 
arable land in general. 

MADAKE {Phyllosiachys QuilioiY.'^l.) 
Another name of this species is tiiga-dake (the old 
name is kawa-dake i'ltj* or ko-kazva-dake*^). The Chinese name 
is S^lt (i.e. niga-iake or bitter bamboo). It is also vulgarly 
known as gara or kara-lake. The Japanese Encyclopaedia ex- 
plains ina-dake to mean ma-kawa-dake ^ i. e. true-sheath-bamboo, 
which in Japan has been understood as kawa-dakc i.e. river- 

• This is denied by the author of the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu, a most pains- 
taking work on bamboos. Unfortunately it has never l)ecn j rintcd. 

Nihon Chiku-Fu, 23 

bamboo. It adds that the shoot has a sheath variegated with 
purple, and its flavour is bitter ; the stem is green, the inter- 
nodes comparatively long. The largest are as much as i fool 
6 sun in circumference, sixty or seventy feet in height. One 
variety of this bamboo grown in poor soil is no more than three 
to four mn in girth, and twenty feet in height. Its nodes are 
large and the longitudinal grooves deep. It is used for fenc- 
ing or blinds, for stands (called mogan) on which dyers spread 
cloth for bleaching. Thus far the Encyclopaedia. 

The name gara-take is perhaps a corruption of this 
word viogah, and the transcription 0f It {kara-dake) is probably 
an error based on this assumption. 

From the Kei-yen chiku Fu (S. SI It iff) and other books it 
would appear to be uncertain whether the madake is indi- 
genous to this country, or was introduced from China at an early 
period. It is the most useful of all the bamboos grown in 
Japan. The size varies according to the quality of the soil in 
which it is grown. The internodes of the smallest examples 
are from four to five inches in length, those of the largest 
specimens from a foot and a half to two feet. The number of 
knots from the root to the tip of the stem is sixty, sixty-three 
and even sixty-six in the longest examples. 


This bamboo does not attain any great size near Tokio, but at Ome, 
Nerima mura, and near Matsudo in Shimosa it grows to a height of thirty or 
forty feet with a girth of over a foot. For two or three feet above the 
ground the nodes are close together, just as with the hachiku (Phyllostachys 
Henonis), but above that they are further apart than in that species. The 
shorter internodes are from four to five sun in length, the longest from a 

24 yihon ChikU'Fu. 

foot to a loot and five or six sun. The formation of the nodes is the same 
on both stem and branches, but while the upper ones are prominent the 
lower ones are very inconspicuous. Unlike those of the hachiku^ the stem 
nodes are prominent, those of the branches not so well marked. Culms over 
ten feet in height do not begin to branch before the 17th or i8th node from 
the ground, smaller ones from the 8th or 9th, or in the case of very small 
and slender stems the branching may begin from the fourth or fifth. 

Sometimes the branch is solitary, followed by pairs at the succeeding 
knots, sometimes there are pairs from the l)eginning, without any solitary 
ones. It differs from the hachikuy however, in bearing at several of the 
lower nodes a small yellowish bud about one-tenth of a sun in dia- 
meter. When the old stems of previous years begin to put forth their new 
leaves, this yellow bud swells into a small green sprout, andd evelops into 
a new branch in addition to the old one. The branch produced in this way 
is generally solitary. The consequence of these yellow buds is that though 
the nodes nearer to the ground be without branches or leaves, the stem is 
grooved all the same, differing totally in this from the Jiachiku^ the stem of 
which is perfectly round at that point. The presence of a white dust on the 
stem below each node is alike in both of these bamboos. The leaves grow 
in threes, fours, fives or sevens, and are larger than those of the hachiku. 
At the base of each leaf are found hairs two or three tenths of a sun in 
length, and of a yellowish brown colour, somewhat finer than those inserted 
close to the tip of the sheath. When in the course of time the culm be- 
comes ripe, the branches and twigs, which about the fourth month should 
send forth new leaves, assume a pendulous iX)sition, and seen from a distance 
resemble the seeding of the dwarf bamboo {sasd). The pipe of the madake 
is thicker than that of the hacJiiku^ and is of firmer texture. This species 
was always preferred for the construction of bows. The sprout comes up 
a month later than that of the hachiku (say in June), and the sheath is 
marked with purple blotches. 

The growth of the madake in very rapid. A shoot in my own garden 
that was 4 ft. 9 in. high on May 13 had attained 7 ft. 5 in. on the 17th, the 
growth on successive days in the interval being 10 in., 5J in., 8 in., and 8J 
in. respectively. [Trans.] 


The best soil for planting the madake is one composed of 
rich loam, sandy clay and sand mixed. The smoothness and 


(^'HrsriiXiOeT^cmrs caxniiioi) 

Inflorescence . November 1899 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 25 

hardness of the cuticle are produced by silica. Chemists tell us 
that the ash of the bamboo is rich in silica. Hence a deep 
loamy soil mixed with sand and gravel is to be preferred. 
Damp soil and hard stony ground are bad. This bamboo may 
be grown by the side of streams, on high land, open plains, 
slopes or steep hills, but it is best to plant it in a warm situation 
wiih a wood or hill to the south west to serve as a natural 
screen from the wind. 


The dead bodies of dogs, sheep, cats, rats and other 
animals, the skins, bones and hoofs of cattle and horses, are 
the best for this purpose. Decayed rice and wheat plants, rice 
and barley bran, and other vegetable matter, ashes, the contents 
of the dust-bin, rotten compost, stable litter, the dung and 
urine of men and horses, and lime where the soil is not sandy, 
may all be used. Seaweed, fish-washings and kitchen salt do 
not suit the bamboo. It is stated that the whole plantation 
will die off if the washings of arame^ or buckwheat husks 
are applied. 


For this purpose a spot must be selected presenting no 
obstacles to the bamboos spreading freely in every direction. 
It is advisable to choose from two to five healthy stems of from 
two to three years old with one or two of this year's growth, care 

* A seaweed, Ecklonia bicyclis. 

26 Nihon Onku-Fn. 

being taken to avoid injuring the creeping root-stock which is 
transplanted along with the canes. The 13th day of the 5th 
moon according to the lunar calendar, which is called the 
drunken day of the bamboo or the bamboo's day of bewil- 
derment^, is said to be a good moment, but any time before the 
appearance of shoots above ground, and excepting mid-summer 
and mid-winter, will do. The rainy season {bai-ti), any rainy day, 
in fact, or before rain is especially suitable. A temperature of 
more than 45° Fahr. or 7° Celsius is considered everywhere 
desirable. A hole three feet^ square should be dug, at the bot- 
tom of which bran, paddy husks, wood ashes, decayed leaves, 
stable manure, rotten compost, human manure or horse drop- 
pings that have been kept for some time, should be laid to the 
depth of a foot. On the top of this fine earth should be laid 
to a deptli of five or six sun. This process of laying down 
alternately manure and fine earth having been repeated three or 
four times, the bamboo may be planted, and covered in with 
manure and fine earth on the top, to a height of five or six sun 
above the level of the ground, and after watering, the earth 
should be pressed down with the spade. Care must be taken 
to support the clump with poles, so that it is not blown over 
by the wind. To secure the plantation spreading rapidly, not 
more than thirty clumps should be planted in one tan^ ot 
ground, and during the winter they must be frequently man- 

* So-moku Sho-fu, vol. III. f. 26 v. [Trans.] 

* *Foot'means the Japanese shakn taii.g in. and sun a tenth of that 
measure. So throughout this translation [Trans.] 

3 Tan = a quarter of an acre, or more exactly 0.24507. [Trans.] 

Nihon ChikU'Fu, 27 

ured. If the transplantation has been properly carried out, in 
four or five years a dense thicket will thus be formed. 

If it is not possible to plant a large number, they should 
be set in the northwest corner, as the plant has a habit of 
travelling from northwest to southeast and so gradually spread- 
ing in all directions. The Ju-nan Pu-shih (ft ffl H iL) says 
that it is characteristic of the bamboo to move towards the 
southwest, but experience has shown that if there is no impedi- 
ment on the eastern side it usually travels in a south easterly 

The Pi-ch'uan Hwa-ching (^' IS ?S ^) has the following 
observations ; — 

The methods of planting the bamboo may be exhausted 
in four words : scattered, close, shallow and deep. ^ *' Scatter- 
ed " means a clump in a space three or four feet square, so 
that the soil may be unoccupied by anything else and facilitate 
the root-stock's spreading. ''Close" means having a large 
bole, each clump consisting of three or fv)ur stems, so as to 
allow of the roots closely supporting each other. ** Shallow " 
means that it shall not be planted deep in the earlh, and 
*' deep " that even if the hole be shallow, river mud be piled 
up thickly about the root. 

Sato Shinyen remarks that if one man plants one clump, 
in ten years it will result in a luxuriant group. If you 
transplant a large clump such as ten men will be required to 
transport, the same result will be attained in one year. The 
important point in transplanting is to take care that the roots 

i Vol. IV, f. 2. 

28 Nihon Chiku-Fu. 

are not injured in digging up the parent bamboo. The creep- 
ing root-stock must not be broken or damaged, and as much of 
the soil which adheres to the roots must be taken as possible. 
Regard must be had to the aspect of the plant in its original 
home, i.e. whether it faced north or south, so that this may 
not be changed in transplanting it. The rhizome must point 
to the southeast. It is best to transplant before rain, or during 
a gentle shower, and if drought follows on transplantation, the 
root must be watered every evening until rain falls again. The 
method of transporting bamboos for planting at a distance is to 
dig over the plantation in October or November, and carefully 
select a rhizome having a bud at each knot, and with a sharp 
knife cut it off from the root, bedaubing the place where it 
is amputated with woodashes or earth, wrap or roll it in straw 
to protect it from damage, and put it in a cask or box full of 
dry earth. It must be so packed as to avoid contact with sea- 
air or damp, before despatching it to a distance. On its 
arrival a high and dry spot must be selected, and a deep hole 
dug, laying manure at the bottom and over it good soil. 
Then plant your rhizome, covering it up thickly with fine 
earth, and the following year it will put forth its shoots and 
develop into a clump. This has been verified by experiment. 
Care must be taken, because the buds at the nodes of the 
rhizome are delicate, and if exposed to damp are apt to 


If a bamboo plantation is properly managed, it becomes, 
like a timber plantation, an inexhaustible source of income. 

Nihon ChikU'Fu, 29 

In a warm locality care must be taken not lo cut too many 
stems, and to select the older canes. If this rule is strictly 
observed the canes multiply and grow close together. But 
many plantations show signs of neglect in cutting out the old 
stems, and so letting the plants wither, and also of excessive 
thinning, which again weakens the plantation. The plantation 
must be neither too thick nor too sparse. If too many stems 
are cut out and the spaces left are large, the sun's rays 
penetrate, the stems turn yellow, the pipe becomes thin, the 
knots become enlarged, the ground gets dry, and the fertilizing 
principle evaporates, so that the good canes gradually decrease 
in number, and the plantation finally becomes thin and 
impoverished. It is therefore not advisable to leave in stems 
of more than four years of age, but the plantation should always 
be left so dense, as to secure that even in broad daylight it 
shall be pervaded by semi-obscurity. The sun's rays should 
not penetrate, otherwise the soil will not remain constantly 
moist. The fallen leaves and rubbish decay and rot naturally, 
producing a constant supply of manure, and the canes pre- 
serve a deep green colour. In this way the plantation gradual- 
ly produces a good class of canes both stout and tall, and pre- 
sents a handsome appearance. It is possible also to preserve 
a bamboo plantation in a cold locality by a method known as 
yabu-maki. Even in localities sometimes visited by a heavy 
fall of snow, this will keep them from being broken or killed. 
The proceeding is as follows. About October the plantation 
is divided into areas of some sixteen square yards, having 
regard to the relative density of the canes, which are then 
bound together with straw ropes, beginning at a height of four 

30 Nihon Chiku-Fu. 

or five feet above the ground, and continuing to the very top, 
into a conical form. There is then no danger of their being 
bent or broken by gales of wind or heavy falls of snow. Of 
course much depends on the skill with which this is done. 
Ten clumsy hands may set to work binding, and yet the end 
be that as soon as the wind or snow comes the whole thing 
falls over, and more harm than good is brought about, while 
a single man who knows what he is doing can perform the 
work efficiently without help. A ladder may be used in bind- 
ing the lower portion, but as the work proceeds, the foot 
should be rested on the rope already coiled round, and so the 
binding be carried to the top. When this is done neither 
snow nor wind can ever upset it. As soon as the snow melts 
in the following spring, a sickle is applied to the rope at the 
top and the successive bands cut upwards, so that they fall off 
of themselves, and the canes are liberated, presenting the same 
appearance of verdure as before. 


Some bamboos have creeping root-stocks, others have 
not. Such as are provided with long root-stocks, like the 
madake, are commonly called tavane (over-rooters), having 
a constant tendency to creep above ground, and in 
autumn to produce sprouts from the end of the stock. 
These sprouts are known as yoko-dake^ and some cut them 
for the table, but it is considered better for the plantation, 
when these sprouts appear, to dig them up and bury them, 
as they are, deep in the ground. If in an old plantation it is 
observed that the root-stocks frequently creep above ground, 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 31 

the old roots should from time to time be dug up and got rid of; 
then, after manure has been thrown in, the whole surface should 
be spread with five or six inches of rich soil. If this is done 
for three or four years, the plantation will be entirely renovated, 
and will produce good stems. For bamboos a deep soil in 
which there is a mixture of gravel is considered good, and the 
soil must be loose, so that the rhizome or root-stock can 
creep and spread at its ease. The old stumps should therefore 
be dug away and the soil made as loose as possible, plenty of 
fertilizers being put in during the winter, and any dead carcas- 
ses of animals that happen to be at hand may be buried here 
and there about the plantation. It is often stated in books 
that the bamboo flowers at the age of sixty years, seeds, then 
withers and changes its roots. The * ' Forest Flora of Central 
India " says that the bamboo flowers after thirty years, and that 
this is recorded to have happened in 1802, 1832, and 1862. 
People now say that the flowering and fruiting of the bamboo 
is a presage of bad harvests. It is very unreasonable, however, 
to conclude that this is necessarily followed by the death of the 
plant. Thirty-four or thirty-five years ago the bamboos in my 
garden and in neighbouring plantations flowered and seeded. 
The following year the large culms withered, but the smaller 
ones continued to live. On digging over the plantation it was 
found that old slumps and old rhizomes were matted together. 
These were removed and human manure, rotten compost, 
ashes and bran, buried plentifully. Good culms began to shoot 
up, and in six or seven years after the seeding took place the 
plantation was quite green again, with large stems in plenty. 
Therefore, in spite of the statement that flowering and seeding 

32 Nihon Chiku^Fu. 

take place every sixty or thirty years, followed by the death of 
plant, it may only be that owing to the plantation having been 
neglected, it becomes thick and full, so that the nourishment 
is drawn out of the soil, and the old roots becoming matted 
together, degeneration takes place, and on degeneration reach- 
ing its acme and tending to the withering of the plant, flowering 
and seeding follow (bamboo seed will be described later on 
under the heading of Suzu-diike). Consequently in managing 
the bamboo so as to obtain a good plantation, the main thing 
to aim at is that the rhizomes or root-stocks shall be stout and 
strong. In the case of species provided with creeping root- 
stocks, if the latter are strong and healthy, well-sized sprouts 
will be sent up, and the culms will be vigorous and large. It 
is supposed that if cryptomerias and evergreen oaks {Kashi^ 
Quercus acuta) are planted here and there to protect the bam- 
boos, the danger of breakage from snow will be avoided, but 
experts deny this. Not only do the tops of the culms 
suffer injury from the branches of the trees during gales of wind, 
but the sprouts and young culms get broken. The stems 
being prevented by the branches of these * protecting ' trees 
from yielding to a weight of snow are often broken and split 
Besides this, the shade of trees is not favourable to the growth 
of the sprouts. 


The rule in cutting is to take four and leave three out of 
seven. Culms should be left three whole years, and be cut in 
the fourth. The stem by that time has grown tough and 
strong. After the sixth year the cuticle becomes yellowish and 

Kihon Chiku-Fki, 33 

the stem is old, so it is better to cut them in the fourth 

The best time for cutting is from the 8th to the lolh moon. 
The saying is that bamboos cut on dark nights in the eighth 
moon (after the 20th day of the 8th moon of the lunar calendar) 
are exempt from insect-pests and last longer than others. The 
best therefore are considered to be those cut after the first 
frosts, that is from the tenth moon onwards to the first 
moon of the new-year. 

To preserve bamboo canes against insect pests, the septa 
should be pierced, or broken, and the canes soaked in a solution 
of sulphate of iron or in lime-water, or merely sprinkled with 
the solution. If this be done the canes will last long and there 
will be no risk of insect-pests or decay. 

There are seasons also when bamboos should not be cut, 
namely from the 88th day after the beginning of spring, 
(Feb. 2 or 3) i.e. May 6 or 7 until August 6 or 7. 
Bamboos cut during this interval are brittle and weak, much 
worm-eaten and of very little use. The Japanese Encyclopaedia 
says * ' Autumn is the best period for cutting bamboos, and 
* ' winter comes next. Those cut in spring and summer are 
" weak and much infested by insects. The common saying is 
*' wood " in the 6th, bamboo in the "8th," that is the 6th 
* 'month for cutting trees, the 8th for bamboos." If the smaller 
ones are cut first and the large left, the plantation will gradual- 
ly become luxuriant, and yield more and more fine and large 
stems. An axe or hatchet is better for the purpose than a saw, 
the stumps being split up with a hatchet so as to facilitate their 
rotting away. If this is not done the old roots will become 

34 Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

matted together underground, and hinder the spreading of the 
rhizomes, so that there is a risk of their not producing good 
shoots, and of the plantation becoming thin and bare. 


The uses of the canes are manifold. In Japan they are 
employed in place of copper or iron pipes, and, either suspend- 
ed on supports or buried underground, are used for the trans- 
mission of water. These are called kake-hi ox take-doi. Large 
ones are made into rafts for use in sowing swampy rice-fields 
and planting the rushes of which matting is made. On the 
coast of Fuhkien in China the cormorant-fishers catch fish 
from such rafts. A dozen large bamboos are placed side by 
side, and fastened together with wistaria tendrils, and a rudder 
being placed at one end, the raft can be moved in any direction 
at wilL They serve also for rain-gutters at the eaves of build- 
ings, for making fences, shingles for roofing, posts, rafters, 
floors, flag-poles, slicks and supports for all sorts of plants and 
trees, and for trellises, for baskets of all sizes, rungs of pails 
and for military and many other purposes too numerous to 

I i' 


!•.'/'.••■•--. :(i' 

♦ ■^ -•,♦ 


• • 


i nat. size. 

Nihofi Chiku^Fu, 35 


(Phyllostachys mitis, sive edulis), 

Moso is ordinarily written £ S. Another oame for it is 
Wase-dake^, The Chinese call it ttMIt (Chiang-nan chuh), 
and give it various synonyms. * The internodes of the moso 
are short, the stem is of soft texture and the pipe- walls thick. 
The leaves are small, short and thin. Its new stems bear fine 
hairs. While still growing the stem is of a pale green colour, 
but later on turns yellow. It is a native of China, and was 
brought to Kagoshima in Japan from Loochoo, where it was 

* Probably meaning * early bamboo'; its shoots seem to break 
through the earth earlier than those of any other species. [Trans.) 

' WAV(* l»5Ht. !afait» IRBHt. From the Keiyen Chiku-Fu we find 
that this bamboo is named after Mcng Tsung (Japanese Moso) one of the 
24 paragons of filial piety. His mother having Allien sick, craved for soup 
made from the young shoots of the bamboo. It was in the depth of 
winter, when such things are not to be had. Mfeng Tsung betook himself 
to a bamboo plantation, and wq)t so ])lentifully that the ground was 
softened and an abundance of young shoots sprang up. (W. Anderson, 
Catalogue of Japanese and Chinese Paintings in the British museum, p. 


The same work gives a morc detailed description than the text. ** The 
mdsd-c/iiku attains a height of over twenty feet and a girth of 8 to 9 j««, the 
internodes being shorter than those of the ha-c/uku. The upper edge of the 
node is much less prominent than the lower, in fact may almost be said to 
be non-existent. Most bamboos are of uniform diameter up to the middle 
of the stem, but in the tnoso the internodes gradually taper off to the top 
of the culm. The first six or seven internodes above the root are somewhat 
contracted. Each node is powdered underneath with white, as in the case 
of the ha-cHku. The taller culms do not branch before the 17th or i8th 
node is reached, smaller ones begin lower down. Sometimes the first 
branch is solitary, followed by pairs, or again the first node bears a pair, 
then the next a solitary branch, and later on pairs again. The leaves are 
like those of the ha^chiku, but more numerous, borne in threes or twos on 
the branchlets. While the nodes of the stem arc more or less flat, those of 
the branches are very prominent." 

S6 Nthon ChikU'FtK- 

of recent introduction, 148 years, ago (in A. D. 1738). * * *i 
It is now found in all parts of Japan except the north of the 
main island and the Hokkaido (Yesso). It is much admired 
by foreigners for the largeness of its stem and the excellence of 
its sprouts. The introduction of this species was an act 
worthy of all praise. ^ 


The 3fdsi) flourishes by preference in a warm climate and 
a light soil. Specimens grown in Hiuga, Osumi and Satsuma, 
attain a great size, the circumference of the stem sometimes 
exceeding three feet. In the neighbourhood of Tokio, where 
the production of the sprouts is the principal aim sought after, 
and the cultivation of this species is carried to a high pitch of 
excellence, very fine sprouts are obtained. The most suitable 
soil is arable land deep in loam that has been long under 
cultivation, but it dislikes damp or stony soil. 

^ The asterisks mark the place of an inscription said to exist at 
Kagoshima in a garden of the former princes of Satsuma, giving the facts 
of its introduction and gradual diffusion throughout Japan. 

s The sheath of the Phyllostachys mitis has a tough texture and is of 
a light brown colour marked with dark blotches ; it is thickly covered with 
short fine bristles. The pseudophyll is broad at the base, slowly tapering 
to a point. The ligule spreads right and left of the pseudophyll, and is 
fringed throughout with hairs, straight where they lie between the pseudo- 
phyll and the stem, but much curled on the right and left sides where they 
are free to develop. As is the case with others of the genus Phyllostachys, 
the sheaths begin to fall oflf at a very early period of growth of the stem. 

The size of the cane varies greatly in Japan. In the province of 
Satsuma it is said to sometimes attain a diameter of over ia foot. At Tokio 
the largest stem 1 have seen measured i ft. 5 J inches in circumference 
about 4 ft. from the ground [Trans.]. 

Nihoti Chiku-Fu. 57 

When the main object is the production, of sprouts, after 
they have been dug up, the holes should riot be filled up^ but 
a fertilizer previously composed of a mixture of two loads oi 
human njanure, One of horse droppings and one of rottea straw 
should be thrown in together with decayed leaves, and then 
covered up to promote the development of the ro6t-§tock. 
When autumn and winter arrive, the carcasses of animals and 
the drainings of rotten compost will be found to produce an 
excellent effect 


For this purpose holes two feet deep should be dug, and 
horse droppings, rotten compost, fallen leaves and vegetable 
mould thrown in, and sprinkled with old human manure, then 
covered with fine earth, on which the clumps should be set, 
and then the roots buried in fine earth. The head of the stem 
should be cut off in a slanting diiection 8 or 9 feet above the 
ground, and supported on both sides by poles of wood or 
bamboo, the earth round the roots being brought together with 
a hoe, and pressed down lightly. The right time is from the 
middle of June to about the end of October, and the very best 
is during the rainy season. 


When the object is to obtain sprouts the system will 
naturally differ in some points from that pursued with respect 
to the Ma-dake (Phyllost^chys Quihoi). 

Firstly, the soil is to be kept loose, and therefore neither 
man nor beast mast be admitted into the plantation. 

38 Nihon Chiku-Fu. 

Secondly, cut grass, straw, rough matting and such things 
should be spread on the surface to protect the soil from drying, 
and it is considered very desirable to have piles of rotten com- 
post here and there on the ground. 

Thirdly, precautions must be taken against cold. If the 
plantation is exposed in winter to the violence of the north 
wind, it should be fenced round with straw or grass. To 
ensure the root-stock being strong and large, so that it may 
produce abundance of sprouts, when the young shoot has 
grown enough for ihe sheaths to have fallen off rather more 
than halfway up the culm, while they still adhere to its top, it 
should be shaken about with a pole, till the branches break off 
at a suitable length. All cultivators whose aim is to procure 
sprouts employ this method. The number of parent clumps 
to be preserved per tan* should be from sixty to seventy, two 
or three culms in a clump ; that is to say, 1 50 bamboos is the 
right number to keep. 


The Albsb in the warm localities of the south and west 
of Japan does not require manuring and digging round in order 
to obtain large and fine sprouts and canes, but in the north- 
eastern portion of the country it stands in special need of 
fertilizers, as it is only by the attention paid by man to the 
application of manure that big stems and sprouts can be 

In the first place the plantation must be dug over so as to 
loosen the soil, manure be liberally applied, and the creeping 
* Quarter acre. 

Nikon ChikU'Fu. 39 

root-stock be buried. When the sprouts have been dug up 
between March and May, the holes left should be filled with 
stable-manure, wood-ashes, bran, rice-husks, oil-cake, dead 
leaves and rotten compost. The creeping root-slock will 
spread from six to twelve feet between August and October, 
and great care must be taken not to injure it in digging up the 
sprouts. Where it makes its appearance above ground, it must 
be buried a couple of feet below the surface, and covered up 
with earth after being thoroughly dressed with manure, human 
or stable, and rotten compost. The root-stock should be 
allowed to extend freely and be covered up with fine earth, 
gently pressed down with the spade. If plenty of fertilizers 
are used, the soil thoroughly dug over and the root-stock 
covered up deeply, fine sprouts will be uninterruptedly 
produced the following year. Another method is the follow- 
ing ; When the small buds make their appearance on the 
root-stock (about the 8th moon) the soil should be dug over to 
a depth of two feet and manure thrown in. Posts should then 
be driven in close together, so as to block the advance of the 
creeping root-stock, and force it to twist round. Then it should 
be covered with earth and manured with human or horse 
droppings. Next year's sprouts will be sent up in abundance 
from the bends of the root-stock. This method will be found 
useful where the plantation is limited in size. 


Cutting is managed in the same manner as in the case of 
the Madake, but the proper time is between the later autumn 
and the early winter. The stems cut at any other time are 

40 Nihon Chikti'Fii, 

liable to the ravages of insects and become useless. Larger 
moso are converted into pails and brasiers, flower-vases, tea- 
trays, tobacco- trays. Even one-handed pails {sarubd-oke) and 
vrashing-basins made of this species have been seen. 


If the sprouts are dug up before they make their ap- 
pearance above-ground, they are tender and especially well- 
flavoured. Of all the bamboos the mono is regarded as by far the 
best for the table on account of its size and general excellence. 
During the spring and summer it is highly esteemed as a 
vegetable delicacy. Since some years attempts have been 
made to acclimatize it in France, but doubtless owing to 
unsuitability of climate and soil, it has not yet been reported to 
have succeeded. At the same time, though sprouts will begot 
from the mosii five years after transplantation, ten must elapse 
before the plantation becomes fairly well-established. After 
ten years a /t//; * will yield 2200 catties of sprouts annually. 
Both the French and Germans in particular highly esteem our 
tttoso sprouts for the delicacy of their flavour. One German 
has declared that it is surpassed by no other vegetable. In 
consequence of the high estimation in which it is held by both 
ourselves and foreigners, great progress has been attained in 
the art of preser\-ing the sprout, and it has come to be an 
article of commerce both tinned and potted. 

HACHIKU. (rhyllostachys Ilononis) 
Olher synonyms for this species are o-dakCy ktira-dake^ </?fvi- 
iiike, Chinese names for it are K it, *1t , fS. The leaves of 
* Quarter acre. 

j ziat. sise 

Nihon ChikU'Fu, 41 

the ha-chiku^ are shorter and narrower than those of the ma- 
dake (Phyllosiachys Quilioi), the branches being more subdivid- 
ed. The height of the culm is fj om 30 to 40 feet, and its girth 
seven or eight sun, 2 Infrequently it attains a height of fifty and 
a girth of two feet. The surface is of a pale green, powdered 
with white. Compared with the ma-dake, its nodes are flatter 
and the internodes more contracted. The sheath is of a pale 
brown, with a few blotches. •** It is now grown all over the 
country. In respect of suitabihty of soil,> transplantation, 
manure, protection and cultivation the same remarks will serve 
as for tlie ma-dake. The uses to which the culms are put are the 
same as in the case of that bamboo. For the manufiictuie of 
bamboo ware and various utensils it is more valued. The kind 
used in the manufacture of Suruga ware is exclusively ha-chiku, 

* The Keiyen Chiku-Fu quotes a dictionary to the effect that hachiku 
is a contraction of haku-chikn^ white bamboo. [Trans.] 

2 i.e. 8J to 9J inches. But I have measured one in the garden of the 
Akasaka Palace that was 11 J inches in circumference, its height, estimated 
by the eye, l)eing about 30 feet. [Trans.] 

3 The pseudophyll is wavy, like the blade of a malay kris, with a 
number of hairs about its juncture with the sheath [Trans.] 

■• The Japanese Encyclopaedia says that ha-chikti = Jiaku-chiku^ white 
bamboo, and that the sheath of the sprout is white, its fciste slightly sweet 
the colour of the stem also white. The internodes shorter than those of the 
ma-dake. The girth of large specimens is from 4 to 5 j«w, its height 20 to 
30 feet. The Yamato Honzo says that ^ fl* means * not bitter bamlxx).' 

The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu gives the following account of this bamboo. 

Height from twenty to thirty feet, girth sevai to eight sun. For the 
first foot or two from the ground the nodes are close together, being se- 
parated by only two to three urn. Above that they are wider apart, say 
from six to nine sun. The upper nodes are somewhat prominent, the lower 
ones even flatter than the scar left by the sheath in falling oft, and when the 
latter are closely examined each node will be found to be accompanied by a 
row of small knobs along the upper edge, alxjut the size of a grain of millet. 
These are nothing else but undeveloped rootlets, which have been prevented 

42 Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

and those specimens are preferred which are slenderer near the 
root and increase in size from the height of the eye upwards, 
the internodes being i foot 5 or 6 sun in length. The bamboos 
grown on the south side of Asabata-numa in Abe department in 
Suruga are alone employed. A smaller and more slender variety, 
known as gara-dake, is used for walking-canes and umbrella 
handles. The sprouts are produced earlier than those of the 
tna-dake, namely in April or May. The sheath has fine lines 
forming purple markings, and bears fine hairs, but no blotches 
of colour. The sprout is slightly sweet, and devoid of any bit- 
ter flavour. 

from growing by the fact of their being too far from the ground. Culms 
above ten feet in height do not begin to branch until the fifteenth or even 
the eighteenth knot is passed. Those under that limit b**gin to branch as 
low down as the seventh or eighth knot. Sometimes the first knot has 
two branches, the second bearing only one, while from the third upwards 
the branches will be in pairs, or conversely the first knot l>ears one branch 
and all the rest two. But on the whole, pairs of branches from the begin- 
ning are the rule and single branches the exception. Where they are in pairs, 
tlie first left hand branch is thicker than the other, the next knot having the 
right the thicker branch, and so on alternately up to the tip. These pairs of 
branches divide, and these branchlets again in their turn, the ends of the twigs 
bearing the leaves, which are two to three sun in length and three-tenths of a 
sun in width. At the tip there are two opposite leaves, with three below them, 
or five in all. Where only three or perhaps two are found, and those of small- 
er size than here stated, this must be put down to the others having fallen off 
in the lapse of time, and is not characteristic of the species. The stem nodes 
of the ha-chiku are flatter than those of the ma-dake, but on the branches 
they are more prominent than in the case of that species. Where the branches 
grow there is on either side a long and narrow groove in the stem from 
the node upwards, but where there are no branches there is no g^roove and 
the stem is perfectly round. The whole surface is covered with a white 
dust, but especially near the lower nodes the stem is of a pure white, as if a 
strip of white paper one-tenth of a sun in width had been pasted on to it. 
The ha-chiku sends up its sprouts in the fourth month (about May), the 
sheaths of which are marked with purple lines, and bear fine hairs, but there 

Nihoft ChikU'Fu. 43 

MEDAKE. (Arundinaria Japonica). 

Other synonyms are onago-dake,^ nayo-dakey nayii'take, 
Mikatva-dakey hikkan-chiku,^ aki-iake and kauHi-hke^; also niga- 
take. According to the Yamato Honzo the sprouts are bitter, 
and far inferior to those of the kurc-iake. * But it must not be 
confounded with the ma-dake. * A slender variety is known as 
shino-dakey shinu-dake or hoso-iake, A longer and stouter 
variety goes by the name of iaka-sliino or o-shino, • Its girth is 
three to four sun, and height six or eight yards. It grows 
straight, and the internodes are in some instances as much as 
two feet and more in length. The young stems are dusted 
with white. It has a persistent sheath. The leaves are thick 
and smooth. This species grows spontaneously in the hills and 
on open moors, and does well also on river-banks. It has a 
creeping root-stock, which spreads freely. When planted on 
the west and north of a peasant's cottage it grows thick and 
bushy, and forms an excellent shelter against the wind. This 
bamboo is an indispensable article in the household, being 

are no blotches of colour as with the nui-dakc. At the end of the sheath 
there is a small pseudophyll, by the side of which grow fine curly hairs, 
like those of the maize plant, very short, very like the reel hairs on the 
hind leg of a crab. 

* Also oMM'takt^ pretty generally [Ti ans.] 

2 i.e. pencil-stem-bamboo. [Trans.] 

3 According to the Yamato Honzo because of its sheath being very 

* Kiire-iaki would seem to mean a variety of the Jia-chiku, at least so 
says the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu. [Trans.] 

« Also written ^ 4t» bitter bamboo. Of course no one who had both 
si)ccics before him would run any risk of confounding them. [Trans ] 
« The Chinese name of this kind is jjg ^t* 





arundinaria japonica 


44 Nihon Chtku-Fu, 

used for raising well-buckets, and for fences. For catching 
iairagi and minikui (shell fish, Pinna japonica and Mya 
arenaria) the tallest specimens are selected,, cut in late autumn 
and stored during the winter in a smoky place. In early 
spring they are bent over a fire and an iron hook affixed to- the 
end. With the instrument thus formed the bottom of the sea 
is dredged, and thus the tairagi, minikui and othef kinds of 
shell-fish are caught. Cut into lengths of six or seven feet it 
is plaited together to form a fish -stew, wliich floating in the sea 
serves to keep iai, suzukiy cray-fish and so forth alive. 

The viedakc is found abundantly in the provinces of Bo- 
shiu, Kadzusa, Shimosa, Suruga, Idzu, Shimotsuke and Musa- 
shi. Next to these it is common in Sagami and Hitachi. A 
spotted variety is found in the district of Yalsushiro, province ol 
Higo. It bears the cold better than the ma-dake oxha-chiku^ is 
very easy to cultivate, grows in soil half earth and half stone, and 
flourishes in situations exposed to the violence of the waves of the 
seashore. Plants growing on hillsides or river embankments 
expose their root-slocks, and they hang in the water without suf- 
fering any loss of strength or luxuriance. These qualities render 
it of great use in the construction o^kase (groins) as a protection 
against floods. By this word is meant obstructing the flow of 
a side current by planting bamboos on the banks of a large 
river, or at the water-line of a dike where it is feared that the 
water may break through. Then when they begin to grow 
thick and close, the inner face is stopped up with straw, 
vegetation, or the bark of trees, or again it is filled up with 
earth and stones. Such kase are absolutely necessary as a 
protection against floods and inundations. 


Nikon ChikU'Fu, 45 

The sprout of the me-dake is very bitter, and it is too hard 
to eat. The smaller canes are one to two sun in girth, and from 
six to seven feet high. They are used by the common people 
plaited together as ceilings, also for the frame-work of mud- 
walls of houses, for the frames of round fans {iichi-wa)^ for all 
sorts of baskets, the ribs of umbrellas and many other 

RASETSU'CHIKU, (Spiral-noded Bamboo). 

This is a sport from the me-dake, and is found on a pro- 
perty called Ichinotsubo, belonging to one Ichinotsubo 
Gonyemon, at the village of Nagasato, district of Kuri, province 
of Satsuma. For a distance of three feet six or seven sun it is 
twisted into a spiral, and then puts forth a straight stem. 
From the terminal node spring several branches, and it is 
altogether a curiosity. Every year four, five or six stems take 
this spiral shape, of which two or three wither. Being merely 
a sport, this bamboo serves no useful purpose, but it is interest- 
ing from the point of view of botanical science and natural 


This is the same species as the me-dake, and is found on 
Kamigatake about three ri from the village of Fukuoka, 
district of Takashima, province of Omi. It is a natural 
growth and has never been cut, for which reason it is called 
Antediluvian Bamboo. ^ At the same time no one has ever seen 
a withered cane of it. Being hard and tough, it has now 
come to be used for the handles of writing-brushes, and seems 

1 Lit. Age-of-the-gods Bamboo. 

46 Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

destined to become an article of commerce. Its appearance is 
somewhat unusual, and its tough and hard quality is likely to 
render it useful for various purposes. 

YADAKE (Phyllostachys Bambusoides. ) * 
Also called Ya no take. Its nodes are flattish, the inter- 
nodes over two feet in length. Formerly this bamboo was 
obtained in quantities from Ya-no-shima in Bitchifl, but at 
present it has spread to all parts of the country. This bamboo 
is employed for arrow making, by paring, heating and 
straightening it. The best are grown in the province of 
Hitachi, and those from Kadzusa and Shimosa take the next 
rank. No o\h(tx ya-dake are suitable for arrow-making. It is 
also used for planting hedges, it is cut and made into low 
fences in gardens, and is also used in making baskets of various 
sorts, and tea sieves, besides being turned to account in 
many other ways. 2 

» Chinese names for it are «1t. fl[1t. «. ff f^lt, flfft, »«. 

* According to the Kei-yen Chikn-Fii " the stoater stems of this bam- 
boo are * thicker than a middle finger,* the smaller thinner tlian a little 
finger, and attain a height of fiom 8 to over 10 feet. The nodes are even 
flatter than those of the medake^ the internodes varying from 8 or 9 sun to 
a foot. The branches are always solitary, never in pairs, though some- 
times they will be found in twos and threes near the tip of the calm, but 
in this the plant is very diflferent from the inedake with its branches in 
threes and fives from the beginning. The leaves are as mach as a foot in 
length, and a sun or more in width, and arc borne in foors, fives, sevens or 
eights, those at the tip of the twig being opposite, but the rest alternate. 
As in the case of the inedake^ the sheaths of the new culms are persistent 
during the first year, but fall off afterwards." 

This notion of opposite leaves is not strictly accurate. In all cases the 
leaves are alternate, though at the tip of the branch the distance is so mach 
reduced that the leaves seem to spring almost from the same spot. The 
sheaths of the yaddke are of a bright green coloured with a pale purple 
edging, and are covered with innumerable fine white bristles, except where 


i nat. size 

Nihon Chiku-Fu, 47 

HAKONE-DAKE (Bambusa Laydekeri F, M.) 
This also is a species of medake,^ and grows wild in 
abundance in the Hakone mountains in the district ot 
Ashigara, province of Sagami. It sends up its sprouts in July, 
and by August or September they have attained a height of 
some nine feet. From this fact the medake ^ gets the name of 
Aki'take (autumn bamboo). The whole culm is at first com- 
pletely enveloped in its sheaths, only two or three branchlets 
and leaves being visible at the top of the stem. In April of 
the following year, when the warm weather comes on, it loses 
the sheaths, and puts forth branches and leaves. The larger 
specimens have a girth of three inches, and a height of not 
more than ten feet. ^ The inlernodes do not much exceed a 
foot in length. Late autumn is considered the best season for 
cutting. By the people of that region it is used for fuel, and on 
account of its not burning fiercely it is converted into torches 

overlapped by the upper part of the inferior sheath. The pseudophyll is 
long and slender, seldom however exceeding i -Jin. in length. Along the 
middle of the stem the sheath generally reaches up and covers the superior 
node. Where the bud, which afterwards develops into the branch, appears 
above the node, there b a faintly marked groove along the stem for two or 
three inches. The dimensions of a stem cut from a cultivated plant were, 
height 12 ft. lo in,; girth 2 J in. The largest leaf measured ii in. by ij. 
This species of bamboo is frequently to be seen in private gardens in 
Tokio. Near Atami it seems to be called ^^V«^ [Trans.] 

^ This amounts to no more than calling it a species of Arundinaria. 
It is possible that it may turn out to be this, and not Bambusa [Trans.] 

2 Of which the author calls this a species. But the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu 
makes it a varietv of shino-dake, sec note at end of this section [Trans.] 

3 The translator has seen one which measured 19 ft. 7 in., and this is 
by no means unusual. He has measured an intemode which was i ft. 
4} in. long. 

48 Nihon Chiku-Fu. 

and firewood. A very large quantity is cut every year for 
pipestems, and a gopd deal is sold for the handles of writing- 
brushes and chopsticks. It is also plaited into low fences, 
under the name of Numadzu fences {Numadzu-gaki), which 
have an elegant appearance. Plaited together the poorer 
people use it for clap-boards, and it is utilized in making 
baskets, sieves and many other useful articles. Quantities of 
this bamboo are sent out from Mariko in the province of 
Suruga. What is locally known as higu-dake is the same 
variety as the Hakone-dake. 

According to the Kei-yen CJiikti-Fu this is a variety of shino-dakc, as 
will appear from the following extract. 

** Shinu or shino^ also known as hoso-take (slender bamboo). Very 
common everywhere. The stem is of a dark green colour, 8 or 9 ft. high, 
the branches in threes or fives. The leaves are 7 to 8 sun in length, 4/10 
to 5/10 of a sun in width, and are arranged in sixes. The sprouts come up 
in the 4th or 5th moon (May-June). The nodes are powdered with white 
both above and l^elow. There is a variety grown on the island of Oshima 
(Vries I.) and called after it. This is more slender and has longer inter- 
nodes than the ordinary sort. 

** There is another variety called Hakone-dake, more slender than 
i^tya^-dake (q. v.), the branches and leaves resembling those of the shino^ 
bat rather smaller. As the leaves are persistent, it is useful for making 

Shino'dakey not Hakone-dake, is the local name nt Atami. The 
longest intemodes in ordinary specimens seem to be somewhat less than a 
foot in length, but as the note on p. 47 shows, specimens are found having 
intemodes nearly 17 inches long. At Hakone village it Is known as ottna" 
dake or madake (* real-bamboo '). The top of the culm in a mature plant 
is exceedingly bushy. One of the upper joints of a stem that I examined 
proved to bear seven branches, most of which were subdivided, so that the 
whole number of twigs, developed and undeveloped, was 49 or 50, of 
which 37 bore leaves, mostly in fives, a few only in threes. The di- 
mensions of the leaves were 3 J in. by J in. In a valley on the coast just 
beyond Atami grows abundantly a bamboo known as me-jiro^ which 
resembles so closely the so-called Hakone-dake that it is probably identical 

\ nat . sise 

^ ^-..^'.^ 

Nihon Chiku^Fii, 49 

KA^'ZAN CHIKU^ («UJlt). 
( Arundinaria Hindsii, Bambusa erecta. ) 

This too is a kind of medake, ^ in form resembling the 
yadake. It grows very straight and erect, has flat nodes, and 
when planted near dwellings reaches a height of from 7 to 8 
feet, with the diameter of a little finger. Larger specimens 
attain to over 20 feet, with a girth of over 3 sun. ^ The inter- 
nodes are 7 or 8 sun in length. ^ The leaves also resemble in 
shape those of the yadake;^ on young stems they are borne in 

In species. It has a smooth green sheath, which when dry presents a 
grooved surface, and has a narrow lanceolate pseudophyll a1x>ut one- 
fourth of the length of the sheath. 

Stunted examples of hahone-dake may be found growing by the side 
of a path through the thicket, not more than eighteen inches in height and 
I / 16 of an inch in diameter. Owing to the smallness of their size, these 
might easily l)e mistaken for an entirely diflferent species. The Hakone folk 

say that this species never flowers ; if it does, it is evidently only at long 

Under cultivation I have seen a culm of shino-dake^ apparently 
identical with Hakone-dakc\ that measured 11 ft. 10 in. in height, the 
greatest girth being only ij in. 

The Nihon Chiku-Fu, as has been seen, describes me-dake and Hakone- 
dake as two species, and regards shino-dake as a variety of the former. 
On the other hand, the Keiyen Chiku-Fu describes medake-^n^ shino-dake 
separately, making out Hakone-dake to be a variety of the latter. Both 
works agree in referring taka-shino to the medake. I am disposed to think 
that all three are merely forms of the same plant. [Trans.] 

^ The Chinese name is iSS^. 

2 i.e. a species of Arundinaria. 

a 3 j«w=3.57 inches. But the translator has measured one that was 
18} feet high, with a maximum girth of 4.14 inches. Another 17 feet 10 
in. was 4 inches in girth. These are ordinary sizes for a mature culm. 

* The largest internode in the latter case was 11 J inches. 

s The terminal leaf of a young stem measured 9} inches by | in. but 
the ordinary leaves of a full-g^own stem were only 6 in. by J inch. 
The spines on the edges were less marked than on a first year's leaf, and 
the reticulation also less clear. 

50 Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

fours or fives. The branchlets are three the first year, increas- 
ing to five in the second year, and nine or ten in the third. 
At the summit of the stem the leaves and branchlets grow 
closely together. Compared with the ordinary me-dake the 
branchlets are longer and more luxuriant, thus rendering it 
suitable for brooms. In soil that suits it the stem grows stout 
and will reach a height of over seventy or eighty feet, ^ from 
which it has got the name of "cloud-sweeping-broom bam- 
boo." It does well in a slightly clayey soil. ^ It is a hand- 
some plant and capable of a multiplicity of uses, but at 
present it is almost exclusively grown for ornamental purposes. 

The author of the Keiyen Chiku-Fu (written in 1828) states that he 
had seen this species in only one spot, but it is now common enough, and 
may be seen in many gardens at Tokio. The dark green stem, usually 
clad with the dry sheaths, its erect carriage and somewhat bushy head 
render it a conspicuous object. The same work says it is named after 
Kanzan, one of a pair of jovial-looking persons, the other being Jittoku, of 
whom pictorial representations are common in Japan. Jittoku holds a 
scroll in his hand, the other has a broom. This species from its adapt 
ability for broom-making has obtained the name of '* Kanzan 's bamboo." 
But according to Mr. Anderson it is Jittoku who holds the broom. [Trans.] 


Another name of this is (ffll M It) gio-yo chiku. Its stem and 
branches resemble in form those of the ya-dake, but the leaves 
turn upwards instead of hanging down. The form of the leaf 
too is similar to that of \!ci<tya-dakey but very slender, its length 
being little more than a s«/i, ^ and the width only -^ or -^ of 
a sun. The leaves are arranged in fives as in the case of the 

^ This statement requires confirmation. It seems scarcely credible. 
« The original has |jth prob. a misprint for itt. 
« This should no doubt be * foot * according to the description in the 
KH-yen Ckiktt-Fuy of which this section is a mere condensation. [Trans.) 

Nihon Chikti-Fu, 51 

ya-dahe. The sheath of the young stem is persistent at first, 
but falls off entirely after a year or two. Of all the medake^ 
this is the most elegant. The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu remarks that 
owing to the long and slender form of its leaves, they resemble 
thread from a distance ; and as the most delicate are not more 
than two sun in length and i-tenth ofa/?w«wide, they still 
look like thread when one approaches close. Hence the name 
Isu-shl-chiku (constantly thread like bamboo). This variety 
was by the ancients preferred for making arrows not only on 
account of the straightness of the stem, but probably also be- 
cause, the leaves standing upright, it differed from the other 
kinds, its general form being thus more in harmony with the 
straightness of an arrow's path. 


Another name for this is i-zasa (IS ffi), its Chinese name 
being ^ M tj" sen ri chikit or ' thousand-league bamboo, ' The 
old books tell us that sasa as a name for bamboo-grass is sai- 
sai (slender-slender, ^ >* ). In some places it is known as 
kome-zasa and i-zasa (31 ffi). Its stem and leaves resemble 
those of the me-dake, but are shorter, and its height does not 
exceed 7 or 8 sun. It is found pretty universally in the woods 
and on moorland. The creeping root-stock spreads in all 
directions, and interferes with the plants in a garden. If in 
order to obviate this, it be burnt or cut down, the more that 
is done the more it puts forth new shoots, so that it is difficult 
to get rid of; nevertheless its usefulness is very great. It is used 
for thatching houses, and as the creeping rhizome holds earth 

^ i. e. Arundinariae. 

52 Nihon ChikU'Fu. 

together in solid lumps, it is employed to prevent banks from 
slipping away ; on river embankments it is found of very great 
service. In the construction of batteries and of embankments 
to resist inundations it is indispensable to plant long grass 
{haya^ Imperata arundinacea) and susuki, Miscanthus sinensis, 
and nezasa to prevent the earth and sand from giving way. 
The best way to prevent its spreading, when that is desired, is 
to gather a quantity of common seaweed ^ and bury it all 
round the field. According to what the author was told by 
a peasant of Kusu-ga-ura in the province of Sagami, if this 
plan be adopted neither sasa nor nezasa will be able to 

The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu (vol, V, 37 v.) has a section entitled sasa. 
When growing on moorland it is called no-zasa^ in woods It takes the name 
ot ne'Zasa^ and at Hakone it goes by that of Hakone-zasa. It attains a 
height of one or two feet, and its leaves resemble those of the me-daie 
though of smaller dimensions. 

The ordinary size of the leaf varies from 2 to 3 inches in length and 
from J to J of an inch in width, being thus of unusual tenuity. The 
colour is a darker green than in most species. The stem is no thicker 
than a piece of string, entirely cylindrical, and much branched. 

GOMADAKE. (Phyllostachys nigra) 
The Chinese names for this sort are * purple bamboo ' 
(jRIt), 'purple prince' (ft©), 'purple moss' (X^), and 
Kwanyin bamboo (R la It). The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu remarks 
that it is usually called goma-dake because it is covered with 
very small purple and black spots resembling goma (sesame 
seeds). ^ In some places it is called kuro-chiku (black bam- 

> Zostera marina. 

2 vol. III. f. 5 V. But the same work (f. i. v) says that it gets these 
purple and black spots in consequence of a change of colour at a later 
period of growth of the stem. 


Nihon ChikU'Fu. 53 

boo). ^ Its form is similar to that of the ma-dake. According to 
the Hon-z6 KSmoku Kei-mo, it belongs to the same species as 
that bamboo. ^ In the first year of growth the stem is of a 
green colour, and turns black the following year. This bam- 
boo is of hard and firm texture, with prominent nodes. At 
first the cuticle is of a deep green gradually changing to light 
purple, but when the stem ripens in the next season, the purple 
colour changes to black. Wherever it grows it spreads with the 
greatest rapidity. The culm is erect, and attains a height of 
over ten feet with a circumference of 3 or 4 sw//, the largest 
' specimens reaching over 20 feet with a girth of 7 to 8 s//«. 
The sheath is spotted. The sprouts make their appearance 
about the summer solstice. The leaves and branches do not 
grow thickly. It is found at the foot of mountains and on 
uncultivated moorlands. In a warm climate its growth is rapid. 
In the province of Yamashiro it attains a great size, and there is 
a place which takes the name of Shichiku from it. This bamboo 
can be easily transplanted, and the uses of the stem are various; 
the consumption for walking sticks and umbrella handles is very 
large. It is used also for * eaves-curtains ' {noreti), fences, 
for flooring the verandahs of small rooms and tea-rooms, ' 
for the crossrods'* of ceilings, the clap-boards ^» of bath rooms, 
and it looks particularly well when used to cover up the joints of 
wainscoting.^ It does not strike deep into the ground, and its 
transplantation and cultivation present no difficulties whatever. 

1 The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu (vol. Ill f. 11. v) maintains that Kuro-chiht 
is a different species. 

2 vol. 33. f. 17. V. 

« Kozashiki and cha-zasJiiki; * saioo-btichi ; ^ shitami; « tatc-bame tto 

54 Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

I once planted three culms o^ goma-dake in my garden, which 
in three years time had increased to eight, which I divided be- 
tween two friends. One planted his in a large jar and filled it 
with water. The plant continued to flourish. The other 
put his into a flat flower-dish, when the culms developed yellow 
and green stripes. This is now greatly valued. The goma- 
dake in rich soil attains a girth of 5 or 6 sun and a height of 18 
or 19 feet, but the smaller ones grown in poor ground are 
more useful. At the village of Shimo Uchimaon the southern 
bank of the Toda-gawa in Musashi (district of Ashidate), the 
soil is stony and infertile, so that cereals and vegetables cannot 
be raised, but from 7 tan (i J acres) planted with this bamboo 
the proprietor is said to sell an annual average of 500 dollars 
worth of stems for walking-sticks and umbrella-handles. This 
ground is poor soil, and the govia-dakc it produces are short 
and slender, and more suitable therefore for town use. The 
plantation require no particular care or attention, and is 
simply thinned out every year. The Hwa-ching (ifS 91) says 
**The goma-dake comes from Priest's Island, in the Chusan ar- 
chipelago. ^ Its culm is slender and of a deep purple colour. 
It is cut for shu'^ pipes, •'^" In Japan it is often used for making 
flutes. There is a great sale of them for children's toys. 

KAN-CHIKU (Bambusa marmorea F.-M.) 

The Honzo Ikka-gen (?|c tjc — ^ "3") says there is a plant 
called sei-chiku (H It), of which the Japanese name is kan-chikti 

2 A musical instrument of Chinese origin. 

3 Pi-ch*uan Hwa-ching vol. IV. f. 3 v. 


Nihon Chiku-Fu, 55 

(5S 4t cold bamboo), also called mdso chiku,'^ It puts forth its 
sprouts in the winter. The JCei-yen Chiku-Fu^ says : ''There 
are many kinds of bamboos, but this has shorter branches, 
closer nodes and denser foliage than any other. Owing to the 
slenderness of the main stem the branches and leaves at the top 
of the culm hang down, as is the case with Narihira-dake 
(Arundinaria Simoni)." According to the Yamato Honzo, 
the kan-chiku puts forth its sprouts in the winter. But those 
which are now grown at Yedo (Tokio) get their sprouts in the 
autumn, which by winter time exceed the parent plant in 
height. This is perhaps owing to a difference of climate. 
The sprouts are smaller than those of the suzu-iake^, but they 
are sweet and particularly agreeable to the palate. 

The leaves of the kan-chiku resemble those olma^akc in 
shape, but are smaller and thinner. The stem is slender, and 
the nodes prominent, the internodes short, the pipe thick, and 
the tallest do not exceed 8 or 9 feet in height. When the 
sheaths fall off, the stem is of a pale purple, and above each 
knot is a slight swelling all round, as if showing where hair- 
like roots are about to develop. It has a dense habit of 
growth, but the root does not spread far. It is often planted 
round houses to form a fence. This bamboo flourishes in damp 
soil, and also in high and dry places. According to the 
Yamato Honzo the sprouts are black in colour and slender, 
and it gets its name of kan-chiku (cold, or frost, bamboo) 
because its sprouts come up during the winter months. The 

* This is the name of the Phylloslachys mitis, s. eduh's. 

2 Vol. III., f. 7. 

» Bambusa senanensis. 

56 Nihon Chiku-Fu. 

branches and leaves do not make their appearance till the 
summer. The sheath, which is very persistent, is marked 
with small spots. The culm is slender, with numerous nodes, 
and being soft and tough is excellent for basket making. Of 
the larger specimens whips are made, also pencil-handles. 
The Chinese name is shichikn (Sfit, purple bamboo), but it 
must not be confused with the real shi-chiku (the goma-dake or 
Phyllostachys nigra). 

The root-stocks of the Bambusa marmorea are greatly 
valued for whips, but formerly only the Shogun could use them 
for this purpose. Those of which the nodes are close together 
were preferred. According to tradition the proper measure- 
ment was from the nipple of the right breast to the end of ihe 
middle fmger of the outstretched left hand, of which the handle 
took up six sun, and the remainder must have thirty-three 
nodes. Such were cdWtd yurushi much i (the right to use them 
being reserved to riders who had special permission from their 
ridingm asters) and they were highly valued by teachers of 
equitation, but the whips with thirty three knots were very rare. 
There is a bamboo of the same sort as the kan-chiku, 
locally known as jnogusa-dake, which grows at the village of 
Kami Shimada, in the district of Naka, province of Hiuga. 
Its sprouts make their appearance in September or October, 
and its growth surpasses in rapidity that of any other bamboo. 
The sprouts have a sweetish taste. The culms are used for 
making shuttles and for spools for winding thread, also for the 
ramma of partitions inside houses, and for gratings to the 
windows of reading rooms (# 9F, sho-sai). 

In the spring of 1898 this bamlx)o was found flowering: freely at 


\ jsat. size. 

Nihon Chiku-Fu, 57 

Komagome and Iriya in the suburbs of Tokio. The cultivators assured 
me that it does this constantly. 

As to its classification among tlie Bambusae, it is to be observed that it 
has only three stamens. Hence it seems to belong to tlic Triglossae, and 
probably belongs to the subsection Phyllostachys. The side opposite to 
the branches is round, while that from which they spring is strongly marked 
all along each intemode by three grooves, corresponding to the three 
branches. The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu remarks that the middle branch of 
each group of three is longer than the two outer ones, the middle branch 
attaining a length of over a foot, whilst the internodcs of the culm vary 
from 2 to 2j sun. In some specimens these dimensions, Ijoth of internode 
and branch, are exceeded. The diameter of the culm is given in that work 
as from 3 to 4 tenths of a sun, and the total height as attaining sometimes 
over ten feet. But this is under very favourable circumstances, at least in 
Tokio, as for instance in the garden of the Akasaka Palace, where I have 
measured specimens that were 2 inches in girth, and over 15 feet in height. 
The longest intemode was nearly 6 inches. A cross-section showed a 
pipe 5/16 of an inch in diameter, the walls being ^ of an inch thick. The 
lower internodes are sometimes nearly solid. [Trans.] 

HOTEI CHIKU (Phyllostachys aurca M.) 

Tlie Chinese name is A M It (human face bamboo), 
commonly called ^ ^ It {Hoiei chiku). It has many synonyms, 
such as Riukiu-dake (Yamato flonzo), ginger bamboo (S It), 
devil's face bamboo (A M tt), Buddha's face bamboo (fIS M It), 
Buddha's eye bamboo (JW DRtt), Tiger mountain bamboo (i* 
UJ It), Chiung* bamboo (^Slt), Crane's knee bamboo (tt BR It), 
Sapindus bamboo (?fc ^ It), drumstick bamboo (JftfiHt), 
bamboo of many knots (^ jK tt), Buddha's belly bamboo (S 
IH: tt), all of these names being alkisive to the swollen form 
of the internodes. The hoici-chiku is large near the root, and 
grows gradually more slender towards the tip, attaining a 
height of 6 or 7 feet. The internodes near the root, varying 

• Name of a particular species. 

58 Nthon Chiku-Fu. 

in number from 2 or 3 to 12 or 13, are much contracted, and 
the nodes are crooked or slanting, sometimes level, the sur&ce 
being prominent, so that it takes the shape of the masque of a 
man, a demon or a saint, or that of a crane's knee. Some of 
the sheaths resemble the scale of a fish, others the shell of a 
crab. Japanese cut the stem for walking-sticks ; these are 
jight to carry, and elegant. It is also used for fishing-rods, or, 
the septa being removed, for pipe-stems, or when polished, as 
legs for a table, for picture-frames, slender canes serving as 
umbrella-handles, handles of brooms, or wooden ladles (hishaku) 
and pencil-handles. The Hotei-chiku may be planted as a hedge, 
or grown for ornament in a garden or in flower-pots. Accord- 
ing to the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu, the sprout of this bamboo, though 
of small size, is better flavoured than that of any other variety, 
but most people are unaware that it is edible. The same author 
considers the different names given at the beginning of this 
section as merely synonyms for Phyllostachys aurea. Both 
Chinese and Japanese lovers of the quaint and curious have 
invented names just as it pleased their fancy, and so the list of 
synonyms has grown. Possibly the so-called Takeda-take was 
merely a Phyllostachys aurea that Takeda Shingen had 

The name comes from the prominent svvelh'ng under the nodes, or 
perhaps of the internodes near the root, which is thought to resemble the 
face given by artists to Hotei, one of the Japanese " Seven Gods of Good- 
luck" (Shichi Fuku-jin). Or as the author of the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu also 
suggests, from the swollen belly of that mythical personage. The second 
synonym Riu kiu chiku is from its having been introduced into Japan from 

The same work states that it reaches a height of from 8 to 10 feet. 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 59 

There is a double groove on that side of it from which the branches 

As stated by both the Nihon Chiku-Fu and Kei-yen Chiku-Fu, the 
intemodes near the gpround are much contracted, sometimes five or six only, 
in other instances as many as a dozen, the nodes being often set slantingly. 
A marked feature of this species is the swelling immediately below each 

As to the specific name Aurea, it is very likely, as Mr. Freeman-Mitford 
suggests, a corruption of Horai, and the " Useful Plants of Japan Described 
and Illustrated (Tokyo 1895) " gives the two names U-sen-chiku, Horai- 
chiku (no. 349) for it. Miquel (Prolusio Florae japonicae, p. 173) suggests 
that the name was given from the colour of the dead leaves. But yellow is 
the colour of all dead bamboo leaves. Franchet and Savatier (Ennmeratio 
II. p. 606) suggest that it is a neighbour of Bambusa nana, which Mr. 
Freeman-Mitford says is the name under which a species, renamed by 
him B. disticha, is sent out by the nurserymen. The plant described by 
him seems to agree with what the Japanese gardeners call ho^o chiku. 

It seems very doubtful, therefore whether IIotH chikit should be called 
Phyllostachys aurea. 

The sheaths of Ilotci-chiku are spotted near the upper extremity, 
baggy instead of sitting close to the cane, and are provided with a brown 

In the garden of the Akasaka Palace there are specimens 4-J inches in 
circumference. The irregular nodes sometimes occur near the ground, 
sometimes at a height of 4 or 5 feet, and other culms are quite regubr. 
The former are really deformed, unhealthy plants. [Trans.] 

KIKKO CHIKU (Phyllostachys heterocycla). 

The Chinese call this • tt or ft 3fc {Ki-mon chiku)^ i. e. 
tortoise marked bamboo. What has of late years been 
cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant under this name 
superficially resembles the Hotel chiku, but is quite a different 
species. In the case of Phyllostachys aurea the internodes are 
short for a distance of from two to five feet above the ground, 
and from that point upwards there is a swelling under every 
knot and the internodes are not contracted. Near the top of 

6o Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

the culm it resembles the madake. The stem of the kikkd-<htku 

is long and stout and above lo feet in height, with a girth of 

I foot 4 or 5 suHj and the nodes form a sort of chain, being 

closely interlaced for three or four feet above the ground, 

forming a pattern like that of a tortoise's shell. The branches, 

leaves and stem look like those of a variety of Phyllostachys 

mitis. According to the Pi-ch'uan Hua-ching the 'tortoise 

marked bamboo ' grows on Pao-to shan, ^ about one stem 

annually, is used for making fans, very curious, but it is now 

no longer obtainable. "^ 

Of late years ' tortoise marked bamboo' has been found 

growing on a hill called Kuma-korohl in the eastern ranges of 

the prefecture of Ishikawa. The Buddhist priests call it * the 

lotus bamboo' (^1t) and pretend for the benefit of silly old 

men and women that it is a sign sent from the Buddha. It is 

said that it has now been transplanted lo the temple of Daishi 

at Kawasaki in the province of Musashi. Recently this form 

of bamboo has been cultivated by florists, and if its cultivation 

is continued for some years, it will be the most remarkable of 

curious bamboos. 

There can be no doubt that this is a sport, whether natural or artificially 
produced, of the mosd-dake or Phyllostachys mitis. It is described 
by Mr. Frecman-Mitford as 'a freak of Nature.' At the Botanical garden 
in Tokio, and at the gardens of the Tokio Nurseries in Komagome, may be 
seen groups of this sport. It is only the lower part that is distorted, for 
three or four feet, the upper portion of the stem, which attains a height 
sometimes of 12 feet, being normal in its growth. A plant of it in my 
possession threw up a sprout the year after it was transplanted, which 
developed into an entirely normal, but feeble culm. [Trans.] 

2 Pi-ch'uan Hua-ching, Vol. IV, f. 4 v. 


Nihon ChikU'Fu. 6i 

(Variegated Bamboo). 

This plant has many designations and local names, but 
there are only three distinct kinds. One is a variety o^hachiku 
(Phyllostachys Henonis), and has a variegated stem, with 
blotches, variously known as hanchiku (Se It blotched bamboo), 
wn-pan-cMku (8 JlE It, clouded bamboo) or ko-han-chiku {J3^ JlE 
It, tiger mark bamboo). The provinces of Yamashiro, Hiuga, 
Tamba, Tango and others are noted for its production. Then 
there is a variety of variegated bamboo belonging to the nicdake 
species (i.e. an Arundinaria), which is also called ko-han-chiku, 
found in Yatsushiro district, province of Higo, and in the 
provinces of Suruga and Shimosa. In China the kind known 
as SB iCW (Siang fci chu) is most esteemed. The Yamato 
Honzo quotes the Chang-Chou-fu-Shi (j$ iW /ff '^^) to the 
following effect: **The internodes have blotchy marks 
resembling the traces of the tears of Siang-fei. A fine 
Madara-dakc locally known as Hei-jiku chiku (ffifWIt) is 
found at Togakushi san in Shinshu, and also covering a space 
of thirty did (73 J- acres) on the side of Cho-kai-zan in the 
district of Atsumi, province of Ugo. This is a kind of s/zs//- 
iakc (Bambusa senanensis) bearing blotchy marks. The 
Shakotan chiku which grows in the Hokkaido is also of the 
same kind as suzti-take. ^ In China these blotchy bamboos are 
much appreciated. They are classified as follows : — 

i) Siang-fei chu grows at Kulo,^ and has a shiny stem, 

^ This seems doubtful. It resembles rather Bambusa metallica [Trans.] 
* "Stt This description is from the Pi-ch'uan Hwa-ching, vol. IV. f, 3, 
as also that which immediately follows. [Trans.] 

62 Nihoft Chiku'Fti, 

bearing yellow and black spots, round like the traces of tears. 
It is a very valuable sort. 

2) Meilo chu (ttiKIt) has a stem resembling that of 
Siang-fei chu with fine wavy marks and no round spots, the 
colour being dark, but not so large. It is much used for the 
sticks of fans. 

The best blotched bamboos imported from China are used 
for pencil handles, tables and bookshelves. The cuticle bears 
yellowish brown concentrically circular marks, which spread 
out like traces of tears which have soaked in. This is the 
real Siang-fei chu. The inferior qualities have the same con- 
centrically circular marks, but of a black colour, and of 
unequal size, the small marks spreading over the entire surface. 
This is the niei-lo-chn. There are very many sorts of blotched 
bamboos, which are said to come from the provinces of Fuh- 
kien, Kwang-si and Cheh-kiang. The real siang-fei comes 
from Cheh-kiang in the province of Hu-nan,^ and is difficult 
to procure in China ; hence the value attached to the Siang- 
fei chu at all periods. Those which of late years have been in 
the shops are believed to come mostly from the mountains of 
Chehkiang. 2 Lovers of the curious and rare attach much 
value to the siang-fei^ and are ignorant of the fact that so many 
sorts exist. The varieties are briefly indicated by the accom- 
panying woodcuts. Specimens of these varieties formerly 
brought over by a Chinese are preserved at the Tokio museum. 
It seems probable that the blotches are the traces of a species 

* This seems wrong. Perhaps Hunan and Chehkiang provinces are 

* ftiS Compare Pi-ch'uan Hwa-ching vol. IV. f. 4. [Trans.] 

Nikon Chiku-Fu, 63 

of fungus which grows on the bamboo. The Chinese long ago 
started this view. The Jfi (Ch'u) bamboo when young is 
covered with a fungoid growth. The inhabitants cut it down, 
soak it in water and wash off the fungus, which leaves purple 
markings behind. A poem by an Emperor of the Ming 
dynasty on the blotchy bamboo of Huang-chou^ says: *'Many 
marks of mossy spots develop on the green bamboo for ever 
and ever ; the ' traces of tears ' seem still new." 

Some of the blotches on viadara-dake have a white mould 
on them and show marks of a fungoid growth. It is the local 
climate which produces some kind of fungus resembling mould 
on the cuticle, that leaves a blotch behind. Hence it is not 
every stem in a plantation that has these marks. At Goka no 
she in Higo in the hills behind Hito-yoshi the niadara-dake 
grows wild, but they are not all alike, and only the mottled 
stems are cut down. The madara-ddkc of Obi in Hiuga, Mt. 
Kirishima and Sadowara in Satsuma are somewhat different 
from the Chinese Siangpei chu, but the markings are clear and 
the general quality superior, so that they deserve to be ap- 
preciated. 2 

KUMAZASA (Bambusa palmata F.-M., B. VeitchiiM.) 

Also known as mma-zasay •** yakida-zasa, heri-tori-zasa and 
chi'jnaki'Zasa. The Chinese synonyms 35 It jo<hu ; ff It 

2 The blotches of han-chiku do not make their appearance till the 3rd 
or 4th year. There are specimens in the garden of the Akasaka palace, 
measuring 5 inches in g^rth, and about 15 feet in height. [Trans.] 

3 ^/wrt = horse, yaki-ba forged -blade, //^r/-/^r/ = edged ; chi-maki, a 
sort of pudding of glutinous rice. 

64 Nihon ChikU'Fu, 

/sien-chu; Uj fi It Shan-pei-chu, commonly written SRj&ti* 'silver 
edged bamboo.' The stem is slender, the knots not prominent, 
and the tallest specimens not more than six or seven feet in 
height, three to four feet being more usual. Some stems have 
four or five branches, others none at all. The leaves measure 
eight sun in length, with a breadth of about two sun. The 
young leaves are bright green, the old ones becoming edged 
with white to a depth of 2 or 3 tenths of a 5tt«. Hence the 
name 'silver-edged bamboo.' The lowest leaf is generally 
small, the other 4 or 5 being broad and long. The Japanese 
Encyclopaedia remarks that a branch of the mmazasa has six 
or seven large leaves, of which the largest are a foot in length 
and two sun in width. In the autumn it acquires perpendi- 
cular stripes of a yellowish white colour, very pretty. This 
bamboo grows luxuriantly on hills, steep precipices and in 
damp places, but does not flourish on flat or dry ground. Hence 
it prefers the shady sides of hills, river banks and the like, 
it is chiefly used by the vendors oisushi^ and by cook-shops for 
ornamental purposes, as well as for wrapping up different 
kinds of cakes and sweetmeats. Sometimes it seeds, and the 
grain is very useful to the poorer classes. 

There is a kind known as kokumazasa, the stem of which 
is from 6 to 7 sun up to a foot in height, some of them bearing 
two or three branches, some none at all. From the top of the 
stem four or five leaves grow out horizontally. Its young 
leaves are green, the old ones edged white to a depth of i/io 

* Cakes of cold boiled rice, flavoured with a slice of raw fish, prawn, 
seaweed and so forth. 


Nihon Chiku-Fu. 65 

of 5 s««, just like the larger kumazasa. This sasa'^ grows 
wild on the mountains in all parts of the country, and when 
planted in a pot grows thickly, forming a handsome object. 
Florists therefore combine it with other plants for decorative 

SUZU'DAKE (Bambusa senanensis). 
Kho C7i\\Q(^yam(i-dake, m i-suzu 2ind no-suzu. The Chinese 
synonyms are S (tai), fS (chi), Sr K (jo-tsien). This bamboo 
resembles the kuma-zasa, but is larger. In Shinano, Kodzuke 
and other parts it is often called Hei-jiku chiku. 3 The Bambusa 
senanensis grows wild on mountains and open uplands, and 
resists the greatest extremes of cold. It spreads right into 

^ Generic name for the small bamboos, usually called *dwarf- bamboo* 
or * bamboo grass' by resident English. 

Under the name kiima-zasa the author has described two entirely 
different plants, namely Bambusa palmata, which is a tnll species, and 
Bambusa Veitchii, a shorter and more bushy species. Both are accurately 
described in Mitford's "Bamboo Garden." The former can l>e found by 
the road side on the way up the Hakone pass, above and l;eiow the hamlet 
of Hata. The yonni^ shoot may be found in mid-June attaining a height 
of six feet, and is remarkable for the bright green erect stem and the 
parchment-coloured sheath. At this period it will have developed perhaps 
only two or three large leaves near its top, and the branching comes later. 
Its nodes are somewhat prominent. The other species (Bambusa Veitchii) 
is common enough on mountains, covering what Professor Sargent well 
calls the "forest floor." Its sheath is longer and more persistent than is 
the case with B. palmata, and the nodes are less prominent, while the 
stem is more slender and pliable, less erect and shorter. It is common every- 
where on the mountains ; the flat called b-taira on the road from Nikko to 
Chiuzenji just before the lake is reached is for instance covered with it. In 
common parlance both species are known as kumazasa, but the lesser one 
may sometimes be distinguished as ho-kwnazasa. At Hakone the larger 
one is by some named I/d-jiktt-dakc, which according to the author of the 
Nihon Chiku-P'u is a synonym of Bambusa senanensis {^suzti-takc). 

2 This is in some places a synonym of Bambusa palmata. 

66 Nthon Chiku-Fu, 

the deepest recesses and up to the highest summits of the 
mountains. The nodes are not prominent, and ihe largest 
stems attain a girth of i sun with a stature of ten feet and more. 
The leaves are 5 or 6 sun in length, with a width of about a 
5w//, narrower than those of the 5d:srt, and tapering off at the tip. 
Seen from a distance it resembles the susuki (Miscanthus 
sinensis) in appearance, a fact which suggests that suzu-dake 
may be contraction o{ susuki-iake. In some places this bamboo 
grows and spreads over an extent of many square miles. It is 
especially abundant at Suwa and Kiso in the province of 
Shinano, and on the hills of Nambu in the province of Riku- 
chiu. It is found in remote valleys where no other species 
will grow, and in spite of its large and broad leaves and upright 
stems, in places subject to violent winds, or liable to deep snow- 
falls, it goes creeping on the ground. The plants seen in 
Echizen and Kaga have much larger leaves than the sasa, but 
their edges do not turn white, and the culms resemble those of 
ya-dake (Phyllostachys bambusoides) with flat nodes, attaining 
a height of ten feet and more, and the thickness of a finger. 
The suzu-dakc found at Omura in Hizen is said to be remark- 
able for the length of the internodes. In China it is said to be 
used for making arrows. The sheath is of a deep green hue, the 
stem being white when the sheath falls off. * Larger bamboos 

* The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu says * the sheath turns white when it withers', 
which is a more correct statement than that in the text. In a youni» slioot 
the sheath is straw-coloured near the root, further up ijreenish tinged with 
purple, and at the tip quite green. It is covered with bristles, even 
underneath the overlapping part of the inferior sheath. There are no 
hairs about the pseudophyll. A full grown stem bears many solitary 
branches, each subdivided into other branches, and out-topping the main 
stem. The leaves arc dark green above, glaucous underneath, with a well 

Nihon Chikii-Fu, 67 

being uncommon in the northern parts of this country, 
the inhabitants have always been in the habit of collecting 
the sprouts, which they preserve for the table in a 
mixture of salt and kirazii (bean-curd refuse). In China 
Ihey speak of "pickled bamboo-grass, salted geese," from 
which it would appear that the sprout of this species is eaten. 
This bamboo is tough and flexible, so that crooked stems 
can be easily straightened. The slender culms of those found 
in the Kiso mountains are perfectly straight and wellformed. 
They are split in half and plaited into baskets of various shapes 
and into mats, forming one of the products of Shinano. 
Where this bamboo grows Mild it hinders the development of 
trees and obstructs the path of the mountaineer, but is very 
useful for binding together the crumbling sides of declivities, 
and for thatching the cottages of the peasantry in mountainous 
parts of the country. Furthermore, the seeds of this plant 
and of the sasa furnish the poorer classes with food. 


These are known as jincnku^ (natural rice) sasa-mc-guri 

(dwarf-bamboo sprout chestnuts) and iakc mugi (bamboo corn) 

in Japan, and there are numerous Chinese synonyms. Both 

marked midrib and as many as 10 parallel nerves on each side. The leaves 
sometimes a foot long and two inches wide. The sheath very persistent. 
Abundant at Chiuzenji, common at Hakone. 

Where suzti-take grows at high altitudes it may at first sight be 
confused with kwna-zasn, but on nearer examination will be found to be 
much more branched, taller in the stem, and having the leaves longer and 
more slender than those r^ that species ; they are somewhat pendant, 
instead of standing out level from the head of the plant. The tiM stems 
Ijear a slight resemblance to those of va-itake. [Trans.] 

68 Nikon Chiku-Fu, 

the kttma-zasa (Bambusa palmata) and suzu-dakv (Bambusa 
senanensis) flower from lime to time and bear seeds. Accord- 
ing to the It K SU Chu-shih-chi the seed of the bamboo exactly 
resembles wheat, being somewhat pointed at both ends, and 
in taste also, with an astringent flavour, the only diff'erence 
being a suggestion of bamboo about it. , The common people 
call it * natural rice ' or 'bamboo corn,' and eat it parched. 
They also grind it, and make the flour into small dumplings 
(dango) and coarse vermicelli. It is said to be not inferior in 
taste to corn. The Chinese say : "The bamboo sometimes 
flowers, small and white like the blossom of the jujube tree, 
producing a seed like that of wheat. It is tasteless and as- 
tringent. The people of Chehkiang call it * bamboo rice," 
hence the name. The old plants of madake (Phyllostachys 
Quilioi M.) hachikii (Phyllostachys Henonis) and medake (Arun- 
dinaria japonica) also flower and seed, but the grain is small 
and not suflicient in quantity to be collected for food. Only 
ktwiozasa and suzndakc seeds arc obtained in large enough 
quantities. In 1843 all the bamboos round the town of 
Takayama in Ilida for a distance of many miles seeded, and 
the population young and old assembled to harvest the crop, 
at the rate of 5 or 6 to (to = J bushel) per diem, in all some 
250,000 koku {koku=^ bushels nearly). Five years later rice and 
other cereals having failed, so that there was a great deficiency 
of food stufls, the people are said to have gathered bamboo 
seed for food, and thus escaped dying of hunger. It is said 
that once the suzu-dake and what is locally known as hei-jiku- 

^ 3H JF chin-latig-kan ; it •% bamboo rice ; \^ jj /icn-sliih ; 
gi5 JK chi.fii ; 3g a^ K limg-kau-shih. 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 69 

chiku^ on the mountains in the vicinity of the two districts of 
Ina in Shinshiu seeded on a large scale, and that all the culms 
afterwards withered. The facts appear to be these, that when 
the seeding took place, the people crowded into the hills to 
collect the grain, of which they obtained so much that it was 
impossible to carry it all away in one day. Carrying baskets 
suspended from their necks, they entered the bamboo thickets, 
collected the spikes that had seeded, shook the grain down 
and gradually got it all together. Those who worked hardest 
obtained as much as five or six bales of bamboo seed. They 
ground it, made the flower into small dumplings and puddings, 
and were able to cat it for several days in succession without 
getting tired of the taste any more than of fern-powder 
{zvarabi-ko)y Pueraria starch {kuzu-ko) or powdered pine-bark. ^ 
A sort of sa^<? can also be brewed from bamboo seed, which 
though it is rather sharp to the tongue does not otherwise differ 
in taste from ordinary sake. The people of Shinshiu have 
what they call suzii-rnen prepared from bamboo seed. The 
bamboo seed is collected, and pounded in a mortar by the aid 
of a water-wheel ti^l it becomes fine and white. Or it is ground 
fine in a stone mortar, put into a sieve with twice the quantity 
of corn, adding one-tenth of brine, well stirred round and 
kneaded, then slowly pulled out into fine threads, then put into 
a box to which heat is applied. This preparation is said to be 
of a delicate flavour, resembling vermicelli. Not long ago the 
sasa which grows so abundandy on the mountains near Koma- 

' i.e. the go-hci wand bamboo. Go-Jiei is the wand bearing white 
paper, placed in front of a Shinto shrine. [Trans.] 
» This is from a note of Mr. Tanaka Yoshiwo. 

70 Nihon Chikii-Fu. 

ga-take in Koshiu seeded, and some Shinshiu people taught 
the inhabitants how to use it for food. Since then the crop 
harvested is about 1500 sacks (containing 4/10 of a koku, 
or 2 bushels),^ a family of five or six persons collecting as 
much as from 5 or 6 sacks to ten. (There were fourteen 
villages that had gathered 100 sacks and upwards). The 
utility of bamboo seed has been demonstrated. Dr. Oscar 
Kerner of the Agricultural College at Komaba near Tokio has 
compiled a table of the chemical analysis of sam or chimaki- 
zasa from the Yamanashi prefecture, which shows the richness 
of bamboo seed in nutritious elements. The result of the 
chemical analysis of sasa seed shows that its chemical 
composition is the same as that of wheat or rye. 


(Phyllostachys Kumasaca, iNIunro ; Bambusa viminalis, 

French gardens; li. ruscifolia, Siebold.) 

Bungo-zasa (written SJ. Vk. U), also known as okanic-zasa, 
Jyo-zasa^ Toba-zasa, at Arima in Scttsu Inajio no sasa. 
According to the Japanese Encyclopaedia this plant bears five 
leaves at each joint, hence the name go-mai-zasa. The Ji-kin- 
sho (Jft tt ^) says it was originally introduced from the 
province of Bungo, whence the ordinary name. The Kei-ycn 
chiku-Fu informs us that at various local fairs at the end of the 
year it was the practice to sell masks of Okame^ woven of this 
bamboo which gave rise to the name okamc-zasn. It grows 

A The kokit = 4.9629 bushels. 

2 The £at-chcelced damsel of ancient Japanese legend. [Trans.] 

Nihon ChikU'Fu, 71 

from two to three feet in height. The stems are slender, ^ but 
the nodes prominent, the leaves thin and mainly resembling 
those of Phyllostachys Quilioi. At each joint, where the leaves 
spring from is flat, and there is a groove in the centre of 
which rises a ridge. ^ On the side where there are no leaves it 
is round, and in shape very like a small stem of the Phyllosta- 
chys mentioned. It flourishes well in a clay soil, so that the 
stems of plants growing in suitable moist ground with plenty 
of loam grow stout and long and thickly together. It does not 
grow in stony soil. This bamboo is converted to various uses. 
Of it are made different sorts of baskets, smoking trays and 
chopsticks, also toys. The Japanese Encyclopaedia remarks 
that '* the gomai-zasa grows a foot or more in height, the leaves 
arc a deep green, resembling those of the Shino-dake but shorter. 
Five leaves grow together on each stem, and it is of a 
luxuriant habit. It is planted in gardens for ornament." This 
bamboo bears transplantation easily. Grown in the corners of 
gardens it not only adds to the appearance, but is also of great 
practical utility. As it is a densely growing plant it may be 
planted as a hedge with excellent effect. ^ 

* There is a clump of tins bamboo at the Botanical Gardens in Tokio, 
growing peril a ps four feet high. The stem measures J in. in circumference. 

2 This is a very marked characteristic. [Trans.] 

3 The branches begin to spring alx)ut the third or fourth node above 
the root, each branch being from J in. to | in. in length, with generally 
only two tiny nodes, and bearing only one leaf at the apex. But the general 
rule is that five branches are borne by each node, three growing outwards 
from the flat side, and two towards the semi-circular side of the stem. 
The middle leaf of the three is larger than the two outer ones. At the 
extreme top and Ixjttom of the stem there are usually only three leaves 
instead of five. The colour of the stem is mostly green, but sometimes of a 

72 Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

JITCHIKU (Solid Bamboo). 

This plant variety has several synonyms, all with the same 

meaning. ^ It grows at Ichi-u-zan in the province of Awa in 

Shikoku, and on Fukura shima, one of the islets at Matsu 

shima in Oshiu. It is to be bought at the latter place. The 

genuinely solid stems fetch high prices, those having a small 

fistula being cheap. The island of Chuk-do^ in Corea is 

famous for them. Those grow^n in Shimo Ina district in 

Shinshiu are known as Inamura-dake. Tlie leaves and 

branches resemble those of the hotei-chiku (Phylloslachys 

purplish brown, and the intemodes, which seldom exceed more than 35 
inches in length, zigzag slightly from joint to joint. The larger leaves 
measure alx)ut 4 in. by | in., have a well-marke<l midrib, and seven 
lateral veins on each side of it, the reticulation Ixjing exceedingly fine. 
The edges are armed with very fine teeth, which can 1« more easily felt by 
running the finger along them than distinguished by the naked eye, 
though visible under a common magnifying glass. As Mr. Freeman- 
Mitford points out, the foliage bears a resemblance to that of the butcher's 
broom, whence Siebold gave the specific name ruscifolia. It certainly 
ought not to be called knmasaca (which is a corruption of kumazasa), that 
being an entirely distinct plant. Vimina/is (osier-like) is not as characte- 
ristic as Siebold 's name. 

The dimensions of a specimen from the garden of the Akasaka Palace 
were as follows : 

length 6, ft. 4 inch 

2nd internode 9J „ 

3rd », 9 »» 

4th „ 8 „ 

5tb „ 6J „ 

6th „ 6J „ 

girth -jf^ „ 

largest leaf, 6 inch by i^ [Trans.] 

' K*Mt. K^'lt. »;.&«•. [Trans.] 

* There are three islands so named. i. Eden Is. off Quelpaert ; 
2. one on the coast of Chhung-chhong-do ; 3. one on the coast of Kang- 

Nihon ChikU'Fu, 73 

aurea), the grooves on the intern odes being deep. Large 
specimens attain a length of over twenty feet, with a diameter 
of over a sun. This bamboo is not solid at both ends, the 
part nearest the root exhibiting the peculiarity to a greater 
extent, while at the other end there is a small fistula about the 
diameter of a needle. Sometimes the inadake (Phyllostachys 
Quilioi) and hachiku (Pli. Henonis) growing in poor soil are 
found to be solid through one or two internodes above the 
root. The creeping root-stock in particular is often solid. 
According to the statements of people who bring jiichiku for 
sale from Matsushima, there is a plantation there of this variety 
of bamboo, but it is found that only a proportion of the culms 
prove solid on being cut, most of them merely shewing a pipe 
of which the walls are thicker than is usual with other bam- 
boos, while the fistula is smaller ; and a good number have to 
be cut before a culm is found which is entirely solid. From the 
fact that Phyllostachys Quilioi and Ph. Henonis present this 
appearance when grown on poor soil, it would appear that 
though there is a variety of which the interior is filled with tis- 
sue, it is a characteristic of the bamboo in general to be hollow, 
and it is quite natural therefore for Xha jiichiku to possess a small 
fistula. 1 It is used for seals, and walking-sticks, the more 
slender specimens serving as riding-whips. It is stated that 
very large specimens of the solid bamboo are found in China. 
Should it be possible to have a flourishing plantation of large 

jiichiku, there would doubtless be a large demand for the 

^ It is clear from the foregoing that the so-called y//r////&// is not a species, 
nor even a variety, but merely a sport, the occurrence of which depends on 
circumstances of soil and nutrition. [Trans.] 

74 Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

At the village of Asake in the district of Shimo Ina in 
Shinshiu lives one Miyanoshita Sojiro, who grows the solid 
bamboo, manuring it once a year with barley bran and horse- 
dung, which he calls In-zai-chiku (seal -bamboo), but no large 
quantity has as yet been brought to market. 

HORAI CHIKU. (Bambusa disticha, F. M., 
Bambusa nana M.) 

The Chinese name is lH S 4t (fung-wei chu. Phoenix 
tail bamboo). In Tosa it is known as Doyb-chiku (± /fl It), 
and Shun-yo-chiku. In Banshiu it goes by the name of Sansho^ 
dake and in Satsuma by that o{ Ko-gin-chiku. This species is 
of two sizes. The larger, known as U-sen-chikii^ is much 
grown in Suruga, where it is used for hedges. The leaves 
spread out like the fingers of a hand, and are arranged like a 
feather fan, from which fact it gets its name. The smaller 
variety is also known as hl-o-chiku (A ® 1t), and is a * sport ' 
of the other. It is grown in pots as an ornamental plant. The 
leaves are short, and grow in shape like those of the Torreya^ 
nucifera. Planted round gardens it attains a height of from 
six to eighteen feet, the internodes being* two feet long. It is 
of a slender habit, and very tough and flexible. It may be 
divided by beating into fibres excellent for the preparation of 
slow matches. The fistula is exceedingly fine, and is occupied 
by a core like a peeled rush, without any coating of bast. 

• i.e. Feather fan bamboo, from the way in which its leaves spread out, 


* In Japanese Kaya^ classed as a coniferous tree, but belonging to the 
yew family. 


Hence it 19 aCjLe-: r.i..i:-.v . '.-. : :/ . •.-./:.:■•.»: 

arc iaand baii2±r i.v- -.- ■ -r- .- '.'••.- -.rt-y.or: 

cnriing op-»ari ..-_ -.v- ■.". ■:, .'.« " -" *- vt,'* 

lengtbec^ ;•"- i i"^r.. .•'••. • •. * •, 

gza«iB3llT j-..:rK.-._-.- -. - ■■'- \ . ..- ■•."-- 

vhicn fr.-t -r. * - > > •.....-• '■-' 

reach tiifi t»".»l '^-t ■ ■ . . ^ ':. :.• . ■ ' -' 

in '.rZi-^:^ Jr-.c: .■..-. - . ' . '.- ■-■ " 

^s\-z :. :..-. : 

XT :.r^ *rr. 

NUion Chiku-Fu, 75 

Hence it is styled Tsushin-chiku. In neglected hedges roots 
are found hanging down from the insertion of the branches, 
curling upward in the form of a fish-hook. The upper part 
lengthens into a culm. From the root other roots branch out, 
gradually increasing in number so as to form a bole, from 
which fine hair-like roots grow downwards, but as they cannot 
reach the soil, they stop growing after attaining a sun or two 
in length. From the bole a number of stems grow closely 
together, of which the inner ones bear branches. This bole 
attains the size of a ^ bushel measure,^ and yet is held on to 
the parent stem by a single root-fibre. Should it be hit with 
violence, it comes away suddenly, and if stuck in the ground 
will give rise to a dense growth. This bamboo likes damp 
soil, and when planted near water lets its roots hang down. 
Owing to this habit, the ho-d-chiku^ grows luxuriantly when 
planted in a flower pot filled with water. About Hon jo and 

* That is I /tf, = exactly 0,4963 bushels. 

2 The Kei-yen chiku-Ku gives additional particulars, namely that the 
stem resembles that of the yadake (Phyllostachys bambusoides), being 
about the thickness of a chop-stick, or even less. It grows to a height of two 
or three leet, with internodes three to four sun in length. The branches 
are solitary, but after a while a bud springing at the insertion of a branch 
will develop into a second branch, but it never has branches in threes or 
fives like the medake (Arundinaria japonica.) 

The sheath is very persistent. The leaves are like those of the madake^ 
broad at the base, pointed at the tip, i sun and 4 or 5 tenths long, 3 
tenths wide. At the base of the leaf are very short brown hairs. The 
leaves are from nines up to thirteen in number, the first being large, and 
the rest successively diminishing in size, the terminal leaf being three- 
tenths of a sun in length, and one-tenth in breadth. It is of a caespitose 
growth, and mingled with the larger stems described will be found others 
extremely slender. In Suruga it is planted as a hedge, and attains a 
height of five or six feet, the leaves being then large in proportion. 

76 Nihon Chiku-Fu. 

Kameido in TokiO it may be seen growing as a hedge. There 
it goes by the name of iaibo-chiku, while in Kiushiu the local 
name is chin-chiku, and its habit of putting forth roots from the 
insertion of the branches prevails exactly as in the case of those 
grown in Suruga. If the tip be cut off when the culm is 
young, roots grow from the insertion of the branches, develop- 
ing into a bole, but this does not happen if the amputation of 
the tip is delayed until it has made some progress in growth. 
It sends up sprouts at all seasons, but chiefly during the dog- 
days, from the end of July to the middle of August. Hence it 
has been called doyb-chiku (Dogdays-bamboo). Its leaves 
unfold in September and October. 

The stem is perfectly cylindrical, without any trace of a groove, A 
plant in my garden, the year it was taken out of the pot in which it 
originally grew, threw up shoots as much as 5 ft. 9 in height, the longest 
intemode of which measured 9 inches, with a circumference between 7/12 
and 8/ 12 of an inch. The sheath is shown in the accompanying drawing. 
It is distinguished from all other bamboos by the way in which the leaves 
are set at right angles on the branches. llic longest culm bore buds on 
the lowest two nodes, an incipient branch on the 3rd node, 4 on the 4th, 6 
on the 5th, 8 on the 6th, 10 on the 7th, 7 on the 8th, 5 on the 9th, 
5 on the loth, i only on the nth. Th« branches develop from the 
top downwards, and in doing so push off the sheath, which then curls 
round one of the outermost branches. In this it resembles the Arun- 
dinarias. To determine however whether it is A. or Bambusa we have yet 
to see it in flower. The leaves bear small spines closely set along both 
edges, perhaps more conspicuously on the left edge seen from the branch, 
and no reticulation can be seen with an ordinary magnifying glass. The 
leaf is broad at the base, tapering off at about § of its length to a fine 
point. [Trans.] 

Nihon ChikU'Fu, jj 

TAISAN-CHIKU (Bambusa vulgaris). 
Another name for this species is daimio-dake (;h ^ It). 
In China it is usually known as Lung-t'ou-chu* (dragon's 
head bamboo). Florists grow it in pots, pretty generally, 
under the name of 3^ Ul It, Big-mountain Bamboo. The 
leaves are broad and large, measuring over two su?i, and the 
stem has a girth of six or seven swt. The branches are 
far apart, the nodes flat, the sides of the i)ipe thin, the 
whole appearance of the culm resembling a large asht 
(Phragmites communis, a large reed). Formerly this bamboo 
was imported, and planted in the public garden at Nagasaki, 
but gardeners now grow it in pots or in the open ground. 
Whether it is that the Japanese climate docs not suit it, the 
fact remains that it has not yet been successfully cultivated, 
and we do not hear of plantations of it. It has no creeping 
root-stock, but the bole shows above ground, the root and 
nodes being close together, growing like a dragon's head, 
whence the Chinese name. Its sprouts come up in August or 
September, and the culm is tall and straight, of a very sturdy 
habit. But when the winds of autumn arrive and the tem- 
perature diminishes, it suddenly stops growing, the tip and 
leaves wither, and if great care is not taken it will often die 
altogether. It is important therefore to ensure that it is kept 
warm. According to the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu it is a large species 
with delicate leaves, putting forth its sprouts in the 8th or 9th 
moon, which grow very large ; the sprouts are tender and have 
an excellent flavour. The sheath having been removed, it 
should be soaked in water for a day or two, then boiled and 

78 nioCNi(hikU'FiL 

eaten. Otherwise it is rather bitter. This bamboo is abun- 
dant in Satsuma, and the Chinese import the shoots in increas- 
ing quantities as an article of food. At Nagasaki it is to be 
found in the Botanical Garden, but is rare in private possess- 
ion. In Satsuma it goes by the name of To-kin-chiku. * 
Both stem, branches and leaves are of large size, and the nodes 
depressed like those of the ashi (Phragmites communis). It 
reaches a height of 20 to 30 feet, with a girth of from 8 or 9 
sun to a foot and 3 or 4 sun. The sprouts make their 
appearance in summer, and have an agreeable sweetish taste. 
It is common in the district of Ibusuki in the province of 
Satsuma, and resembles both bamboo and ashi, or rather 
something between the two. In some specimens the stem has 
longitudinal yellow streaks, others are without. The bole is 
caespitose, the nodes being crowded together underground, 
with innumerable hair-like roots growing thickly from 
between them. If some trouble were taken to extend its 
cultivation, it might hereafter become of great utility. There 
are specimens of the bole, stem, leaves and branches in the 
Museum at Tokio. 

TAIMIN CHIKU (Arundinaria Hindsii, van 
graminea, P\-M.) 

This is a Kind oivicdakc^ (Arundinaria Japonica), and is 
commonly called tai-mio-chiku {^ % It) also daimio-dake (;^ 

* /tif ^ 41*- ^^^' Freeman-Mitford says that this species is not hardy 
in England. Op. cit. p. 217. 

* That is to say, it is an Arundinaria. 



i nat, size 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 79 

^ It). Its classical names were Awo-ba fuye-dake, ^ futaba 
fuye-dake and simply * fuye-dake/ In ancient times it was 
called S 90 It from the fact of its growing on the hills round 
H W ^ (a monastery) on Awoba-yama at the village of 
Shimidzu, district of So, in the province of Satsuma. An old 
writer states that in the reign of Tenji Tenno a piece was cut 
and made into a flute of very sweet tone. The Emperor gave 
it the name of Awoba Flute Bamboo, and from that time 
onwards the locality was required to furnish the court with 
bamboos for flutes. ^ This species when grown in a warm 
situation puts forth shoots all the year round, hence the 

» Grccn-leaf flute bamboo ; two-leaved flute-bamboo ; flute-bamboo. 

Chinese names are EH^ti* ^"d I?9^1t» ^^oi\\ meaning * Bamboo of 
the four seasons.* 

2 Up to here from the Kei-yeii Chiku-Ftit which goes on to say : 

The plants brought from here and cultivated at Yedo attain a height 
of 15 or 16 feet and a girth of 3 sun. The first two or three nodes above 
the root are close together, not more than 3 or 4 sun between them. 
Above that the internodes lengthen out to 8 or 9 sun or even to i foot 5 or 
6 sun. The first or 2nd nodes above ground are surroundeil by rootlets, 
much as is the case with the shi-ho cMku (Bambusa quadrangularis). The 
lowermost branches are in threes or fives, but from the middle of the culm 
upwards they are as many as seven or eight. The branch sheaths are 
persistent. The leaves are slender, and are arranged in eights or nines. 

In the case of a plant growing in the translator's garden the principal 
dimensions were as follows. Ilcii^ht 11 feet 6 inches. Longest internode 
1^4 i"«» girth of the same 2 inches. The largest leaf on a young stem was loj 
inches by {] in. with well-marked reticulation and spines irregularly 
planted along both edges. But an ordinary leaf taken from a mature stem 
was only 7IJ in. by \ in., the spines being more numerous on the left than 
on the right edge. This bamboo diflers from Hindsli, of which botanists 
regard it as a variety, by the pendulous habit of the top, and the much 
lighter green of the culm, as well as its small'jr diameter, which may be 
taken at one half of that of Ilindsii. 

8o Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

Chinese name ' Bamboo of the Four Seasons/ but in Tokio 
and its neighbourhood it has shoots only during the summer 
season. Its internodes are sometimes as much as two feet in 
length, the leaves long and narrow and of a bright green. 
The sheath is persistent. Its root has numerous hair-like root- 
lets, and the plant is erect. It is said that flutes made from 
stems of this bamboo grown on rocks and crags can be heard to 
a great distance. It has a creeping root-stock, which spreads 
freely, and exhibits terminal buds which if pulled up above 
the ground develop into culms. If a warm situation be 
chosen for this bamboo it will flourish luxuriantly. There is a 
small variety cultivated in pots as an ornamental plant, which 
looks like a dwarfed Kanzan-chiku (Arundinaria Hindsii), but 
is in reality different. The leaves of A. Hindsii are tough, 
while those of the iaimin-chiku are soft. In the province of 
Chikugo there is a variety known as daimio-dake. This forms 
small groups among the rice-fields. The old culms are of a 
yellowish brown colour, and the peasants use it for making 
slow matches, also for oil-press baskets. In form it is said to 
resemble the ordinary mc-dake. 

The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu speaks of the Yomel-chiku (K 99 It), 
or iaimo-dake, alias Kolo-chiku (Sf ^ It), and also mentions 
the Muramatsu-dake grown at Muramatsu in Echigo. The 
writer has not seen these, but supposes them to be merely 
synonyms for the Taimin-chiku. ^ 

1 The following is what the work referred to (vol II. f. 20 v) states: — 

" There is another kind named tainio-dakey dai-viid (? tawiin) chiktt or 

yomei-chiku^ ten or twenty feet high, with a diameter of 8 or 9 tenths of a sun 

ro even more. The nodes resemble those of the ha-chiku (Phyllostachys 

^ihon ChikU'Fu. 8i 

Ilenonis), the intcrnodes being 8 or 9 sun in length. The branches begin 
from the 12th or 13th node, and are in pairs or threes, and then every node 
up to the top bears six or seven, being quite bushy. All these branches 
are shorter than those of ordinary bamboos, measuring 6 or 7 sun or over 
a foot, their nodes being very close together, not more than 1.4 or 1.5 sun 
npart. With respect to the leaves, there are two opposite ones at the tip,* 
and four below arranged alternately. But from the fact that there is a 
small dried sheath below the six belonging to a leaf that has fallen off, it 
is plain that they are really in sevens. The two terminal leaves are the 
longest, measuring 5 or 6 sun by -6 or 7 of a sun, the four lower leaves being 
a little smaller, but there is no uniformity in this matter. For the first 12 or 
13 nodes above the root the stem is cylindrical, and then for four or five 
internodcs bearing branches there is a groove somewhat longer than in the 
case ot the me-dake (Arundinaria). Beyond that point the grooves are 
deeper, like those of o-dake (Phyllostachys), as if the cylinder had been 
pared away. The branches are channelled in the same manner as the 
upper part of the main stem. Also, under the first one or two nodes that 
bear branches there is always a small yellow bud destined to develop two 
or three branches the following year, just as in the case of the Hotei-chiku 
(Phyllostachys aurea). The sheaths of the culm fall off as the sprout 
grows upward, but those of the branches are persistent, just like those of 
the tnedake (Arundinaria). In a clump there will be cases where the yellow 
buds appear on the first or second nodes, in others they l^egin on the 
fourth, fifth, sixth or seventh. Unlike other bamboos, there is no groove 
above the yellow buds. Some stems bear pairs of branches on the 8th or 
9th node, and above that have five or six at each node throughout. Others 
at the 15th node have a single branch, and above that they are in threes, 
fives, sevens or even eights. Sometimes there are no yellow buds near the 
root, but four branches on the 4th node, with three on the 5th and 6th, 
and above that five or six. Again, pcjrhaps there will be two node 
bearing branches in pairs, with the next solitary, and then the two follow- 
ing may have three branches each. Sometimes the two or three nodes 
near the root develop rootlets all round, in the manner of the • square- 
bamboo,* and other stems are entirely without these appendages. There 
are various differences according to the height of the culm or its age, so 
that it cannot be fully described from a single specimen." 

The foregoing is a specimen of the careful examination bestowed l)y 
the author of the Kei yen Chiku-Fu on the plants known to him. With 

* 1 hi«, as pointed out in another case (p. 46 note), is a mistake. [Trans.] 

82 Nihon Chiku-Fu. 

NARIHIRA-DAKE (Arundinaria Simoni.) 

Another name for this bamboo is Wagochiku (tt ^ W). 
In from it is between inadake (Phyllostachys Quilioi) and 
medake (Arundinaria japonica), the leaves re-sembling those of 
the latter and the nodes those of the former. Its habit is tall 
and erect, and delicate, reaching a height of fourteen or fifteen 
feet, with a girth of from 2. 5 or 2. 6 sun to 3 sun. The leaves 
are long and large, 6 (m* 7 sun by .7 or .8 sun to i sun. ^ From 
the first node upwards a groove occurs alternately on either side 
of the stem, narrower and more shallow than in the case of 
other bamboos. Its leaves and branches are very luxuriant 
and beautiful. Ikit the top of the culm even in old stems is 
flexible, hanging down to one side. If planted in a warm 

regard to the Muramntsu dakc, of which he gives some account at f . 15 v. 
of vol. II, he reports on the stem only, not having seen the leaves. But the 
infers that they must l>c of large size, l)ecause of the semicircular form and 
great depth of the grooves on the intcrnodes, which he says is a characte- 
ristic generally accompanied by largeness of leaf. The internodes he dc- 
scril^es as not more than 3 to 3.} sun in length, though in other respects 
the stem resembles that of the yadake (Phyllostachys bambusoides). 


1 The dimensions of a culm taken from a plant in the garden of the 
British 1 negation were as follows : Height 19 feet ; longest internode 12 J 
inches, girth 3I in. The leaf was 6 J in. long by } to i in. wide. This 
stem bore no branches until the 15th node was reached, but there was a 
bud at each node from the 7th to the 14th, and a' very faint groove along 
the side of the internode from the bud upwanis. The?e buds would no 
doubt have developed later on into branches. The culm zigzags slightly 
from one node to another. 

The sheath is of light green throughout and bears a long and slender 
pseudophyll of the same colour. There are no hairs at its insertion on the 
sheath. The sheath soon dries up and falU off. A very fall descri[)tion of 
this siKxics will be found at P. 59 of Mltford's *• Bamboo Garden.'* 



Sheath full size ; Stem on :i small scale, 
sh wing sh eath s till adh ering. 

Xihon Chki'u'Fu. S3 

situation it grows luxuriantly. About TokiO the young culms 
must be protected against frost. A soft deep clayey soil is to 
be preferred. The sheath is tougher than with other species, 
its inner surface smooth, useful for tea scoops. 

The Japanese Kncyclopaedia remarks : *' Narihira-dake 
resembles the nayo-dakc (Arundinaria Japonica), but its leaves 
are like those of the maddke (Phyllostachys Quilioi). It is 
called after the celebrated Narihira, whose features were those 
of a woman. It is of the caespitose class, and the young 
culms shoot up close to the parent plant. 

According to the ZO-ho Chi-kin-sho (^^iJ !i ^ ^ tj^) ^ the 
Narahira-dake resembles the male bamboo (Phyllostachys), but 
its nodes are those of the female (Arundinaria). 

The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu^ says that the statements that the 
leaves of the Narihira-dake resemble those of the female bam- 
boo, and that its nodes are like those of that species are equally 
erroneous, and an examination of the plant confirms this 

1 Vol. V. f. i6v. This work was published in 17 10. 

* See Vol. II. f. 42 V. Our author has written in a hurry. The work 
he refers to says : *' The leaves of tbe Narihira arc like those of tlic me-dake 
(female bamboo), and the nodes like those of the o-dake, (male l)amboo, i. e. 
Phyllostachys). But according to the statements of the Japanese Ency- 
•clopaedia and Zo-ho Chi-kin-sho the leaves are like those of Phyllostachys 
Quilioi and the nodes like those of the medake, both of which are erroneous. 

The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu gives the following description: — 

From the first node above the root there is a groove accompanied by 
a yellow bud on alternate sides of the stem. This groove reaches up to the 
lower edge of the node above, but is much narrower and more shallow than 
with ordinary bamboos. Usually branches are not borne until the seventh 
or eighth node is passed, and then the first is solitary. The next three or 
four nodes severally bear three branches, after which they number four or 
five. Of the branches in threes the centre one is 2 feet 7 or 8 sua in letigth. 

84 KiJion ChikU'Fu. 


Taishb is the pronunciation given in the Nihon Chiku-Fu. 
The description in that work is evidently taken from ihe Kei- 
yen Chiku-Fu, and is here replaced by the section devoted to 
it in the latter book, which is fuller and more trustworthy, as 
the author had personally examined a plant. [Trans. ] 

" Komachi-dake, in Chinese aUt (tang-chu). In 
Loochoo known as vmieko-iake. ^ It is to be now 2 seen in the 
garden of Mr. Aoki at Benten-KOji, turning out of Sotode 
Machi in Honjo. It is 15 feet high, with a diameter of .6 or .7 
of a sun, the nodes seeming prominent like those of the chiiing^ 
but much flatter. The internodes are over a foot in lengthy 
each node bearing three branches, which are much longer than 
in the case of most bamboos. The leaves are in groups 
numbering from seven to thirteen, their shape resembling that 

the side branches being shorter, say only 2 feet. Of the branches in foui-s 
one is l:ut 4 or 5 sun long, being less than the shortest of the branches in 
threes. The leaves resemble those of the medake, but arc longer, and are 
groupeil in sixes or sevens. ♦ • ♦ Along the centre of the leaf 
runs a slender pale yellow nnidrib, with seven parallel veins on either side 
extending from base to tip of the leaf. At the base of the leaf as in the case 
of the male bamboo there are always some fine brown hairs 2 or 3 tenths 
of a stm long. This plant closely resembles one of the so-called Taimin 
chiku (/^^1t)» *1^^ internodes lieing likewise 8 or 9 stm long, but the 
branches are longer, and so the habit appears less dense. This is the look 
of the young culms, but in the older stems new sheaths make their 
appearance on the additional branches, and then the foliage is more 

^ Matiku, as I am informed by Mr. Y. Okakura. [Trans.] 

2 Tliat is in 1828, at the time when this book was written. It would 
be a hopeless task to look for this specimen now, after all the changes iir 
TokiG. [Trans.] 

3 Possibly the rhyllosJnchys Hcnonis is meant. [Trans.] 


Nihon Chiku-Fu, 85 

of the leaves of the madake (Phyllostachys Quilioi), but much 

larger, in fact as big as those of the kumazasa (Bambusa 

palmata). At the base of the leaves are fine brown hairs, like 

those of the ina-dakc. Its sprouts, like those of most bamboos, 

come up in the 4th or 5th moon (May to June), but in the 

autumn other small sprouts develop above the radical node 

which in the following year become branches. The Chu-pu 

Siang-lu states that in the case of plants growing * 'south of the 

passes" large sprouts develop in autumn by the side of the root, 

but this does not occur in Japan. This is owing to difference 

of climate and temperature. The same work states that the 

small shoots on the lower nodes if pulled off and planted will 

take root, which no doubt would also happen in warm parts of 
Japan, such as Suruga and Satsuma. 

The Ni-hon Chiku-Fu adds that this bamboo is found at 

Otsuno in Bungo, where it goes by the name of Otsuno-dake, 

and also on IwO ga shima off the coast of Satsuma. 

SHIBO-CHIKU (Phyllostachys Marliacca F.-M.) 
The Shibo-chiku is a native of Awaji, its branches and 
leaves being exactly like those of the ma-dakc (Phyllostachys 
Quilioi), but its nodes less prominent, and the surface of the 
stem marked with a number of longitudinal grooves, varying 
from -I to "4 sun in size. It is also written 8S1t, shiwa-chiku. 
The common expression for * to wither' is shibomu, and the 
name shibo has probably been given to it, because the surface 
is like that of a young stem shrivelled after being cut The 
shrivelled appearance of living flesh is called shiixxiy wrinkle, 
hence the other name, as the numerous grooves of the stem 
look like wrinkles. 

86 Nihon Chikti-Fu, 

The Honzo Ikka-gen (4^^ ]$C — SS5 XT) remarks: -'In the 
province of Awa there is a peculiar bamboo known as shhva- 
chiku, the stem bearing numerous longitudinal lines like the 
wrinkles on a face. A large culm is several suti in diameter, 
and curiosity-fanciers make flower-vases of it. There is 
another grooved kind called yama-dake, but the two are iden- 

When it is said that this bamboo no longer is grown in 
Awa alone, but is to be found in other provinces, the real fact 
is that there are grooved examples of the viadake. China 
possesses many species of bamboos, but none of the books 
speak of shhva-chikii, whence it is inferred not to exist in that 
country. It is a curious bamboo from Awa, that is all. In 
the time of the former daimibs there were some at Sumoto in 
Awaji, of which much care was taken, but they have now all 
been cut down. Though some remain round the houses of 
the small gentry {sht-zoku), if attention is not bestowed on 
them, they will gradually disappear. Let public-spirited 
persons take them under their protection. 

The root of the shiica-chiku spreads upwards, while that 
of the viadake extends below. It might seem convenient there- 
fore to plant them together, but it is said that the viadake^ 
possibly owing to the manner in which it absorbs the nutritive 
elements in the soil, nourishes exceedingly, while the other 
gives way and finally dies. 

The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu says little about it, and the probability is that 
the author of that work had never seen a growing plant, as he descrilxrs 
minutely a portion of a culm that had been sent him from Awa. QTrans.] 



i nat size; Leaf full site. 

Mhon ChikU'Fti, 87 

KIMMEI-CHIKU. Bambusa (Phyllostachys) 
Castillonis F. -M. Bambusa striata, M. 

Usually written ^ W It Kimmei chiku, also ^ It golden 
bamboo and JB It streaked bamboo, also called shima-dake, 
striped bamboo. In the province of Ise the local name is 
kin-gin-chiku (^ ffi tl", gold and silver bamboo), in Bungo 
awoba-iake, green leaved bamboo, in Tosa shima-dakc, striped 
bamboo, in Buzen hiyon-chiku. ^ 

Large examples of this species reach 15 or 16 feet in 

height, with a girth of 2 or 3 .s//;/, the smaller being only 4 or 5 

feet, with the thickness of a finger. The nodes are prominent, 

like those of the ma-dake, the cuticle being yellow with green 

longitudinal markings, sometimes only one or two. In 

alternate internodes the colours arc generally reversed. 

Though the cuticle is yellow or green as the case may be, the 

tissue when cut across differs from that of other bamboos in 

not being pure white, but tinged with a pale green hue. Its 

leaves resemble those of the ma-dakc, and bear two or three 

narrow longitudinal white markings on the upper surface. 

The sprouts make their appearance in June, and are edible. 

On the sheath will be found several green, yellow and red 

stripes, with purple spots, not unlike those of the ma-dake. 

The beauty of branches, leaves and stem is a perfect picture. 

At present it is cultivated merely as an ornamental plant for 

the house or garden. If carefully looked after in a warm 

situation it will grow into a large clump. A friend of the 

* Chinese names are '^i^IHS'^lt ^- ^^ green-in -gold bamboo, ^^(^ 
K4t» SE^Ittlt, 5*«1t, «K1t '•. e. green and yellow bamboo, jgW 

1t» iiJF^It. Wit. Kit, iaiit. ^ti*. 

88 l^ihon Chtku-Fu, 

writer having placed a root of Kimmei chiku in a flower-pot, 
filled it up with water and placed it on a stone. But no care 
was taken to protect it against frost, so that it faded and finally- 
withered away. Thinking there was no help left, he threw it 
away in a corner of his garden. But to his surprise the 
withered branches put fortli leaves, and the withered root sent 
up sprouts, which developed into young green culms. He 
was about to change the dirty water in the flower-pot, when he 
found the decayed body of a dead mouse under the stone, to 
which the revival of the withered bamboo was due. He left 
the water unchanged, and cutting off the withered leaves and 
branches, took precautions against frost during the ensuing 
winter. When spring came, he removed the stone, replacing it 
by earth, and the result of his care was a fine healthy bamboo. 

The Japanese Encyclopaedia says: '' ThQ gimmei chiku 
(SR W It) has a white cuticle, the groove corresponding to the 
branches alone being green. When it withers the green 
changes exactly as in the case of an ordinary bamboo." 

It is suggested in the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu that this change of 
colour of the kimmeichikti is due to climate, but there is the 
case of a plant in private possession near the portof Samusawa 
in Oshiu of which the larger culms have a girth of 2 to 3 sun^ 
the internodes being over 2 feet in length, while the lesser stems 
are a sun or more*in girth, with internodes about a foot long. 
It is a inedakc with two white streaks, respectively '2 and '4 sun 
in width. 

The 5l Tic 14 if So-moku Sho-fu» says that the 3J ^ Bl S 3£ 
(0-gon-kan heki-gioku) has a green groove where the rest of 

^ Vol. III. f. 27. 

Nihon ChikU'Fu, 89 

the internode is a golden yellow^ with now and then a green 
streak, the branches being coloured in the same way. The 
leaves also have yellow streaks. Its sprouts appear in the 
summer, and the sheath is spotted, like that of the ma-dake. 
Large culms attain a girth of one foot. There is also a variety 
in which the colours are reversed, that is the groove is yellow, ^ 
while the rest of the internode is green, with now and then a 
yellow streak. This should be called S^lfflJJ^It (Heki- 
gioku-kan o-gon-chiku). Some Kimmei-chiku are yellow 
with green markings, which is the ordinary form to which the 
former name applies, while others are green with yellow 
markings, with a corresponding name. But this is merely 
du2 to the relative size of the green markings in each case. It 
13 no matter for surprise if the green and yellow stripes should 
vary in size according to differences of climate, soil and use of 
fertilizers. So the Chinese name W^lt, green-and -yellow 
bamboo, is no misnomer. This species is said to have been 
brought from Corea by Kato Kiyomasa towards the end of the 
1 6th or beginning of the 17th century. 

This bamboo produces its sprouts in the same manner as 
any other kind. If cut between September and December, 
the green markings will be more or less persistent. It may be 
used for basket-work, pipe stems, pen-handles and so forth. 

* This is Mr. Mitford's Phyllostachys Castiilonis. v. " Bamboo 
Garden '* p. 153. 

* Tliis is a plant described on p. 154 of that work. The Kei-yen 
Chiku-Fu says it is rarer than the other [Trans.] 


Xihim ChikU'Fu. 

'I he translator possesses a i^lant of KimmK-i-ckikM with ycUow stem 
ami green f::rooves, the young culms ct which arc at first of a red oolour^ 
almost as bright as that of the str'C^ckiku (4. v.) He has also some 
extremely lurge si)ecimen5, the largest ot which was 39 fcet high bdone die 
top was cut off for transt^lantirig, the girth l>eing loj indies, and the 
longest intemode 1 1 inches. The lower nodes bear no branches, and there 
are no signs of grooves, but where the groove would be in a smaller 
specimen there is a band i i'.es wide, consisting of pale aixl dark S^ccn 
stripes, anJ in the yellow portion there are narrow green striJX^$ conncctmg 
the broad bands aix>ve and below. A young culm is entirely green. 


The Chinese synonvnis uf this plant are ^ It goMcn bam- 
boo, iK it it yellow skinned bamboo, ami iE -9 yellow culnu 
It is found in Satsuma. L«.>ochoc> and ihe province of Awa at the 
eastern entrance of the ( lulf ^ »f Tokio. The It Iff fl^ tt Chu-pu 
siang-lu say:> that the golden bamboc* grows in Kiangsoo and 
Cheh-kiang. and is altogether like the Phyllostachys Henonis 
(lla-cfnbi ). 

According to the ikiSHA (Ju-nan pii-shi) the golden 
bamboo has a stem of a pure yellow colour like gold. 

The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu^ says the plants ;:rown in Loochoo 
and Satsuma resemble the ma-Likr but are >maller. It adds 
that those \\ hich come from Awa attain a height of over twent}- 
feet, and when fresh have not a distinctly yellow colour, but 
are bright yellow when dry, like pure gold. The Ogon chiku 
has the whole stem K.'^i an uniform yellow, widi no streaks of 
any other colour. It resembles the * yellow bamKx> with 
green grooves ' as regards its branches and leaves, but the stem 
differs entirely, so they mu>.t not be confounded. 

» Vol. III. f. 16 V. 


( sTJ^w-o-cmiccr > 


'lonsc Karri, F.-M. ) 

(Corcan l)aml)oo). In 
o, fi $!i It Nvliite thread 
mboo, -b ^ it seven- 
go is Roku-shi-chiku, 

I and nodes resemble 

), with a height of 3 

The internodes are 

nchcs are borne in 

inches smaller ones 

gly. Those with 

that are the older 

'^^oes on, a couple 

threes and those 

•m is of a bright 
lence its name 
>ears five or six 
', whence the 

siiji'iakc (line 

ulinal lines. 

jntical, and 

•c 'golden- 

dianged to 


suma as a 


Niho7i ChikU'Fu. 91 

SUWO'CHIKU (Bambusa Alphonse Karri, F.-M.) 

This is also called Ko-rai chiku (Corean bamboo). In 
Chinese ^ iK It Golden thread bamboo, 3 )% it white thread 
bamboo, ®>J)Bt4t sweeping-thread bamboo, -tStlt seven- 
thread bamboo. The local name in Higo is Roku-shi -chiku, 
II $^ It green thread bamboo. 

The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu says the stem and nodes resemble 
those of the medake (Arundinaria japonica), wiih a height of 3 
to 5 feet and the thickness of a little finger. The internodes are 
about 5 sun (6 inches) long, and the branches are borne in 
threes, fives or sevens. From the larger branches smaller ones 
spring, sometimes in couples, but also singly. Those with 
branches in threes are young plants, above that are the older 
ones. As in the case of the medake, as time goes on, a couple 
of buds are put forth between the branches in threes and those 
in fives. 

When this bamboo is young the whole stem is of a bright 
red, as if it had been dyed with sapan wood, hence its name 
stavd'ChikUj sapan wood bamboo. The stem bears five or six 
longitudinal green markings, like a green thread, whence the 
Chinese name * golden-thread bamboo.' 

The Yamato HonzG speaks of a kind called stiji-iakc (line 
bamboo), which is a medake, with white longitudinal lines. 
It resembles the daivm-dake {^ ^ W), but is not identical, and 
is probably nothing else than an old stem of the 'golden- 
thread bamboo', in which the green lines have changed to 
white. Hence the Chinese name 'white-thread bamboo.' 

This bamboo is said to have been sent from Satsuma as a 

92 Nihon Chiku-Fu. 

present to TokiO. Tradition says Kato Kiyomasa l)rought it 
back from Corea and planted it in Higo, whence it has spread. 
The local name is ' green-thread bamboo/ and the Higo people 
attach much value to it. It was at the General Exposition of 
1877 that the writer first saw this bamboo. The name Korai- 
chiku denotes its Corean origin. It is easy to propagate, and it 
is much grown as a pot-plant. The * golden-thread-bamboo ' 
is fully described in the Sn-moku Shb/u. ^ 

SHIKAKU-DAKE (Bambusa quadrangularis. ) 
The Chinese name for this species is :(? It (square bamboo). 
It is usually known as ft It four-cornered bamboo, also as 
E9 ]& It four-sided bamboo. 

Its appearance resembles that of the ma-dake, but it is 
more delicate, and little more than a sun in diameter. The 
corners are blunt, not truly angular. It looks well converted 
into walking-sticks, legs of tables or posts of tea-rooms. It is 
said to have been introduced from Loochoo. When planted 

» This work (vol. III. f. 25 v.) describes the Kin-s/u-chiku (golden thread 
bamboo) as unable to resist cold and not given to spreading laterally. 
It is like neither the hacJdkn (Phyllostachys Henonis) nor the madake (P. 
Qailioi). It grows to a height of ten feet, having a liard culm, and flat 
nodes. The surface is yellow with green stripes, the leaves having yellow 
stripes. The sprouts appear in autumn, and are of a purple colour traversed 
by green stripes. In the following year the young culm develops its 
branches, and when the leaves make their apjx^rance, the purple streaks 
turn yellow. The sheath is persistent." 

Note by Translator. The uncovered portion of the internode on a 
young culm is covered with fine bristles, but the sheath itself is quite 
smooth. Where the pseud ophyll joins the sheath there is a small projection 
bearing hairs, l)ut on the covered side the hairs seem to project directly 
from the edge of the limbus. The sheath is at first green, and remains so 
much longer than the limbus, which quickly dries, and becomes of a 
pinkish colour. For the shape sec the accompanying illustration. 

Nihon ChikU'Fu, 93 

in a warm situation it grows to a considerable size, attaining a 
height of over ten feet. The intemodes are from 3 to 4 sun 
long, with a girth of 4 to 5 sun. One or two nodes immediate- 
ly above the ground put forth numerous hair-like rootlets, 
and above that point every node has wans above it, which 
seems to indicate a similar disposition to produce fine rootlets. 
Hence the local name in Sagami, ibo-dake (wart-bamboo). 
The best lime for transplanting it is during the rains. It is 
also much propagated in the rainy season by cutting lengths of 
two or three intemodes and planting them in the ground, when 
the wart-like protuberances lengthen out into hairy rootlets. 
The cuticle is of a pale green colour and rough to the touch. 
Compared with the wrtcfayt<? the leaves are narrower and smaller, 
and are very pointed at the tips. The branches, which begin 
to grow from the 12th or 13th node above the ground, are 
short and slender. On young branches there are 3 to 4 leaves, 
on older ones 5, 6 or 7. The sprout of the square bamboo 
appears in the summer months in some cases, in others it is 
delayed till the autumn. The latter only develop their 
branches and leaves during the ensuing year. The sheath has 
small purple spots and the sprout is of an agreeable flavour. 
It is well known that this bamboo does not everywhere produce 
its shoots at the same time of year. It is said that in the 
district of Koza in the province of Sagami the shoots come up 
in January, while in the district of Kuka in the province of 
Suwo they arc delayed till the end of autumn or the beginning 
of winter, and it is not till the rainy season of the following year 
that the sheaths fall off and the branches and leaves develop. 
In the district of Yoshikawa in Tosi the sprouts sh ^w them- 

94 Fihon Chiku-Fu, 

selves about the time of the autumnal equinox, and they are 
particularly good eating. 

The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu quotes the Tanshiu Dzuchiku ifi 
WBUt) to the effect that "the square bamboo comes from 
Higo. But it is now found at various places in Musashi, 
larger specimens being a span or more in girth. When the 
plantation is old and the culms have reached their full growth, 
they are now and then found with a diameter of over 2 sun. 
The writer had himself seen flower-vases made of stems over 3 
sun in diameter. There are some pretty ones marked with 
lines, supposed to come from Loochoo, very different from the 
ordinary sort. Cut with a saw they show a square section." ^ 

The Honzo Komoku Keimo says : ' * The square bam- 
boo comes from Loochoo, but is now much grown in all parts 
of the country. It has a diameter of 7 or '8 sun, and is square 
without angles. Its whole surface is rough like sand. For 3 
or 4 nodes above the ground it has rootlets projecting all 
round like thorns. If these nodes be cut and thrust into the 
earth they take root readily. The stems are used for walking- 
sticks. In China large bamboos of this square form are said 
to exist "2 

The 1tifi¥ll-'^ says: "The s(iuare bamboo exists in 
various parts of the two Cheh, the provinces of Kiangsi, 
Kiangsu, Anliui, Kwangtung and Kwangsi.* The leaves and 
branches are like those of Phyllostachys Quilioi. But the 

* Kei-yen Chiku-Fu, vol. IV, f. 8 v. 
2 Bk. XXXIII f. 12 V. 

' Cliu-pu Siangj-lu. 

•* See riayf.iir, Cities and Towns of China. [>. 201. 

NVion Chiku-Fu. 95 

nodes and stem are square like ihe ^ ^3: ^. * In late autumn it 

puts forth sprouts, which develop into culms in the following 

year. Tall specimens attain a height of over 20 feet. There 

are no very large stems. It looks well with its pillar-like form." 

It is said that in China the square bamboo is sometimes 

found solid. Those grown in Japan have a thin pipe, and 

their tissue is soft. They look well when used for walking 

sticks and for other small articles. The general form of the 

bamboo is cylindrical, and this species alone is square, for 

which reason it has been regarded as a curiosity. A method 

exists of shortening the internodes. When the sprout is about 

to appear above ground, the sheath is stripped off, and the 

internodes become curiously contracted. These deformed 

specimens are used for the verandah railings of tea-rooms and 


The sheath is of delicate texture, and hangs very loosely to the young 
culm. Its upper portion is fringed with fine hairs, and the pseudophyll is 
exceedingly small, projecting from the straight end of the sheath, which is 
perhaps not more than 1/12 in. broad at the tip, like a tiny needle. [Trans.J 

This is commonly known by the name of Nankin-chiku 
(Chinese bamboo). The Chines names for it is # KS It, bam- 
boo of filial obedience. The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu^ adds 38 it 
kind bamboo, Wfi It Righteous bamboo, ~F 13: It Mother and 
child bamboo, >LA^1t Brothers bamboo, 38JK1t Kind old 
woman bamboo, 3Eji¥ti*^ the Bamboo of Wang-Siang, l^ltlttS', 
Angling line Bamboo, ^tt4t* Peach line Bamboo, #it Red 

* Yakumoso, or Leonurus sibiricus, Nat. ord. Labiatae. 

2 Vol. IV, f. 35 under the heading Nankin-dake. 

3 One of the Twenty four Paragons of Filial Piety. 

•* ig^ having nearly the same sound as ^, one being Vao^ the other Ciao, 

96 Nihon Chiku-Eu. 

Bamboo, jR 21 Slit Purple cloud canopy Bamboo, flit Basket 
Bamboo, Ifclt Autumn Bamboo, 0¥1t Bamboo of the Four 
seasons, all different names for one species. Tradition says 
that the Chinese Buddhist priest Taopen brought it with him 
when he became a naturalized Japanese, and having planted it 
on the hill by Sofukuji, the Chinese temple at Nagasaki, built 
a cell there, to which he gave the name of It^kMS Chiku rin 
An, or Cell of the Bamboo grove. Hence this bamboo was 
called To-chiku (i.e. Chinese bamboo) or Chikurin-chiku. 
In the growth of the sprouts, the summer ones are said to 
come up inside the parent plant, and keep it cool, while the 
winter ones come up outside and keep it warm. Hence the 
popular name Koko-chiku, Bamboo of Filial Piety. The 
subsequent cultivation of it at Fukuoka and Hakata in Chiku- 
zen is attributed to the initiative of the former daiinio of Chiku- 
zen, Kuroda Nagahiro. 

The culm and branches of this bamboo resemble those of 
the Taimin-dake (Arundinaria Hindsii var. graminea, F.-M.)^ 
but it is a different species. The leases vary in length from 7 or 8 
sun to 2 or 3, and in width from over a stin to -5 or -6. The 
culm varies in height from over 20 feet to 6 or 7. It grows dense- 
ly, a single clump containing at times several hundred stems. 
The root is caespitose, and does not spread. It loves a warm 
climate and a sandy soil, hence even in Chikuzen, wherever ex- 
posed to the northerly winds of winter, it dies down, and does 
not put forth its leaves before the warmth of spring comes on^ 
the sprouts making their appearance in August or September. 
The people boil them as a rare dish, out of the proper season. 
They are tender and have an agreeable sweet taste. The 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 97 

sheath is persistent. It is used for tea-scoops, being light and 

The Yamato Honzo says : * * According to the P6n ts'ao 
the ' loving bamboo ' (38 It) is also known as the ' righteous 
bamboo ' (H It). It grows clump-wise without spreading, and 
is grown as an ornamental plant. Possibly this is the 'Chinese 
bamboo ' (kara-take) recently introduced. It is also known as 
the Nanking bamboo. The ^ K xS V states that there is a 
caespitose bamboo, the sprouts of which do not spread abroad, 
hence its name Sfe4t."i 

The m%VL^^ says ** The* Ml It (bamboo of filial 
obedience) has long and slender stems, forming a large clump. 
In the summer its sprouts come from the inside and produce 
coolness, which they transmit to the parent bamboo. In the 
winter they come up outside and afford protection to the parent 
plant by covering it up. This is why it is called ' loving 
filial- affection'." 

The Honzo Komoku Keimo says : **Thc 'loving bam- 
boo * has a slender stem, not more than 6 or 7 feet high. Its 
sprouts grow close together, not externally."^ 

The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu, * quoting the ^ SK './j 4& 1* 8E (I-pu 
Fang-wu liao-chi) says : "The ' loving bamboo ' has caespitose 
roots, which do not spread. There are several other varieties. 
Those of which the internodcs are 8 or 9 sun in length are 

* Quoted from the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu vol. IV. f. 36. 

* Vol. IV. f. 3 of the Japanese reprint 

^ Quoted in the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu, vol. IV. f. 36. The original 
passage is in Bk. XXXIII, f. 19. 

* Vol. IV. f. 36 V. 

98 Xihon ChikuFu. 

called IE It (basket bamboo). That which attains a foot 
between the nodes is called =}? It (Bitter bamboo). That which 
has branches hanging towards the ground is called Mtl4fr 
(Thread-hanging l)amboo). Canes with l»»ng intermxles and 
a smooth cuticle arc made into hais." 

There is a kind of * loving bamboo ' resjmMing the ho-bi 
chiku. The kind mentioned in the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu as 
having a stem and l)ranches like those of the Ho-bi-chiku, but 
longer leaves, is the * loving bamboo * of the Honzo Komokn 
KeimO, while the variety just descril)ed is the * loving bamboo » 
of the Yamato IlonzO, and is the same as the * bambo> of fdial 
obedience' ilescril)ed in thel&lKESI, * the * loving bamboo ' 
of that book l)eing another sort. For it says "the Moving 
bamboo ' has a solid stem, and long internodes ; it is weak 
though strong looking. Its slender toughness suits it for use 
instead of wistaria tendrils." 

The Koko chiku does not grow in a dense clunij) except 
in warm situations. .V ship-broker residing at Kobe had some 
plants .sent from Chikuzcn, but found aft 3r the lapse of years 
that it did not flourish. In iSSiaroo: was brought from 
Chikuzen to Tokio, l)ut in spite of the care taken to protect it 
from the cold in winter, it withered and died. It may safely 
be inferred that the sudden change of s(jil and climate was the 
cause in both these cases. 

KANAYAMA-DAKK. (Bambusa metallica, F.-M.) 
This plant was discovered by Mr. Shirono in i8So at the 
goldmines at Yamagano in the district of Kuwabara, province 

1 Vol. T\'. f. 4 V. 

Nikon ChikU'Fu, 99 

of Osumi, hence its name. Since then it has been found from 
time to time on the neighbouring hills. It is a sort of Kuma- 
zasa (Bambusa palmata) with purple markings on the stem. 
It is very tough, and the pipe is unusually thick, like the 
Shakotan-chikui from the province of Shiribctsu in the Hok- 
kaido. Most bamboos that do not possess a creeping root- 
stock produce buds on the stem from the knots, beginning from 
the 4th and as far as the 8th knots from the root. But this 
species and the Shakotan-chiku produce buds at every node of 
the main stem, which in their turn become stems, just like 
those which spring from the underground buds of other species, 
which is the remarkable point about them. There is a 
specimen at the Museum in Tokio, which shows that the 
parent stem has produced from each knot buds, which develop- 
ed into culms taller than the original stem. The specimen 
has been deprived of both tip and root, and yet measures seven 
or eight feet in length. The first branch-culm is longer than 
the parent, while the third projects beyond the 2nd. If one of 
these stems be severed from the parent and planted in the 
ground, it will grow. The surface of the cane is marked with 
dark brown spots, but the colour is not the same in every case, 
being lighter or darker according to circumstances. Some are 
almost black, others much lighter. Although it is not so 
elegant as the Siangfei bamboo (see above p. 61) for the manu- 
facture of literary utensils, it may be applied to various useful 
purposes. Since its discovery it has been chiefly employed 
for bookshelves and pen-handles. 

1 In Mr. Freeraan.Mitford's opinion (which the translator shares) these 
two kinds arc identical. 

98 Nihon ChikU'Fu. 

tailed Hit (basket bamboo). That which attains a foot 
between the nodes is called S^ 4t (Bitter bamboo). That which 
has branches hanging towards the ground is called H^lkVt 
(Thread -hanging bamboo). Canes with long internodes and 
a smooth cuticle are made into hats." 

There is a kind of ' loving bamboo ' resem!>ling the hb-hi 
chiku. The kind mentioned in the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu as 
having a stem and branches like those of the Ho-hi-chiku^ but 
l6nger leaves, is the ' loving bamboo ' of the Honzo Komoku 
Keimo, while the variety just described is the * loving bamboo » 
of the Yamato Honzo, and is the same as the 'bamboo of filial 
obedience' described in thel&ff?£jK, ^ the * loving bamboo ' 
of that book being another sort. For it says * * the ' loving 
bamboo ' has a solid stem, and long internodes ; it is weak 
though strong looking. Its slender toughness suits it for use 
instead of wistaria tendrils." 

The Koko chiku does not grow in a dense clump except 
in warm situations. A ship-broker residing at Kobe had some 
plants sent from Chikuzen, but found alt^r the lapse of years 
that it did not flourish. In iSSiaroot was brought from 
Chikuzen to Tokio, but in spite of the care taken to protect it 
from the cold in winter, it withered and died. It may safely 
be inferred that the sudden change of soil and climate was the 
cause in both these cases. 

KANAYAMA-DAKE. (Bambusa metallica, F.-M.) 

This plant was discovered by Mr. Shirono in 1880 at the 

goldmines at Yamagano in the district of Kuwabara, province 

■ — ~— ^ __^ — . __ — _ 

1 Vol. IV. f. 4 V. 

Nihoji Chiku-Fu. 99 

of Osumi, hence its name. Since then it has been found from 
time to time on the neighbouring hills. It is a sort of Kuma- 
zasa (Bambusa palmata) with purple markings on the stem. 
It is very tough, and the pipe is unusually thick, like the 
Shakotan-chiku^ from the province of Shiribctsu in the Hok- 
kaido. Most bamboos that do not possess a creeping root- 
stock produce buds on the stem from the knots, beginning from 
the 4th and as far as the 8th knots from the root. But this 
species and the Shakotan-chiku produce buds at every node of 
the main stem, which in their turn become stems, just like 
those which spring from the underground buds of other species, 
which is the remarkable point about them. There is a 
specimen at the Museum in Tokio, which shows that the 
parent stem has produced from each knot buds, which develop- 
ed into culms taller than the original stem. The specimen 
has been deprived of both tip and root, and yet measures seven 
or eight feet in length. The first branch-culm is longer than 
the parent, while the third projects beyond the 2nd. If one of 
these stems be severed from the parent and planted in the 
ground, it will grow. The surface of the cane is marked with 
dark brown spots, but the colour is not the same in every case, 
being lighter or darker according to circumstances. Some are 
almost black, others much lighter. Although it is not so 
elegant as the Siangfei bamboo (see above p. 61) for the manu- 
facture of literary utensils, it may be applied to various useful 
purposes. Since its discovery it has been chiefly employed 
for bookshelves and pen-handles. 

^ In Mr. Freeraan-Mitford's opinion (whicli the translator shares) these 
two kinds arc identical. 

lOO Nihon Chikti'Fu, 

The yL-%VL1Si^ (Pi-ch'uan hwa-ching) mentions a bamboo 
called SWIt (ssu-ma-chu), the peculiarity of which is that it has 
buds which grow from the knots, and after these have develop- 
ed into culms, the knots of the latter send forth shoots. 
Perhaps this may be the same as Kanayama-dakc and Shakotan 

There is another sort found at the village of Nishi Soya, 
district of Mima, province of Awa in Shikoku, which is locally 
known as Boshinc-dakc and Sakae-dake. ^ It has no brown- 
spots on the culm like the Shakotan-chiku and Kanayama-dake, 
but resembles the ordinary shino-dakc, and does not grow 
thicker than a thumb, but every year about the month of April, 
as it grows taller, buds arc produced between the nodes, which 
develop into stems, exactly as in the case of the Shakotan- 
chiku and Kanayama-dake. These buds or sprouts are boiled, 
or roasted in the ashes, or eaten pre[)ared with vinegar and 
7uiso. The leaves are used for wrapping up rice-cakes, and 

* Vol. IV. f. 4 ot the Japanese reprint. 

* This seems to Ix; Tora-fu (or simply tora-) dakc found on the Hakone 
mountains, which is quite u different species from Bambusa I^ydeknri, 
though often seen growing with it. The stem resembles that of B. 
I^ydckeri, but differs from it in the manner it has of putting forth single 
branches from even the lowest nodes, which often grow to a greater length 
than the parent stem. The leaves arc rather longer than those of B. 
laydekeri. The sheath of the young shoot is green, closely set with stiff 
bristles, which is a distinguishing mark. The base of the pseudophyH 
bears small bunches of hairs. There is a small thicket of it at Ashinoya 
in the grounds of a ruined Buddhist temple behind the village. It does 
not seem to be mentioned by any writer on Japanese bamboos, and is 
probably a new species. In the third or fourth year the stem is in places 
covered with a black fungoid growth, which when washed oR leaves the 
stem stained irregularly of a light black. Hence the name tora-fii, tiger- 
mottling. See the last section in this volume. [Trans.] 

yihon ChikU'Fti. loi 

are valued for their fragrance. The culms may be used for 
making library utensils, sticks with which to hang up pictures 
on their hooks or for walking-sticks. 


The Kavi\ishiro-ddke is also called Kashiro-dake and 
Shira-dakc, Chinese names being IS 1t^ and 7lc fi It. ^ It is a 
sort cAha-chiku but having longer internodes, and reaching a 
height of 20 or 30 feet. The stem is hard, and the sheaths 
Avhitc, whence the name kawa-shiro-dakc (white sheathed bam- 
boo). What is known in Chikugo as Shira-^ake is the same. 
In the diary of a journey made by Mr. Tanaka Yoshiwo he 
notes that it is a well-known plant at the village of Hoshino, 
district of Kami Tsuma, in the province of Echigo. Its culm, 
he says, is like that of the madake, and it resembles the latter 
also in having no spots on the sheath. From the whiteness of 
the sheath it has got the name oi shira-^ake. It is much valued 
for the thongs olzori (sandals), but the stems cannot be turned 
to any account except for basket-work. A horseload of the 
sheaths is worth 70 yen (£ 7). The village of Hoshino produces 
three thousand bundles annually, each load weighing 33 J lbs. 
avoirdupois, and valued at from i yen 20 sen to i yen ^o sen 
(2 s. 5d. to 3s.). They are all despatched to Fukushima, where 
they are sorted into various (jualities. A good quality is also 
produced at Ohakari, Kago and Kita Kawada. 

This bamboo sends up its sprouts later. When the 
shoots of the Hixchikti and Madake are already ten and two feet 
high respectively, that of the shira-dake scarcely exceeds a foot. 

• Violet bamboo. 2 Water-white bamboo. 

I02 Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

The sprout differs from that of the ha-chiku, resembling in the 
main that of the ma-dake. Round Tokio the branch sheaths 
of the ina-dake are gathered for making the upper soles of zbri 
(sandals), the sheath of the culm having brown spots, which 
make it unsuitable except for the inferior class of sJ/v. But 
the branch sheaths are without spots, are of a white colour and 
thin, and are thus suitable foi the soles of clogs and for the 
better quality oizori. But the soles of the best seiia (sandaM) 
and of S£>r/were always made of sheaths known in the trade as 
X7/</ar/(' up-country'), which are nothing else than sheaths of 
this bamboo sent to TokiO by way of Osaka. 


In the Hokkaido arc produced bamboos known as 
viagari-dakc, and they are also found in Oshiu and Dcwa. 
They arc small bamboos closely resembling ashi (a reed known 
to botanists as Phragmitcs communis). The terminal bud of 
the creeping root-stock grows uj) into a culm, and conse(iuent- 
ly the portion near the root is cuned. It was formerly sup- 
posed that this form resulted from the pressure of overlying 
snow, but that is not the case. It is simply that a terminal 
bud has grown into a culm. At the Exposition of 1877 a so- 
called imno-hiki-dake was shown, which came from the village 
ofAkatsu, district of Asaka, in the province of Iwashiro, which 
was nothing else but the viagari-dake from the Hokkaido. 
This specimen is now in the Museum. The length of the 
stem is a little over 8 feet, its thickness near the root being that 

* Differs from zbri in having the hinder part of the sole shod with 

Xi/ion Chiku-Fu, 103 

of a thumb. The leaves are 7 sun long by i sun wide, and 

We have heard a native of Echigo speaking of the viagari- 
dake call lijin-dake (Kit). He described it as being of the 
same character as the via-dake, and 7 or 8 feet high. The ends, 
of the root grew up into culms. Consequently when cut they 
were all curved alike, and fences made of them looked very 
well. The sprout made its appearance in August, just as in 
the case of the kan-chiku (Bambusa marmorea). Perhaps it is 
identical with that species. It is said to be abundant between 
Echigo and the Aidzu district. Cold regions have their own 
species of bamboo in great abundance, but they do not grow 
erect as in warm climates. When good sorts are transplanted 
from warm into cold climates, the culm becomes stout and 
thick at the root, and becomes gradually slender towards the 
tip, not growing of equal thickness from end to end as in warm 
regions. Thus sorts like the niagati-dakc w'hen grown in a 
warm climate will probably send up sprouts in the same 
manner as the hlbi-chikii (Bambusa disticha, F.-M.) and 
kan-chiku. But in a cold climate the sprout trying to come up 
straight, but prevented from doing so by want of warmth, at 
first spreads underground, waiting for the advent of warmer 
weather, and then springs up into a culm. This is the natural 
working of a cold climate. 

Experience shows that bamboos without a creeping root- 
stock produce a number of hair-Hke rootlets, and mostly send 
forth buds underground from the third and fourth nodes of the 
root, which is always provided with these hair-like rootlets as 
far as the seventh or eighth node. The sprouts of the niagari-^ 

I04 Nihon Chiku-Fu. 

dake in a warm climate would grow up straight from the nodes 
on the root of the parent plant, and the nodes which give out 
these hair-like rootlets, when above the ground would have 
instead small warts, like the square bamboo and the kan-chiku. 
And in a cold climate the nodes which bear the hair-like root- 
lets spread below the surface and do not spring up into a culm 
till all those rootlets have grown. This is why all the lower 
ends are curved, and not because the terminal bud develops 
into a culm, as has been erroneously supposed. For the bam- 
boo in question has no creeping root-stock. Such plants as the 
kanayama-dake^ which grow in warm climates, produce buds 
from each node of the parent bamboo above ground, and these 
branches in their turn are longer than the parent stem. This 
b probably merely the effect of the climate. 

FUTAMATA'DAKE (forked bamboo.) 

The Chinese call these 5^ R It (heavenly parent bamboo); 
Hit (double bamboo); Mttlt (double-branched bamboo); 
also 'Q'RIt (rejoicing-together bamboo); •H&4t (double- 
lipped bamboo); Wit (coupled bamboo); ttti* (helping bam- 
boo); ffl .S 4t (mutually affectionate bamboo); *%fil It (peach- 
hair-pin bamboo"^ and so forth. Also 381 4t (lucky bamboo). 
This is a sport which sometimes occurs in a plantation, just 
like a tree with two, three or four leaders. But the latter is 
common enough, and not worth regarding as a curiosity. In 
the case of the bamboo it is unusual, hence is regarded as a 
rarity, and gets the name of 38Ht (lucky bamboo). The writer 
has seen such forked stems of Phyllostachys mitis in [the 
possession of a florist at Negishi in Tokio, and at the village of 

Nihon ChikU'Fu, 105 

Angio in Ashi-date district, province of Musashi. At about 
the fourth or fifth node above the root, the stem divided. 
Sometimes the sport takes place at the tenth or fourteenth 
node. The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu has a drawing of one that 
divided into five stems, and speaks of others that had eight or 
nine, and even as many as eighteen stems. 

According to the Japanese Encyclopaedia there was a 
forked bamboo at Tennoji near Osaka, which was a plant of 
Ha-chiku (Phylloslachys Henonis). 

Tlie Yamato Honzo explains the tt ti* as being a double 
bamboo, and quotes the 4t ft (Chu-fu) of the Chinese 
writer £ dF S5: (Wang Tzu-ching) in regard to it. The sprout 
it seems was called 'S* R. In Japan, it adds, it is a rarity, but 
is mentioned in the SB IKi^fi?^ (Ro-ya Dai-sui Hen). 

The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu says:^ " The varieties of the bam- 
boo are particularly numerous. At the monastery of KK# 
{Kwang-yen-szu) at Hangchow there was a whole plantation 
of bamboos having double culms. The most curious case was 
that of a bamboo rising out of the top of an old tree, and 
growing luxuriantly, in shape like a serpent or dragon 
coiled up." 

Not long ago in the garden of Otani Enzai there was a 
double bamboo, the top of which grew out of an old decayed 
pinetree ; it was a ha-^hiku and exactly corresponded with the 

* The following is a quotation from a Chinese work given in the Kei- 
yen Chiku-t^t^ and not an original statement of the author of that book. 


io6 ^iJwn Chiku-Fu. 

curious specimen said to liavc existed at the above-named 
monastery. ^ 

1 he iHf'ff tE 0X (Pi-ch'uan Hwa-ching) speaks of a double 
bamboo growing at the West Hills at Wulin in Chehkiang", 
the peculiarity of which was its long culms and slender leaves. 
The culms grew side by side, and their colour was particularly 

The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu cites innumerable other cases of 
bamboos with double culms, most of them from Chinese books. ' 

All I these cases arc mere sports, and if people like to 
regard them as good or bad omens, let them indulge their 
fancy. Only, in transplanting them, let great care be taken 
to dig them up with plenty of soil round the bole, and bind it 
together carefully with cords. 

OKINA'DAKE (Old man's bamboo.) 
Usually written a^ It, also called ^ B It (mokume-dake). 
In the It Iff S¥ J* (Chu-pu Siang-lu) it is called IBJ at It (striped 
bamboo). The Okina-dake is of the same kind as the Ila-chiku, 
having 3 to 5 pale yellow stripes along the upper and under 
surfaces of some among the entirely green leaves. The leaves 
of the tip and the young leaves arc sometimes green without 
white stripes. The ZO-ho Chi-kin-shO (* li fl6 ffl 1^)* says that 
the Okina-dake has white leaves with green stripes, which seen 

* This passage is a note in the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu, vol. IV. f. 21 v. 

» Near Haiigchou. Sec vol. IV. f. 3 v. of the Chinese work quoted. 

a Abridged from the original. [Trans.] 

* Wrong citation. It is from the supplement entitled Ki-cki chi-kin- 
shd, vol. I. f. 22 V. pub. in 1719. 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 107 

from a distance look as if it were covered with newly fallen 
snow. It is a variegated form of ha-chiku^ and much valued 
by florists, but not much grown now. It is a beautiful orna- 
ment to a garden. 

The It 18 ^ fl says the IS it It Chien-iao-chu (striped bam- 
boo) grows in the mountains of the Two HTr (Two Cheh)^, and 
is also found cultivated in gardens, its culm resembling the 
' water bamboo ' {^ It), but with the nodes closer together. 
The leaves are like those of the ^ IH It (hair-end bamboo), 
very long and slender. On their upper surface are pale yellow 
stripes, 5 to 7 in number, and they are sometimes as many as 
fourteen or fifteen in a bunch. 

There is another sort called tK ^ It (suishi-chiku^ Rock 
crystal Bamboo) of the same species as ha-chikuy the variegation 
stripes being wider than in the case of the Okina-dakc, and of a 
pure white. Another name for it is S UJ It snov.-mountain 
bamboo. It was formerly much cultivated by florists, but is 
no longer to be seen. 2 

RIO'SU-CHJKU (Dragon's beard bamboo.) 
Also known as ft IS It {Rw-so-c/iiku, dragon thread bam- 
boo). It used to be formerly imported from abroad, but the 
writer has not heard of its being grown in Japan. But in 
April of the present year^ a wild bamboo was found near the 
hills at Yokosuka in the province of Sagami, not far from 
Yokohama, the culm of which was as slender as a needle, or 

* See Playfair's ** Cities and Towns of China," p. 201. 

« This seems to Ihj taken from the 1^7|cMi]9l% {Sd-tnoku Kin-yo-shiu) 
2nd series, vol. IV. f. i. 

* 1885 seems to be meant. 

io8 Xihon Chiku-Fu, 

as thin as a thread. Its leaves also were small, like those of 
the ordinary sasa (bamboo grass). A number of these slender 
stems were growing together in a clump, without any branches. 
Those which were found under trees were taller, and bore 
fewer leaves. When exposed to snow or frost it withered, but 
of those which were protected by other plants or grew in a 
sunny exposure, and experienced neither frost nor snow, 
about half survived the winter, the other half perishing. But 
from the dead plants fresh culms sprang up abc*ut April. The 
people of the locality call it iio-dake^ and it may perhaps be the 
same as the Riu-su-chiku, 

According to the Uf»ffifElft (Pi-ch'uan Hua-ching) "the 
Dragon's beard bamboo grows in the mountains of Ts'in-chou* 
and Cheh-kiang. Its height is scarcely a foot, and the culm 
as slender as a needle, fit for planting in a basin. But it 
should not be exposed to snow or frost in winter. '=2 

The drawing given in the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu (vol. V. f 40 
V.) shows it to have branches. But the bamboo we speak of is 
of the same character as the jue-dake,^ which is quite different 
from the nezasa, and has no branches. The writer is cultiva- 
ting it, to see whether it can be kept alive. It is a sort o{ sasa, 

* Now called ^ R 815 i See Play fair's •• Cities and Towns of China.** 
It was apparently in Hunan. 

2 Vol. IV. f. 4. 

3 i.e. is an Arundinaria. 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 109 


This is a variety of bamboo with extremely long inter- 
nodes, found at Yanagawa in Chikugo. In the Kei-yen 
Chiku-Fu^ there is mentioned a bamboo staff four feet in 
length and a span in girth, with a knot at each end, said to 
have belonged to Saigio HOshi, 2 and still preserved at Shigi- 
tatsu-sawa at Oiso on the TokaidO. The No-sei zen-sho (ft i§fc 
^ •) is also quoted as speaking of a bamboo the internodes of 
which were six feet in length. 

According to the ¥^%'^W^ (Pi-ch'uan Hua-ching) the 
Soseisu-chiku has a lofty culm, with internodes a chattg (2fc) in 
length, and comes from 36 -9: tU KB, and the *Sl9IEW (Pen-ts'ao 
Huei-yen) states that this bamboo has them five or six feet in 
length. However wc have never seen anything of the sort. 
Perhaps such varieties may exist in India, but we have never 
heard of them in Japan. What is known in this country 
under the name olhira-iahe (K It) is in shape like the madake 
with smooth knots, and reaches a height of fifteen or sixteen 
feet, the leaves resembling those of the viedake, but shorter. 
The greatest distance between the nodes does not exceed a 
couple of feet, but at the Tokio Museum a specimen is 
preserved, the internodes of which are 2 feet 5 or 6 sun in 

Is the name given to a bamboo bearing branches on both 
sides of the knots. It is merely a rare sport, and difficult to 

^ Vol. II, f. 50 V. 

' A celebrated poet, b. 1140, d. 1198. 

3 Vol. IV. f. 4 V. 

no Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

obtain. According to the Kci-ycn Chiku-Fu ^ * * this bamboo is 
of rare occurrence. lis girth is not more than a span, but from 
right and left of each knot a branch issues, so that it looks like 
two bamboos growing together. The grooves similarly are 
found on both sides of the stem, and extend from one knot to 
another. In consequence of this formation, the stem is flattish, 
the longer diameter being 1.7 .<?////, the shorter only '9 sun. 
The alternate internodes are at right angles to each other. 
The nodes being prominent suggest the madakc^ but when 
carefully examined it is seen to be a sport of the ha-^hiku" 
The same author reports that some years ago a florist in 
Kameido had a green bamboo 15 or 16 feet high, in which 
above the 12 th or 13th knot counting from the root each knot 
had pairs of branches alternately at right angles to each other, 
just as in the variety already described, but at the top of the 
culm it was like an ordinary bamboo. This likewise was a 
sport of the ka-chikn, said to have been obtained from a neigh- 
bouring plantation. At the Museum is preserved a * double- 
branched bamboo ' known as the bifurcate ( fuia-mata-dake^ 
which is a great curiosity. This specimen has a flattened stem, 
with grooves on both sides of the first internode, followed by 
one having branches similarly situated ; the third internode 
has no branches, but they occur again on the fourth. Towards 
the top it divides into two stems, the knots of which bear 
branches alternately, growing on the same system as the first, 
second and third knots. This extremely curious object is a 
sport of the ha-chiku, 

1 Vol. IV. f. 28 V. 

Xihon C/nkU'Ifu, m 

CUIGO-ZASA (Bambusa argento-siriata M.) 

This is also known as Shima-zasa and Ydnagiba-zasa, It 
is scarcely a foot in height, and has long slender leaves growing 
at the tip of the culm, in number from six to nine. Some of 
these leaves bear from one to four white longitudinal stripes, 
while others are half white and half green. In rare cases an 
entire leaf of pure white occurs. This plant looks exceedingly 
elegant in gardens, by the side of stones, under trees, ponds, 
artificial mounds, TiXidtobi-ishL ^ It will flourish inany;kindof 
soil. If planted and left to itself it quickly spreads all over the 
garden, being of the same kind as nczasa. 

The Japanese Encyclopaedia gives much the same 
information, and the So-moku Kin-yo-shiu (?t tIc J8 SS Si) de- 
scribes this plant as a pretty variety of the fiezasa with pure 
white markings. * 

Florists have a dwarf bamboo they call oroshima (Bambusa 
pygmaea), the leaves and stem of which are again smaller than 
those of the chigo-zasa. It is planted among the stones of 
artificial mounds and ponds. In spite of its small size, it 
spreads freely, and when planted in a small pot it fills it up 

There is also a variety known as Kamuro-zasa (Bambusa 
aureo-striata). It has a soft branchless stem and yellow mark- 
ings on the surface of the leaves, which arc of delicate texture 
and very pretty. It is particularly suitable for treatment as a 

* In Japanese gardening flat stones of irregular shape disposed in 
lines arc so called. 

» So-moku Kin-yu-shiu, 2nd scries, vol. IV. f. 4. 

112 Nihon ChikU'Fu. 


This is not a separate species. If the head of a mosb or 
hoiei-^hiku (Phyllostachys mitis and P. aurea) be cut oS, 
numerous branches will spontaneously spring from the end of 
the culm, the leaves of which will cluster thickly in the shape 
of a ball {mariz=^hz\\). Florists sometimes call them 
* Hundred leaved bamboos/ 

According to the Zo-ho Chi-kin-shdy the foliage of any kind 
of bamboo will become denser, if the stem be cut short in May 
or June. ^ The production of these artificial plants depends 
upon a trick of the trade, which consists in tearing off the 
sheath from the young sprout. It may be done with the mdso 
or hoiei-chi'ku. The sheath next the ground being left in its 
place, the second and third are pulled away as quickly a& 
possible, care being taken not to injure the stem. The inter- 
nodes will then contract, and a short stem is the result When 
this sprout has grown up and sent forth its branches, two or 
three of the latter being left according as may be judged best, 
the upper part is all cut away. The branches that year will 
be few, but increase in number from year to year, as do the 
leaves also, until they present a spherical form. 

The Japanese Encyclopaedia says : * * We have never yet 
discovered whether a bamboo exists bearing a hundred leaves 
on one bfanch. But if the lower branches and leaves be 
removed, as well as those of the middle of the stem, and the 
leaves and branches left together at the top, the leaves will 

1 Vol. VITT. f. 18. V. 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 113 

grow densely, so as to look as if there were a hundred on one 

RAKANJO'CHIKU (the Lohan'si Bamboo cane.) 

This also is produced artificially. A tjmall plant of 
Phyllostachys Quilioi {madake) should be chosen, and as soon 
as the sprout appears above ground, the sheaths should be 
removed with such care as not to injure the culm, in anticipa- 
tion of their falling off naturally. The internode will then 
bend into a serpentine form, or at an angle. Various forms 
may thus be produced. An acquaintance of the author pursued 
this method year after year with a plant of Quilioi, with 
pleasingly varied results, and has now a small clump consist- 
ing of a dozen or so of such stems. He informs me that if a 
single sheath is removed at a time, the best curvatures will be 
obtained. It sometimes happens in a plantation that the same 
effect is produced through pressure from the fencing, or from 
other objects, whether wood or stone. 

In China these bent stems are said to occur spontaneous- 
ly. The Vifi^Vk (Chu-pu Siang-lu) asserts that the RakanjO- 
chiku grows at iB 185 /l^, the ancient Jung-chou.> To the east 
of this place rises Jung-li shan, where this bamboo is found, 
crooked like a dragon or serpent. But the crookedness of the 
bamboos on that mountain is probably caused by huge stones, 
or some other obstacle. For the bamboo's nature is to grow 
straight, and the alleged crookedness is contrary to it. The 

* Arhttt, a Buddhist saint. 

' An ancient place-name. See Playfair's " Cilieb and Towns ot 
China," p. 294. 

114 Xihon ChikU'Fu. 

Chinese regard it as a wonder because they are ignorant of its 


According to the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu the Chinese name of 
this plant is jR ^ tsze-jo. 

It is about two feet high, and its leaves resemble those of 
the Kumazasa, though more slender, attaining however 
length of 8 or 9 sun, wiih a breadth of over i sun. The leaves 
are arranged in sevens, and where only 5 or 6 are found, it is 
because the lower leaves have withered and fallen off. On the 
upper surface they have a pale red ^ midrib down the centre 
like that of the Kiimazasa, and on either side eight parallel 
veins from base to lip. In spite of the small size of this bamboo, 
it puts forth a single branch at each of the nodes, and in the 
persistence of the sheath resembles the Kumazasa, The only 
difference is the dark purple colouring just below each node. 
Although some ten years or more have elapsed since thii 
bamboo was planted at the country houie of the dainiid of 
Shirakawa at Otsuka, it is said never to have grown any 

The 1ttffl¥» (Chu-pu Siang-lu) says: -The fiSSW 
(Pei-jo chu) occurs sometimes. Its stem is more slender than 
a chopstick, its leaves as large as the palm of one's hand and 
long. Tlic ^ It (jo-chu) is identical with it, the only 
difference being the dark purple colour of the stem." 

To us it appears that this bamboo, though of the same 

kind as the Shakolan-chiku and Kanayama-dake, differs from 

1 * Yellow * in Translator's copy of the work quoted. See vol. TIT. f. 
15. V. 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 115 

them as to size in consequence of dissimilarity of climate. 
Again, in different localities it has had different names given to 
it in an arbitrary fashion, and florists especially have frequently 
indulged their fancy in this manner. The author has never 
seen the bamboo referred to, but believes that the name iaimai 
chiku given to it is merely a freak of the florists. He makes a 
note of it therefore for what it may be wordi. 


The Chinese give to this bamboo the following names : 
^ It (t'ung-chu), ^ SB It (t'ung-tsieh-chu, open node bamboo) 
and *8B1t (wu-tsieh-chu, nodeless bamboo). It is reported 
to be found in the province of Bingo in Japan, but the author 
has not come across it. Perhaps it did once exist, and has 
now disappeared. 

The Japanese Encyclopaedia says : *' Chiujo Hime was 

the daughter of Yokobai Udaijin Toyonari In the space 

of six hours she wove a mandara fifteen feet square, and used a 
knotless bamboo to roll it upon."-^ 

The i^'^Vfi Hon-zb Kei reports that * 'a knotless bamboo is 
found at Himedani in Bingo, commonly called shaku-hachi-^iake. 

The l» ff ?E « (Pi-ch'uan Hua-ching) says: *The a fflf It 
(t*ung tsieh chu) grows at J)t W (Chen chu). Its stem is erect, 
and without a knot, and the fistula has no septa. This is also 
a variety." 3 

To us it appears that notwithstanding the foregoing 
descriptions, no one has ever yet seen a bamboo of which the 

^ Handbook for Japan, 2nd edition p. 398, where the lepjend is given 
at some length. 

2 Vol. IV. f. 4 V. of the Japanese rq^rint. 

1 1 6 NiJwn ChikU'Fu, 

fistula had no sepia. The name shakti-hachi'dakc may have 
come from its presumed suitability for making the flutes called 
shahU'hachi, ^ or perhaps because the internodes \vere i foot 8 
sun in length. We make a note of it merely for \vhat it may 
be -worth. 

TAIMALCHIKU (JS ffl 4t). a 
The Kci-ycn Chiku-Fu says this bamboo is found at 
Molojima near the Fujikawa R. in Suruga. It is a large sort 
of Phyllostachys Quilioi {rna-dake), with variegated markings* 
Many years ago a person unnamed discovered this bamboo on 
a visit to Suruga, and brought back a piece about eight feet 
long and nine sun in girth, cut out of the middle of a culm. 
On inspection it was found that half of the stem was yellow, 
the other half bearing on the internodes large markings of dif- 
ferent shapes. In some cases they were contracted on one side, 
in others they resembled a large curved cucumber of late growth, 
in others again contracted on both sides like a gourd. Some 
were big at one end and small at the other, like a fan.^ Then 
there were others not contracted at all, but merely coloured 
dark purple. These markings in every case were of a deeper 
shade below and a lighter shade above. Both in China and in 
Japan there are many kinds of variegated bamboos, * but such 
as this with its strange natural markings ^^ are rare. The 

^ i. e. 1 foot 8 sun in length. 

» This differs from the other name tai-mai-chiku in the syllabic iai 
being written jg. 

3 UcJtiwa, 

* The Kci-yen Chiku-l"u ndds the word *aitif daily -produced ' (vol. 
III. f. 30 v.). [Trans.] 

« Add ' on each internodc* [Trans.] 

Nihon ChikU'Fu, 117 

description here given is that of a single stem after it had been 
dry for some time, but as it was said that there were plenty of 
living stems, and that too of young ones, there was no doubt 
great variation in the markings. Some one travelling there 
found the peasants splitting the stems to make those long 
baskets which, filled with stones, are used for strengthening 
the river banks against flood water. It is a great pity to employ 
such a curiosity for so ordinary a purpose. Owing to the fact 
that this bamboo grows in Suruga alone and nowhere else, 
botanists make no mention of it. The first occasion of its 
being obtained was that above referred to, and so it is 
generally unknown. ^ 

Taimai-chiku is the local name for it. The markings are 
extremely- large, and resemble those on the carapace of a 
tortoise, whence the name. We are disposed to the opinion 
that this plant being a variegated bamboo of the male bamboo 
class 2 and distinguished for the beauty of its markings, the name 
has been given to it, somewhat without justification. But 
from the drawings we think it must be of the same species as 
the Tamba han-chiku (variegated bamboo of Tamba). 

SHIRd-CHJKU 5S ^. It. 

Shibu'ldka (Astringent Bamboo) is another name for this 
plant. It grows to a height of five or six feet, and in stem, 
branches and leaves resembles the ya-dake (Phyllostachys 
bambusoides). Sometimes each leaf is veined with white, but 

^ The passage taken from the Kei-yen Chiku-Ku ends here. The rest 
seems to be the author's own. 
2 i. e. a Phyllostachys. 

ii8 Nihon Chiku-Fu. 

even on the same plant other leaves without such markings 
and exactly like those of the ma-dake are sometimes found. 
It was probably introduced long ago from China, and is now 
to be found at the Otsuka country-house of the Daimio of 
Shirakawa. In general form it is a variety of the ya-dake with 
variegated leaves. The sheath is persistent TTie upper half 
of each internode is rough to the touch like sand-paper, and it 
may be used for polishing. So far the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu. 
The statement in the Honzo Komoku *'its nature is rough "^ 
probably refers to a bamboo of this sort. 

The » » ?2 « (Pi-ch uan Hua-ching) says : The S » It 
(SzQ-lao chu) grows in JBTrfH (Hsin-chou). A single branch 
bears a hundred leaves. The cuticle is rough, and may be 
used for whetstones. When long used it becomes somewhat 
smoother. If moistened with vinegar or soy after a night it 
becomes as rough as before. It is much used for the quarrels 
of crossbows. ''2 The plant thus described is identical with 
what we have before us. But the author has never seen a 
bamboo of which the cuticle was so rough that it could be 
used as a substitute for sand-paper. The cuticle of the bamboo 
is formed of silica, and if rough might be used for polishing. 
The hl'Chiku (Bambusa (juadrangularis) has that quality to 
some extent, but not enough for use in polishing. We mention 
the statement for it what may be worth. 

i The author of the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu expressly says tliat the plant at 
Otsuka had not this rough surface, and he doubts the identification with 
the Chinese Szu-lao Chu. Mr. Katayama seems to have read the passage 
rather hurriedly. Sec vol. II. f. 63. [Trans.] 

2 1. c. vol. IV. f. 3. 

Nihon Chiku-Fu, ii(> 

CHJN'CHIKU (?* It). 

Is also known as chiu-chiku (insect bamboo). It is said to 
grow at Saga in Hizen. The specimens found in China are 
said to produce at each node an insect, like a young cicada 
before it gets its wings. Those grown in Japan are inhabited 
by an insect like a beede. 

The J^J'?'- — iSW (Hon-zo Ikka-gen) says: ** There isL 
the insect bamboo, which produces an insect shaped like a 
cockroach. It grows at Saga in Hizen, and is called chin-chiku'*^ 

The It Iff? ft (Chu-pu Siang-lu) says: *'The insect- 
bamboo is found on the 4:155 Ul (Ch'i-min Shan). Its growth 
is dense like that of a reed, y.ach node produces an insect, 
like a young cicada that has not yet got its wings. There is no 
outward sign of it, and it develops with the growth of the cane. 
When the bamboo is on the point of completing its growth, 
a hole appears on one side, from which it issues forth. It is 
also found on^lBllJ (Tung-yang Shan) in ll?W (Wu-chou)." 

This is a (luotation given in the Kei-ycn Chiku-Fu. ^ In 
the prefecture of Fukuoka there is a plant known as chin-chikti^ 
the leaves of which are short and slender like those of the Hd^ 
hi-chikii (Bambusa disticha). It was much planted as a hedge 
round the (juarters of the military retainers, under the name of 
chin-chiku-kahc,^ and was considered very common. The 
Chikuzen chin-chiku is large, like the Tosa doyd-chiku. It is 
said to resist the wind, and to rise up again erect after being 
blown down. In nearly every locality there is a plant to which 

» Vol. II. f. 67. 

120 NiJion ChikU'Fu. 

this name is applied. In the district of Ashikita in Higo there 
is a chin-chiku also known as hotaru-zasa (firefly dwarf-bamboo). 
What is called chin-chiku in Mikawa is Phyllostachys aurea. 
In Echigo the name is given to the magari-dakc (curved 
bamboo). There are other kinds known as chin-chiku, but the 
author has never found any that produced an insect in each 
node. We mention the statement for what it may be worth. 

KAN-CHIKIA (Chinese bamboo). 

This is said to be found in the province of lyo. The 
author of the Kci-yen Chiku-Fu' says it was to be found in a 
copse belonging to a farmer named Kaneko Ichizaemon living 
at the village of Kaneko about 3^ ri from the river Sakawa- 
gawa in Sagami. 

The ^H (Sun-pu) says: **The kan-chiku is so large 
that a single large internode will hold a koku (4*9629 bushels) 
while the smaller ones will contain several io (0.4963 bushel). 
It can be made into tubs and barrels. A single joint of the 
sprout will hold two or three shd (0*04963 bushel)". ^ 

The Japanese Encyclopaedia tells us that the Kan-chiku 
grows at Yung-ch'ang (^ B) in the province of Yunnan, and 
that measures of capacity can be made from it. 

According to the Go-zasso (S H ffl) there is a huge bam- 
boo found at ]■ i? (Lo-fu) twenty feet in girth, with thirty-nine 
nodes, each internode twenty feet in length. 

The ^b%VLWL (Pi-ch'uan Hwa-ching) also speaks of a 

2 Vol. III. f. 36 V. 

» See Kci-yen Chiku-Fu III. f. 37. 

Nihon ChikU'Fu. 121 

WL^Vt (Lung-kung chu) found on Lo-fu shan, the diameter of 
which is over seven feet, the length of the internodes being 
twenty feet. Its leaves are as large as those of a banana. 
The same work asserts that the stem of the ES R It (Lin-ho 
chu) is sometimes ten spans in girth, more wonderful even 
than the lung-kung bamboo. It is found at ES R (Lin-ho).^ 

The 1t2Si¥Jft (Chu-pu Siang-lu) speaks of the fi5S4t 
(Lung-hwuh chu) which grows on Lo-fu shan, whence it lakes 
its name. All the stems are ten [blank] in girth. 

Our view is that the kan-chiku, so-called, found in lyo 
and Sagami is nothing else than Phyllostachys Quilioi of large 
size owing to a suitable soil. It attains a girth of something 
over two feet, and is evidently different from the lung-kung and 
lin-ho bamboos. 


This variety has several Chinese names, as SS Of 4t (Kao- 
tsieh chu, prominent node bamboo) flllt (chiung-chu)^, ^ ^1t 
(fu-lao chu, old man's staff), ffl jilt ( Yin-t'ing chu, silver-barb 
bamboo). It used to be imported from China, but seems now 
to have disappeared. The Kei-yen Chiku-Fu^ tells us that a 
plant was introduced about 60 or 70 years ago, and grown in 
a garden belonging to Matsudaira Harima no kami, which in 
three or four years spread so as to cover a space of sixteen 
square yards. But that there was none of it left when he wrote. 

The Taki family possessed a withered culm which is fig- 
ured in the above-mentioned work. The whole stem was red 

1 Vol. IV. of Japanese reprint ff. 3 v. and 4. 
* Perhaps Phyllostachys Aurea. [Trans.] 
« Vol. IV. f. 4 V. 

122 Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

and black, '3 or -4 mn in diameter, with six nodes in a length 
of three feet. The nodes were shaped like the beads of an 
abacus, round and flat, with a girth of three sun. 

The Japanese Encyclopaedia says: **The SSfit Pao- 
tsieh chu is found in S (Shu). It has prominent nodes like 
pieces of gravel, and is no other than the fli It (chiung chu)." 

In the 4t Sf (Chu-pu) we find it stated that the best bamboo 
for walking sticks is the % (chiiing). Its form is unusual, and 
looks artificial. Why it should grow in S (Shu) only, and 
nowhere else does not appear. One of its synonyms is $^ ^ 
(fu-lao) old- man's staff. 

This is probably a sort of Kobu-dakc. 

BICHIKU. Bambusa tessellata M. (« #). 

This bamboo is also called JRIt {kuai-chu), ^ JR {kan-san), 
i(B ¥ (siivig-jo) and fif ^ {isien-kan). It has numerous nodes 
in a foot of length, and the leaves are as large as a sandal, or 
like a round fan. This the ** green bamboo of the recesses in 
the banks of the K'e" mentioned in ihe Shi-king.^ In former 
times Chinese junks coming to Nagasaki had sails plaited of 
the leaves of this bamboo, which they never lowered on the 
voyage. 2 The largest bamboo leaves are selected by the sail- 
makers, and they are reported to use the leaves of bi-chtku as 
well as of bamboo-grass {sasa) and the like. The root oibi- 
chiku is said to penetrate far into the ground, so that it with- 
stands the frost, and the sprouts, which are edible, make their 

* Legge's Chinese Classics Vol. IV. Pt. I. p. 91. 
» Probably 1 ccause they sailed with the monsoon, and ran liefore the 
wind. [Trans.] 

Nihon ChikU'Fu, 123 

appearance both summer and Nvinter. If it were introduced 
into the Hokkaido there is no doubt that it would succeed. 

The Japanese Encyclopaedia informs us that the Bambusa 
tessellata is found in ftSffl Ching-nan^ and has many nodes to 
a foot of stem. 

The It Iff Chu-fu describes the Bambusa tessclata as a sort 
of ch'iiin (Bf). It is full of nodes and short. In Kwang-tung 
and Kwang-si it is called ^|R {Kan-san), Its root strikes 
deep, and it resists cold, flourishing on "those banks of the KM." 

IDARA-DAKE, prickly bamboo. 
The Japanese Encyclopaedia informs us that this is a rare 
object, and never found of any great size. 2 The Kei-yen 
ChikU'Fu citing all the books enumerates over ten synonyms, 
and also gives a figure of it, which however does not agree with 
the statement of the Encyclopaedia. It appears that it has never 
been heard of in Japan, but the ItSff (Chu-pu) states that in China 
the prickly bamboo has a root like a multitude of wheels, and 
knots like a bundle of needles. It jseems from this that though 
the so-called ibara-dake resembles the figure given in the Kei- 
yen Chiku-Fu, the name can only have been given in Japan to 
a sport. If you plant a Phyllostachys Quilioi in your garden, 
and when the sprouts come up pull off all the sheaths and leave 
it to grow, the nodes will twist about at varying angles, exactly 
like the woodcut in the Japanese Encyclopaedia. Nezasa is 
also called ibara-dakey probably because its prickles being like 
needles, it is a great nuisance to the farmer. The cut stumps 

^ In Hupeh. Playfair's " Cities and Towns of China " p. 63. 
2 Quotation copied from the Kei-yen Chiku-Fu. Vol. 11. f. 57 v. 


124 Nikon ChikU'Fu, 

of bamboos arc also termed * devirs-teeth/ because, if persons 
walking in the woods come in contact with them, they are apt 
to be wounded by them, as if they had been bitten by a devil. 
Both in China and Japan names often arise in this way. The 
name ibara-dake has no doubt been given to wild bamboos 
growing in the woods because they hurt just like thorns. But 
we have never yet heard in Japan of the thorny bamboo men- 
tioned in the It St (Chu-pu) nor of that figured in the Honzo 
Komoku, which is said to have a girth of two f^et, and to aTord 
protection against robbers. 

^AKASA-DAKE (Upside-down Bamboo). 

It is difiicult to train a bamboo in this form. The method 
consists in raising up the over-ground rhizome of som3 
bamboo that has a creeping root-stock, and thrusting the 
terminal bud into the ground. Then wait until it has put forth 
filiform roots in abundance, and the leaves and branches have 
developed, when the root-stock should be severed, and a bam- 
boo is produced which grows upside down. The 46 IS i^ K 
Hoku-yetsu Kidan, ^ it is true, makes mention of an ' Upside- 
down bamboo,' but this was most probably an artificial plant, 
not a natural growth. According to that work, it is to be 
found at the village of Kami Toriya near Niigata, at a spot 
sacred to the memory of Shinran ShOnin, and the plantation is 
still thick and dense. In ancient times there were ' upside- 
down bamboos ' here, but now there are no more to be seen. 

* A description of the province of Echigo. 

Nihon Chiku'Fu, 125 


How to shorten the intemodes (joints) of bamboos. 

To shorten the joints of bamboos for fishing-rods and 
walking sticks. When the young stem has shot up to a height 
of eight or nine feet, pull off the sheaths. 

To give lightness to bamboo stems. 

Cut them down just before ripening, fasten a heavy stone 
to the tips, and hang them up to dry in a smoky place. 

To flatten out bamboo stems. Remove the nodes at both 
ends, and scrape off the hard cuticle, then after splitting them 
down one side, boil them with buckwheat husks or the root of 
Bocconia cordata. When they are thoroughly softened by the 
boiling, take them out and place them on a flat table. Then 
introduce a piece of wood into the slit, and open out the pipe 
gently. If it does not flatten the first time, boil it again till it 
docs. Afterwards the outside, from which the cuticle was 
scraped ofl^, should be ironed with a hot iron, to prevent the 
bamboo resuming its previous shape. 

To split a bamboo, begin at the top, and work downwards 
towards the root end. 

To lengthen the intemodes of a growing bamboo. 

When the sprouts come up, select the largest and health- 
iest, and manure them with manure made from rotten corpses 
of animals, and pile up the earth round them. Also tie the 
sheaths round with rushes or straw to prevent them falling off". 

To prevent the root-stock of a bamboo spreading, you may 
dig a deep trench round the bamboo, and fill it with seeds of 
the saikaclii (Gleditschia japonica). But if that is too trouble- 

126 Nihon Chiku-Fu, 

some, the same result can be obtained by using buckwheat 
husks, or seaweed from the shore, if you live by the seaside. 


Dead bodies of cattle, horses, dogs, cats, rats and any 
other animals, also bones, skins, and hoofs, also boot leather 
after being thoroughly soaked in water, also cuttle fish (sepia) 
and the guts of cuttlefish. Also beef or dead rats put in a tub 
of water and allowed to putrify until all the smell disappears, 
and the liquor mixed with rain water. 

Dead leaves, rotten leaf mould, stable manure, rotten 
compost, bamboo leaves, bran, refuse of sake (rice-beer), 
Mrazu (rtfuse of bean curd), human dung, dung of horses and 
cattle, oil-cake (excei)t the refuse of sesame oil). 

Water in which rice has been washed, bath-water, mud of 
rivers or rice fields, sand, lime, old shells. 

Bamboos dislike seaweed, salt, stems of buckwheat, 
buckwheat husks, sesame, ginger, leaves and seeds of the 
saikachi (Gleditschia japonica), salt fish. 


Nihon ChikU'Fu. 127 


This bamboo, which is found on the hills to the south and 
south east of the Hakone Lake, does not appear so far to have 
been described by botanists. That it differs essentially from 
the so-called Hakonc-dake, which the writer takes to be the 
same as me-dake and shino-dakey is clearly shown in the accom- 
panying illustration. He found it growing along with the 
latter in May 1899. The way in which it branches calls to 
mind the kana-yama-dake or shakoian-chiku (q. v. ), and perhaps 
imder cultivation it may show the same caespitose habit, but 
in the bamboo thickets where it is found growing along with 
Arundinaria japonica this characteristic is not noticeable. On 
the other hand its foliage differs a good deal from that of kana- 
yama-dake, the leaves being much smaller and narrower. The 
stem is cylindrical, like that of Bambusa and Arundinaria, and 
the upper half of each internode is of a purple colour. From 
the second year onwards a black fungus is apt to develop, 
especially on the lower internodes, which when washed ofl 
leaves dark blotches. Hence the name iora-/u^ which means 
' tiger-marking. ' 

The branches often out-top the end of the main stem. 

The sheath of the young shoot is bright green, and is 
covered with short stiff bristles. There are hairs about the 
base of the pseudophyll. [E. M. S.] 


A General Meeting of the Asiatic Society of Japan was 
held at the British Legation, Tokio, on Wednesday the 21st 
June at 4 p.m., Dr. Edward Divers, F.R.S., being in the 

The Chairman having called on Sir Ernest Satow to read 
his paper entitled : — 


Sir Ernest Satow said that the main portion of his paper 
was too long and in some respects too technical to be well 
adapted for reading. He would therefore read only the Intro- 
duction, of which the following is a precis. 

The writer commenced by observing that it was only in 
recent years that the bamboo had been cultivated in England 
in the open air. For a long time it had been supposed that 
the climate of Great Britain was too raw and cold for such 
delicate plants. At present, however, it had become rather 
the fashion to grow bamboos, and horticulturists seeking for 
hardy species had naturally turned to Japan because its climate, 
though possessing on the whole a higher temperature than 
Great Britain, was subject to correspondingly greater cold and 
more frequent frosts in winter. The result had been very 
successful. In one instance, that of a garden in the Midlands, 
a locaHty noted for the severity of its climate, some fifty species 
had been found to flourish exceedingly well, though of course 
not reaching the dimensions they attained elsewhere. A large 
number of these had been imported from Japan, and it migh 

interest people to know that a considerable business in the 
exportation of bamboos to Europe was now being carried on 
in Tokio and Yokohama. 

The writer's object in preparing this paper had not been 
to give an account of the uses to which the dry cane might be 
turned but rather to encourage the cultivation of the living 
plant, and to assist in determining the right nomenclature of 
the various kinds of bamboos already introduced into the 
gardens and parks of Great Britain. 

The body of the paper consisted mainly of a translation 
of the **NihonChikuFu/' or ** Manual of Japanese Bamboos," 
a book published in 1885 by the late Katayama Nawohito. 
A Dutch translation of this work had been prepared some 
years ago by Monsieur L6on van der Polder, Secretary to the 
Netherlands Legation in Tokio, and the same gentleman had 
also made a French translation which still remained in manu- 
script. A new version in the English language might not, it 
seemed to the writer of the paper, be regarded as superfluous. 
In the preparation of this, care had been taken to follow the 
original text as closely as possible, but it had appeared. advisable 
to omit some unimportant matter, such as the difterent methods 
of preparing bamboo sprouts for the market, and the chemical 
analysis of bamboo seed. The author, or to speak more 
correctly, the compiler, of the work in question having evidently 
been indebted to an earlier and more elaborate book, the 
Keiyen Chiku-Fu, written by an anonymous author, the latter 
had been compared thoughout and extracts had been given 
where necessary. 


The writer had been led to undertake the labour involved 
in the preparation of the paper by the recent publication of 
" The Bamboo Garden " by Mr. A.B. Freeman-Mitford. That 
work contained descriptions of many of the species mentioned 
by Katayama as they had been grown by him in central 
England. It was well known that differences of soil and 
climate when supplemented by care bestowed in cultivation 
resulted in considerable variations in many plants, especially 
so far as size was concerned. The Rosa engosa, the oleander, 
and the Berberis Thtmberjii were all instances of the changes 
which occurred and the Bamboo was no exception to the rule. 
It was therefore no matter for surprise that gardeners and cul- 
tivators should find it difficult to determine the plants which 
they obtained in Japan. They usually arrived in poor condition 
and it was necessary for three or four years to elapse before 
they developed sufficiently to admit of accurate identification. 
In the meantime, however, they had been named by the dealers, 
and sometimes in a manner which led to great confusion. 
Another cause of error lay in the fact that labels became illegible 
in transit and becoming detached were afterwards assigned to 
the wrong plants. Hence, as the reader who consulted Mr. 
Mitford's book would learn, there existed a considerable amount 
of uncertainty as to the proper scientific equivalents of the 
Japanese names of Bamboos, which was increased by the mul- 
tiplicity of synonyms given to them -in Japan. 

Various instances illustrating the uncertainty which existed 
were given by the writer, who proceeded to refer to the great 
merits of the list of Japanese plants compiled by Professor 
Matsumura of the Imperial University of Tokyo, which gave 

the names of all the botanical species known in this countr}', 
and not properly to be included as exotics, distinguishing as 
far as possible the indigenous species from those which had 
been cultivated for so long a time as to be fairly regarded as 
naturalized. Professor Matsumura's scientific names disagreed 
in some instances with those given in the list at the end of Mr. 
Mitford's book, and therefore whenever in the author's paper 
the Japanese name of a bamboo appeared as the heading of a 
section both the specific names, distinguished by initials, had 
been given. In the cases where no Latin names had yet been 
assigned it might be found that the Japanese names merely 
represented garden varieties. 

After referring to the practical dilliculty in identification 
caused by the fact that most bamboos flower very rarely, the 
author of the paper discussed in detail the question of the 
classification of certain species of Bamboo, drew attention to 
the permanent characteristics of all bamboo, and the essential 
diflferences which existed between certain varieties, and exa- 
mined generally the question o^ genus identification. 

Professor Matsumura, it was pointed out,, enumerated in 
his list 22 species of bamboo known in Japan, only seven of 
which he apparently regarded as exotic. Katayama, on the 
other hand, mentioned 5 1 sorts, but of these at least two dozen 
were either doubtful species or mere * * sports." 

Of the Bamboos grown in Japan three only, as a rule, 
attained any great size. These were the Moso, the Madake and 
the HachikUf all of which were valuable for economic purposes. 
The first supplied the bamboo shoots used as a vegetable ; the 
second was commonly employed for water pipes, scaffolding 

poles, roofing poles and many other purposes, being perhaps 
the commonest of all ; the third, though less common, was 
adaptable to the same uses as the second. The first was what 
was commonly known to foreign residents as '*the feathery 
bamboo," from the manner in which the plumes bent over, 
and the yellow stem and yellowish-green foliage rendered it a 
picturesque object in the landscape. Of the larger species it 
was certainly the most decorative, the next to it in point of 
beauty being one of the smaller species, the Taumin-chiku^ 
which had also a drooping habit. 

After he had finished the reading of the Introduction to 
his paper, the concluding portion of which dealt with the cul- 
tivation of the Bamboo in Japanese gardens, Sir Ernest Satow 
made the following additional observations : 

The origin of the word bamboo, he explained, was obscure. 
Colonel Yule, in his delightful "Glossary of Anglo-Indian 
words," thought we got it through the Portuguese from a 
Canarese word banwu. The earliest Portuguese writer called it 
mambu, and its first occurrence in English was in Hakluyts 
Voyages (1586) in the form Bambo. By the time of Purchas, 
in 162 1, it had assumed its present form Bamboo. 

The Bambusaceae, according to Munro, quoted in Mit- 
fords ** Bamboo Garden," were divided into three sections, 
Trigiossae, having three stamens, the True Bamboos, having 
six, and Baca/erae, having six stamens and a berry-shaped 
fruit. The first of these contained three sub-sections, of which 
the first, Arundinariaey contained three genera , two of which, 
namely Arundinaria and Phyllostachys, he had already described 
by their main characteristics. 


If we dug up a bamboo we found that it consisted in 
many instances of an under-ground stem with knots like those 
on the over-ground stem but closer together. In the specimen 
of Hotel chiku which he showed it would be seen that each 
knot bore a bud.. Some of these buds developed and thrust 
themselves above-ground in the form of a shoot. This shoot 
he compared to a closed telescope which was gradually drawn 
out as the stem gained in height. The stem never grew in 
thickness after it was once formed and it attained its full height 
in the first year of its life, the only apparent exception being in 
the terminal leaf which sometimes did not unfold till the 
second year. The branches developed in the same manner as 
the stem, and bore the leaves. Both main stem and branches 
bore buds at the knots or nodes, which in many cases did not 
develop during the first year of life. 

The joint or portion between two nodes was called the 
internode. It was enveloped in a sheath, terminated on the 
lower part of the stem by a leaf-like appendage styled limbus^ 
or pseudo-phyll. It had no midrib, but at the top of the stem 
the last four or five assumed the form of a true leaf. These 
leaves were borne on sheaths which covered each other almost 
entirely, so that they seemed to grow close together ; but if 
their sheaths were carefully stripped off it would be seen that 
each sheath rose from the lower end of an internode which it 
tightly embraced. Only the terminal leaf had no sheath and 
sprang directly from the top of the last node of all. In one 
species, the Bungo-zasa {Bamhusa niscifolid), the branches 
were very short, and each bore only one leaf. It would be 
seen therefore that the unit out of which a bamboo was built 


up consisted of a single internode wfth its accompanying sheath 
and pseudo-phyll, or true leai^ as the case might be. 

Various species of bamboos were exhibited in the course 
of the lecture and the differences in their sheaths as to colour 
and hairiness were pointed out. The ligule, which was ex- 
plained to be a small membranaceous portion of the sheath 
adhering closely to the stem and preventing rain-water from 
running down and lodging between the sheath and the inter- 
node, was also shown, and the lecture concluded with the 
exhibition of a small collection of variegated bamboos. 

The Chairman thanked Sir Ernest Satow in the name of 
the Society for his valuable and interesting lecture. 

The meeting adjourned at 5.30 p.m. 

&UJlt^ r 










Page VIII, Line 7, for "Mineyuki " read "MuneyuH.'' 




































No. 17. 


8 „ "Yoehitaka" 

16, „ "87" 

17, „ «»Tadayori" 
13, „ «*Nai8hino" 

4, „ '»No. 7." 
?4, ,. •* eighth" 

5, at end of line insert — {»-. 

10, at beginning of line elide — or. 

21, at end of iine insert - in. 
4, for '*Miaa'' read JVusa. 

23, „ ^*no" „ of. 

16, „ "Oh" „ Or. 

18, „ "Its" „ It is a. 
2, elide "carry." 
8, ibr Kyogen read Kenybgen, 

17, „ "look" „ looked. 

11, elide "femily" 

22, for "fallen" read "fleeting." 
15, „ "Captain F. H. read Captain F. 

Various other errors are at once patent to the reader. Numerous 
mistakes in fvnctvaticny owing to a very hurried proofreading, remain 
in the published text. 


1 as a 
s had 
g:e, I 

Ti for 
red a 



: the 
re of 


• In the preparation ol the work 1 have received 
much valuable assistance, that I here gratefully 


About six years ago, at the house of a Japanese 
friend, my attention was first called to the Hyaku-- 
fdn-isshu (The Single Songs of a Hundred Poets). 
The members of the family were using them as a 
** parlor-game." Not knowing that the poems had 
ever been translated into the English language, I 
soon afterwards asked one of my students and 
friends, Mr. Iwao Hasunuma, to translate them for 
me. Mr. Hasunuma's rough-hewn work became 
the foundation upon which the structure here reared 
was laid. Nearly four years ago I had rendered a 
large part of the poems into the form of English 
quatrains. Mr. F. V. Dickins's versified paraphrase 
of these poems, at about that time, came into my 
hands. It had been made thirty years previously, — 
evidently under many limiting circumstances. The 
desire then awoke in me to attempt to put the 
Hyakunin-isshu into English in literal translations 
that should, at the same time, follow the metre of 
the Japanese originals. More than a year ago this 
venture was carried to completion. To day, after 
much re-study, amendment and amplification, I make 
the work public. 

• In the preparation of the work I have received 
much valuable assistance, that I here gratefully 

11 Prejaa. 

acknowledge. I am greatly indebted to His Excel- 
lency Sir Ernest Satow, who placed at my disposal 
notes on the Hyakuninrissku made by him during his 
reading of the poems in 1872, " with a very good 
teacher," These notes I have had with me during 
die final revision of these pages. I am under 
obligation, too, to Dn W. G. Aston's " History of 
Japanese Literature," and his " Grammar of the 
Japanese Written Language ;" to Professor B. H. 
Chamberlain's essay ** Upon the.Use of Pillow-words 
and Plays upon Words in Japanese Poetry," and to 
his ** Introduction " to the " Classical Poetry of the 
Japanese ;" and also, to the " History of the Empire 
of Japan," published by order of the Imperial De- 
partment of Education, translated by Captain F. H* 
Brinkley. Quite recently, '' Die Ueder der Hundert 
DichteTy' " eingeleitet und ubersetzt von P. Ehmatm^^ 
— ^an issue of the German Society for '^ Natur und 
Volkerkunde Ostasiens,'* — ^has come to me, and I 
wish to acknowledge further, in connection with 
some biographical dates and certain obscure gram- 
matical forms, assistance from the notes of this 
generally excellent German translation. As far as 
I know, besides Mr. Dickins's English renderings 
and that of Mn Ehmann in German, there is no 
other translation of the Hyakumn-isshu, excepting a 
French version of a score and more of the tonka by 
Professor L6on de Rosny, in '* Anthologie yapcm* 
mse^ a work which I have seen but have not had 

Ihe Asiatic Society of Japan, iii 

opportunity for using. Some special items of ii>- 
formation gathered concerning the origin of the 
whole compilation and its adaptation for the purposes 
of card-playing, I owe to my friend Mr. Saichiro 

Again thanking those whose labors I have used 
for the furtherance of my own efforts, I submit the 
completed work to the kind indulgence of any who 
may wish to gain some insight into the essay of 
the Japanese mind to express itself in poetry. 

Clay MacCauley. 

. »«iW^^^»<^^^^^« 



^ Japanese poetry, regarded as part of the world's 
literature, is individual and unique. It had its origin in 
a prehistoric age ; its form and content were of its own 
kind and were practically fixed at the time it first appear- 
ed in written speech; and it reached its culminating 
excellence nearly a thousand years ago. At the present 
day, when the Japanese people have been released from 
their long held seclusion from the other peoples of the 
world, there is the probability that their poetry will come 
under the same stimulus that has vivified and started 
forward their sciences and their other modes of mental 
energy; but, so far, there has appeared little sign of 
promise for any noteworthy poetic development A study 
of Japanese poetry, therefore, carries one far back in 
the centuries, and into a literary realm that lies as 
isolated in the world of letters as the Empire of Japan 
has lain in the world of nations. 

With a wish to make a contribution to the study 
of the poetry of Japan I invite you to turn to the collec- 
tion of poems known as the Hyahmin-isBhu. This 
collection may fairly be accepted as representative of 
that which is characteristic, as a whole, of the unique 
poetry of this people. It is not the largest single collec- 
tion of Japanese poems ; it did not originate, as was true 
of most other collections, under Imperial direction ; nor 
does it contain any of the few longer poems that once 
promised much for the future of Japanese poetry ; but. 

vi IrUrodudion. 

in these single songs of one measure, taken from the 
works of a hundred writers, there have been gathered 
many that are of the very highest excellence. All of 
them are distinctive in form and in subject-matter, and 
nearly all of them were produced in that period of Japan's 
history whose literature has been commended as " classic/' 
Besides, this collection of poems as a whole is comprised 
within an easily managed round number. And, more* 
over, whatever may be its worth throughout, it is at 
present, and has been for a long time, in largest part 
the household poetry of the Japanese, in the form of a 
game at cards, in which man, woman and child rcptBt 
over and over again in their play the measures and 
thoughts of these verses. In brief, there is no other 
gathering of Japanese poems so manageable for a single 
course of study; for all ordinary investigations, it is 
sufficiently instructive concerning the peculiar character- 
istics of the poetry of Japan; and for readers in Europe 
and America it will serve to show well the kind of poetic 
production and pleasure that has the largest &vor 
with this people. 

These " Single Songs of a Hundred Poets " were 
not gathered together in this form until towards the 
middle of the thirteenth century. At that time there 
were existing many comprehensive and accepted com- 
pilations of verse. The poems that, according to tradition, 
had been sung by the gods and ancient heroes had been 
preserved in such authorised histories as the Kaiiki 
(Record of Old Things), and the Nihon-fihoki (History 
of Japan), which brought the traditions and records of 
the country down from the farthest past to about the 
end of the seventh century of the Christian era. But, 

IJie Asiatie Soddy of Japan. vii 

near the middle of the eighth century, during the reigh 
of the Empress Koken, Tachibana no Moroe began to 
collect into one work all the poems then extant, which 
work, in the ninth century, as supplemented by Dtomo no 
Yakamochi and others came into literature as the celebrat- 
ed Manyoshu (Collection of Myriad Leaves). In the 
twenty volumes constituting this collection there are 
4,515 poems, among which are gathered 268 of 
what are called naga uta, '* long songs," because they 
are composed of more than the five lines to which the 
standard Japanese poem is limited. The ** long songs/^ 
or naga uta, of the Manyoahu are spoken of as especially 
admirable. They have been used for centuries as models 
of their kind by Japan's poets. Among the many writers 
distinguished in the Manyoahu are Kakinomoto no Hito- 
maro (No. 3), Yamabe no Akahito (No, 4), and Otomo no 
no Yakamochi (No. 6), specimens of whose verse appear 
in the Hyakunin-isahu, In the tenth century, after the 
Imperial capital had been fully established in Kydto and 
a hundred years and more of the dominance of Chinese 
influence in Japanese literature had passed, a revival of 
literature distinctively Japanese took place. By order 
of the Emperor Daigo, between the years 905 and 922 
A.D., Ki no Tsurayuki (No. 35), a poet of the rank of the 
earlier Hitomaro, made a new compilation of verse^ 
called the Kohinshu (Ancient and Modern Songs). 
This work is now esteemed the finest, and it is the most 
studied, collection of poems in Japanese literature. It 
contains more than 1,100 **songs,'' or tUa, only 5 of 
which are naga uta. This work, divided into twenty 
parts, has among its treasures quite a number of via^ 
of the standard measure commonly known as lanka^ 

viii Introduction. 

which are repeated in the Hyakunin-isshu. Among the 
tanka so quoted, is the one ascribed to the Emperor 
Tenchi (No. i), and those written by Sarumaru (No. 
5), Kisen (No. 8), Ono no Komachi (No. 9), Henjo (No. 
J 2), Kawara no Sadaijin (No. 14), Yuldhira (No. 16), 
Narihira (No. 17), Yasuhide (No. 22), Kanesuke (No, 
27), Mineyuki (No. 28), Oshikdchi (No. 29), Korenori 
(No. 31), Olcikaze (No. 34), and Fukayabu (No. 36). It 
was at this period in the empire's history that poetry 
began to have a language peculiarly its own, distinctly 
marked off from that of ordinary speech. Fifty years 
later than the compilation of the Kokinshu, about 970 
A.D., a school of poetry was established in the Imperial 
Palace, and poetic composition became, and for a long 
time remained, one of the chief accomplishments of the 
members of the Court and of the nobility. Various col- 
lections of verse, supplementary of the Manyoshu and 
the Kokimhu, were then made under Imperial command. 
Between the time of the completion of the Kokinshu 
(922 A D.), and of the gathering of the Hyakanin-isshu 
(1235 AD.), no less than seven authorised and distin- 
guished collections of poems were made. These were 
I. Gosenahu (After Collection), 2. ShuisliU ((lathered 
Remnants), 3. Ooshuishu (Post-Gathered Remnants), 4. 
Kinyoahu (Golden Leaves), 5. Shikwashu (Wild Flowers), 
6. Senzaishu (Immortal Songs) and 7. Shinkokinsku (New 
Kokinshu). These works together with the Kokinshu are 
known in literature as the Ilachidaiahu (Collections of 
Eight Dynasties). They are all possessed of much merit. 
It is said that the Shinkokinahu ** contains stanzas con- 
structed with remarkable skill, the phraseology subtle 
and elegant, the rhythm easy and graceful, the style 

The Asialio Society of Japan. ix 

refined and the ideas profound." It *' stands at the head 
of all collections of poems published under Imperial 
auspices'*' In these seven compilations may be found 
some of the best tanka reproduced in the Hyakunin-isshu. 
For example, those written by Hitoshi (No. 39^ and 
Tadami (No. 41) are found in the Ooaenshu; those by 
Ukon (No. 38), Kanemori (No. 40J, Kentokuko (No. 45), 
Eikei (No. 47), Yoshitaka (No. 50), Sanekata (No. 5i), 
Michinobu (No. 52), Kinto (No. 55), Izumi Shikibu (No. 
56), Daini no Sammi (No. 58), Akasome Emon (No. 
59), Sei-Shonagon (No. 62), Michimasa (No. 63), Masa- 
*usa (No. 73), are taken from the two Shuidiu ; those by 
Gyoson (No. 66), Tsunenobu (No. 71), Yushi Naishi no 
Kii (No. 72), are quoted from the Kinyoahu ; those by 
Yoshinobu (No. 49), Ise no Osuke (No. 61), Hdshoji no 
Nyudo (No. 76), Sutoku-in (No. 87), are from the Shikwa- 
diu ; and those by Tadayori (No. 64), Suwo no Naishi 
(No. 67), Toshiyori (No. 74), Mototoshi (No. 75), Hori- 
kawa (No 80), Go-Tokudaiji (No. 81), Doin (No. 82), 
Toshinari (No. 83), Shunye (No. 85), Saigyd (No. 86), 
Kwoka Mon-in no Betto, (No. 88), Impu Mon-in no Taiu 
(No. 90), Nij5 no In no Sanuki (No. 92), Jien (No 95), 
are from the Semaiahu. The Shinkokimhu was in large 
measure only a re-editing of the poetical collections 
made subsequently to that of the Kokinshu. The leading 
poets of the later time, that is, towards the thirteenth 
century, were Toshinari, Saigyo, letaka (Karyu), and 
Sadaie. Special mention should be made of the poet- 
Shogun, Sanetomo (No. 93), of the end of the twelfth 
century, whose songs, it has been said, " find no parallel 
in cognate compositions subsequent to the Nara Epoch," 
With this store of poetic treasures at command, 

X IfUroduction* 

some one about the year 1235 a«d, brought together 
^hese " Songs of a Hundred Poets '' as one anthology. 
Just by whom and how the Hyakunin-uahu came to ht 
gathered is no longer known. Certainly, in its present 
form, its editorship is doubtful. The author of the Dai 
Ifihon-ahi (History of Great Japan) was satisfied, upon 
the authority of the MeUgdsvhki (Record of Brilliant 
Months), that the collection was made by Teikakyo 
whose family name was Fujiwara no Sadaie (No. 97). 
Sadaie, or Teikakyd, held high otfice. He was an Im- 
perial Vice-Counsellor prior to, and under, the reign of 
the Emperor Shijd (1233- 1242 A.D.). He was also one 
of the leading poets of his day. Under his direction 
the Shinkokinshu was compiled. The Mei-gdm-ki was, 
it is said, a daily record kept by Teikakyo. The origin- 
al manuscript has almost wholly perished. Indeed, 
some of the supposed authorised sheets of the work are 
doubtful. And there is much question whether the 
present form of the Hyakunin-isshu is that which it had 
at the first Among the traditions connected with the 
compilation of the anthology is this : — Teikakyd was a 
skilful writer of the hana syllabary. He also held a 
position that might be called the poet-laureateship of 
the time. Among his friends, or relatives, was a 
noble named Utsunomiya Yasaburo, or Rensho, 
who became a lay-priest, or nyudo, and lived 
in a cottage in the village of Ogura in Sag^. 
In the *' Record of Brilliant Months " it is stated, *' I 
wrote for the shoji of the * Middle House of Saga,' 
colored papers, and sent them. At night I sent them 
to Ringo." Ringo, whose name is generally known as 
Tameie, was Teikakyd's son and was married to 

The Aaiatk Soddy of Japan. xi 

Utsunomiya Yasaburo's daughter. With some> the sup- 
position is that the latter, Rensho, who was a poet 
also, had requested Sadaie through the son to write 
down, with his skilled pen, a hundred poems which he, 
Rensho, had selected for the decoration of shoji in his 
new country house at Ogura, Sadaie obligingly com- 
plied with the request. Were this story true, Rensho, 
not Sadaie, would have whatever reputation belongs to 
the compilation of the hundred songs. Afterwards, 
when Tameie, as it is said, copied the poems from the 
shikishi, or thick fancy-colored paper, used for the 
writing of poems, he arranged them in an approximate 
chronological order. Another tradition locates the 
poetic ornamentation of the shoji in the poet's own 
country house at Ogurayama, whither the poet had 
retired after resignation of his office in the Imperial 
Court. Sadaie's choice of the poems, according to 
this story, was made without special forethought and 
without system. He wrote down the verses at random, 
just as they happened to come into memory, while he 
had brush in hand. Strict literary judgment did not 
Suide him. For this reason, the songs show un- 
equal merit; some, displaying the very finest quality, 
appearing side by side with others that are of inferior 
worth. The mode of production of the collection, 
however, is a matter of comparative indifference. This 
** Century of Songs " exists : — by the fortune of cir- 
cumstances, in time it became known everywhere as 
the Ogura Hyakunin-iaahu. 

How the hundred poems happened to come 
into use for a household game at cards is not known. The 
first decided notice of the game is found after the time of 

xii Introdudian. 

the fourth Shdgunate, or in the age of Oenroku (1688- 
1703 A. D ). It was in this period that Kaibara Yekken 
wrote the " Great Learning for Women'' {Onna Dai- 
ffoiu), and other books for the education of women. 
Special attention ^vas paid to the education of girls then. 
Girls' books were much in demand. At that time the 
Hyakunin-iashu became useful as a text-book for private 
female education. During the Shogunate, when the 
poems had been transferred to separate cards, a package 
of the Hyakunin-isahu was looked upon as a part of the 
bride's household outfit. At that time, many samurai 
in Kyoto, skilled in calligraphy, aided in the financial 
support of their households by writing the hundred 
poem-cards for the market. Some of these cards, writ- 
ten by well known noblemen, have had great financial 
value. A story is handed down, that about six hundred 
years ago, the Imperial Court guards had a habit in 
night-watches of writing with bits of charcoal inside their 
porcelain plates, each, one of the ''parts" of extemporized 
poems, renga, and of seeing how one part would fit 
with another. This verse-play, it is supposed by some, 
suggested a similar use of the hundred songs. But, as 
said before, the origin of the uta-garutaj or "song- 
cards," is unknown. We must be satisfied with the feet 
that two centuries or more ago, the poems somehow 
had gained place in the homes of the Japanese people in 
the form of a game, whereby they have become the 
common property of old and young, and are to-day as 
household words. (See Transactions of this Society Vol. 
II, page 129.) 

Before making a closer examination of the Hyakur 
nin isahu, let us take a glance at Japanese poetry 

The Asiatio Society of Japan. xiii 

generally. What are its special characteristics, — in form, 
in content and in general quality ? 

Simplicity and brevity in its forms, are probably 
the most prominent characteristics that appear to an eye 
accustomed to, and familiar with, the poetry of the 
West. The standard model for Japanese poetic struc- 
ture is a five- versed stanza, named the ianka^ in which 
all the songs of the Hyakunin-isshu, and by far the most of 
Japanese poems, are embodied. The tanka is composed 
of only thirty-one syllables. These syllables are arrang- 
ed in five verses, or measures; the first and third 
measures containing as a rule five syllables each ; and 
the second, fourth and fifth measures, each including 
seven. Usually these five verses may be divided into 
two complete parts, namely, the "first," or "upper/ 
part {kami no ku), made up of the first three lines, and 
the '* second,*' or " lower," part [Bhimo no ku), consisting 
of the fourth and fifth lines. The reputed most ancient 
song treasured in Japanese tradition, the song of the god 
Susa-no-o, sung at the building of the bridal palace for 
a celestial pair, is the prototype of this popular measure. 
" When this Great Deity first built the palace of Suga,'' 
says the Kqjiki " clouds rose up thence. Then he made 
an august song. That song said : — 

" Yakwmo taisu 

Lumo yae gaki 
liuma gomi ni 

Yaegaki tmkuru: 

Sono yae gahi wo /" 

Or, in somewhat free translation, according to the 
9riginal metre : — 

xiv Introduction. 

'^ Many clouds appear ; 

Eight-fold clouds a barrier raise 

Round the wedded pair. 

Manifold the clouds stand g^uard, 
O that eight-fold barrier- ward ! " 

Besides the tarika there are numerous variations ia 
arrangement of the fundamental five and seven-syllabic 
verses, but the limits of this study prevent their illustra* 
tion. There are, however, two extremes of composition 
that may be noticed in passing, the naga ula^ or ** long 
song,'* and the hokhi^ or *' first verses," The naga via 
is indefinite in length. It is made up of couplets of the 
two kinds of verses, — ^the five and the seven syllabled 
verses, — the end of the poem being in an additional seven 
syllabic verse. The hokht is a complete poem contsdned 
in only seventeen syllables that make up the first three 
lines, or " part,'' of the ianlca. The hjokhi must be an 
exceedingly compact bit of word and thought skill to 
be worth anything — as literature. The following hokhk^ 
which is also an acrostic of the word yutaka, '* firuit- 
fulness," "abundance," — is a good illustration of its 

Yujudachi ya 

Ta wo mi-meguri no 
Kami naraba. 

If the sununer shower 

Would but round the rice-fields go 
As it were a god ! 

So far as cadence is concerned, Japanese poetry is 
almost without it. Careful students of the language, like 
Dr. W. G. Aston, and Professor B. H. Chamberlain, 

Ihe Asiatic Society of Japan. xv 

fiul to find any. •' The cadence of Japanese poetry," the 
former says, " is not marked by a regular succession of 
accented syllables as in English/' It has, says the 
latter, ^' neither rhyme, assonance, alliteration, accentual 
stress, quantity, nor parallelism." These judgments are 
true, but with some qualification. It is true that 
Japanese verse has normally an irregular cadence, yet 
much of it may easily receive, and often does receive in the 
reading, the movement of some of the simpler measures 
of English poetry. It is common, for example, to 
hear such verses as the following read as though they 
were composed in trochaic movement : — 


Kikami kaesii na 

Itihimi mhmare 

Hateshi vakerd)a. 

Hated though you be, 

Hate for hate do not return ; 

Hatred given accept. 

If for hatred you give hate, 
Then to hating comes no end. 

So, in a Buddhist hymn, Nori no Hatsune (The 
Dominant Note of the Law), its lines generally take 
the rhythm of English anapestic verse, as : — 

Itaaura goto ni hi wo htsane ; 
Bokushiu ruten no tane wo mahi; 
Hakanahi kono yo wo a^gosu nari, etc. 

In spending my days chasing things that are trifles S 
In sowing the seed of the six-fold migration ; 

xvi Introduction. 

I pass through the world with my life purpose 
baffled^ etc. 
However, speaking broadly, the prosody dominant in 
Western poetry does not appear in the poetry of Japan, 
except, we may say, through the influence of a natural 
but unacknowledged rhythmic instinct. 

.Again, in the construction of Japanese verse there 
are certain special rhetorical oddities, such as re- 
dundant expletives and phrases, called " Pillow-words " 
and ** Introductions,'* that are of especial importance in 
a study of this poetry. These expressions are purely 
conventional ornaments or euphonisms. Much of the 
superior merit of this verse-writing depends also upon 
a serious use of puns and of other word-plays. By 
way of description of these special verbal devices let 
me repeat the words of an honored member of this 
society. Professor Chamberlain, as given in an essay 
read here more than twenty years ago. (Transactions, 
Vol. V. p. 8 1.) The *' Pillow-words " says Prof. 
Chamberlain, ''are as a rule, simple epithets that were 
formerly applied quite naturally and appropriately to 
various objects, places and actions, but which in most 
cases by the process of phonetic decay, by being used 
in connection with expressions having but a very dis- 
tant affinity to the expressions they originally served 
to define," etc., *'have become almost unrecognisable 
and practically devoid of meaning." '* They are prefixed 
to other words merely for the sake of euphony. Almost 
every word of note has some ' Pillow-word/ '* Dr. W. G. 
Aston in his admirable work on '* Japanese Literature ** 
names " Pillow-words " '* stock conventional epithets," 
something after the fashion of Homer's * swift-footed ' 

The Asiatic Soeiely of Japan. xvit 

Achilles, or *many-fountained' Ida." They are "survivals 
from a very archaic stage of the language." 

The special '' Pillow- words," ** Introductions " or 
" Prefaces " used in the Byahinin-iashu will be properly 
noticed as they occur in the following pages. Here, by 
way of illustration of what has been said, it will suffice to 
note the " first part " of the third song of the collection. 
This tanka contains the *' Pillow- word/' ashibiki no^ 
** foot-drawing '' associated with yama dori, " mountain 
pheasant.*' The first part of the tanJca is a ** Preface " 
for the sentiment that follows. Ashibiki no yama dori no- 
no shidari o no, is literally, " the downward curving 
feathers of the tail of the foot-drawing mountain-pheasant," 
a phrase practically meaningless as here used, except as 
it may be a combination of sound and thought that tends 
to intensify and to fix the dreary plaint of the second 
" part " of the tanka, which tells of the loneliness of the 
long, long night. 

Another very common special device in Japanese 
poetry is the use of the pun, or of kenyogen a word 
subjected to two definitions, to convey the writer's mean- 
ing. This interpretation is thereby oflen accomplished 
gracefully and with special clearness. At times the 
ienydgen occasions most agreeable intellectual surprises. 
In the tenth tanka, for example, the poet helps along his 
meaning quite pleasantly with play upon the word-sound^ 
" Vaaka'* which means, as thus written, " Great Hill," or 
''Slope," and, when written "-4iwoJb," "Hill of Meeting.'' 
The same fact is true of like words in many others of the 

A third word-play of little worth, and considerably 
wanting in dignity, to Western literary judgment is the 

^viii Introduction. 

use of so-called " Pivot-words/' These words serve to 
complete one thought and to begin another, neither 
having logical connection with the other. As such 
words occur they will be explained in the notes that 
follow. Here, this English sentence may serve to illustrate 
how a "Pivot-word" works : — "As the chariot approached, 
I said to the driver, 'Alight !' (a light) that guides our foot- 
steps through dark ways." The command " Alight !'* 
^' to descend " has the same sound as the words, " a light,'* 
that " guides,*' but between the two there is no logical 
connection. Yet, while the word closes the sentence of 
command, it serves, also, to open the descriptive passage 
that follows. Speaking o! these and other word-plays 
special to Japanese serious poetry, Protessor Chamberlain 
remarks: — '* There is nothing in the nature of things 
constraining us to associate plays upon words with the 
ridiculous. Each literature must be a law unto itself." 

The subject-matter, or content, of the poetry of the 
Japanese, to characterise it generally, is simple and, 
ordinarily, serene emotion in reference to persons, or to 
objects in nature. Still broadly characterising it,— -it is, 
in general quality of expression, in a high degree, re- 
fined, dainty, elegant and subdued. It is meditative, 
not didactive. It is suggestive and impressionist, like 
Japanese painting. It is given over to small fancies 
>vrought under the lyric impulse. Poetic imagination, as 
known in the West, has no place in Japanese verse.- 
There never could have been a Dante, Milton, Shelley, 
Wordsworth or Browning under Japanese poetic limi- 
tations. Poetry is not, in Japan, a means chosen for 
sounding and recording the depths of profound spiritual 
experience. It has never been, and could not be, the 

The AsicUio Society of Japan, xix 

vehicle of an epic. Yoshida Kenko, in the fourteenth 
century, wrote in his delightful reveries, called 
"Weeds of Idleness'* (Ikure-zure guaa); — "Japanese 
poetry is especially charming. Even the toil of an awk- 
ward peasant or of a woodman, expressed in poetic form, 
delights the mind. The name of the terrible wild boar, 
also, when styled * fusui no toko ' sounds elegant." This 
passage seems to disclose the Japanese poetic *' charm,"— 
an effect produced by the embodiment of simple fancies 
in brief, refined speech, Ki no Tsurayuki, long before 
Kenko's time, wrote in his preface to the Kokinshu 
" Poetry began when heaven and earth were created. In 
the age of the swift gods it would seem that as yet there 
was no established metre. Their poetry was artless in 
form and hard of comprehension. It was in the age of 
man that Susa-no-o made the first poetry of thirty and 
one syllables. And so, by the vain multiplication of our 
thoughts and language we came to express our love for 
flowers, our envy of birds, our emotion at the sight of 
the hazes which '.usher in the spring, or our grief at 
beholding the dew. As a distant journey is begun by 
our first footsteps and goes on for months and years ; as 
a high mountain has its beginning in the dust of its base 
and at length arises aloft and extends across the sky like 
the clouds of heaven, so gradual must have been the rise 
of poetry.'* Tsurayuki thus, also discloses the Japanese 
poetic ideal,— the commonest notions in the form of 
simple but refined verse as patterned for man by a god in 
the far past. In Tsurayuki's catalogue of the themes 
which through poetic expression had "soothed the hearts 
of the Emperors and the great men of Japan in bygone 
days," he does not anywhere carry the reader beyond 

XX Introduction. 

auch things as, joy in spring flowers, and in autumn moons, 
and their like; beyond love, eternal as Mount Fuji's 
smoke, or yearning like a cricket's cry, and grief made 
deeper by flowers shed from their stalks in the spring, or 
leaves filing in autumn. All his long list of themes lies 
on the same level of thought and feeling. " Poetry," he 
said, '* drew its metaphors from the waves and the fir-clad 
mountains, or the spring of water in the midst of the 
moor. Poets gazed on the under leaves of the autumn 
lespedeza, or counted the times a snipe preens its feathers 
at dawn, or compared mankind to a joint of bamboo 
floating down a stream, or expressed their disgust with the 
world by the simile of the river Yoshino, or heard that 
the smoke no longer rises from Mount Fuji," Beyond 
these things Japanese poetry does not go. It remains 
where, according to Western ideals and aims, poetry is 
but little advanced from the place of its beginnings, or 
where its highest excellence consists in merely the refine- 
ment of rudimentary form and content. 

In carrying on our study, it is desirable that we 
should have in mind, further, somewhat the circle of men 
and women in which devotion to poetic composition was 
dominant, and also the social environment of the writers. 
The Hyaku/nin-Mshu is a collection of verse whose parts 
date from the latter part ot the seventh to'the^beginning of 
the thirteenth centuries. Most of the songs were written 
in the ninth and tenth centuries. Throughout most of 
the period covered by this anthology, the production of 
poetry was one of the chief pastimes of the Imperial Court 
and of the members of the higher aristocracy. This 
fact, one readily sees, explains much that is characteristic 
of the compositions. Poetry was a polite accomplish* 

Uie AsiaUe Society of Japan, xxi 

ment, and it varied with the varying fortunes of its exalted 
source. Before the eighth century, that is, " the age of 
Nara/'the Imperial capital was changed almost as often as 
the Emperors were changed. Court-life thus was conse- 
quently comparatively barren and commonplace. Pomp 
and grandeur were almost unknown, and luxury did not 
tempt to indolence and vice. At Nara, however, thrcugh 
the larger part of the eighth century, seven Emperors 
reigned in succession, and on account of a growing 
intercourse with China court-life then became increasingly 
ceremonious and ornate. Towards the end of the eighth 
century, under the Emperor Kwammu, the site of Kyoto 
was chosen for the Imperial capital. Then the Imperial 
residence became fixed, to remain unchanged for eleven 
hundred years. At that time, too, and for the next four 
hundred years, the career of the Japanese aristocracy was 
one of increasing wealth and luxury. The comparatively 
unpolished, frugal and industrious habits of the Nara age 
by degrees disappeared. The ruling classes entered 
upon a career of high culture, refinement and elegance 
of life, that passed, however, in the end into an excess of 
luxury, debilitating effeminacy and dissipation. It was 
during the best part of these memorable centuries that 
Japanese literature as beUea-lettres, culminated, leaving 
to aftertimes, even to the present day, models for pure 
Japanese diction. The court nobles of the tenth, eleventh 
and twelfth centuries had abundant leisure for the culture 
of letters. They devoted their time to that, and to the 
pursuit of whatever other refined or luxurious pleasures 
imagination could devise. For instance, among the 
many notable intellectual dissipations of the age were 
re-unions at daybreak among the spring flowers, and boat 

xxii Introdudion. 

rides during autumnal moon-lighted nights, by aristo- 
cratic devotees of music and verse, who vied with one 
another in exhibits of their skill with these arts. Nari- 
hira (No. 7), it is said, "the celebrated beau and di- 
lettante of the times of the Emperors Montoku and Seiwa, 
was a typical specimen of these devotees of refinement 
and sensuous gratification/' In much of the verse of this 
'* Century of Song," the sentimentality, the refinement 
and the laxity of morals of the pleasure-loving courtiers 
and aristocrats of the latter half of the Heian age (800- 
1 186 A.D.) are exhibited. The poems are, in good part, 
an instructive comment on the life of the high classes of 
the times. 

The treatment of the Syakunin-isahu offered in these 
pages is to be accepted as a literary rather than as a 
scholastic work. Here results rather than processes have 
been given. Only such technical exegetical notes as are 
needed to make exceptionally obscure words and pas- 
sages more intelligible, have been attached to the trans- 
lations. The translations themselves are, as strictly as 
is possible for English renderings, made literal, both in 
prose and in metrical form. The metrical renderings 
have been attempted as exact reproductions of the origi- 
nal measures of the tanka, and, where possible with 
fidelity to literalness, have been clothed in poetic terms. 
Some biographical information, and some illustrative 
comments upon the writer's meanings have been attached 
to each poem. These last named notes, it is hoped, will 
be found helpful and of special interest to readers gene- 
rally. An attempt has also been made to give appropriate 
titles to the metrical translations. 

Now, taking these " Single Songs of a Hundred 

The Asiatic Society of Japan, xxiii 

Poets/' as a whole, the reader will find that, broadly 
judged, they can be gathered, in accordance with their 
subject-matter, into three groups. Let us name theses 
groups, I, Xaiure, or contemplation and description of 
scenes in the outer world ; 2. Sentiment^ or moods asso^ 
ciated with the milder human emotions, such as melan- 
choly, pensiveness, regret, sympathy, contentment, grat- 
itude, friendship, filial love, loyalty and the like. 3. A 
third group, belonging to the deeper ranges of emotion, 
but distinctive enough to be regarded separately, is 
composed of those poems which are an outburst of the 
passion Love. Love poems are in a high degree char- 
acteristic of Japanese, as of all other, poetry. In this 
collection, forty- six of the ianka, nearly half of the songs, 
have for their motive, some phase of this great human 
passion. Twenty-nine of the tanJcd are given to the more 
ordinary sentiments ; and twenty-five to the scenes of 
nature. It will be well, however, in reading all these 
songs to remember that they need not be taken as tran- 
scripts of personal experiences. Most of them were 
creations for use in poetical contests and as exhibits of 
artistic skill. Often they may hive had no other basis 
than the writers' fine feincies drawn from imagination's 

We shall not here try to pass all the songs in re-* 
view. Readers can examine them at their leisure in the 
following pages. But, to illustrate the judgment just 
made, attention is called to a few songs which show 
some noticeable skill in form and mood, considered as 
utterances of the Japanese muse. 

The fourth tanka, for instauce, is a delicate bit of 
suggestion and impressionism concerning a scene in 

xxiv Introduction. 

nature. In its English form we will name it, " Beauty 
made Perfect/' At the coast of Tago is one of Japan's 
very best sea and landscapes^ Rising as its centre and 
crown is the " peerless mountain/' Fuji. The scene is 
at any time one of supreme beauty. But the Japanese 
poet would add yet one touch to the consummate 

When to Tago's coast 

I my way have ta'en, and see 

Perfect whiteness laid 

On mount Fuji's lofty peak 
By the drift of falling snow. 

So, also, in song seventeen where the poet celebrates 
the delight he felt at seeing the scarlet leaves of autumn 
floating upon the blue waters of the river Tatta. He 
recalls the wonderful age of tradition, when the gods, so 
it was said, held visible sway in the world, and all marvels 
were seen and done. 

I have never heard 

That, e'en when the gods held sway 

In the ancient days, 

E'er was water bound with red 
Such as here in Tatta's stream. 

In tanka twenty-two, there is a punning word-play 
tl^at does not ill befit even serious verse. The word 
uraahi may mean *' a storm," or it may mean, " wild," 
or '* violent." The poet wrote : — 

Since, 'tis by its breath 

Autumn's leaves of grass and trees 
Broken are and waste, 

The Ariatio Sodety of Japan. 

Men may to the mountain wind 
Fitly give the name, '• The Wild." 

A refined and delicate picturing of the mag^c 
wrought by the early frost of autumn is presented in song 

If it were my wish 

White chrysanthemum to cull : — 

Puzzled by the frost 

Of the early autumn time, 

I, perchance, might pluck the flower. 

Then, an effect of a falling snow is beautifully and 
graphically shown in the thirty-first tanJca :-— 

At the break ot day, 

Just as though the morning moon 
Lightened the dim scene, 

Yoshino's fair hamlet lay 

In a haze af falling snow. 

Again, the fancy of likening dew-drops to gems^ 
such as is given in the thirty-seventh song is quite 
pleasing : — 

In the autumn fields, 

When the heedless winds blow by 

0*er the pure-white dew. 

How the myriad, unstrung gems 
Everywhere are scattered round. 

Passing over the many other verses devoted to 
scenes in nature, let us turn from this group, with a 
glimpse of ** The Beautiful World " given in the ninety^ 
third ianka. The writer was, we will suppose, on a lovely 
day seated near the sea-shore : — 

xxvi Introdtustion. 

Would that this our world 
Might be ever as it is ! 

What a lovely scene ! 

See the fisherwoman's boat, 
Rope-drawn, rowed along the shore. 

The group containing via expressive of the serene 
or milder sentiments, is quite varied in mood and merit* 
Song number five, is one of the most attractive of them 
all. It was inspired by the poet's hearing " a stag's cry 
in autimin " : — 

In the mountain depths. 

Treading through the crimson leaves. 
Cries the wandering stag. 

When I hear the lonely cry. 
Sad, — ^how sad, — ^the autumn is ! 
The eleventh song, however, is one of deep, touch- 
ing feeling : — " An Exile's Farewell/' It is an appeal 
to the insensate boats of the fishermen, the only objects, 
connected with human life, that witnessed the poet's 
unhappy start for the place to which he had been 

O'er the wide, wide sea. 

Towards its many distant isles. 

Rowing I set forth. 

This, to all the world proclaim, 
O ye boats of fisher-folk ! 

In Japan, as elsewhere, sadness is especially asso- 
ciated with moonlfght, and with the autumn among the 
reasons. And in Japan, under the Buddhist faith, a 
pessimistic tone is exceptionally prominent, in literature. 
These facts will help to explain the twenty-third tonka. 

2he Asiatic Socidy of Japan. . xxvii 

Gazing at the moon 

Myriad things arise in thought, 

And my thoughts are sad : — 
Yet, 'tis not for me alone, 
That the autumn time has come. 

In the twenty-eighth ianka, a mood accompanying a 
winter scene appears : — 

Winter loneliness 

In a mountain hamlet grows 

Only deeper, when 

Guests are gone and leaves and grass 
Withered are : — so runs my thought. 

A longing for friendship, that inclines man in soli- 
tude to take even the lifeless things about him into his 
companionship, is beautifully shown in the sixty-sixth 
tanka, in a personifying address to a solitary cherry-tree. 

Let us each for each 

Pitying hold tender thought, 

Mountain-cherry flower ! 

Other than thee, lonely flower, 
There is none I hold as friend. 

To one who has seen the pensive and exquisite 
beauty of the scenery near there, a peculiar charm 
pervades the eighth song, — " A Night at Suma's Grate.'' 
In ancient times there was an Imperial barrier at the 

Guard of Suma's gate. 

From your sleep how many nights 
Have you waked, at cries 

Of the plaintive sanderlings 
Migrant from Awaji's isle ? 

xxviii Introduction. 

There is a note of hope in the eighty-fourth song^ 
an agreeable departure from the general sadness of these 
poems of Sentiment ; — *' The Transfigured Past" 
If I long should live, 

Then perchance the present days 
May be dear to me : — 

Just as past time fraught with grief 
Now comes fondly back in thought. 
Many others of these poems of the sentiments are 
worth repeating as illustrative of our theme, but we will 
now turn to the third group, — that which is gathered about 
the mighty power moving in all human life, — Love. 

Tanka thirteen tells of "Love Perfected/' The poet 
uses the figure of a mountain rill becoming a full, serene 

From Tsukuba's peak 

Falling waters have become 
Mina's still, full flow. 

So, my love has grown to be :— 
Like the river's quiet deeps. 

In tanka sixteen, by means of two word-plays,-^one 
upon the word Inaha, a mountain, or district bearing 
this name, to which the poet was going, and, also, the 
phrase, " if I go ; " the other upon the word matsu mean* 
ing ** a pine tree,** and to " wait," as one pining for 
another may wait, — by means of these word-plays an 
assurance of ** Faithful Love '* is well given. 
Though we parted be, 

If on mount Inaba's peak 
I should hear the sound 

Of the pine-trees growing there, 
Back at once I'll make my way. 

The Asiatic Society of Japan. xxix 

In the eighteenth song, one of the distinctive devices 
of Japanese poetry, the ** Preface " and euphonic '* In- 
troductory-word " appear. In the English rendering the 
word *' gathered '* reproduces approximately this device. 
The first two lines of the stanza are to be regarded as 
purely introductory. The theme is " Secret Love." 

Lo ! the gathered waves 

On the shores of Sumi's bay ! 

E'en in gathered night, 

When in dreams I go to thee, 
I must shun the eyes of men. 

The solicitude of a woman about the safety of a man 
who had deserted her, showing thereby the self-efface- 
ment that love at times effects, is well expressed in the 
thirty-eighth tanka. The lover had sworn to the gods 
that he would never desert his mistress. The wronged 
woman, therefore, feared that the gods might execute 

Though forgotten now. 

For myself I do not care ; — 

He, by oath, was pledged, 

And his life that is forsworn, 
Such a thing of pity is ! 

*' Unconfessed Love " that betrays itself is the theme 
of the fortieth song : — 

Though I would conceal, 

In my face it yet appears, — 

My fond, secret love ; 

So much that he asks of me 

" Does not something trouble you ? " 

XXX Introduction. 

" Love Perplexed '* is pictured in the forty-sixth 
song under the simile of a mariner at sea with rudder 

Like a mariner 

Sailing over Yura's strait 
With his rudder gone ; — 

Whither o'er the deep of love 
Lies the goal, I do not know. 
The recklessness that accompanies pursuit in lovei 
and the longing for continued life that comes with suc- 
cessful possession, are thus shown in the fiftieth song :— 
For thy precious sake 

Once my eager life itself 
Was not dear to me. 

But, 'tis now my heart's desire, 
It may long, long years endure. 

Fearfulness concerning the future faithfulness of a 
lover just pledged, is told in these anxious verses of the 
song number fifty-four, — '' A Woman's Judgment." :— 
If, ''not to forget'' 

Will for you in future years 
Be too difficult, 

It were well this very day 

That my life, — ah me ! — should close. 

Distrust of one who has a reputation for insincerity 
and unfaithfulness finds place in tanka seventy-two, under 
the guise of dread of the waves of the beach of Takashi. 
Well I know the fame 

Of the fickle waves that beat 
On Takashi's strand. 

Should I e'er go near that shore 
I should only wet my sleeves. * 

The Asiatic Sociely of Japan. xxxi 

Struggle to conceal a love that may not be shown 
to the one beloved, is admirably exhibited in the eighty- 
ninth ianka^ in an apostrope to self. The poet wrote :— 

Life ! Thou string of gems ! 

If thou art to end, break now ; 

For, if yet I live, 

All I do to hide my love. 

May at last grow weak and fail. 

These are but a few of the many songs of which love, 
in some of its phases, is the theme. I shall quote 
only one more of them. It is the one written by the 
compiler of this anthology, the Hyakuniri-iashu, the poet 
Teikakyo, or Sadaie. It is a vivid picture of a common 
scene on Awaji island, used in simile here to show the 
poet-lover's impatience in waiting : — 

Like the salt sea-weed 

Burning in the evening calm 

On Matsuo's shore, 

All my being is aglow 

Waiting one who does not comes. 

Here the introduction to this " Century of Song ^' 
may end and the way among the songs themselves 
be entered. No one knows better than the present 
writer, the difficulties one meets with in making the 
venture here made, or how unsatisfactory the results 
gained. The real charm of these dainty bits of 
verse will forever elude the quest of one who, foreign to 
the Japanese people and their language, seeks to discover 
it, and to show it to the world. But I have done faithful 
service in my search, and I hope that some measure of 
attainment has been secured. 


Vi efte Liuro do Taifeiqui, nao tern coufa por que fe 
nao deua imprimir. | 

Manoel Barreto 
Vifta efta tnformagao dou licenga pern se poder \ 
imprimir. O BiTpo de lappam 

Manoel Barreto died 1 1 March 1620. But Luis de 
Cerqueira, the last Bishop of Japan who actually 
reached the country, died there 20 February 1614. 
He had been in Japan as Bishop since August 5 
1598, and the book must be assigned to some date 
between these two. I have not been able to discover 
any mention of it in the annual Missionary reports of 
the period, but that is not wonderful, as the reports 
are silent about several other books known to us as 
extant in the libraries. 

The second of the two is a small volume belonging 
to the Marquis Tokugawa, who represents the Mito 
branch of that family. It is printed in Roman type, 
and consists of fifty-eight leaves including the title- 
page and preface, small 8vo, and bears the imprint 
In collegio Japonico Societatis lesu, ANNO 1600. On 
being examined it proved to be identical with the work 
numbered 11 in my pamphlet, preserved in the Biblio- 
teca Casanatense at Rome. That however is printed 
in cursive Chinese characters and hiragana^ except the 
title-page, whereas this is in the Roman alphabet 
throughout. It was evidently produced at Nagasaki, 
though no place is named on the title-page. The 
one edition was no doubt intended for the use of the 
Japanese converts, the other for the missionaries who 
were not familiar with Chinese characters and the 
Japanese syllabary. 






Jki vo ta no 

Kario no io no 

loma too arami 

Waga koromode wa 
Imyu ni nure-tautsu. 

Lttebal Tbanslation: — 

Arami too 

Because of the coarseness 

of the 

of the 





of the rush-mat 


so far as coDoeros 

they are becoming wet 

temporary -hut 

no oM 

of autumn, 

waga koromode 

my sleeves 

ni Uiwyu. 

with dew (or rain). 

Kario^ in the phrase kario no io no, is a generic name applied to 
certain kind of hoose, te,, ** temporary-honse," ''shed," '* hnt>" whenos 
the apparent redundancy of the phrase, " the honse of the temporary 
boose." The meaning is, *' the house '' of the kiitd called '< texnporarj- 
honse;" as,ifone should say, ''a warehonse-honse." The sign of the 


aoeiuatiTe case^ too, when placed before adjectival noans in mt, ai bere- 
— lORKB 100 arami, — baa tbe force of suob prepoeitional phrases 48, ** be, 
oaoae of/' '< by means o(" on acconnt of/' etc. Thus :— ** Beoiuse of 
the ooaneness (in textnre) of tbe rueh-mats, — ^mj sleeves are growing 
wet, etc.'' Twlau la a verbal suffix showipgeiinultapeltj, or association» 
in time of action, as ; — " The r'ish-mats being coarse, at ths same time 
firom tbe falling or dripping dew, nij sleevf s become wei." 

ExPLANATOBY NoTE. These verses have been ascribed 
to tbe Emperor (Tmnd) Tenchi, whose reiga covered the 
period between the years 668 aad 672 A.D. He had his seat 
of government at Otsu near KyOto. His reign wis long 
famed for its bcDevoleoce. 

The wtiter, it i^ said, gave expressioo, in the poem, to 
sympathy with his subjects to whom had fallen the hard lot of 
work in the rice-fields. The temporary shelter-sheds, built by 
the laborers near their fields fur use duriug the harvest time, 
did not protect them from tbe season's fogs and raios. In 
imagination the Emperor had placed himself in ooe of these 
harvest-huts. He embodied his fancied experience and o^ood 
in verse. 

In form, the poem does not quite comply with the stand- 
ard measure of the tanka. In the third verse, — toma wo 
aramit — are six syllables ioslead of the required five. Sucb 
variations in Japanese verse, however, are not infrequent. A 
literal reoderiog of the poem in its origioal metre, on account 
of grammatical peculiarities, has not been satisfactorily secured 
in the present version. 

Metrical Translation : — 


Coarse the rush-mat roof 

Sheltering the harvest-hut 

Of the autumn rice-field ;— 

And my sleeves are growing wet 
With the moisture dripping through. 




Haru sugite 

Nairn kinikerashi 

* Shirotae no 

Koromo horn iefu 
Ama-no-kagu yama. 

Literal Translation: — 

IfcUm Uniherashi 

Summer seemingly has come, 

sugite Ama-no - 

beiDg past. (Lo I) Heaven's 

it is said, 

are dried. 


Kagu yama 
Perfume Mount 



no shirotae, 
of surpassing whiteness. 

Pome editors substitute for hosu Ufu (teju is pronounced cKo), the 
word hoshitarUf or tori. With these adjectival affixtrS Mount Ama-no ' 
Kagu would be described as *' white with dryini; clothei/' Skirotae is a 
poetical term for **pare,'' ^* surpassing/' '* azquiaite/' " silk-white ' > 
whiteness. Kanhi is a suffix cooTeyiog the notion of 'MikeuesB," or 
'* seemingnesB.*' 

Explanatory Note. The Empress (Tenn5) Jit5, a 
daughter of the Emperor Tenchi and reigning from 690 ta 
696 A.D., is said to have been the writer of these verses. 

Mount Ama-no-Kagu, it is supposed, is a hill that rises 
not far from Nara. In the summer-time the slopes of this 
mountain were often white with drying-clothes spread over 
them by the people of the villages lying around the base of the 
mountain. The Empress probably had this summer scene in 
mind when she wrote her song ; or, the song may be descriptivd 
of a late fallen snow upon the hill's slopes. 


METBicAJi Translation :-r- 

Spring, it seems^ has passed. 

And the summer come again ; 
For the silk-white robes. 

So 'tis said, are spread to dry 

On the ** Mount of Heaven's Perfume.*' 


Ashibiki no 

Tamadori no o no 

Shidariro no 

Naga nagashi yo too 
Hitori ka mo nen. 
Literal Translation: — 

Shidari'O no 
(Ah I) Tho downward curving tail-feathers 


no aahibtki 


of the tail 

of the foot-dragging 



naga nagashi 


pheasant I 

Tiio JoDg, long 




hitori ka. 

sleep I 


alone ? 

Id thla translation an attempt has been made to render literally a 
' Pillow-word " aod a " Preface/* — verbal oddities that are common in 
Japanese verse. (See IntroduLdion^ p. zvi.) 

It is not certain, however, that the Japanese original has been fair- 
*ly represented here. Ashibiki no, a '* pillow* word " associated with 
" mountain '' and with the thinas of moantains, may, or may not, have 


been derived from aahi hiku, " to drag the foot.'' Some commeatatorf 
think rather that the term U a derivative of words meaning ** covered 
with trees,*' or " thickly growing trees." The first three lines, or "part," 
of th« poem serve no other purpose than to introduce the longing lament 
of the last two lines, or " part" Ashtbiki no naturally precedes yoma- 
dorif with yatnadori is naturally associated shidariro; the whole com- 
bination making a eophonic introduction or '* preface " to naga-nagoBhi 
yo. Naga-nagaahi is an intensive form ofnagashif *' long in time." Mo 
here gives special emphasis to hUari, <'alon3." Nen Is composed of the 
two syllables ne-n. 

ExFLiNATOBY NoTE. The Writer of this ianka^ Hito- 
maro Elakinomoto, lived towards the close of the seventh and 
probably daring the first third of the eighth centuries. There 
is but little that is trustworthy in the accounts of his life. He 
was an officer at the Imperial court, and at times, so it is said, 
was a personal attendant on the Emperor Mommu (697-707 
A.D.). Hitomaro ranks among the first of Japan's poets. 

The poem is a love-song intelligible rather through the 
mood aroused by its tone, than through explicit verbal ex- 
Metrical Translation; — 

Ah! the foot-drawn trail 

Of the mountain-pheasant's tail 
Drooped like down-curved branch !— - 

Through this long^ long-dragging night 
Must I keep my couch alone? 

Togo no ura 

Ni uchi-idete mireba 
Shirotae no 

Fuji no takane ni 
YvJsi wa furi'tmisu. 


Literal Translation :- 

Vchi-idete ni 

ura no logo 

Goiog out to 

tbeooaatof Tago/ 




when I see 


at the same 



time falling 


the high peak 


shiroiae no 





In the Terse ni uchirUde mireba the termioal and initial vowd 
locinds of the firpt three words flow together, nt-K becomiog nyu ani ehi- 
idde hecoming cK-idete. The nine syllahles are thus reduced in resdlng 
to the normal seyen. Uehi \% an emphatic or euphonic prefix to the 
Terb iddt ; — il hai no particular meaning here. In the Manyoshm this 
song is given, but in a somewhat difiereot form. 

Explanatory NorE. Akahito of Yamabe, writer of 
this tanka, lived a few years later than Hitomaro, under the 
reign of the Emperor SbQmu (724-748 A.D.). He shares with 
Hitomaro the reputation of greatest excellence among the 
poets of ancient times. 

In these lines the poet probably intended to call to mind 
the lovely landscape of the coast of Tago in Suruga as made 
complete in beauty with one of its parts^ Mount Fuji, receiving 
a covering of snow. 

Metrical Translation: — 


When to Tago's coast 

I my way have ta'en^ and see 

Perfect whiteness laid 

On Mount Fuji's lofty peak 
By the drifl of falling snow. 




Oku yama ni 

Momiji fumi-iodke 

Haiu akika no 

Koe hiku toki zo 

Aid wa kanashiki. 

Literal Translation: — 



kanashiki to 

As for 


it is sad 



hoe no 

at the time 

I hear 

the voice of 




the stag 


treading through 

and scattering red maple-leaves, 

ni yama ohu, 

in the mountain depths. 

The conpound fumvioakef meaning "to Iread upon, break and 
scatter/' is said to indicate progress made through obstacles. The 
mountain patbs in autumn are covered with fallen leaves. Momiji are 
properly the red, not exclusively maple, leaves of autumn. Zo is a 
particle used chiefly to give emphasis to antecedent wordp. 

Explanatory Not£. Sarumaru, whose office was that 
of Tayu, an attendant at a Shinto shrine, lived probably before 
800 A.D. In the Hojoki, written in the year 1212 a.d. by Eamo 
Ch5mei who became a hermit and dwelt in a ten-feet square 
(hojo) hut on Oharayama near Kyoto, is a passage- telling of 
his daily walks. It reads, " I cross Mount Sumi, I make a pil- 
grimage to Iwama, I worship at Ishiyama, or else I thread 
my way over the plain of Awadzu and pay my respects to the 
remains of the old Semimaru (No. 10). I cross the river 
Tagami and visit the tomb of Saramaru Tayu." 


This soQj^ depicts the deepoDinij; of autamn's melanoholj 
bj the plaintive cry of a stag, beard from the depths of moun- 
tain forests. 

Metrical Translation: — 

In the mountain depths, 

Treading through the crimson leaves^ 
Cries the wandering stag. 

\Vhe(i I hear the lonely cry, 
Sad, — how gad — the autnmn is! 


Kaaasagi no 

Wcdaseru hashi ni 
Oku shimo no 

ShiroM wo mireba 

Yo 20 Juke ni keru 

Literal Translation: — 

Yo 20 Juke ni keru 

The night has far advanced, 

mir^ wo thiroki no shimo 

when I see whiteness of frost 

oku ni kaaasagi no watcaeru 

lying upon the magpies' stretched-across 


Keru ii a particle that, as a suffix, gives a preterit sense to verbs 
—fuke ni luru,^^* has far advanced." 


Explanatory Note. Yakamoohi, by oflSce Ghunagon, 
or Imperial State Adviser of the Middle Rank, is much es- 
teemed for his poetic skill. He flourished towanis the close of 
the eighth centurj. 

Iq this poem, the writer notes the far advance of night by 
the appearanca of hoar-frost (which forms when the night is 
well advanced) upon the timbers of the '' Magpie Bridge," a 
passage-way in the Imperial Palace grounds. This name 
" Magpie Bridge " was ^iven by popular superstition to the 
" Milky Way/' of the skies. Kasasagi is a kind cf raven, 
or magpie. It was believed in ancient times in China, Korea 
and Japan, that the kasasagi on the seventh day of the 
seventh month of each year bridged •* the Kiver of Heaven," 
the •* Milky Way " by intcrfolding their wings, so that the 
haUiorime, or the weaver, — bride of the heavenly herdsman — 
might cross it for her annual visit to her spouse. The myth 
in many forms has been a favorite in Japan. It easily found a 
place among the names given to the many structures that were 
parts of the Mikado's Palace, the home of " the Son of Heaven." 
Metbical Transultion : — 

If the " Magpie Bridge,"— 

Bridge by flight of magpies spanned^—- 

White with frost I see : — 

With a deep-laid frost made white :— 
Late^ I know^ has grown the night. 




Furi'Sake mireba 


Kasuga naru 

Mikam no yama ni 
Ideshi (8hH ha mo. 

LiTEBAL Translation: — 

Mireba furi-mke Ama-no-hara 

When I look afar (o'er) Heaven's Plain, 

mo ha tmhi ideshi 

18 it the moon (that has) come forth 

ni yama no Mihaaa 

upon the mouDtain of Mikasa 

naru Kasuga, 

being in Kasuga ? 

Ama^o-haaa is a poetic name for the sky. Furi sake miru is mada 
forcible by the use of furi,—furu " to brandish/' as with a weapon. Mo 
IB sign of emphasis upon the aLteoedent thought. Naru=:n% arUf '*to be 
in," or "at" 

Explanatory Note. It is said that the poet, Naka- 
maro of Abe, wrote this poem daring a farewell entertainment 
given to him at the sea-side bj some friends in China, when 
he was about to return to his home near Nara in Japan. The 
time was the middle of the eighth century. 

The verses tell of the poet's longing for home as he saw 
the risen moon shining over the ocean that lay between China 
and his native land. 

Metrical Translation: — 

When I look abroad 

O'er the wide-stretched " Plain of Heaven/' 
Is the moon the game 

That on Mount Mikasa rose^ 
In the land of Kasuga ? 



. Wagaiowa 

Miyako no lalaunU 
Shika 20 8umu 

Yd too Uji yama to 

HUo wa iu nari. 

Literal Translation : — 

Wa voaga to iatsumi 

As for mj hat (it is) south-east 

no miyako shikd 20 simu 

of the capital city ; thus — I dwell. 

wa hUo iu nari yo wo 

As for meoy thej say of the world 

to Ujiyama. 

that it is a '* Moant of Sorrow." 

Explanatory Note. The priest (Hoshi) Kisen, writer 
of these verses, lived at Mount Uji not far from the capital 
city, Kyoto. The nearness in proaunciation of the word ushi, 
*' gloom " or ** sorrow/' to that of the word Uji, the name of 
the place of his home, prompted him to carry on his reflections 
by means of a pun, a device which, as^ has been noted, is 
common in Japanese^ versification. 

Various opinions exist amoog commentators as to the real 
purport of his reflections. One says, " the idea is that the 
author flees to a remote mountains, Ujiyama, to escape the 
sorrows of this world, but finds that sorrow still pursues him, 
in the name of the mountain.*' Another remarks that, the 
author leaving the capital for a distant place so that he may 
shun the world, people have named the place, the " Mount of 
Shunning." Yet another interprets the poet as thinking of 
Mount Uji, hb homo, " * as a very pleasant place.' Why 


then has it been so misnamed,—' Mount of Sorrow ' f Why 
take a pessimistic view of the world while nature may be en- 

The tanka is obscure in meaning, or rather, as we aee^ it 
easily yields to various interpretations. Tsurayuki (No. 86) 
in his criticism of the more ancient poets wrote, ** Kisen is 
profound, but the connection between the beginning and the 
end is indistinct. He may he compared to the autumn moon, 
which, as we gaze on it, is obscured by the clouds of dawn." 

Metrical Translation: — 

Lowly hut 18 mine 

South-east from the capital :-— 
Thus I choose to dwell ;— 

And the world in which I live 

Men have named a *' Mount of Gloom/' 



Hana no iro wa 

Vtsuri ni keri na 

Itazura ni 

Waga mi yo ni furn 
Nagame seshi ma ni. 

Literal Translation :— 

As for 

hana no 
the flower's 



passed away 

in the 


(I) did 


itazura ni 


waga mi furu ni 

(while) mj body (t e. I) was going throagh 

the world. 

In rtading tho first line, hana no tro tea, elide tbe o sonnd of no, 
thus, — hana n'iro wa* Seshi, is the preterit form of wru, ** to do." 
Waga mi, "my body,"=»* myself" =** L" To, "the world,"-" this 
life." Furu associates the idea of the furu, " fall of rain," — naga ame 
" long rain," (an idea played with by the poet in the word nagame 
"looking" or "gazing,")— wilh /uru "to pass," which refers to "the 
passing" of one's life in the world. 

ExPLAJ^ATOBT NoTE. Komachi of Ooo was a famous 
poet living in the middle of the ninth centary, 834 — 880, A.D. 
She was famous as well for her boaaty as for her poetic ability. 
In his prefare to tbe Kokinshu Tearayuki (No. 35) said, ** Ono 
no Komachi " shows " feeling in her poems, bat little vigor. 
She is like a lovely woman who is suffering from ill-health." 

This song carries a double meaning throughout. The 
poet associated her beauty with the color of a flower. As the 
latter perished under the " falling,"— /uru, — of " long-rains," 
n<iga qth^,— so her beauty has faded while she was " passing,' 
—yum— through the world, ''gazing upon," — nayame,— or 
giving her time to, trifles. 

Metrical Translation: — 


Color of the flower 

Has already passed away 

While on trivial things 

Vainly I have set my gaze. 

In my journey through the world. 




Kore ya kono 

Yuku mo kaeru mo 
WaJcarete wa 

Shiru vio ehircmu mo 
Avisaka no seki. 
Literal Translation: — 

Yuku mo kaeru mo wakarete 

(For those) either going or returning, having 

wa shiru 

been separated as for ; (for those) either 

mo shiranu mo kore ya 

kuowing or not knowing, this truly, 

kono seki no ausaha. 

this (here, is) the gate of roeetiog hill. 

Ausaka Is literallj ** meeting- hill" or "tlope," The word is pro- 
tioanoed Osaka, wh'ch as pronoonceH may also mean " Qreat Hill." 

Explanatory Note. This poet, Semimaru (No. 5), 
living towards the end of the nioth century, was famous as a 

Just before reaching the city of K}5to, on the Tokaidu, 
the main thoroughfare of the east sea-provinces of Central 
Japan, one passes Osaka, an important place, because there the 
road leads over a low ridgo, in a narrow defile, across the 
mouDtain-barrier that separates Kyoto and the eastern part 
of the empire. In aocient times an Imperial guard-house 
was located there. Past this barrier, travellers to and from 
Kyoto and the east and north must go. The poet Semimaru 
in his picture of the busy scene there, played upon the words 
Osaka "Great Hill," or "Slope," and Auaika, (Osaka) 
" HUl of Meeting." 



Mexbioal TbA1!7SLATION : — 

Truly, this is where 

Travellers who go or come 
Over parting ways, — 

Friends or stranger^ — all most meet ; 
•Tie the gate of " Meeting Hill/' 



Taaoshima kakele 
Kogi^idmu to 

Hito ni vxi tsuge-^/o 
Ama no t8wri4nme. 
LiTEBAL Tbakslation: — 

Hara no 

(Cer) the plain of 

the eighty (Le. many) islands, 

idenu j to 

I go iorth : that, 

(O fishing boats 

proclaim I 

Kakete from kakeru in the sense of *' passing from one thing t» 
another.'' The tniribune are here personified and charged fdth a 
message ^o the home^blk and to mankind. To is an imperatife €■• 



the oceai 

I, ' towards 





hito wa 





of the 


n THE AsiAsie sodcry 09 japah. 


a Priyy ooanoillar (Son^^ and waa also m aoted. aoholar. Ha 
lived in the ninth oenturj. Having at one time loat fiivor 
with the Oonrt anthorities bj sonve supposed show of disrespeot 
to the Emperor he was banished to the Oki islands. These - 
lands are famons in Japan's traditions and hist6rj. Several 
historic personages have saflfered banishment to them. Thej 
were to ancient navigators^ ** far away.** Men of high degree 
considered dangerous to. the atate, were of coarse powerless 

Takamura's poem is a pathetic legacy to his friends at 
Ky5to as he started upon his^ lonely joonwy to the aolitoda 
of the distant archipelago. 



O'er the wide^ wide seay 

Towarde^its many dM»nt ialea^ 

Rowing I set forth. 

Thia^ to all the world proolaiin» 
O ye boata of fisher-folk I 




Kumo no kayo^ 

FfM-^ofi yo 

Olome no sugata 
Shibcuhi todomm. 

Winds of Heaven» blowing 

kayoiji no kumo todomm 

the thoroagh&res of ihm ohmdt. I would 

shibcuhi okme no sugata. 

detain a little while these virgin forms. 

Tiu 18 hero a genitife suffix. Todamtn is read as a fonr-syllablad 

Explanatory Notb^ The^ Bisbap (^Sofi) HenjO was of 
Imperial descent Daring his< eavlf years he bore the name 
Yoshimane no Manesada. Upon- the death (850 AnDr^of 
the Bmperor NimmyG^ with whom ho was in.hi|^ £lvor and 
to whom ho was much devoted, he took orders at a Buddhist 
priest. Abooi sixteen years later* a short time before his 
death, Im: was made a bishop. Tsurayuki wrote of Bishop 
HenjO as a poet that, though a skilful versifier he laokod real 
feeling. " Ho excels in form, but substance is wanting. The 
emotion produced by his poetry is evanescent. I might liken 
him to one that should conceive an artificial passion for the 
meve paintedrsembUuica of a maiden." 

It is said that the poet saw, at a coart festival^ oaUed the 
Imfe^ ne Akari no Sechie. " Feast of the Light of nenty,** 
given in connection with the first oflering of rice to the godtt 
and to the Emperor in autumn (NUnamo jUoteuri), a dance of 
some nobles' daughters. He was so charmed by the scene 
that he likened the young maidens to heavenly beings. A% 
according to ancient belief, the pathways of the celestial beings 
lie throug]li an UDclouded sky, he prayed the winds that they 
would dose with clouds the ways to the heavenly home. 

MiTTRiGAL Translation: — 

O ye Winds of Heaven I 

In. the paths among the clouds 
Blow, and close the ways, 

That we may these virgin forms 
Yet a litae while detain; 




Tmkuba-ne no 

Mine yori oimru 


Koi 20 immorite 

Fuohi to nari nuru. 

Literal Translation: — 

Minano^awa otmru yori 

(Like) Minano river, falling down mm 

mine no nuicuba-ne 

the ridge of the peak of Tsakuba, 

koi 20 taumorite 

(so mj) love accumulating 

to nari nuru fuchi. 

has become at last a deep pool. 

In, aesociated with the name of an Empero^ indicates abdicatiOD 
of sovereignty Tsttkuba-ne, is a oontraction of Tmkuba, the name 
of a monntain, and mine *' peak." Zo indicates emphasiB of the thought 
eipiertSd. Nari-nuru is a poetic fbrna of the safliz fiari and cx p r ewe s 
completion of action. Nuru h the contracted form of the adjective tmirtt 
** past " or " preceding/' and indicates completed action. 

Explanatory Note. The retired Emperor (7n) Thai, 

whose reign extended from 877 to 884 ad , is credited with 

the authorship of this tanka. 

The writer likened his love to the still, deep waters of the 

Minano river, that, from small and feeble beginnings, had at 

last become serene, strong and full in their flow. 

Metrical Translation: — 


From Tsukuba's peak. 

Falling waters have become 

Mina's stilly full flow :— 

So my love baa grown to be ;— 

Like the river's quiet deeps. 


Miohtnoku no 

Shincbu moehieuri 
Dare yxia ni 
f Midare somenishi 

Ware narandku ni. 

Literal Translation :— 

Dare yue ni 


For whose sake 

(have I) begun to be 




(like the) s/iinoftii-fern 

mochi zuri 





Michinoku (if 
loare nara 

not for yours ?) 

I am 

nahu ni, 

not (a man to change). 

Someniahi has the twofold mcaniog of "beginning," and ot 
** dyeing,"— someru " to begin," or " to dje." The phrase can read, 
" beginDing to be confosed or bewiHerfd/' as a lover, or being ''dyed 
with a confused pattern," as a fabric. 8hinobUj—A kind of fern or grassy 
whose leaves are mach tangled, or intricate in form, was in ancient times 
placed upon cloth and inbbed with a stone until the cloth was slained 
with its oatllncs. Nara naku^snatranUf *'am not." 

Explanatory Note. The name of this poet, is Mina* 
moto T5ru. His death occurred in 949 ad. His official tit{e 
heads the tardea, — Sadaijin that of one of the highest officials of 
the Council of State, — the Minister of tho Left,— residing in 
a part of the capital Kyoto, called Kawara. 

The poem is understood largely by inference. In one of 
the parts of the province of Mutsu, Michinoku, printed-cloths 


were made in old times. T^j were lutereBting from their odd 
tangle of lines, taken, as described above, irom a kind of fern, 
or grass, grown there. The poet wished to remove any ground 
of suspicion of his lojaltj from tbe mind of the woman be 
loved. Hence, a desoriptton of hie bewildered, embarrassed, 
confused mind as lover, that he likened to a Michinoka 
Mnobu'^nni ; and his protestation that to his mistress only, 
who was the source of this confusion, he could not be other than 

MsTBicAL Translation: — 


Michinoku print 

Of ahinobu^a tangled' leaves I 
For whose sake have I^ 

Like confused begun to be ? 

Only yours I I can not change ! 



jS!tmt ga tame 

Haru no no ni ideU 

Wakana tsumu 

Woffa koromode ni 

Yuki wa furirUutm. 

Litisbal Tbanslation :— 


tame idde ni 

(For) thy sake going 

forth into 


no haru 


the field 

of spring 

to pluck 


wiahana yuld wa jfuri 

joong green herbe ;— the anow falling 

tsuUu ni waga karomode. 

meanwhile upon my elolhea- 

9nd8 (%.€. sleeves). 

Rmd niidele as thit^ not four, irllabla,— ni'ifete. Oakhaiaa 
fBditiT8iigii,B<«yoaof8ake,"a*'70iir take." 

ExFLAjrATORY NoTiB. TIm 'Emfotor K(3k5 reigned bet 
time yens, — 885^7 a.d. He has been named '' a aagmdotti 
monaich/' He is -said to have written these verses as da* 
aoriptive of filial devotion,— of his love for his grandmother. 

Mexbical Tbas^slation : — 


It is for thy sake 

That I £eek the fields in spring, 

Gathering green herbs, 

While my garment's lianging sleeves 
Are with falling anow befleoked. 


lacAt waJcare 

Inaba no yatna no 
Mine ni ofuru 

MaUu to 8hi kihabc 



Tatihi wdkare 
Being separated, 

the pine-tree, 

ofuru ni 
growing npon 

hikaba M to 
if I hear 




no yama no Inaba 

of the mouDtain of loaba, 

kaeri'kon ima. 

(I shall) come back immediately. 

Ihchi is an aoxUiar j prefix to wakare, and is here chieflj ittphonie' 
Inaba is the name of a JapancM province but has also another mtdniqg* 
'' if I go/' Matsu is a two-fold word. It may mean '' a pine-tree,** or 
'to wait ;" much as the English word *' pine " maj mean a ** pine tree** 
or '* to pine,'^ while waiting, ^i here has no other office than thai of 
or aiding in prodncing euphony. To is the subprdiosting oonjnnotion 
*' that/' introdadng the assertion that follows. *' The sound of. the plni 
tree ; that, should I hesr," etc. Eon ia two syllabled and is so readr- 

Explanatory Note. Yukihara, an Imperial Privy 
Councillor (^Ghunagon), died in 893 a.d. He ^m distingoiBh* 
od through service given to several of the Mikados during a 
long life. He was half-brother to Ariwara no Narihira Aaon* 
His full name was Ariwara no Yukihara Asdn, Aaon was 
originally the family deeigoation of the second of the eight 
chief famiHes ot ancient times. Later it became an honorary 
prefix to the names of CDurt-officials above a certain rank. 

Yukihira had been appointed governor of the province of 
Inaba. In this tanka he assured his loved one that if he 
should hear the sound of ''the pine tree" in the land of 
Inaba, he would know thereby that she would be ** waiting or 
pining '' for him aud he would return at once. The poem ex. 
hibits several characteristic plays upon words. 

Metrical Translation:— 


Thouj^h we parted be, 

If on Mount Inaba's peak 

I should hear the sound 

Of the pine-trees growing there, 
Back at once I'll make my way.. 





Kami yo mo 


Taimta gawa 

Kara-karefnai ni 

Mizu kukuru to wa. 

Literal Tbanslation: — 

. I have not heard, 

even (of the) 




a thing 

as (this). 

to kukuru 
that binds 



kara karemii 
Chinese deep-scarlet 

color, (at) 

latsuta gawa. 
Tatsuta river. 

Chihayaburu is probably derived from iichi hayai^ " most early,*' or 
the •* quickest," and furu, ** manner," the whole word meaning ** hav- 
ing the manoer of swiftness or strength. ' It is a " pillow-word *' for 
kami. As such it has not much more signiBcance than the definite 
article. Kara-kurenci ni mizu kukuru^ indicates a kind of dyeing hj 
which parte of the fabric are so bound up that when dipped in the dye 
they do not lake the dye-stuffs color. 

ExpiANATORY Note. The writer of this song, Ason 
Narihira, who lived between 825 and 880 A.D., was a man of 
princ^Ij birth, of distinguished culture and of notorious 
gallantries. He was exiled on account of his intimacy with 
the Empress. The lae Monogatari, founded, it is said, in largo 
part upon diaries left by Narihira, celebrates him in the ad- 
ventures of a young court noble who is its central figure. But 
it is not necessary to assume that all the adventures ascribed 
to tbe hero ever happened. Literature at the time dealt 


finely with fact. As a poet, Naxihira was somewhat obsoare 
and extremely concise^ as the present Umka shows. Tsarayuki 
wrote of him, ^ he overflows with sentiment, but his language 
is deficient" He characterized NarihiraVi style as like ** a 
dosed flower that hath lost its color, but whose fragrance yet 

The river Tatta (Tafouto), not far from Nara, near 
HOryuji, is celebrated fbr its beauty, espedaliy in autumn 
when (he leaves of the maples growing along its banks ohange 
color. The poet recalled the lovely autumn scene there, lik- 
ening it to cloth on whose blue baok^ground exquisite 
scarlet-figures were outlined. Such loveliness had never been 
heard of, even in the splendid 4ivine past. 

Meirigal Translation: — 


I have never heard 

That, e'en when the gods held sway 

In the ancient days^ 

E'er was water bound with red 
Such as here in Tatta's stream. 



Suminoe no 

Kishi ni yoru nami 
Torn 8ae ya 

Yvme no kayoiji 

HUo me yokuran. 



Nami ycru 
Waves gather 



iia/ii no 
the coast of 

Bay of Sumi I 



at night, 

in the thoroughfares 



(I) shall avoid 

men's ejes. 

Sumi^io^ it the ancient name given to finmijosti Bay near OMka. 
Tcisuran is roul as a four syllabled worcL 

ExPLANATOBY NoTE. Ason Toshijuki, the writer of 
this song, died at the early age of twenty seven (907 a.d.)- 
He was an o£Bcer in the Imperial Ouard. 

The first two verses of the ianka are anoUier illuatration 
of ** the pro£Etce " in Japanese poetry. Yoru, or *' gathering/' 
of the waves, seems to serve no other purpose than to prepare 
the way in sound for yoru, " night/' a word on which the 
writer's theme turns. So anxious was the lover that his 
attachment should not become publicly known, that he declares 
he must avoid the eyes of men even in his visits to the beloved 
hie dreams by nighL 
Metrical Translation ; — 

LfO the gathered waves 

On the shares of Sumi's bay ! 
E'en in gathered tiight, 

When in dreams I go to thee, 
I must shun the eyes of men. 






Mijilcaki ashi no 
Fushi no ma mo 

Awade Jcmo 

yo wo 

SugudiUe yo 


Literal Translation : — 

8ugu$hiie yo 
Pais through 







not meeting 


for the 


no fushi 
of joint 




Nanitvagata to 
of Naniwa marsh ? — that. 


do 70U say ? 

¥\M no ma has the two -fold meaning of a ^ space of time/' and of 
an *' intenpace in length.*' The word-play here inrns upon this donble 
Qoia^haia^ "seaihoie/' *• marsh." 

Explanatory Note. The Lady of Ise, prominent in 
the oourt of the Emperor Uda t888-897 a.d.) ; the Mikado's 
iayorite; mother of a Prince, Katsura; an aooomplished 
loholar and of most amiable personal qualities, was prominent 
about the year 890 a.d. Her father Tdugukage Fujiwara was 
governor of the proyiDce of Ise, whence came the name by 
which the daughter is known in literature. 

Through the word-play of the song the writer reproached 
her loTer with the question, *' Do you aak me not to meet yon 
•gain, — not even for a moment ? " 


IfsiBiCAL Translation: — 

Even for a space, 

Short as joint of tiny reed 
From Naniwa's marsb. 
We mo^t never meet again 
In this life ? This, do yon ask ? 



Ima hata onaji 

Naniwa naru 

Mi wo tsukushite mo 
Awanu to zo omou, 

Lrr£BAL Translation: — 

Wabinureba ' ima 
Since I am distressed, now 


(it is) the same (whatever happens). 

atoanu mo 
I will meet (you) even (if) 


mi too naru Naniwa. 
my body is in Naniwa (bay). 

Mi wo tiukuahite^" doBirojiBg mj body*'' or ^'takini; m j lift.' 
Iq this phrase is embodied also^ mi too tndnuihi i.s., "a tide-gaage." 
Nantf see No. 7. 

Explanatory Note. The writer of this tanka was the 
Prince QShirmd) Motoyoshi, son of the Emperor YOsei who 
reigned from 877 to 884 a.d. 

Prince Motoyoshi was noted for his love-adventures. 
In the present song he gave utterance to a mood following tho 


exposure of a forbidden intimaey* 1% AowrAker lookiaMBM ef 
deipair. Pablicifcy had isade hii afiaise about ai bad at thef 
oeuld be. Further attempts at ooDoealment were oseleik 
Therefore, he resoWed, he would meet his mistresi. His lift 
might be the peualty he would paj, but tiiat mittered not 
The word-play with nd too tsukushi suggests both " the de- 
structiou of life/' and " the tide-gauge " of the bay of Naniwa 
where death might be found. 

Metrical Translation : — 

Now, in dire distress, 

It is all the same tb me 1 
So, then, let ns meet 

Eyen though it ooste my life 
In the Bay of Xaniwa. 





Aricdk no tmki 


5RAL Translation :— 

JBdUcciri fit to titht 
Only beoanse that he said, 


moment I oome," I hwre waited 

tsurti iofia 


(until) theoaming OQti indsad I of th» omoo 

no ariake no nagamikk 

of day-break of tho^loiig; monlk. 

JfiaiMiO'tiuk^ U " the moon thining tho tdgjit throiu^ and n- 
muning yinble at day-break ; " bat here the writer probably rdbre to 
the moon aaitanpeara, or rieee, about day-break, w«. on. Ihe. twantieth 
or tweoty-fiiret day of the lunar month. Naaciuki, ** long month/' or 
ai aooia aay,. an^ abbrerialion fiir ifuthari isukif *^rifiB*cntlhis months" 
was the month of the old Japaoeae calendar almoet synchronooa with tba 
pieaent OaHOfbar. MachiriMuru is read aa four syllablea not five, moeV- 
imrw. Jraaa»28anezolamatbo,a<*indeedr <*intruthl" **a]a8l*' 

Explanatory Note. The writer of thia aoDg, the 
Buddhist pxiflat {BOiki) Sosei.. lived towards the end of the 
ninth century and was, as a layman, named Tosbimine no 
ffironobn. He is said to bave been Bishop HoojO's son, 
Bisbop Hffl[»j5 was married before he took priestly orders. 

The poet' telb in his ianka of an all-night vigil be bed 
SMde^ awaiting the comiog of the loved one^ who bad promised 
aBiinunediate retom. 

Mbibigal Trakslation : — 

Just because sbe said, 

'' In a moment I will come/' 
Pve awaited ber 

£?en until tbe moom of dawn, 

In tbe long months, hathrappeared* 



J^JUon fcoTCL fW- 


Shi orureba 

Mube yamakau wo 
AtoM to wan. 


Literal Transi^tion 


Kara nijuku 


Ab, by meaDB of its 



ku9aki no 


grasses and trees 

are hanging 



down broken, 

fitting (is 



haze wo iurdn 


wind be called 

"The Wild" 

(or "Keroe)." 

Sara nisayue ni, " oq aooount of." ShionarelHif is, according to some 
eommentators, composed of ski^ "branch/' aad oru, "to break." 
Others saj that thicru is eqaiyaleni to Bhibomi-onm^ " &de and break 
CiSt" and that ** hang down bent/' is the ancient meaning. 

Explanatory Note. Yasuhide ot Bunjra, a greatly 
celebrated writer, lived in the latter part of the ninth oenloiy • 
He has been criticized as giving to his verses more beauty of 
form than worth of content. Tsurajuki said of him, — "he 
is skilful in the use of words, but thej match ill with his 
matter, as if a shopkeeper were to dress himself in fine silks." 
This ianka holds a graceful plaj upon the Japanese names of 
*« a storm/' arashi, and of arashi "wild," "fierce," "vio- 
lent," "savage'* actions. 

METBidAii Translation : — 

Since 'tis by its breath 

Autumn's leaves of grass and trees 
Broken are and waste, 

Men may to the mountain-wind 
Fitly give the name, *' The Wild.'' 




Ihuki mireba 

Chiji nimono ko9o 

Kanashi here 

Waga mi hitotsu no 

Aid ni tvQ aranedo. 

LiTEBAii Translation : — 

Mireba tsuki 
When I look (at) the moon, 

ehiji flit 
in myriad 

tnono hoao 
ways things, indeed ! 

karaahi here 
are sad ; 

aranedo tea ni 
although it is not, as coDcerns 

the autumn. 

no waga mi hitotsu. 
for mjself alone. 


Bead akiniwa in tbe last verse as aki n' too. 

ExpLANATOBY NoTE. Oe of Chisato, it is Bupposed* 
Mved towards the end of the ninth century. 

In this poem, much celebrated and often quoted ia 
Japanese literature, the writer tried to tell of the lonelinep 
and aadness that came to him with the autumn evenings ; — ^yet^ 
not for him only had the autumn oome. 

liEEBiGAii Translation : — 


GtLze I at the moon. 

Myriad things arise in tboughti 

And my thoughts are sad ; — 
Yet, His not for me alone, 
That the autumn time has come. 


KAN KE. ' 

Kano labi wa 

Miiaa mo tori-aeza 
Tamuke yama 

Momiji no nishiki 
Kami no manirmani. 
Literal Translation: — 

Wa kono tabi tori-aezu mo 

As for this time, I had Dot even 

niLsa manumani 
time to bring nuBi, (here are) at the plea- 
no kami nishiki no 
sore ol' the gods, brocades of 

momiji lamuke yama. 

the red leaves of " The Mount of Offering." 

Nu9a were, in ancient times, strips of silk, or cloth, in fife colors ^ 
white, yellow, pur pip, green and black, that were scattered in frant of a 
god's fehrine, or plxcf^d there b >un 1 to wanti^ of sacred wood, as an accom- 
paniment to a petition for divine favor. Tamuke yan%a U the name of a 
moantain near Nara. The word Tamuke U a d-trivative ot tamuke, '* the 
offSer of any thing to a go 1/' or " to t'le spirit of one dead,'' — * the action 
of stretching oat t*ie hands in ^application ; ' hence lamuke yami, <*M[oant 
of Offering.* ' Mani-mani in from mama ni, ' * ac<x)rd ing to one's choice or 
pleasure." Ton-anu is be read tor'oeni in order to glfe proper metre to 
the line. 

Explanatory Note. Kan Ke— " the House of Kan," 
— was a name of Sugawaraof Michizane, a man of distinction 
mnd of many accomplishments in art, literature and statecraft. 
He lived during the latter part of the ninth and in the first 
part of the tenth centuries. Ho died in 903 a.d. at the age 
of fifly-nine, while serving as a minor ofBc3r in the admini- 
stration of Kyushu, (0 which post ho had been degraded as tha 
result of an intrigue against him, when he held one of the 
highest Imperial offices, that of *' Minister of the Bight '* 


(^Vda^in). After his death he was deified as Tenjin Soma 
and worshipped as *^ the God of Loamiag and Oalligraphjr." 
The chief temple dedicated to Tenjin ISama is loeated al 
Dazaifu, in north-western Kyushu, the place of Michizana^s 
exile, and the ancient seat of the government of the island. 

This poem was composed, eo it is said, at a time, when 
Michizane attended the Mikado on an excursion to Tamuhe 
yamcu It was nol proper that a subject should make an ofibr« 
ing hf his own on such an occasion. Therefore, let the god, 
sboiuld he be so pleased, accept from him, instead of the absoit 
fiiisa, the brocades of scarlet leaves then lying upon the moan- 

Meibigal Tbanstjltion :-<- 


At the present time. 

Since no offering I could bring, 

Loy Mount Tamuke I 

Here are brocades of red leaves. 
At the pleasure of the god . 


Na ni shi owaba 

Lusaka yarna no 

Sane kazura 

Hito ni sMrarede 
Kuru yoshi mo gana. 

Literal Translation: — 

Sane-hazura no AxiwJca 

(If) the creeping vine of '' MeeungHill 


yoma owaba M ni 

jnoantain/' really aooords with its 

«a mokanayoshi kuru 

jiBme, ii there not some means to come 

(or draw it in to thee) without (the act) be- 

nt hito. 

coming known to men ? 

AuMoka k both the Oaka HUl aod a " Mteting-Hni" (No. IQ.). &m^ 
kwmra if a creeping tIsp, that grows on MonntOsaka, and at many other 
places. It 18 here located on Mount d«ika eimply forih» sake of the 
W0fd*p]aT therebj made possible. Kuru, means both ** to come/' and *' lo 
draw in/' as a rope, "hand over han^" Toahi is "way," <'nieaiis^" 
** opportonity/' " chance." JVa is here an emphatK ezpletiye. Oa^ka^ 
—interrogative sign. R-^ad ski owaba as sh'auaba. 

Explanatory Note. The writer of this tanka Fnjiwara 
no Sadakata, Udaijin, or '' Minister of the Right " under the 
Mikado Daigo, and dwelling in Sanj5, the third great 
thoroughfare of Ejoto, lived in the early part of the tenth 
century. He died in 932 a.d. 

This poem depends for its interpretation almost wholly 
upon the suggestions of its wordplays. The lover pleads with 
his mistress to continue her secret visits to him. If it be 
really true that the creeping vioe is from the " Hill of Meet- 
ing/* is there not some means by which to draw it hand over 
hand secretly to its very end, that is, to the place (or time) of 
meeting ? — in other words>, ** Can you not manage in come way 
secretly still to come to me ? " 

Metrical Translation: — 

If thy name be true, 

Trailing vine of " Meeting Hill/' 
Is there not some way, 

Whereby, without ken of men, 

I can draw thee to my side? 




Miae no momiji-ba 
Kokoro araba 

Ima hiio-tabi no 

Miyuki matanan. 


Mmyi-ba no 
(If) the maple leaves of 

the peak 

no Ogura yama araba 
of Mount Ogura have 



hito tabi ima 
(or minds), one time more 


miyuki matanan. 
Imperial visit they will wish to awail 


Bead kokoro as kok'ro. In maJtanant the nan is expressive of ** wish" 
or *' cksire.'' Maehi nan is an equivalent for " desirous of waiting.'' 
Nan is read as two syllahles, na-n. 

Explanatory Note. Lord (A'o) Teishin is tlie post- 
humous name of the Imperial chief Minister of State, Fuji- 
wara no Tadahira, who with his two eons occupied the three 
highest offices of the state at the same time, thus grcatlj 
strengthening the power of their family as the Imperial power 
began to decline. He died about 936 a.d. 

The Mikado ITda, after his abdication and his becoming 
Ho-o, "an Imperial devotee of religion," had visited Mt. 
Ogura in the autumn time when the variegated foliage greatlj 
beautified the landscape. It is a tradition that he ordered the 
poet to recommend to his son, the reigning Emperor Daigo, a 
visit to the beautiful scene. This tanka is the poet's invitation 
to his august sovereign to make the journey. 

88 the asiatic society of japan. 

Keibical Translation-.— 


If the maple leaves 

On the ridge of Ogura 

Have the gift of mind, 

They wiiriongingly await 
One more august pilgrimage. 



Mika no hara 

Wakite nagaruru 

Itsu miki tote ha 



Ka hoishi'karuran 

Why do I 80 foiidly think of (her) ? 

itsu miki tote 

When have I ceen (her) ? that saying. 

Izumigawa wakite nagaruru 

The river Izumi gushing forth, running 

Mika no hara. 
over Mika's plain. 

Immif *' a ppriDjs cf water," anl itsu mi, '^ when see/' m&ke the chief 
word-play of this tanka. 

ExPLANATORf NoTE. The Imperial Privy Councillor 
(^Chunagon) Kanesuko Fujiwara lived at tho beginning of the 
tenth century. 

In this poem he makes rather a subtle play with words. 
In the first three lines he speaks of the " gushing forth/' and 


** mimiDg abroad/' of the Izumi river, and then tarns to hii 
apedal purpose, the query — ** When did I see ? — (iisu miii), 
or, was it only from rumor spread abroad, that I came to long 
ibr her of whom I thiok " ? The words mika, *' see T ** and 
Lntmi ga (or ka) '* when see ? " and itsu mild tote Jca^ ** when 
did I see?" — (" I do not remember ;")— are all suggestive of 
the writer's uncertainty as to the cause of his fondness. 

Metbical Translation: — 


Over Mika's plain, 

Gushing forth and flowing free. 

Is Izumi's stream. 

I know not if e'er we met : 
Why, then, do I long for her ? 



Yamazato wa 

Fuyu zo mbishiaa 
. . Masari keru 

HUo-me mo kuaa mo 
Karenu to omoeba. 

LrTEBAii Tbanslation: — 

Wa yamazato aabiahisa 

As for a mountain village, loneliness 

zofuyu masari keru hito-me 

in winter hns increased, (as) human eyes, 

mo kusa mo karenu 

and also grasses, have disappeared : — 

to omoeba. 

^hat, when I thiuk of it, (is true). 

40 THE ASIA17C ^OOlErr 0^ JAPAN. 

Jk»'Mit^<' whliered away/' andeotly *< to aepatate," aa^ '• to itvt 
ohl^i ttjM ftom anTthiiig.'^ It is «quifaleut to both *'th« lAsMitt If 
tirilonb'' and '* the withering away of yegetation." The list line tkoM 
md karen* to mnotba, to make the measure of the tonka. 

ExpLANATO&Y NoT£. AsoTi Munejuki Minftmoto lival 
during the first half of the tenth oenturjr. 

Li this fiODg^ the wiiter tells of hoW lonelj a mdantain 
Tillage becomes in winter, when both its enlivening ela* 
mentSy the summer guests and its verdure^ have disappeared 
and withered away. 

llBnuGAii Translation: — 


Winter loneliness 

In a mountain hamlet grows 

Onlj deeper, when 

Guests are gone, and leaves and grass 
Withered are ; — so runs my thought* 


Kokaro-aie ni 

Orahaya oran 
Hdisu-shimo no 


SMragiku no hana. 

Literal Translation: — 

Orabaya . kokofXHxie 

If I wish to pluck it, by giless 

oran shiragiku no 

it may be plucked,-— the white chry^ 

tiYAfttmiK-is!)ntT. 41 

hana oJd mado' 

santhemum flower placed under 

waseru no hatgu AiiM. 

the delusion of the first frost. 

JCMbrtKite^a heart-hit^" <* con)ectare," **^e88.'' Oki-madawoMtru^ 
** poltfng on dec?ption/' Hatmirthimo^ ** first," or ** autamnal, froflta." 
Bead hokoro aie m as kok*ro aU ni. Bead oran as three Bjllables o-ram. 

Explanatory Note. This ianka was composed bj 
OshikOchi no MitdUne, distinguished ns one of the compilers 
of the Kokinshu. He lived at about the beginning of the 
tenth century. 

The poem has been vatiouslj interpreted. One commen- 
tator gives this as its meaning ; — it is impossible to Judge' 
on account of an accumulation of frosty which flower is the 
white chrysanthemum among many chrysanthemum flowers* 
Perhaps one might, by a guess, pluck one, but only by 
chance. Another critic thinks the writer intended to say, that 
under so great an accumulation of frost one could not, except 
by chance, distioguish flower from frost. Yet another critic 
says, the scene of intermingled flowers and frost is so lovely 
that the poet could not bear to destroy its beauty by plucking 
the flowers. 



If it were my wish 

White chrysanthemum to call ;-^ 

Puzzled by the frost 

Of the early autumn timCi 

I perchance might pluck the flower. 





Aha-Uuki baiari 

UJd mono vfa na$ld, 

Lftebal Translation:^ 

Since partiog (from her), (she) looking 

tsurenaku aribke no 

cold and unfeeling, O^^O ^^^ moon 

wa nathi 
appearing at day-break, there is no 

uki mond bahcari 

disagreeable thiug, to much so, as 

the day-break. 

Ariake,—ib» moon that Bhines at and after day-break, is spoken of as 
* cold and ^ofeeling," bectOFe it shines on ms thoagh unmindfol of, or 
indiflerent to, the coming of the day. Bahcari is is eqoiyalent here to kodOf 
diAt, etc and is quantitative, — "asmnchas." 

Explanatory Kots. The writer of this song ift&M 
(NQm) no Tadamine died, so it is said, in 965 A.D , at the age 
of ninety-nine years. 

This poem, is illustrative of the best of Japanese versifi- 
cation, both in form and in content. Its motive is to express 
how deeply the lover felt the coldness and indifierenoe shown 
him by his mistress. 



IffsnucAL Traksultiok ;— 

Like the morniDg moon. 

Cold, aDpitying was my love. 
Since that parting hour, 

Nothing I dislike so much 
As the breaking light of day. 



Ariake no tsuki to 

Miru made ni 

YoAino no saio ni 
Fureru shirayuki. 

Literal Tbanslation : — 

The white snow 

sato no Yoshino 
theyillase of Yoshino, 

much as (if it were) 

no ariake 
of the morning moon, 

fureru ni 
falling upon 



I see 

the moon (l^S^O 
at day-break. 

oppning/' i, e^ 

Asaborake, is equal to cua, " mornini; " and kirake 
«< day-break." '* YoahinOf is a mouotain village, much celebrated for the 
beauty of its sitDatlon and its masses of cherry bloom in the spring. 

Explanatory Note. Bat little U known of this poet» 
Korenori Sakanoue, who lived at some time during the tenth 

44 THE ABtKttC iXXSamt 0» JAPAN. 

The writer composed this dodg, it h 8aid, when, AttAl^ a 
jonmej in Yamato, he law snow felliag apon YoBhino. Hit 
fancj was that the soow-fall made the laadsoape look tm 
though it were lightened by the pale shining of the moon at 
dawn, or bj light obscured in mist, or haze. 


At the break of day, 

Just as though the morning moon 
Lightened the dim scene, 

Yosfaino's fair hamlet lay 

In a haze of falling snow. 


Yamagawa ni 

Kaze no kaketaru 
Shigarami wa 

Niigare no aenu 

Mbmiji narikeri. 

LirEBAL Translation : — 

Wa shigarami 
As for the pile and vvicker bankbarrier, 

kaketaru no kaze 

laid along by the wind 

ni yamagawa nari keri 

in the mountain stream, it is only 

momiji aenu mo 

red maple-leaves, that can not 

flow away. 


SKPL4irAT0RY Note. Tsuraki Haramiohi jQoamhed 
about tbe begioDiDg of the tenth century. 

The poem embodiei a dainty ooaeeit about a diifk of 
eeariet autumn-leaves blown against the bank of a stream and 
kept there, as though thoy were a kahetaru, — a row of the 
piling, (oommon in Ja|>aQ), that is bjuod together by enwoven 
wiikwSy or bamboos, and placed along a stream's bank for ita 


Mkcrical Translation : — 


In a mountain stream, 

Builded by the busy wind, 
Is a wattled-barrier drawn. 

Yet it is but maple leaves 

Powerless to flow away. 



Hisakata no 

Hikari nodokeki 
Ham no hi ni 

Shizu'kokoro naiu 

Hana no chiruran, 

LrrsRAL Tbanslation : — 

M hi no haru hiaakata no 

In the days of spring, (when) long-enduring 

hikari ' nodokehi naku 

light is cheering ; (why), without 

sldziirkolcoro hana 

quiet mind (i.e. impatiently), (do) flowers 

scatter ? 


Miakata no is • *' pillow-word " applied to " heayeo/' and taoeldtial 
oljects. There is no general agreement among conmnentatora- aa to ihtt 
dcriyation of this word. It is ftupfiosed to 1m a contraction of At no aoiu 
bdta, ** the aide on whii b the sun shines." It is derived also from Atr^ 
no haiaihi wf, ** haying the form ot a g nrd/' though why so deriyed it la 
di£Scnltto explain. An explanation offered is, that in the beginnitig^ 
the nniyerae exiated aa a great plantic Kpher?, which in time began to 
take shape aa two spheres, bavintr, at length, the form of a ^'mrcL or of tbt 
flgnre 8. At last these two f>pheres sep i^at d, the upper one becomlnff 
the ann, the lower one, ite<>lf finally dividing, becomiug the moon and 
the earth. According to thi^ explanation the heavens might natarally 
be spoken of as " goari shnp d." By others hisakafa is defined as ** long 
duration," **ever]a>ting," *' eternal/' Chiruran is read as a fioor 
■yllablei word, chi-rura-n. 

Explanatory Note. Toaionori Ki, nephow of Tsura- 
yuki and collaborator with him iu the ootnpilatioD of the Kokinr 
lAii, "Ancient and Modern Sjogs/' died early in the tenth 

In this lanka the poet wonders why the cherry-flowers to 
speedily perish in the eh^jerful, quiet d lys of spring. 

Metrical Translation : — 


Id the cheerful light 

Of the ever-shining Sun^ 

In the days of Fpring ; — 

Why, with ceabeless, restless haste 
Falls the cherry's new-blown bloom ? 


Tare wo ka mo 

Shiru-hUo ni sen 

Takasago no 

Maim mo mukashi no 
Tomx) naranaku ni. 


LiTBKAL Translation : — 

Tare wo ka mo mi 
Whom shall I have 


koown-ptraoDS (i.e. friends) ? 

while even 

maim no Takasago 
the piucs of Takasago 

naranaku ni 
are not 

iomo no 
companions of (my) 

old tim(8 

Bead sen of the second veree as two lyllahles, — Be-n, 
Explanatory Note. Okikaze Fujiwara flourished in 
the first quarter of the teoth century, and was in 911 A.D. in 
office in tlio proviDce of Sagami. 

One of the symbols of old age, io frequent use in Japaa- 
ese literature, ia two pine trees near Takasago on the sea-coast 
west of Kobe, in the province of Harima. They are per* 
sonified as a man and a woman, and are known as Aioi-nO' 
Maisu^ " the growing old together pines." But in Motokiyo's 
No no JJiai "Takasago" (1455 a.d), one old fir tree at 
Takasago and another at Suminoje near Osaka are thus de- 
signated. The " old man *' of this iVo poem, says, " Whom 
can I take to be my friend ? Exc?pt the fir-tree of Takasago, 
my ancient comrarle, there is none to converse with ma of the 
bygone days. So I make my own heart my companion, and 
thus give utterance to my thoughts." 

In this song, it is supposed, that the poet intended to tell 
of the solitude of old age, as though he wou'd say, — " My age 
is far advanced. The friends of my life hivo all passed away. 
Whom can I regard as friends remaining ? The old pine-trees 
of Takasago have live J during my life and they are associated 
with men ss representing old age. Yet, they never were, and 
cannot be, friends with whom one can commune. In truth, I 
am absolutely friendless so far as true friends, or friends of 
many years, are concerned." 


Mbtbical Tjunslation : — 


Whom then are there now, 

Id my age so far advanoed, 

I can hold as friends ? 

Even Takasago's pines 

Are no friends of former days. 


Hito wa iza 

Kokoro mo jBhiram 
Furuaaio %oa 

Hava to mukashi no 

Ka ni nioi-keru. 

loTEBAL Translation: — 

Iza toa hito kokoro 

'So, indeed I as for the human mind 

mo shirazu wa 

it caii not be known, bat so far 

as concerns my native village, 

hana to nioi-kem 

the flowers are emitting odor, 

fiika no mukashi. 

with the fragrance of old times. 

JSn, is an exclamation of denial, ** not ao*' I Zo is osed to emphasiie 
the poet's assertion about the flowers of his native place. 

Explanatory Note. Tsurayaki Ei was a member of 
a noble family of Imperial descent. He died in 946 A. D. sixty* 
four years old. During his career he held many prominent 


positions in official life and was distinguished for his rank in 
literature. In prose he left two works that are classics of the 
Japanese language, — his record of a homeward journey from 
Tosa when he was recalled from his goyemor-ship there, — the 
Tasa Nikki (" Tosa Diary "), 935 A. D., and his preface to the 
KokinBhu (*' Ancient and Modern Poems "). He was the chief 
compiler of the Kokinsh^ ; appointed to this work by the Em- 
peror Daigo in 905 A. d., having for his assistants Oshikochi no 
Mitsune (No. 29), Mihu (Nibu) no Tadamine (No. 80), and Ei 
no Tomonori (No. 33). In the hoJdnshu, *« the best pieces 
that had been produced during the previous one hundred and 
fifty years " were to be gathered aud treasured. It was com- 
pleted in 922 A. D. Its twenty volumes contain about eleven 
hundred poems nearly all of which, are tonka, 

A story told of Tsurayuki relate?, that he once went to see 
a friend after a long absence. His friend upon meeting him 
jestingly asked him, how it was that he could so easily find his 
way to the house. Seeing a plum-trceat the gate of the house, 
in full bloom, Tsurayuki broke a spray of flowers from it, and 
handing it to his friend, extemporised the present ianka, intend- 
ing thereby to reply, that whatever might have happened in 
his friend's mind or heart in absence, himself, at least, was as 
constant as this fragrant flower-tree, in its blooming each 

Metbical Teanslation :— 


No I no! AlS for man^ 

How his heart is none can telU 

Bat the plum's sweet flower 

In my birthplace, as of yore, 
Still emits the same perfume. 




Naisti no yo wa 

Mada yoi nagara 
Akenuru wo 

Kumo wo izuko ni 

Tauki yadoruran. 

Literal Translation : — 

Wa yo no nattu 

As for the night of summer, 

nagara made yoi ahenuru wo 

while (it is) yet the evening, it dawns. 

ni izuho no 

In what part (ue, where) of 

kumo tauki yadoruran* 

the clouds (does) the moon find a 

plaoe to rest ? 

In the phraie akenyru wo, — wo is emphatio and marks a paaie. 

Explanatory Note. Nothing of special value is known 
of the writer of this tanka^ Fukajabu Eijowara. 

The meaning of the poem is, — the summer's night, of 
which the poet sang, peemed to him so short that, while he 
imagined it jet the evening, the next day's dawn had ap- 
peared. But in so short a night what had become of the 
moon ? It could not have crossed the sky. It must then have 
Ibond a hiding place among the clouds I — Thb is a charae- 
teristic Japanese poetic conceit 

Meibioal Translation: — 

In the summer uight. 

While the evening still seems here, 



Lo I the dawn has come. 

In what region ofthe olonds 

Bas the wandering moon found place ? 


ISiira-tsuyu ni 

Kaze no fukUhiku 

AH no no wa 

Tama zo chirikeru. 


Ltteral Translation: — 

As for the field 

Juhishiku no 

(by the) strong blowing of 

the white dew, 

iama zo chirikeru. 

beads are scattered about. 


kaze ni 

the wind upon 

the strung-unfixed 

T$uranuki4(nnenu, '^nol fixed bj boring and Btriogingf*' as beads 
upon threads. 

Explanatory Note. Asajasu of Bunja lived at the 
close ofthe ninth century. He was the son of Yasuhide no 
Bunjfl, writer of tanka No. 22. 

The poem composed, it is said, at the request of the Em- 
peror Daigo, 900 A.D., embodies a delicate, bsautiful fancy; 
the likening 9! dewdrops to gems. 

6S THE asiaho society or japan. 

Metrical Translation : — 

In the aatumn fields, 

^'faen the heedless wind blows by 
O'er the pure-white dew, 

How the myriad, unstrung gems 
Everywhere are scattered round 1 



Mi tcoba omowazu 

Uito no inochi no 

Oahiku mo aru kana. 

Lttkral Translation : — 

Wasuraruru tooba mi 

Being forgotten, for myself 

cmotoazu oshiki mo cam 

(I do) not care. It is pitiable— isn't 

kana no moclii no hUo 

it ? — (on accouDt) of the life of the man 

haying made a vow. 

RMd oMtu as oeh'ku. 

Explanatory Note. Lady Ukoo, of whom but little ia 
known, gave expression in this tonka to the devotion of self- 
forgetting love. A lover had vowed eternal fidelity. He had 
invoked upon himself divine panishment should he prove fidtb- 
less to his vow. The woman was deserted in the course of 
time, but in her grief she lufiercd more through the.fear that her 


reoreant lover would die under the outraged justice of the gods, 
than through the pain caused by the wrong -done to her. • 
Metrical Translation : — 

Though forgotten now, 

For myself I do not care. 
He, by oath, was pledged ; — 

And his life, who is forsworn^ 

That iSy ah ! so pitiful. 

Asajifu no 

Ono 710 ahinofwara 

Amarile nado ka 

Hito ?io hoishiki. 

Literal Translation: — 

Shinotmra no ono no 

The small-bamboo plain's field of 

amji/u shinoburedo 

thick-growiog rushes ! Though I bear 

nado ka amarile 

it with patieooe, why is it too much 

hoishiki no hito. 
(to bear), the keepiog ono in thought with love ? 

Aaajifu in " a clump oiehigaya and other plants growiog io profnaion 
togetlier.'' Ji is chi with tbe nigori It is an abbreyiatioa for ckigaita^ 
a sort of amall rush. The first two lines of tbe poem form a ** prefaoe'y 
whose sole purpose seems to be a euphonic preparation, bj use of the 
word thino in BhvnowirOy for the expression shinoburedo* 


Explanatory Note. Very little is known of the Privj 
State Councillor (Sangi) Hitoshi. He lived at some time in 
the coarse of the tenth century. 

The poet wonders why it is, that, while he seeks to bear 
with patience, or to control, the love that has taken posseesion 
of him, he is yet powerless to do so. With characteristic 
Japanese fancy he thinks of a field that " bears " ruches, and 
with that fancy writes of how he *' bears " his overpowering 
Metbigal Translation: — 

Bamboo-growing plain, 

With a small-field bearing reedd ! 
Though I bear my lot, 

Why is it too much to bear ?— 
Why do I still love her so ? 



Iro ni ide ni keri 

Waga hoi wa 

Mono ya oniou to 

Hito no iou made. 

Literal Translation : — 

Wa waga hoi shinoburedo 

As for my love, though I conceal it, 

ni iro keri ni ide 

in my color {i.e. face) it has appeared ; 

made to hOo no Urn 

to much so that he asks, 

omow mono ya. 
'< Are yuu thinking of something ? " 



Skinoharedo bere has the meaning of ** eonoealment," rather than of 
4* patient endnranoe." In the second Terse read fit ide as f/ide. 

Explanatory Note. Eanemori of Taira lived in the 
middle of the tenth cod tar j. 

In this tanka the poet tells of the futility of attempts to 
oonoeal one's love. According to a Japanese proverb, "Smoke 
and love can not be concealed." 

Metrical Traitslation : — 

Though I would conceal^ 

In my face it yet appears, — 
My fond, secret love : — 

So much that he asks of me, 

** Does not something trouble yon ? " 


Koi 8U tefu 

Waga na wa madah 

Tachi ni keri 

HUo shirezu koso 
Omoi'someshi ga. 
Literal Translation : — 

Tefu koisu 
The sajing that I am in love ;— 

waga na wa 
(for that) my name 

tachi ni keri ga 

has gone abroad, although 

tomeahi hito shirezu koso. 

to love DO one knowing it. 


I began 


5ti is an abhrevUted form of the auxiliary verb wni, *' to da'' £010 
is an emphatic particle. Madaki is an adverb^ ** before di^light»" or 
** ahead J.'' It is used especiallj in poetry. 

Explanatory Note. Tadami of Mibu, son of TadasuQCi 
one of the compilers of the Kokinahu, lived in the tenth centurj. 

The theme of this tanka is very Uke that of the song just 

Metbigal Translation : — 

Though, indeed, I love ; 

Yet, the rumour of my love 
Had goae far and wide. 

When no man, ere then, could know 
Tlmt I had begun to love. 


Chigiriki na 

Kaiami ni aode too 
Shibori tsutm 

Sue-no-matsu yama 

Nami komji to wa. 

Literal Translation :— 

Chigiriki na katami ni 

(We) have, indeed, sworn mutually, 

Aibori tsutsu node wo 

while wrioging (our) ^leeves, — (that) 

nami koaaji to wa 

the waves shall not cross over 

yama StLe-no-maiau. 

the " Mount of the Pines of Su3." 


Chigiriki na is made emphatio and explanatory by no; — *' Have we 
not indeed, eworn I " Oiigiri ia a contraction of (e'tUgiru *' to grasp 
hndSf'^ a term ofled in later timea only between lovenL * 

In Mntsn, in Northern Japan is a ridj^e called Sae-notnaisu yama, 
with which this song is associated. 

Explanatory Note. Motosuke of Kijowara lived 
towards the close of the tenth ccoturj. 

The poem refers to on older one preserved in the 
Kekinshu; — 

Kimi wo oldie 

Addshi gokoro wo 
Waga motaba 

Sue-no-matsu yamii 

Nami mo koenan. 

"The waves shall cross over Mount 8ue-no-matsu if I 
shall ever love any oiher one than you." Oh, ''Our love shall 
continue unchanged so long as the waves do not flow over 
Mount Sue-no-matsu." 

The writer, it is supposed, wrote this song for a friend, 
in reference to one whom this friend loved but whose affection 
had failed. 

Metbioal Translation: — 


Have we not been pledged 

By the wringing of our sleeves, — 

Each for each in turn, — 

Tliat o'er Sue's Mount of Pines 
Ocean's waves shall never pass ? 



Aimite no 

JSochi no kokoro ni 

Muluishi wa mono too 

Omowazari heri. 

Literal Tbanslation: — 

Kuraburtba ni Icolcoro 

When I oompare (it) with the feeling 

no nochi no aimiU 

of the after time of my haying met her, 

wa mukashi 

as for (the feeling of) the old time, 

omoioaaari keri mono too. 

I did not (then) trouble about things at all. 

Omcwa preceded bj mono bas the meaning of ** though tftil/' ''foil of 
care," '' oonoemed." Zaru equals zurca%** not to be." Ito ne^^ive suffix 
to ▼orbs. 

Explanatory Note. Very little is known of this writer* 
the Imperial State Adviser Atsutada of the Fujiwara family. 
Ho died, it is said, in 943 A. d. 

The poem tells of how his love was intensified after he had 
once met his mistress. Compared with the passion then 
aroused, the feelings of former days were as though they had 
been nothing. 

Metrical Translation: — 

Ebiving met my love, 

Afterwards my passion was, 
When I measured it 

With the feeling of the past, 
As, if then, I had not loved. 



Au koto no 


Taete ahi nakuba 



Hito wo mo mi wo mo 

Urami zaramashi. 

JRAL Translation: — 

Nahiba taete shi 
If there were not at all 

any meeting 

with her, 

naka-naka ni 
then, on the contrary, (or 

in the end,) 

urami zaramoBhi 
I should not find iault 

mo hito vjo 
either coDceroiiig her, 

mo mi wo, 
or concerning myself. 

Shi 18 merely eopboDic. Tade is here <* quite/' '< entirely ; " with the 
negatiYe mkuha^ it means "not at all." Naha-naka m, is ordinarily '* con- 
trary to," or '* beyond expectation." Here it has the force of '* on the 
eontrary," or ''in the end." 

Explanatory Note. The writer of this tanka^ the 
State Adviser Asatada, was the sod, it is said, of the ** Minister 
of the Eight {Vdaijin), Sadakata no Fujiwara, ** Saiijo^*' 
under the Emperor Daigo, in the first half of the tenth century. 
It is supposed that his death took place in 961 a. d. 

The eoug: may be interpreted as a general reflection upon 
the untroubled mood of the recluse, or, better probably, as 
praise of the fancied mental peace that would follow complete 
separation fiom an uncertain, or fickle, lover. — It is delight- 
ful to meet with her, but if I could not meet with her at all, 
in the end I should not have either her heartlessness, or my 
own loneliness, to lament. 

60 , the asiatic society op japan. 

Metrical Translation: — 


If a trysting time 

There should never be at all, 

I should not complain 

For myself (oft left forlorn), 
Or of her (in heartless mood). 


Aware to mo 

lu behi hito toa 

Mi no itazura ni 

Narinu beki kana. 

Literal Translation: — 

Omohoede iu beki hiio wa 

Not believing that there h one who will say, 

aware to mo 


mi no itazura ni narinu be]d 

(by) my own folly I ehall become (nothing), 


Omohoede is from tmiohoerUfSsomou " to think ** ; de i^ a negative 
particle. Bein is an auxiliary adjective with the sense of probabilitj, 
"may," — of duty, "should."— of contingency, ** would," — or of posn- 
bllity "could"— etc.; iu beki hito **one who would say." Hazttra ni 
naru is a poetic expression for ^to die of love, — of disappoiated 

Explanatory Note. Lord {Ko) Kentoku lived in the 
latter part of the tenth century. It is said that he died in 
972 A.i>. The present name was posthumous ; his real name 
having been Koretada Fujiwara. 


The poem is thoB iuterpreted by some oommentators ; — 
** I do not care for the woman who would pity me, but I am 
abont to die for one who does not love me." Othersi more 
correctly probably, take the verses to mean, ** You do not love 
me, the man you ought to love, and therefore I am dying I " It 
18 said that the writer addressed the tanka to one whose love 
had failed him, and who had then avoided meeting him. The 
poem is praised as being very beautiful in form and as 
charged with only tender reproach. 

Metrical Translation: — 

Sure that there is none 

Who will speak a pitying word, 
I shall pass away. 

Ah I my death shall only be 
My own folly's (fitting end). 


Yura no to wo 

Waiaru funabUo 

Kaji wo tae 

Yukue mo ahiranu 

Koi no michi kana. 

Literal Translation: — 

FunabUo tae kaji too 

(Like) the sailor having lost his rudder 

toataru to wo no Yura mo 

crossing the strait of Yura, even 

yukue michi no koi 

the way to the end, in the path of love, 

shiranu kana. 

is unknown (to me), alas I 


Toe for taete, is from taeru 'to make an end o('' " to become extinct," 
'< to )o«e." Yvhte, *' tho place whither anTthinn: «oei," ** baa gone,"-' 
'* goal/' or ** destination." iTana,— a particle hairing ezoUmatorr foroa. 
It usuallj expreeaes ** wonder^" ''aorprlae'' or " lament," and is placed at 
the end of the sentence. 

ExPLANATOBT NoTE. NotbiDg in particular is known 
of the writer of this tanka^ Yoshitada of Sone. He lived in 
the tenth century. 

The poet laments the difficulty he finds in making " the 
course of his ^rue love run smooth " and sure. 

Metrical Translation: — 

Like a mariner 

Sailing over Yura's strait 
With bis rudder gone, — 

Whither, o*er the deep of love, 
Liei the goal, I do not know. 




Shigereru yado no 

SabUhiki ni 

HUo ko8o miene 

Aki tea ki ni keri. 

Literal Translation : — 

Ni sabiMki no yado 
To the loneliness of the cottage, 


grown with eigh -fold {i.e. many) 

hop* vines, 

aki' wa 

ki ni keri 


has come 

hito ko9o miene. 
although man indeed is not seen. 



Miene ii from mieru '* to be Tisible," with the negative raffix n^ 
** although not'' Yae-mugura, the Japaneee hop, a climbing vine with 
leaTea maple-shapfd and co7ered with fine hairs. Km it a particle of 
■peoial emphana, derived probably from ho, ''this" and m, ''that** 
JTertt perfect of ibni,'' to come." Ab a suffix it generallj indicates past 
time ior the preceding verb. 

Explanatory Note. About the priest (^Hdahi) Eikei, 
practically nothing is known. He flourished in the latter half 
of the tenth century. In this tanka a three-fold loneliness is 
made the theme: — a viQe-overgrown cottage; the preseaca of 
autumn ; the absence of man. 

Meibioal Translation : — 


To the humble cot. 

Overgrown with thick-leaved vines 
In its loneliness, 

Comes the dreary autumn time ;— 

And no human form is seen. 


Kaze wo itami 

Iwa ulau nami no 
Onore nomi 

Kuddkete mono wo 

Omou koro hana. 

Literal Translation: — 

Nami vJtsu iwa 

(Like) the waves btriking a rock, 

wo haze itami kana 

because of the wind's violeocd, (so) it is, alas ! 


anort nomi Jcoro 

I alone, at present time 

omou mane too 

thinking over things, (who am) 

dashed into fragments. 

Wo, accnsati^e sigo, is here eqaivaleiit to '' by means oC" Thia 
pariiole ia ** frequent ly found in Japanese where in English a preposi- 
tion wonld be used." (No. 1.) No after nomi is to be nnderslood aa 
standing for no gotoku,^*^ like/' *' similar to.*' No frequently oocnrs in 
ancient poetry in the sense of no gotofcu. 

Explanatory Note. Shigejuki Minamoto is bat little 
more than a name in literature. He lived in the tenth 

The fancy in this tajika v, that, as wind-driven waves 
cannot ncove the rocks thry meet but are themselves dashed 
over and broken upon the rockp, so, the lover, who here speaks, 
when he is driven forward under the stress of his emotions, is 
crushed against his mistress's heartlcssness. Japanese critics 
esteem this a beautiful poem. 

METTRicAii Translation: — 


Like the broken waves, 

Dashed by fierce winds on the rocks, 

I, alas I am crushed, 

When I (wildly) think of her, 
(And her heartlessness to Die. 






Eji no taku, hi no 
Yoru wa mode 

Hiru wa kie-tsutsu 

Mono wo koso omoe. 

Literal Tbanslation: — 

No hi taku no eji 

(Like) the fire kindled by the guard 

mihaki-mxyri moete 

at the Imperial Palace gates, buming 

?oru wa Me-tsnUu hiru wa 

J night, extinguished by day, 

Jcoao omoe mono wo. 
I am, indeed, thinking over things. 

B/Uid ko9o omoe Bs koa' omoe. Mono too koso omoe is inlerpreled aa 
'< a troubled broodlDg over afisirs." 

Explanatory Note. Asoji Yoshinobu Onakatomi 
lived in the latter part of the tenth century. 

The poet compared his love to tbe watch-fires kept at the 
Imperial Palace gates ; — aflame and bright by night, when 
the world is still and dark ; — smouldering, dull, or dead, when 
the world is ab'ght and astir. 

Mettbioal Tbanslatign :— 


Like the warders' fires 

At the Imperial gateway kept,— 

Burning through the night. 

Through the day in ashes dulled,— 
Is tbe love that fills my thoughts. 




Kimi ga tame 

Irvochi sae 

Nagdicu mo gana to 

Omoikeru kana. 

Literal Translation: — 

Sae inochi oshikaraaartshi 

Even (my) life, that was not dear (to me), 

kimi ga tavne nagaJcu mo ga/na 

for jour sake long may it be : — 

to kana omoikeru. 

that, indeed!, T have thought. 

M(hg<ma ib exprwrive of verj strong desire. 

Explanatory Note. Yoshitake Fujiwara lived in the 
latter half of the tenth century. His death probably occurred 
in 974 A.D. 

The sentiment embodied in this tanka seems to be this : — 
The lover, before he had an opportunity for meeting with his 
mistress, had been desperate enough to be ready to lisk his 
life jfor her sake, — careless of oouscquences. But now, that 
he had met her, life had become precious to him. He prayed 
that it might be prolonged. 

Metrical Translation: — 


For thy precious sake^ 

Once my (eager) life itself 

Was not dear to me. 

Bat 'tis now my heart's desire 
It may long^ long years endure. 




Kahu to dani 

Eyawa ibuki no 

Sashimo shiraji na 

Moyuru omoi wo. 

Literal Translation : — 

Kaku to dani eyatoa ilmki 

That it is as much as (it is,) how could I tell ? 

moyuru omoi 

(Consequently) my burning feelings 

shiraji na 
may not be known (to her, that they are) 

mahimjo mshi-mogusa no 

of the same degree (as the) moxa of 

(Mt. Ibuki). 

Ibuki is an excellent example of the frequent word-plaj in Japanese 
Terse and in ornameotal prose also, natnelj, the use of two meanings 
embodied in one word {kenybgen), or in the sound of a word, to express 
related ideas. Ibvki stands here primarily for ui beku *' conld or shonld 
tell," U. "How conld I tell (her)?" Secondarily, ihdd recalls ML. 
Ibukit a mountain celebratei for the excellence of the moxa^ a soft wool- 
like tissue made &om the leaves of the plant Artemeaia, and need as a 
counter irritant, by homing it upon the skin. Sashi in sashi-fnogxisa is 
only euphonic, lor use in coonecf ion with the words saahimo ihiraju 
Bani in affirmative sentences means " at least," " as it is," ete. In 
ncptive sentences it sijpifies " even," *' so much a«." Fa, is a particle 
of mterrogation, but is seldom used in asking for information. Its 
use is diicSy rhetorical. 

Explanatory Note. Ason 8anekata Fuji wars lived 
during the latter part of the tenth century. 

The two thoughts of this song are cleverly bound toge- 
ther in the " privot-word " ibuki The word ends one of the 
thoughts and leads the other. My love cannot be told to her. 


and 80, she cannot know how inteose it is ; — burning, as it 
does, into my being even as the moxa from Ibuki mountain. 

Metbical Teanslation 2 — 

That^ 'tis as it is. 

How can I make known to her ? 
So, she ne'er may know 

That the love I feel for her 
Like Ibuki's moxa barns. 



Kururu mono to toa 

Nao uramediiki 

Asaborake kana. 

Literal Translation : — 

Shiri nagara kururu mono to wa 

Though I know that it is to grow dark 

(again, even if) it has dawned, 

nao uram^eshiki OMboraJce 

nevertheless, detestable is the break of day, 

indeed I 

Wa is spedficallj a distingnithing or isolating particle. But often 
as here, it oan not he well rendered in translation. Its afaseooe ftoBi 
the translation makes no difierenoe, so far as oonTejrinii: the meaning of 
the original is conoemed. 

Explanatory Note. Ason Michinobu Fujiwaia, of 
the tenth century, wrote this soDg, to tell of the misery ftlt bjr 


H Japanese Romeo, at being driven from hU Juliet bj the 
coming of the morning. Night would come again, he kneWf 
boty that notwithstanding, the dawn is hateful. 

MirrBiGiAii Traitolation : — 

Though 1 know full well 

That the night will come again. 
E'en wlien day has dawned ; — 
Yet, in truth, I hate the sight 
Of the morning's coming light. 


Hitori rmru yo no 
Akuru ma wa 

Ilea ni hisashiki 
Mono to ka wa shiru. 

LiTEEiAL Translation :— 

Ka wa akiru ika ni hisashiki mono to 

Do you know how long 

TTkt loa akuru 
the time imlil it becomes light, 

no yo nuru 

of the night (when I am) sleeping 

hitori nageki'tsvisu^ 

alone, at the same time sighing ? 

N%aru=neru '^ to sleep/' Akuru ma is the equivalent of akuru nuide 
no aida i,e. ** the time of waiting until the opening." 

Explanatory Note. This writer, the mother (haha) 
of Michitsuna, a Commander of the Bight Imperial Guard 


{Udaishi), and wife of the Imperial Prime Minister, or Begenti 
Kaneie, lived in the latter part of the tenth century at the 
time when lazury and dissipation began to take full possession 
of the Imperial Court. 

Once, so it is said, she was reproached bj her husband 
fi)r her slowness in opening a door for him upon his return 
late at night. Her answer was embodied in the present tanha. 

Metbical Tbanslation : — 

Sighing all alone^ 

Through the long watch of the nighty 
Till the break of day : — 
Can you realize at all 
What a tedious thing it is ? 



Wamreji no 

Yukume made wa 


Kefu wo kagiri no 
Inochi to mo kana. 

LiTEBAL Translation: — 

If it is too difficult (for him) 

wa made 
on into 

yukume wdsureji no 
the (far) future, not to forget ; 

to mo 
even so, 

kana kagiri no 
ah me ! the end of (my) 


kefu wo. 
(would better be) to day. 


ExPLANATOBT NoTE. Oido Sanshi is a deBignaiion 
eqoiyalent to Jundaijin, the name of the Oourt-official rankiDg 
in the seoond degree below the Prime Minister in ancient 
times, and later, of the officer jost below " the Minister of the 
Bight." But this name has been specifically applied to the 
official spoken of in this title. His real name was Eorechika 
Fujiwara. His mother (haha), the writer of the present tanka, 
was Taka, the daughter of Takashima no Mahito Naritada, 
and wife of the Minister Regent Michitake Fujiwara. She 
lived at the opening of the eleventh century. 

The meaning of the poem seems to be : — '' If it be too 
difficult for the betrothed one not to forget, although he has 
sworn never to forsake mo, it would be far better were my life 
closed this very day, than for me to live long and go through 
the misery of neglect and desertion." 

MsTBiOAii Tbansi^tion: — 


If "not to forget'' 

Will for him in future years 

Be too difficult ; — 

It were well this very day 

That my life, ah me ! should close. 


TaJd no oto toa 

Taete hisashiku 


Na ho8o nagareU 
iSlao kikoe here. 



OtoTiO taki wa 
Though the sound of the water-fall 

hiacuhiku taete narinuredo 

long has become silent, 

na ko8o nagarde 

its name, the more so, has flowed 

nao kihoe here. 
(forth, and is) still heard. 

Expi;«ANATOBY NoTE. The Chief State Adviser (JDainar 
fon) KintG was one of the <* Four Nagon " who gave lustre 
to the Imperial administrations at the end of the tenth and at 
the opening of the eleventh ceoturies, the time of the culmina- 
tion of the classic literature of Japan. He was a member of 
the Fujiwara family when the Fujiwaras had practical control 
of the empire. He died in 1041 a.d. 

In this poem Kint5 celebrated an ancient waterfall, that 
had been constructed in the early part of the ninth century 
£pr the Emperor Saga. Two hundred years later, at its de- 
serted site, the poet sang of it as famous in story, although its 
sound and beauty, as parts of nature, had long ceased to exist. 

Metrical Translation: — 

Though the waterfall 

In its flow ceased long ago, 
And its sound is stilled -, 

Yet, in name it ever flows, 
And in fame may yet be heard. 





Kono yo no hoka no 
Omoide ni 

Lna hiio^tabi no 

Au koto mo gana. 

Literal Translation: — 

I (Boon) shall Dot be (i.e. shall soon die). 

ima hito-4abi no au 

One more time of meeting 

mo gana ni omoide no 

can there be ? (It is) for recollection 

hoJca no kono yo. 
(when I am) outside this world. 

In arazaremf the terminal ran is eqaiTalent to (2« oro *' shall pro 

Explanatory Note. The poet whose name is attached 
to this ianka as Ladj Shikiba, was the wife of Michiiada 
Tachibana, Gbvernor of Izumi at the end of the tenth century. 
During the reign of the then Emperor, Ichij5 (987-1012 A.D.), 
Japanese literature reached great excellence, notably under 
the culture of women connected with the Imperial Court. 
Among these women may edpecially be mentioned, besides 
Izumi Shikibu, Murasaki Shikibu, 8ei Sh5nagon, Akazome 
Emon and Ise Taiu, or Osuke. From the second and third 
named of these writers caoae two works, — the Oenji M&nogcUari, 
and the Makura no Soshi, — esteemed the best of purely Japan- 
ese compositions regarded as embodiments of literary style. 
Izumi Shikibu also produced a highly admirable piece of 
prose, the Izumi Shikibu Monogaian, purporting to be cor 



reflpoDdence with her lover, a son of the Emperor Seize! who 
carry reigned 968—969 a.d. 

In ihe ianka here quoted, the writer tells of the pleading 
of a dying woman with her lover. 8he b^ged for one more 
meeting with him, that she might have a happy memory to 
carry with her into the world beyond death. 

Metbical Translation: — 


8oi)n I cease to be ; — 

One fond memory I would keep 

When beyond this world. 

Is there^ then, no way for me 
Jast once more to meet with thee ? 


Meguri aite 

Mishi ya sore to mo 

Wdka/nu ma ni 

Kumo kakure niahi 
Yoha no tmki kana. 

Literal Translation : — 


Meeting (him) upon the road, — 

mishi ya 
*• Have I seen (him) * 

80 or not, while 

decide (this), 


the moon 

sore to mo 
If it were 

lean not 

no yoha 
of mid-night 


hamo kaJcure-nishi. 

in cloud had hid. 

Bead megwi aite as meg^ri aite, Nishi is a particle, suffixed to giye 
pluperfect sense. 

Explanatory Note. Lady Shikihu Murasaki, cele- 
brated as the author of the standard classic in Japanese 
literature named Oenji Monogatari (1004 a.d.), was the 
daughter of a noble of the Imperial Court, Fujiwara Tame- 
toki, and lived in the latter part of the tenth century. She 
died, it is said, in the first part of the eleventh century, — 
earlier, according to other accounts. It was said that she was 
beloved by one of the sons of the Emperor Daigo. She was the 
wife of a noble, Nobutaka, whom she survived a number of years. 
Her daughter, who was influenced by the mother's literary 
inclinations and wrote a novel called Sagoramo Monogatari 
(1040 A.D.), was the author of the tanka next following this* 
The name Shikibu was originally an abbreviation of the title 
Shikibusho, an Imperial department in ancient times that had 
in charge the rites and ceremonies of the court. The title 

may have been borne at some period, by ladies in special 
service to the Empress. At length, it probably became an 
official title held by Eome court Jadies, having lost particular 
association with office. 

The poem here given is considered one of noteworthy 
ingenuity and beauty. Moon, and lover aie identified in the 
poet's fancy. In her walk the writer meets suddenly with some 
one ; but, before she can decide whether he is her friend or not, 
the midnight moon is hidden by cloud ; — the iriend has dis- 

Metrical Translation : — 


Meeting in the way — , 

While I can not clearly know 

If 'tis friend or not ;— 

Lo ! tlie midnight moon, ah me ! 
In a cloud has disappeared. 




Arima yama 

Ina no sasahara 
Kaze fuheba 

Idesoyo hito too 

Wasure ya vxi mm. 

Literal Translation : — 

Kate fukeba Arima yama 

If the wind blows (from) Mt. Arima 

aasahara no Ina 
upon the bamboo-plains of Ina. 

ide 8oyo wasure ya wa 9ura 

Well, indeed I how shall I forget 

hUo wo. 

/de, "well/' "inded," <> behold/' is an exdimation used to 
attract attention. In connectioo witb «>yo,= acre too, it is used only in 
poetry. Here it directs attention to a complaint made. Soyo has a double 
usage in these ver8e8,->(a) the exclamatory use just spoken of, and (b) 
a use deecriptiTeof *' the rustliug of leaves/' soyo-aoyo, from the genUe 
blowing of a breeze. 

Explanatobt Note. Muresaki Shikibu*8 daughter, 
here named by her rank of honor, — the third (Sammi), — and 
from the title of her father or husband, (Datni,) wrote these 
verses as a reply to a complaining lover. 

The first " part," or three lines, of the ianka is a " preface " 
to the second " part." It serves chiefly to exhibit the word-pUj 
made witb ide soyo. By using the " wind of Mount Arima ** as 
an introduction, the exclamation ide soyo suggests also '^ the 
rustling," soyo-soyo, of leaves, which a breeze effects. Also, 
'* Mount Arima " may be likentd to the lover ; and '* the bamboo 
plain " of Ina, lying at the foot of Mount Arima, to the writer 
herself. Mount Arima's breeze may be regarded as the lover's 


letter; and the rustle of the bamboo as her respoDse. The lover 
had complained of her infrequeDt communication with him. 
*' Yes, it is as yousay," shereplies. " We doubt each other incur 
long silences. But if you do not forget me, I do not forget you." 

Metrical Tbaisslation : — 


If Mount Arima 

Sends his rustling winds across 
Ina's bamboo-plains: — 

Well ! in truth, ^tis as you say ; — 

Yet how can I e'er forget ? 



Nenanuxshi mono wo 
Sayo fukete 

Kotabuha made no 

Ihuki wo mishi kana. 

Literal Translation : — 

Yamravxide nenammhi mxmo wo 

Without waiting (for him) I would better have slept. 

aayo fukete Icana 

The night haviog iar advanced, alas I 

mishi isuhi voo Twiahuha 

I saw the moon until its 

made no. 

Explanatory Note. It is said that Lady Akazome 
Emon wrote this poem for the mistress of the Regent (Kwam" 


paku) Michinaga, who held this office under the Emperor 
Ichij5 and his two immediate succesBors. The Kujampaku wai 
" the official who recoived reports prior to their transmission to 
the sovereign." With this privilege Michinaga gained ex- 
ceptional power in affairs of state. The Fujiwara family for a 
long time held this great office. Under Michinaga as Kioamr 
paku his family reached the summit of its influence. 

A story is told, that, Michinaga had promised a visit to 
his beloved but did not keep his promise. Early the next 
morning Lady Akazome composed this tonka for the Kioam' 
paku's favorite, to be sent to the negligeat lord and lover. 

Metrical Translation; — 


Better to have slept 

Care-free, tlian to keep vain watch 

Through the passing night, 

Till I saw the lonely moon 
Traverse her descending path. 


Oe yama 

Ikuno no michi no 
To kereba 

Mdda fumi mo mizu 

Literal Translation : — 

Oe yama Ikuno no rrdchi no 

(As) the Mount Oe Ikuno road (to 

id kereba mada misu 

Tango) is far, not yet have I seen 


mo fiimi Ama-fUhhaMdate. 

or trodden Ama'TKhhcahidaie. 

lumi 18 a kyogen with the doable meaning of *^ treading," and of a 
lelter." The syllabic o in Oeyama and in tokereba ia prolonged in pro- 
nunciatioDy with the Talue of two ejllables, as o-o, Amamo'haahidaU 
(*%idge of Heaven "), is a long, pine-coyered strip of sand, almost doidng 
the mouth of a largo bay in the provinoe of Tango. It is part of one of 
the three most celebrated places of natural soenerj in Japan. A rotd 
from Kyoto to Tango once passed through the plain of Iku via Mount Oe. 

Explanatory Note. The "Lady-in-waitiog" (Naishi), 
in the Imporia] palace, Koshikibu, daughter of Izumi 
Shikibu, became skilflil in poetry in her youth. But, as her 
mother was a poet of great ability and fame, many persons 
suspected Koshikibu of getting help for her pen irom the 
mother. In this connection the story is told, that, once upon 
a time, the mother and her husband Tasumasa went away to 
Tango. During their absence a poetical contest was held in 
the Imperial palace. Koshikibu was chosen as one of the 
competitors in it. A few days before the tournament, Ko- 
shikibu happened to meet the Chunagon Sadayori, who asked 
in a jesting tone, *' Have you received a letter from your 
mother lately. You must be very anxious.^' Sadayori was 
about to pass on, when, to his amazement, Koshikibu seized 
him by the sleeve, reciting the ianka here quoted. The 
Chunagon was not skilful enough to reply in kind ; he could 
only jork his sleeve free from Koshikibu's grasp and make a 
hasty retreat From this time the fame of the young lady in- 
creased rapidly. Her death took place at quite an early age. 

The merit of the verses lies in their smoothness and 
skilful word-play. Mada fund mo mizu Amano-hashidate may 
mean either, ** I have not yet had a letter from Ama-nO' 
haahidaiet** or, equally well, " I have not yet had the ex- 
perience of being at Ama-nO'hashidaie." 



As, by De's mount 

And o^er Iku's plain, the way 
Is so very far, — 

I have not yet even seen 



Iniahie no 

Nara no miyako no 

Kefu hohonoe ni 

Nioinuru kana, 

Lttebal Translation: — 

Kefu ni kokonoe 

To-day in the " Nine-fold " (Palace) 

ka/na nioinuru yae^ 

ah I odor arises (from) the eight-fold 

zakura no miyako no 

cherry blosfioms of the capital, of 

Nara no iniahie. 

Nara, of olden times. 

The vaeMokura is a manj^peialled cherry blotsom of great beauty. 
Tae, «* eight-fold," is here put in coutrast with hokonoe,*' mmMd."^ 
Kokonoe, *' the ^ne-fold,*' was a name given to the Imperial Palace 
encted in Kyoto, from the fact of its endosare within nine walk. Krftt 
(,k/5), ''to-day," stands in oontraet with inuhii, " ancient day." 

Explanatory Note. Ise 5suke, or Daisoke, or Tain, 
as the characters composing the name may be read, was 
among the literary women of distinguished ability belonging 


to the brilliaDt Imperial Court of her day, at the close of the 
tenth and early in the eleventh centuries. Dsuke, etc. are 
titles given to a " Vice-Miuister of State." lee is the name 
of the province with ivhich the poet had became associated, as 
was the like fact also with Izumi Shikibu (No. 56), or Lady 
Ise (No. 19). 

It is the story, that, a courtier having returned from a 
trip to Nnra brought with him as a present to the Emperor 
Ichij5 (987-1012 A.D.), a branch of the msny-petalled cherry 
flowers bloom *ng there. Nara had been the Imperial capital 
until 794 a.d, when removal to Ky5to took place. More 
than two centuries had passed at the time the Emperor Ichijo 
came to the throne. Delighted with the present of the cherry 
flowers the Emperor ordered the Lady Osuke of Ise to com- 
memorate it in verse. The ianka she then wrote is greatly 
admired both for its beauty in structure and its glorification 
of the cherry-blossom, the most praised among Japanese 
flowers, — the emblem of patriotism and loyalty. 

Metrical Translation : — 

Eight-fold cherry flowers 

That at Nara^ — ancient seat 
Of Our State, — have bloomed, 

In Our Nine-fold Palace conrt 
Shed their sweet perfume to-day. 


Yowo komeU 

Ibri no wrane wa 
Haharu to mo 

Yo ni AvMka no 

Seki tea yurusaji. 

82 the asiatic society of japan. 

Literal Translation: — 

To mo toa sorane no 

Though the feigoed crowiog of 

tori yo too komete 

the cock, the oight beiog far advanced, 

hakaru yo ni 

(may) deceive, (yet; in the world, 

aeJd no Ausaka 

the gate of Oiaka (the Hill of Meeting) 

toa yurusaji. 

does not allow (any such thing.) 

Yo V)o komete, literally *^ having shut i a/' or, *Mocladed, the 
Bight," =*Mate at night," ** midnight?' Ausaka no sdbi, "Ghite of 
Meeting Hill,'* a play with the name of the well known harrier gate on. 
Osaka pass, east of Kyoto (No. 10). Ji in yuruaa-ji is a ne^atife 
particle, an "equivalentofmatin the spoken language ani of bekarazu 
of the later written language." 

Explanatory Note. Sei (family name) Shonagon (an 
honorary title) shares with Murasaki Shikibu the distinction 
of leadership among the authors of the classic literature of 
Japan. Her great work was the Afakura no Soahi (" Pillow 
Sketch Book") a model of Japanese diction. The title Sh^- 
nagim, — the lowest of the three classes of Imperial '' Advisers 
of State," 1. Z>at, 2. dm, and 3. Sho-nagon, — was probably 
meiely decorative with Lady Sei, as titles associated with 
Court ladies at that time often were. She was, however, of 
noble birth, and was one of the ''Ladies-in-waiting" at the 
palace. It is said, that, when the Empress died in 1000 a.d. , 
Lady Sei retired to a convent, where she spent the rest 
of her Ufa 

A story told of the present pDem is, that, the Dainagon 
Tukinari, one of the four great Nagon of the Emperor IchijS's 
period (No. 55), having been with Sei Shonagon one night and 
having left her rather early, sent as an excuss for his hasty 
departure the message that, as the Emperor was then in seclu- 


sion from the world, his attendants also must not be seen in 
public The crowing of a cock, he added, had taken him from 
her because he feared that d^y-break was near. Ijady Sei's 
reply was, that, the crowing of a cock in the middle of the 
night was a mere device pat forward to excuse him for his 
faithlessness. The excuse gave opportunity for the poet to 
make use of a well-known Chinese story. The story ran; — 
A Chinese prince was once held captive in a hostile country, 
with a large number of his followers. He somehow managed 
to escape with them, and had gone as far as a barrier called 
Kankokukwan, which was opened only at cock-crow in the 
mornings. At this barrier, late at night and closely pursued, 
one of his retainers, Ketmn, imitated the crowing of a cock. 
He imitated it so well that the neighborhood-cocks, also, began 
crowing. The barrier-guards, deceived, threw open the gates, 
and Moahoku, with his friends, escaped. 8ei Sh5nagoa's retort 
to Yukinari was made with reference to this story. The gate of 
Kankokukivan may be opened by a cheating of its keeper with 
imitated cock-crowing, she intimated, but at the barrier at (Tsaka 
there shall be no cheating in that way ; — that is, the gate of the 
" Hill of Meeting," which she guards, will suflfer no such deceit. 

Mktrical Translation: — 


Though in middle night, 

• By the feigned crow of the cock, 
Some may be deceived ; — 

Yet^ at Avsaka*8 gate 

This shall never be allowed. 




Itna toa iada 


To bakari wo 

Hitozuie narade 
hi yoshi mo gana. 

Literal Translation: — 

Mo gami yoshi iu 


Is there no means to say, 



io bakari 

a messenger intervening, 

only this ? 

vx> ima wa iada 


that now I shall cease to torture my life 

(about you)? 

Explanatory Note. In ancient times the Imperial 
capital, Ky5to, was divided into two sections for purposes of 
local government,—" the Left " CSakyo), and " the Right *' 
(JJkyo) Magistracies. Early in the eleventh century, Michi- 
masa Fujiwara was Head Magistrate (Tayu) of the Left 

A story associated with the present ianha is, that, Michi- 
masa had formed an attachment for the Princess Masako who 
had had in charge the shrine of Ise. The Emperor learned of 
their secret meetings. He at once put the princess under 
female guardians, by whom no opportunity for an interview 
with her lover was allowed. The poet Michimasa accepted the 
privation, but he wrote, " The only thing I now can do is to 
give up my love for you, yet I still wish I could speak with 
you and tell you this, myself, rather than through the lipe of 

hyakunin-isshu. 86 

Metrical Tbanslation : — 

Is there now no way, 

But through others* lips, to say 
This one fateful word, — 

That, henceforth, my love for you 
I must banish from my thoughts ? 



JJji no kawagiri 
Taedae ni 


Seze no ajiro-gi. 

Literal Translation: — 

Asaborake kawagiri 

(Lo !) at dawn, when, the river mist 

no JJji taedae ni 

of Uji-(river) bit by bit (ditappearing), 

ajiro-gi araware 

tbe fishing- basket stakes are wholly 

disclosed to view. 

TaedoA-ni^ "at iDtervais/' ''gradually," expresses tbe gradual 
lifting of tbe mist. Ajiro^y — poles attacheid to bapkets woren of thin 
bamlwo strips ; tbe baskets being set into the stream, as substitutes for 
nets, foir the purpose of catching fieh. 

Explanatory Note. The Vice, or ad-interim, Ghu- 
nagon, "Second Counsellor," Sadayori, was son of the Dai- 
nagon Fujiwara KintO (No. 55). 


Id this tanka he pictured a beautiful scene at a place 
always spoken of as beautiful, the river at Uji. The scene 
described is that at day-break when the mists, slowly rising, 
disclose, part by part stretching far away, the lines of stakes 
that cross the river's shallows and keep secure the baskets of 
fine bamboo-work placed there to serve for netting certain 
small fish that abound in the stream. 

Metrical Translation: — 

Lo t at early dawn^ 

When the mists o'er Uji's stream 
Slowly lift and clear. 

And the net-stakes on the shoals. 
Near and far away, appear ! 



Hosanu sode dani 
Aru mono wo 

Koi ni hachhmn 

Na hoso oshi here. 

Literal Translation :— 

Oahi here na hoso 

How deplorable (it is) <hat my name 

hudiinan ni koi 

is corrupted (by the rumour) of my love, 

aru mono too dani sode 

the feet being (that) even my sleeves 

hosanu urami wabi 

are not dry, (on account of) my hate and misery. 


Explanatory Note. Lady Bagami, eo oamed from 
her husband's, Eiosuke Oo's^ office, that of governor of Sagami, 
lived in the eleventh century. 

This tanka, it is said, was composed as a contri- 
bution to a poetical contest held in the Imperial palace in 
1051, A.D. It is, like so many others of these, and of like 
collected songs, in all probability not a transcript from personal 
experience, but from the poet's play of fancy. It records the 
lamentation of a neglected woman over the injury done to her 
reputation by a love-afiTair which she is supposed to have and 
to prize, while, in fact, her garments' sleeves are scarcely ever 
dry from the tears that flow, because of her hate of the man 
and her consequent misery. 

Metbicax Translation : — 


Even when my sleeves, 

Through my hate and misery, 

Never once are dry, — 

For such love my name decays : — 
How deplorable my lot I 


Morotomo ni 

Avxire to omoe 


Hana yori hoka ni 
Shiru hito mo nashi, 

LiTEBAL Translation : — 

Morotomo ni aware to cnioe 

Together pitiable, that think 


yamazakura hana yori 

O cherry flower ! Your flowers besides, 

hoha ni shiru Kilo mo nashi, 

other friend there is Done. 

ExPLANATORf NoTE. Gy5soD, here named the *'late/' 
or "former" (saki) archbishop (Daisdio,), in those verses 
represented himself as a friendless wanderer, associated in a 
remote mountain wild with a cherry-tree, whose beautiful 
bloom and fragrance none but himself enjoyed. " Let us 
pity each other ; for I know none as friend except you, and 
you no other friend but me." Tradition locates the site of the 
incident at Omine, a sacred peak not very far from Yoshino, a 
place famous for cherry bloom. Ascendiog Omine, the poet 
unexpectedly came upon a lone cherry-tree covered with lovely 

Metrical Translation: — 


Let us, each for each 

Pitying, hold tender thought. 

Mountain-cherry flower ! 

Other than thee, lonely flower, 
There is none I know as friend. 


Haru no yo no 

Yume bakari nam 

Tamakura ni 

Kainaku tatan 
Na koBO oshikere. 


Literal Translation : — 

Oshilcere na koso iatan 

How pitiable (if) my name shall be 

kai naku 
spread abroad, without my actually 

deserving it, (for having used) an arm-pillow 

bakari nam yume no yo no haru 

only for the dream, of a night of spring. 

Explanatory Not£. The story goes, that, one night 
when a daughter of Tsuguoaka of Taira, Governor of 
Suwo, the Lady Suwo, one of the Ladies-in-waiting (^Naishi) 
in the court of the Emperor Ooreizei (10464069 a.d.), was 
keeping watch with some of her companions, she became 
drowsy and expressed a wish that she had a pillow. Im- 
mediately, an Imperial officer, Tadaie by name, who was in a 
room adjoining, thrust his arm under the curtain-screen divid- 
ing the rooms, saying, *' Please use this arm as a pillow." 
Lady Suwo, the tradition says, declined the offer with these 
verses. Their meaning is that for so slight an indiecrotion the 
cost might be overmuch, 

Mexmcal Translation: — 


If, but through the dreams 

or a spring's short nighty IM rest 

Pillowed on this arm, 

And my name were blameless stained, 
Hard, indeed, would be my fate. 




Kokoro ni mo 

Arade ukiyo ni 

Koishikaru behi 

Yoha no tsuki hana. 

Literal Translation : — 

Kokoro ni mo arade nagaraeba 

If, against my will, I should long live 

ni ukiyo 

in this world so full of vicissitudes, 

koishikaru beki yoha no Uuki kana. 

I should pine for the midnight moon, alas I 

Explanatory Note. The retired Emperor (/n) 8anj5 
(1012-1017 A,D.), occupied the throne in the century when the 
Imperial power steadily gave way before the iucreasiDg 
aggressions of the Fujiwara family. He was placed upon, and 
removed from, his seat of sovereignty, during the dominance 
of the Kwampaku Michinaga Fujiwara (No. 59). It is said 
that Michinaga once wrote a poem declaring that all the world 
was created for his own use. Under Michinaga, the Emperors 
were disposed of at the Kuoampdku^s pleasure. 

The poem here ascribed to the Emperor Sanj5, was called 
forth by the prospect of his own forced abdication. He thought 
that, perhaps, soon after his abdication he would depart from 
this life, but, should he live long in the sad world, he should 
regret the happiness of his past life, of which the midnight 
moon, which he then saw shining, would remind him. 

hyakunin-isshu. 91 

Metrical Translation: — 

If, against my wish. 

In the world of sorrows still, 
I for long should live ; — 

How then I should pine, alas ! 
For this moon of middle-night. 


Arashi fuhu 

Mimuro no yama no 
Momijiba toa 

Tatsuta 7w hawa no 
NishiM narikeri. 
Literal Tbakslation: — 

Momijiba wa no yama no 

The maple leaves of the Mount of 

Mimuro arojshi fuku 

Mimuio, when the wild wind hlows, 

narikeri niahiki no 

have become, indeed, the brocadeg of 

kawa no TatsiUa 
the river of Tatta. 

Explanatory Note. The priest (Bosht) N5in is said 
to have been a son of Motoyaeu Tachibana, Governor of the 
province of Hizen. As a layman he was named Nagayasu 

He pictured in this tanka a lovely moun(ain scene at the 
well known, maple-bordered Tatsuta, or Tatta, river, not far 
from Nara. Where, and what. Mount Mimuro is, remaim 


yet an undecided qaestion. There are in Yamato, a Mount 
Mimuro and a Tatta river ; but they are so widely separated 
from each other that the leaves of (he one could not possibly 
be blown to the surface of the other. It is supposed that the 
writer must either have located his scene at another Mimuro 
mountain and Tatta river than those of Yamato, or have been 
ignorant of the topography of his scene. However, the geo- 
graphical uncertainty does not injure the beauty of the word- 
pictures drawn in the poem. 

Metrical Translation: — 


By the wind-storm's blast, 

From Mimuro's mountain slopes 

Maple leaves are torn, 

And, as (rich) brocades, are wrought 
On (blue) Tatta*s (quiet) stream. 



Sobishisa ni 

Yado wo iachindete 


Izuko mo onaji 
Aid no yugure. 

Literal Translation :— 

Sabidika ni 
In my loneliness, 

going forth from 

yado wo 
the house, 

if I look around, 


mo onaji aid no yUgurc, 

also the same autumnal twilight. 

JSeed tachi-vieU as tacK idtLtt and yugure ts yuugure. 


Explanatory Note. Nothing in particular is known 
of the priest (^Hoahi) 'RjQzen, author of this tanka. 

The motive of the writer seems to have been to show 
that the loneliness seen and felt in nature in the autumn is 
real. "Being very lonely I leave my house, and lo I every- 
where is the same autumnal twilight." An ''autumn-eve 
feeling/' in Japanese literature is understood to be one of 
sadness. In the Fudokoro no Suzuri of Saikoku (No. 78), the 
writer speaks of having gone to "the flowery Yashima." 
But, "even though it was spring, there were no cherry-flowers; 
so, with feeling suited to an autumn eve, I approached a mat- 
roofed shed which stood near the beach." 

Metrical Translation : — 


In my loneliness 

From my humble home gone forth, 

When I look around , 

Everywhere it was the same ; — 
One lone, darkening autumn eve. 



Kado'da no inaba 

Ashi no maro^a ni 

AM kaze zo fuhi. 

Literal Translation: — 

YuzarAa inaba 

When the evening comes, the leaves of rice-stalks 



the field at the gate, 

haviog knocked (at the door), 

the autumn 

Jcme zo fuku ni 
wind blows into 

the round hut 

no ashi. 
of * rushes. 

Ashi no maro-ya, a cottage, or hut, made wholly — walla and roof— of 

Explanatory Note. Minamoto Tsunenobu died in 
1096 A.D. He was distinguished in the brilliant period o 
letters and general culture that Japan passed through at the 
beginning of the eleventh century. He was also one of the 
"Four Nagon" (Advisers of State). (No. 65.) During the 
tenth and eleventh centuries the two families, the Fujiwara 
and the Minamoto, practically held the Imperial administra- 
tions under their control, and were most prominent in state- 
craft and in letters. 

In the present verses Tsunenobu presents a graphic 
picture of a peasant's hut, and the blowing of a breeze at night- 
fall in the autumn. 

Metrical Translation: — 


When the evening comes, 

From the rice leaves at my gate 

Gentle knocks are beard. 

And into my round rash-hut 
Autumn's roaming breeze makes way. 



Oto ni kiku 

lakaahi no hama no 
Admiami wa 

Kdkeji ya sode no 

Nure mo koso sure. 

Literal Translation: — 

Adanami wa no hama no 

As for the vain waves of the beach of 

Takashi kiku ni oto 

Takashi, I know their fame. 

kakeji ya mo 

I will not go near them ! Certain, 

ko80 sure nure no sode. 

indeed, will be the wetting of my sleeves. 

Hama no Takaskif " the b3ach of Takashi '' ia Izami, not far from 
Oiaka. Kakeji ya is derived from kakeru, " to hook on/' or " come into 
contact with,'' the negative affix jt, and the exclamatory ya. 

Explanatory Note. Lady Kii of the House of the 
Princess (^Naishinno Ke) Yushi, lived towards the end of the 
eleventh century in the court of the Emperor Horikawa (1087- 
1109 A.D.). 

Her poem, here quoted, has for its motive lack of con- 
fidence in her lover, a being, however, probably only of her 
poetic fancy. ''Your unfaithfulness is as notorious as the' 
waves of Takashi's beach are famous ; I will not trust you, or 
them. Should I go near you, or them, the result would be 
only the wetting of my hanging sleeves with the salt spray, or 
my bitter tears." The sleeve is an emblem of love. 

96 the asiatic society of japan. 

Metrical Translation : — 

Well I know the fame 

Of the fickle waves that beat 
On Takashi's straod ! 

Should I e'er go near that shore 
I should only wet my sleeves. 


Takasago no 

Onoe 110 sakura 

iSaki ni keri 

Toyaiiia no kasumi 
latazu mo ararum. 

Ltfrrax Translation :— 

The cherries 


onoe no takasago 
that mountain peak 

far away 

saJci ni keri 
have bloomed ; (may) 

the haze 


the hither hills 

aiazu, mo aranan. 
not ove. spread (the 


Thkamgo is not here tbe name of a plaoe. It means ** sooomulaied 
sand}" or **higb-sanded," and is associated as a '* pillow word " with 
mountain rammits. It has the foroe of indicating a peak " far awaj,'' 
or *' distant." Toj^ama, tells of low moontains or ** hills intenrening." 
Onoe is, properly, the slope just below a mountain peak. TcUasm mo 
wanan, expresses a wish. 

Explanatory Note. Nothing in particular is oa re- 
cord of the Imperial Vic^Chancellor Masafusa. He died, it 
is said, in 1112 A.D. 


In this ianka he pictured a lovelj soepe in spring, — a 
mountain side covered with cherry-bloom. 

Metrical Translation : — 

On that distant mount^ 

O'er the slope below the peak. 
Cherries are in flower ; — 

May the mists of hither hills 
Not arise to veil the scene. 

TJkari keru 

Hito too Haisuse no 
Yania oroshi 

Bageshi hare to wa 
Inoranu mono wo. 

Literal Translation : — 

Ifwranu mono wo 

I did not pray (to Kwannon, the god of the Hase 

to wa hare hagnhi 

temple,) that he should become fierce, 

yama oroshi no Haisuse hito wo 

(like) the mountain storms of Hase, — the man ' 


(who is) uDkind. 

At Hase (^ateuae), near Nara, if a famous temple dedicated to th» 
Japanese '* Goddess of Mercy," KwcMncuL ** Kwannon's mercy is hi^er 
than the moantains and deeper than the torrent^iTer's yalley." 

Ezflakatort Note. But little is known of this poet^ 
Awn Toshiyori of the Minamoto family. It is said that he 
was a son of the Dainagon Tsunenobu (No. 71). 


Id his versrs the poet recites the pi liat of one who had 
met with treatment from her lover far unlike that which she 
had prayed for at Kwannons shrine, at iiase. The loved oa« 
had become even colder and m)re heartLss to her than before 
her prayer, — as chilling and unkind, iudeed, as the wind of 
Hase*s bilU. Her prayer before the xltar of the " Qoddess 
of Mercy," had been for somathing wholly different. 

Metrical Translation : — 


I did not make prayer 

(At the shrioe of Mercy's God), 

That the unkind one 

Should become as pitiless 
As the storms of ilase's hills. 


Chiffiri okiahi 

Sasemo ga imyu wo 

Inoohi nite 

Aware Jcotoshi no 
AH no inumeri 

Literal Tbanslation : — 

Chigiri okiihi Umu 

Greatly promised, (it was like) tho dew 

wo saaemo ga niie inochi aware 

upon the moxa plants — being life. Alas I 

Jtotoshi noaJd mo inmuri. 

this year's autumn alto is ab ^ut to pees 

away (and the promise has not been fulfilled). 


Explanatory Note. The poet Mototoshi Fujiwara, 
lived in the first half of the twolflh century, at a time when 
the degeneracy of the Imperial Court began to be accompanied 
by base intrigue and oprn strife. 

This poem was addressed to the Kwimpaku, or Regent, 
then in power, Tadamichi Fujiwara, who, it soem?, had made 
Mototoshi a promise to promote the poet*s son to an office of 
higher rank than he then held. The failure of the Regent to 
fulfil his pr mise, and the profiest of the p^et, may be taken as 
fflgns of the time of intrigue, falsehood and uncertainty then 
becoming characteristic in official circles. The "Hogen 
Insurrection" occurred during th's period; — a war of rela- 
tives against kindred, under the spur of ambition, — a conflict, 
spoken of as one, " that destroyed human relations and ig- 
nored all the principles of morality." The phrase, " Dow 
upon mogusa,'* refers to an ancient poem, ascribed to a god, in 
which the deity says, ** Only have faith and my kindness 
shall meet your wish, as the reviving dews fall upon the 
parched mogusa.** 

Metrical Translation : — 

Though your promise was 

" Like the dew on moxa plant/' 
Andy to me, was life. 

Tet^ alas I the year has passed 
Even into autumn time. 





Kogi-idete mhreba 
Hisakata no 

Kumoi ni magau 

OkUau fhirarnamu 

Literal Translation : — 

Kogir-ideU wada- 

(When,) haviog rowed out on the plain 

no-kara mireba Mror- 

of the Eea I look arouod, the white 

nami ohUni magau ni 

waves of the offiog I miatake for 

hisakala no kumoi, 

the ever-shining skj. 

Hiaakata, ii • ^'pillow-word," here ooDnected with kvmoif '*tht 
place where the cloads are/' «.«. *'the skj." *'Tagochi says, that 
huahatoL^hi no sam katoy '< the side whence the sun comes." Acoording 
toMabaahi,Ai0al»toaA(ia^Axito»'goar^ (No. 38.) 

Explanatory Note. The powerful and UDScrupuloos Re- 
gent {Etoampaku), and Prime Minister of State (^Daijd-daijin), 
Tadamichi Fujiwara, spoken of in the ** Explanatory Note *' 
immediately preceding, late in life gave up worldly affairs and 
became a religious recluse. He was known thereafter as the 
Lay Priest, (NyUdo) of the temple HOshQji. He died in the 
latter part of the twelfth century, (in 1164, it is said,) at the 
age of sixty-eight. To him, whose life had been filled with 
disgraceful intrigue and violence, is ascribed the graoefal and 
quiet tanka here quoted. 

htakunin-isshu. 101 

Metrical Translation: — 

O'er the wide sea- plain. 

As I row and look around, 
It appears to me 

That the white waves, far away, 
Are the ever-shining sky. 


8e too hayami 

Iwa ni sekaruru 
lakigawa no 

Warete mo sue ni 

Awan to zo omou. 

Literal Translation : — 

laMgaipa no sekaruru 

Like a cascade-stream blocked up 

ni iwa se wo hayami 

by a rock, its current being swift, 

warete mo 8ii£ ni 

though divided, in the end 

awan to zo omou, 

it shall be joined again ; so I thi ik. 

Explanatory. Note. The Emperor Sutoku was a 
promiaent actor in the Hogea Insurrec ion in opposition to 
his uncle the Kwampalcu Tadamichi, and his father, the ex- 
Emperor Toba, who was practically the sovereign at the time, 
i.e. during the second quarter of the two fth century, and for 
a while longer. Sutoku*s father compelled his abdication 
(1142 A.D.) in favor of his brother the Emperor Konoye. 


Afler his father's death (1158 A.D.) he declared war against 
the Begent Tadamichi, and those who had placed Qo-shirakawa 
vpon the throne at the Emperor Eonoje's death nearly two 
years previously. In the ooe coDflict that took place Sutoku's 
power was broken. He then became a priest, and was made 
an exile in the province of Sanukt io Shikoku. TTponJhis 
abdication of the Imperial throne ho received the title In/ihe 
name indicating the fact of abdication. 

The present tanka is a love song, expressive of confidence 
in reunion with the one beloved afler enforced separation. 

Metrical Translation : — 


Thoagh a swift stream be 

By a rock met and restrained 

In impetuous flow^ 

Yet, divided^ it speeds on^ 
And at last unites again. 



Kayou chidori no 
Naku koe ni 

Iku-yo netavnenu 

Suma no aekimori. 

Literal Translation: — 

Iku yo nezamenu 

How many nights have you waked 

seMmori no' Suma 
out of sleep, guard of the gate of Suma, 


naku hoe ni 
at the cries 


the many 


of the isle of Awaji ? 

Explanatory Note. This poet, Kan^roasa Minamoto, 
died at some time early in the twelfth centurj, — it is said 
in 1112 AD. 

In the tanka here preserved, the writer is supposed to 
giye expression to the mood he felt, when ppending a night 
once at the 8uma barrier, not far from Kobe to the west- 
ward, and just opposite the island of Awaji. The scene at 
this point is very beautiful and Feiene ;— the cry of the ehidori, 
often heard there, is thought to be one of tender melancholy. 
In the Fudokoro no l^uzuri of Ibara Saikoku (1687 A.D.), is 
this passage, — "Listening to the cries of the plovers that 
frequent the Isle of A^aji, one may perceive the sadness of 
the things of this world." 



Guard of Sumacs Gate, 

From your sleep, how many nights 
Have you waked at cries 

Of the plaintive sanderlings, 

Migrant from Awaji's isle? 


Akikaze ni 

Tanabiku kumo no 

laema yori 

More-izwu tsuki no 
Kage no aayakesa' 

lof the asiatio socistt of japan. 

Literal Translation:— 

Sayakeaa no tmki no kage 

How clear and bright (is the) moonlight, 

more-izaru yori taema no kumo 

breaking out from the rifts of the cloudSy 

tanabiku ni akikaze. 

spread about by autumn wind. 

Head mareuuru as mor^suru. 

Explanatory Note. Akisuke, the Chief Magistrate, or 
Vice Minister (^Tayu) of the Left Section (Sakyo) of the Im- 
perial City, Ky5to, in the twelfth century, died at aboat the 
middle of the century (1155 a.d.). 

This poem is an exqui^iite description of one of nature's 
most enchanting scenes. 

Metrical Translation : — 

See, how clear and bright 

Is the moon-light finding ways 
' Mong the riven cloudfa 

That, with drifting autumn-wind, 
Gracefully float o'er the sky ! 



Kokoro mo shirazu 

Kurokami no 

Midarete keaa wa 
Mono wo ko80 omoe. 

hyeitnin-is8hu. 106 

Literal Translation: — 

Nagaharan ahirazu 

If it may be for a long time ? Not knowiog 

kokoro mo kem wa 

his mind about it, this morning 

mono wo leoso amoe midareU 

I am thinking anxioudly, — mj thoughts disordered 

kurokami no. 
like my black hair. 

Kurokami no i« in fart a " pillow word " for midaretef ** distracted/' 
*' coDfuied," "tangled." It hfs here an especially appropriate applica- 
tion. Midarete well depicU both ** hair/' and ** thoughts." 

Explanatory Notb. Lady Horikawa, designated as 
being in attendance upon the Empress Dowager (^Mon^in) 
Taiken, gave expression in these verses to the doubting anzie^ 
of a woman who has given her love wholly, but knows not 
yet whether a lastiog affection has been aroused as a return 
for it. 

Metrical Translation: — 


If it be for aye 

That he wills our love should last? 

Ah, I do not knuw ! 

And this morn my anxious thoughts, 
Like my black hiir, are confused. 



Nakitsuru kaia wo 


Tada ariake no 
Tsuki zo nokoreru. 

106 the astatic society op japan. 

Literal Translation: — 

JSagamureba kata too 

When I look id the direotion 

hototogwu nakitsuru iada 

the cuckoo has cried, only 

ariake no isuki zo nokoreru. 

the day- break moon remains. 

Explanatory Note. This M'nister of the Left (iSodot- 
jin) of Tokudiji ^as the janior, or second Sadaijin, and was 
the grandson of the original Sadaijin of Tokudaiji, a temple 
fonnded by the grandfather. The family name of the poet 
was Sancsada of Fujiwara. It is recorded that he became 
a priest in 1198 a. d. 

In this lanka the poet embodied one of the quaint and 
suggestive fancies characteristic of Japanese poetry: — ''I 
looked at the sky as foon as I heard the cry of the ouckoo, but 
the bird had already flown and the morning-moon only was 
visible." " It is to be noted that the hoiologisu does not cry 
more than once or twice a day, and then chiefly at dawn or at 
evening." ** It is supposed that the bird comes from the spirit- 
land and makes its appearance about the end of the fifth 
month, to warn the farmer that it is time to sow rice. It 
has a mournful note, repeating its own name." In the E^djcld 
of ** ChQmei (No. 5), the popular notion concerning the bird 
is thus expressed, — " In summer the hcdotoyisu is heard, who 
by his rc'iterated cry invites to a tryst with him on that rugged 
path which leads to Hades." 

Metbical Translation: — 

When I turned my loc>k 

Toward the place whence I had heard 
HoioUtffisu, — 

Lo I the only object there 
Was the moon oi early dawn. 


*]Cei!Bical Translation: — 

Ah ! within the world. 

Way of flight I find nowhere. 
I had thought to hide 

In the moantains' farthest depthB, 
Yet e'en there the stag's cry sounds. 



Mata konogoro ya 

Ushi to mishi yo to 

Ima wa koishiki. 

Lttebal Thakslation: — 

If I contioue to live for some time, 

konogoro ya mata 

this time, indeed, again (or, also) 

shall be longed for, (just as) 

yo to miahi to ushi 

time once regarded as sorrowful, 

ima wa koiAiki. 

now (is) fondly thought of. 

ExPLANATOBY NoTE. Ason Kiyosuke Fnjiwara, was 
the son of the Tayu Akisuke, writer of tanha No. 79. He lived 
in the latter part of the twelfth oentury. 

In the verses here quoted, the poet celebrated the trans- 


figuring power of time as it is celebrated in the modern 
laratioD, " the past is eDshrined in beauty.'* 

Mexbigal Tbansi^tion: — 


If I long should live. 

Then, perchance, the present days 

May be dear to me ;— 

Just as past time fraught with grief 
Now comes fondly back in thought. 


Yo mo sugaru 

Mono omou koro u^a 


Neya no hima sae 

LnEBAL Translation: — 

To mo sugaru koro 

Throughout the night, while (i.e. during 

mono omou ma 
the time) I am anxiously thinking, 

akeyarade sae hima 

the day not dawning, even the crevioes 

no neya 
(in the shutters) of my bed room, 

are, indeed, heartless. 

Bead Mona ommm mon'omoik 


Explanatory Note. The priest (ZTo^t) Shanye 
son of the Ason Toshiyori Minamoto (No. 74). 

In these verses the poet laments his vain hours of waiting 
for the comiog of the loved one. He declares that, even the 
chinks in the amcuio, or ** outer shutters/' of his bed-room are 
cruel, in that they do not show the light of coming day that 
he may go forth and forget the night's misery. 

Metrical Translation: — 


Now,— -as through the night 

Longingly I pass the hoars^ 
And the day's dawn lags, — 

E'en my bedroom's crannied doors 

Heartless are, indeed^ to me. 



Nageke tote 

Tauki ya wa mono wo 

Kakochi goo nam 
Waga namida hana. 
LrrBRAL Translation : — 

TmiM ya wa tote nageke 

Is it the moon saying, '* Lament 1 " 

numo too omowamru waga namida 

while thinking over things ? My tears, 

hana kakochi goo naru^ 

alas I have my troubled face. 

EzPLANATOBT NoTE. The priest {Hoshi) SaigyO was a 

member of the great Fajiwara family in its time of decadeooe* 


This ianka, ascribed to him, is interpreted as the outflow 
of emotion occasioned but not caused by the moonlight. It 
isy as though the poet had said, " When I look at the moon, I 
become unutterably sad, and my eyes fill with tears. Bat I 
know now that the moon docs not cause my sadness ; that, 
really is the outflow of my own inner mood. 

Mbtrical Translation: — 

Is it then the moon 

That baa made me sad, as though 
It had bade me grieve ? 

Lifting up my troubled face^ — 

Ah ! the tears, the (mournful) tears I 



Muraaame no 

Tsuyu mo mada hint 
Maid no ha ni 


Kiri tachi-noboru 

Aid no yugure. 

rral Translation : — 

Aid no yugure kiri 
An autumnevening mist, 


ni ha no maid 
to the leaves of the fir-trees ; 

the drops 

no muraaame mo mada 
of the showers even yet i 

not dried. 

Aki no yStffvre^** B,n aotamn evening." This is a poetic symbol 
hr loneliucfls and dreariness. MvroKone is " the falling of raiOf hure 
and there, in sodden ehoweri." The use of the tree maki, a kind of fir, 
woald " indicate thai the scene was laid in deep ▼alleys.'* 


EzPLAVATORT NoTE. Tbo priest (Hdiht) Jaknrai, 
lived at the cloee of the twelfth centary. He was a i 
•f the Fujiwara family. 

la this (anka the poet depicts graphically a dreary 
in nature. 

MsiBiCAL Tbanslation :— 

Lo, an aataniii eve ! 

i^ the deep vale's mists arise 
* Mong the fir-tree's leaves 

That still hold the dripping wet 
Of the (chill day's) sadden showers. 



Naniwae no 

Add no iarine no 

JBUcyo yuc 

Mi wo laukufhVe ya 

Koi wataru bald, 

LuEBAii Translation: — 

Yue hiloyo 
For the sake ox ooe night, (^r of one joint, or node, 

no Icarine 
of a rashy) cfti at stent sleep, (or of rush- 

no ashi no Naniwore 

node cat ofi)) oi the rushes of the Bay of 

hoi wataru beki 
Kaniwa, (where we met.) must 1 live, loogiog 

mi ICO tsuhadiiU ya, 
for him, (or wnde,) my body exaaudtiug 7 (or by 
depthfmeasuiiog gauge f) 


In thU fonifcji there isan e^necUlly noteirorthy embodimtni of Japm- 
ese iKMtic *' w«>ri]-play/' Naniwie is (1) tfie name of the place where the 
loTerR, here celebratviti, met; also (2) it is the name of a bay near Oia1d^ 
famoosfT its rush-growth. Karine is a ken-jogen, or word with the 
two mtanings, (1) " a transient, or short, sleep/' and (2) '*the stamps 
or severed joint of a nish." Hitoyo U CD " one night," and (2) "ono 
joint of a rush" Mi wo tmkusMU is (I) '^exhausiingoneVsdf." as 
with longing, and {2) ** a waterdepth measuring g%uge '' K^o^oru ii 
(1) '*to pass," as through life, and ^2> ** to wade," as in water. 

Explanatory Note, Tho High StewaHeaa {Betid) of 
the Eii)pr(8a Dowager Kw5ka whs a daai;hter of Tosbitaka of 
the Fujiwara family aod lived probably in the twelfth century. 

In this tanka the poet showed great skill in her art. The 
veracs can be read with either of the two.meaning8, — (1) "For 
the sake of one small j )int, cut from the reeds of Naniwa bay, 
shall I wade the waters in which stands a depth measuring 
gauge ? " or (2) " For the sake of the short sleep of only one 
night by Naniwa bay, must I now long for him with my whole 
heart, all life through ? *' The writer's purpose evidently is to 
express through the ** double entendre,'* a longing that has 
come with only the acquaintanceship of the moment. 

Meibical Translation-. — 


For but one night^s sake, 

Short as is a node of reed 

Grown in Naniwa bay. 

Must I, henceforth, long for him 
With my whole hearty till life's close? 



TamanO'O yo 

Tat^naba tacnc 

Shinoburu koto no 

Yoioari too zo sum, 
JjITeral Translation: — 

lama-nO'O yo taenaba 

String of Gems (i e, my Life) ! If you will end, 

iaene nugaraeba 

(or break,) end ! If I coatinue to live, 

shinoburu koto no 

my effort to coDceal (or suppress my love,) 

yoi£<iri wo zo sum, 
may indeed become weakened. 

TamcMvyo, "thread of gems," issageefltWe of tamcuhii, "epirit/ 
'*80ul." "life." The su^j^estion is here connected ^ith Utma^n^ "to 
break/' or "to cut," and tha naga^ **loDg," of nagaractoy *''iflli?e 

Explanatory Note. The Imperial Princess (iVai- 
shimio) Sbokushi, or Sbikiko, was a daughter of the Emperor 
Qoshirakawa (11561 159 a.d.). 

In this i)oem the singer apjstropbized her " life," or "aoul," 
distressed by the effort to cocceal a love to which she had 
yielded. " If you are to end, O my life I then end, lest, should 
you longer last, I fail in ray effort to conceal ray vow." 
Mkithcal Translation: — 


Life ! Thou string of gems ! 

If thou art to end, break now. 

For, if yet I live, 

All I do to hide (oiy love) 

Mtty at last grow weak (and fail) 




Miaebaya na 

Ojima no ama no 
Bode dani mo 

Nure ni to nureahi 

Iro wa kauxircms. 


Oh I that ho oould look (upon my •leevea). 

dani mo node no ama 

Even the sleeves of the fisherwomen 

no Ojima nure ni to 

of Oj<ma (an island), wet through and 

nutishi Via iro 

again vret, as far as ooncerns ooior» 

do not change. 

Explanatory Note. Ladj Taiu, a daughter of Nobn- 
nari of the Fujiwara family, was ia the service of the Empress 
Dowager Impu id the twelfth century. Her death occurred^ 
it is said, in 1210 A.D. 

Iq the aDguifrh, chosen by the writer for her poetic fanoy^ 
the suff ror longed to show her tear-stained sleeves to her 
faithless lover, that, perchance, the sight might move him to 
renewed tendernes). It has been said, by way of ezplanatiQn 
of the ianka^ tha^ in the very extremity of misery tears of 
blood will fl jw ; that, surely the h^irdest heart must ba moved 
by the ^ight of garments stained with blorxl-tears. A more 
probable explanation, however, is,— the grief of the deserted 
mistress was so great that she shed tears so copious and bitter 
that the color of her sleeves was chaoged. How great must 

HTAKnKIN-I88HU. 117 

iave been her grief, then, when even the garments of fisher* 
women, constantly exposed to the sea's salt epra j, still hold their 
color. It is habitoal with the Japanese, when in distress, to 
cover their fiuses with the long sleeves of their garments. 

MErmcAL Translation: — 


Let me show him these ! 

E'en the fisherwomen's sleeves 

On Ojima's shores, 

Though wet through and wet again, 
Do not change their dyer's hnes. 



Naku ya shimo yo no 
Sumushiro ni 

Koromo kaUtshifci 

HUori ha mo nen. 

LnxRAi. Translation : — 

Samudiiro ni katashiki koromo 

On a cold mat, (in) doubled over (be J)clothes, 

hilori ka mo nen shinio yo no 

Sleep I, alas I alone this frosty night, 

kirigirim naJcu ya. 
while the cricket cries ? 

Samushiro, ''a straw mat;" here the term is equivalent to aawiis 
^cold" and mushiro, ''straw mat" Koromo hcUaahiki, is ''drawing the 
drew, or bediover, over one from theeide'' ie. fuldia^ it over, so ihiit 
•ne lies npon half of it, using the other half as cover. 


£xPLAKATORY NoTE. The Prime Minister (Daijddmjin) 
tnd Regent (Sessho) Gro-KyOgoku was a member of the Fuji- 
wara family's circle of relationship. He lived through the 
disturbed closing years of the twelfth century, dying early ij| 
the thirteenth century (1206 A d.)- 

The description given in the poem here quoted is sUgg^s^- 
tive of great poverty and isolation. In the poet's fancy he ia 
possessed of but one piece of bedding. That, ho |blds about 
him as he lies down for sleep upon a cold mat in a froety 
night;— the chirping cricket only intensifies his cheerless 

Mbtricai^ Trakslation ; — 

On a chilling mat. 

Drawing close my folded quilt, 
I must sleep alone, 

While throujihout the frosty night 
Sounds a cricket's (forlorn chirp). 


Woga 8ode wa 

Shiohi ni mienu 
CM no ifihi no 

Hiio I'oso shirane 
Kawaku ma mo nashi. 
Literal Translation: — 

No uhi no oki 
Like a rock of the open sea, 

mienu ni shiohi 
invisible (even) at ebb tid% 

HYKUNIN-ISSHU. . ' . lit 

waga sode wa ma- mo nafhi . r 1 

(i8)my skevo never for a mouaeBt 

hawaku hito koso shirane. 

dry ; do one knowing (uf its eziEteace). 

Oki no iahi no read as oki no'shi no. 

Explanatory Note. Lady S^nuk^ an attendant in 
the court of the Retired Emperor (/n) Nij5 who held the 
throne from 11691 166 A.D., wns a member of the Minamoto 
family. This family, which had had grent power ps n military 
body through the eleventh cantu'^y and had lost much of it in 
the Hrgen Irsurnction (No. 75), wts brought almost to ruin 
at the time of the Emperor Nij5, with the defeat of Yoshimoto 
in what is called the " Insurrection of Heiji " (1169 a.d.). 

The writer, in this poem, likened her love— a secret love 
and a sad love — to a rock Li.lden in the drp'bs of the ocemi; 
never dry and ever unknown to men. The sleeve is an 
emblem of love in Japnn. 

Metbical Translation: — 


Like a rock at sea 

EVn at ebb-tide hid from view 

Is my (tear-drenchf d) sleeve : — 
Never for a moment dry. 
And iinknowu in human ken. 


Yo no naka tea 

Tsune ni moga mo na 

Nagi6a kogu 

Ama no obune no 
Tsuna de kanashi mo. 


Literal Translation :«- 

Wa yo no naki moga mo na 

As for this world, would that it were 

Imine ni banashi mo 

80 alwajs. How lovely (the eoene,) I 

tsuna de no 

(the drawiDg) by meaus of a rope of 

Aune no ama 

the tmall boat of the fisherwomeo, 

hogu nagisa. 
rowiog aloDg the beech. 

Kanaahi, "rad/' ** melanrholT/' bu also th« meaniDg of ''tendar- 
MM^*' and of ^ |«o8iva pleasure. 

Explanatory Note. "The Minister of Eamakara,*' 
Saoctumo Minamoto, was the son of Yoritomo who led the 
Minamoto forces in the notable civil wars of the end of the 
twelfth century. Smetomo in 1203 a.d. was given the high 
position of Seii'taiahoguPf — or 6hdgim, Generalissimo of the 
Imperial Grovernment, — becoming thus the third holder of 
his father's great title. But, with Itim, the office was ovly 
nominal. Not allowed to make practi'^al me ol it, he devoted 
himself to literature. He received subs quent ly various hon- 
orary titled. He i^ known spsciBciilly as *' The Minister of 
Eamakura/' In 1219 a.d. while Sanetomo was worshipping 
at the shriue of Hachim^n in Karoakura be was murdered by 
his nephew Kugy5, a priest. With this event the Minamoto 
family finally lost its power and, as a clin, ceased to exiat. 

Metrical Translation : — 

Woulil that this, our woild, 
Might be ever as it is ! 
What a lovely scene ! 

See that fisher woman's boat, 
Bope-drawn, rowed along the beach. 




Miyoshino no 

Yama no aki haze 
8ayo fukete 

FuTuaaio samuku 

Koromo uisunari 

Literal Translation : — 

Sayo fukcie aM haste 

The Dight bavmg far advanced, the autumn wind 

no yama no miyoshino 

of the mountain of great Yoshino 

furusaio samuku 

(blowing), the old village is cold, 

koromo utsunari, 
(and the sound) of cloth being beaieu (is heard). 

ExplanatcJry Note. The State Councillor (^Sangt) 
Masat^uae was a son of the Tayu Tcshinati (No. 83), and a 
member of the Fujiwnra family. 

In these verses Masatsune, as is characteristic of Japanese 
poets after describing a scene, deepens the mood aroused there* 
hjf with a single added thought (No. 4 ) Here, ** the sound of 
the beatirg of cloth," eppeciallj associated with the growing 
chill of the autumn-time, has been chosen for the sake of 
producing this effect 

Metrical Translation :— 

From Mount Yoshino 

Blows a chill, autumnal wind, 
In the deepening night. 

Cold the ancient hamlet is ; — 
Sounds ol beating cloth I hear. 





Ukiyo no tami ni 
(ju kana 

Woga Uitsu-sama ni 

Sumizome no 8ode. 
Bemd dketiaku a^s ookenaku, R(>ad ou as oou, 

LiTEBAL Translation : — 

Ni tami no ukiyo 
Over the people of this miserable world, 

okenaku ou kana 

I om bold enou^i^h to spread, indeed, 

mmizOine no sode waga tatsu ni 

my b'ac'i-djed sleeve ; — I, living ou this 

wood-cutter's mountain (t.e. Mount Jliei near Kj5to). 

Explanatory Note. The writer was a eon of the 
Fujiwara Tad'anichi (No. 76^ and was a priest of the highest 
rank in one of the largest temples on Mount Hiei, near Ky5to, 
a mountnin at one time among the chief sacred centers of the 

As archbishop (Daisojo), Jim felt himself burdened with 
the spiritual welfare of the whole prople. In these verses he 
meditated upon his ^'rent respoubibility, with the feeling of 
personal unworihiness to bar it. The " black-dyed sleeve" 
IB priestly; the act of spreading; one's sleeve over another is 
protective. There is here a suggestive metaphor for the 
archbishop's office and ministry. 

'■'■'■'■■ HYAKUNiN-lSSttU. ^ i- ]-2S 


Though I am not fit, ; 

I have (iared to shield the folk ■ 
Of this woeful world 

With my black-dyed (sacred) sleeve : — 

I, who live on Mount Hiei. 

>! 1 



Hana saaou 

Araahi no niwa no 

Yuki narade 

. ; 

Pari yuki mono wa 

Waga mi nari 


LiTEBAL Translation :— 

Narade yuki no 
It is not ibe snow of 

the garden. 

where the wi.d wind • 

sdHou hana 
leads the flowers 

(that is pissiDg away) ; — 

(but) the thing 

mono wa 
that is falling awpy, (indeed,) 

woga mi narikeri, 
id m)self. 

Furi-yuku h»8 two meaningfl: — fl) ** to fall," as ram, enow, or 
leaves, and (2) "to r>a8«," as thiough life, ie, *'to grow M" **to 
decay," or to *• periah.*' 

Explanatory Note. The Prime Minister Kiotsune, 
who wafl active in civil nflT.iirs in the first halt of the thirteenth 
century, retired from his office and took mooastic vows la(e 
in life. He died at the age of seventy five in the yenr 1244: 


A.D. He W88 the founder of a temple, and progenitor of the 
family, named Saiovju 

In this iahka Kintsune indulged in a melancholy refieol- 
ion upon man's dezvj in old age. 

IfEiBicAL Translation: — 


Not the snow of flowers, 

That the hurrying wild-wind drags 
Sound the garden court, 

Is it tliat liere, withering, falls : — 

That in truth is I, myself. 


Konu hito too 

MaUuo no ura no 
Yunagi ni 

Yaku ya moshio no 
Mi mo kogare-i&utsu, 
Litebal Translation : — 

Moshio no yaku ya mi mo 

Like the sea- weed burning myself also 

kogaretsut/iu yunagi ni 

am iuflamid (with feeling) in the evebing calm, 

no ura no Matsuo 

of the coast of Matauo (or waiting place), 

UH> hito konu, 

on account of one not coming. 

Motsuo i^ ft small vi1liif(e on the north coast of the island of Awtji, 
at th*" et trance to the Inland <^«a. The word coittHins also, matm ''to 
Wftii/' Henre thei e is t he dotiMe nieaninir,— '* the coast of MatHuoy and 
^ the shore where on« waits '' for the conjini; of some one. I/fof^hio nmj 
mean either "sea-water,'' or, at iu poetrjr ot\en, ''aalt sea-weed/' 


BzpULiiATORT Note. The Imperial Vioe Gouneillor 
(Oink'Ohunagon) Sadaie Fujiwara was, under the name of 
leikakfi, the oompiler of these ** Single Soogs of a Hundred 
Singers/' the Byakunin-isBhu. The poet died in the year 
1242, A.D. at the age of eighty. 

He choae for hl3 own contribution to this ** Century of 
Song/' this love song. The vjraes may bo read as above trans- 
lated, or they may be readered, — " I am bnling like the sea- 
water heated on the coast of Matauo, where I wait for one who 
oomes not." 

Mktrical Translation: — 

Like the salt sea-weed, 

Burning in the evening calm, 
On Matsuo's shore, 

All my being is aglow 
Waiting one who does not come. 


Kaze soyogu 

Nara no ogawa no 

Yngure vxi 

Mkogi zo natsu no 
SliirwJii nari keri. 
LrrBBAJi Translation: — 

Wa yngure no ogawa fi# 

As for the evening of the brjok of 

Nara haze eoyogu 

Nara, (or the oak,) the wind rustling ihe leaves 


^■' -J tkimshi: nonatau narikeri 

i&B) rigo of summer there ia odIj '., 

' misogi. 

' 'tbe sacred bath. 

Nora rut ogawa lueaiis (1) a brcok at Nara, the ancient capital of 
JapMi (7l6-794 A.B.), or, ' 2) a broc k borderfd with a kind of oak (nara). 
Mitogi is -the act of purifying the bcdy by bathing in cold water. U it 
(I ceremony cbiiducted according to the Shinto ritual. The '' wind nit^ 
llngthf leaTtfl" of trees, is symbolic of autumnal weatber. 

ExpuLNATORY Note. The poet generally • known as 
Karyu is also called, accotding to the Japanese reading of t)ie 
ideographs coDiposing his name, letaka. He was a member 
of the Fuji war a family. Jozammi, ihe title here given, indi- 
cates an official rank of rather low degree in the Imperial 
household. letaka held also the title of Jtintt, a grade higher 
than the one by which he is commonly known. I 

Metrical Translation: — 


Lo ! at Nara'ej brook 

Evening comes, and rustling winds 
Stir tlie oak-tre<8* leaves; — 

N*v)t a sign of snromfr left 

J^iit liie ^acrfd bathing there. 


Ililo mo oshi 

Hito mo urameshi 

Ajiki naku 

Yo too oraou yue m 
Mono omou ni wa. 

UYAKimiN'lBSHV. 12T 


Hito wo ofj/it. 

hito mo 

(Some) men are pitiable, 

some men, 


yue ni 

too, are odious (to me), 


omou yo wo 


\h% nalcu 

I cougiJer Ibis world 

wearisome ; — 

tcono omou mt wa. 

1 wbo am anxious (or full of care). 

Explanatory Note. The Emperor Go-Toba, who was 
placed upoD the throoe in 1186 A D. was compelled to leave it 
thirteen years afterwflrdp, in 1199 A D. 

For a long time he cheriabed tbe purpose of recovering 
for tbe Imperial authority its anc'eot power and respect. 
With the death of (be third Kamjikura Shogun, Sanetomo 
(No. 93), he m? de his great venture. But he euffered com- 
plete defeat at the hands of the usurping H5j5 family's forces 
(1221 A.D.)» under Yosbitoki. He was banished to the Oki 
ialand?, where he died in 1239 a.d. 

In this tonka, the aVdicated and defeated sovere'gn ex- 
pressed his grief for fallen friends ; his hate for bis enemies; and 
his weariness with the fallen worid and life. 

MfTBiCAL Translation : — 


For some men I grieve ; — 

Some men hateful are to me ; — 

And this wretched world 

To me, weighted down with care, 
Is a place of misery. 




Momoahiki ya 

Furuki nokiba no 
iSAtrtofrti ni mo 

Nao amari am 

Mukaslii nariheru 

LiTEBAL Translation: — 

JfomoAiki ya 
O Place paved with a Hundred Stones I 

(i,e. " the Imperial Palace,") the olden 

narikeri nao amari aru 

time bf indeed, more even (longed for) 

ahinobu ni mo no furuki nokiba. 

than the fern even of the old eaves 

(cleaves to them). 

Momo-thi'ki^ *' hundred-Btoneoastle/' a '* pillow-word " for the name 
of th« Iin|«rial Palnce. By metouomj the term is used for ths power 
that bad place in the Imperial Palace. Shiwbu means a kind of 
**1km" cNo. 14), and also '* to long for.'' 

Explanatory Note. The Emperor Jnntoku, at the 
failure of the Emperor Go*toba*s effort to recover the lost Im- 
perial prestige from the Kamakura 8h5guoate (1221 A.D.)^ 
was banished to the islimd of Sado. Go-Toba (No. 99) was 
sent into exile at the Oki islands at the same time. 

Juntoku in his island* prison, it is said, wrote this lanh^ 
giving expres.^ion to his grief over the fall of the Imperidl power* 
When he thought upon his former state he longed for it, he 
said, even more fondly and tecaciously than the climbing fern, 
growing over the time-worn and decaying eaves of the palaoe 
itself, clung to the ancient walls. 


METBiGiJi Translation: — 

O Imperial House 1 

When I think of former days, 
How I long for thee ! — 

More than e'en the clinging vines 

Gratbered 'neath thine ancient eaves. 



A. AmUeno 48 

Aienurda 52 

Akinotann I 

AMkateni 79 

.^iiiiCHu>*A<irs ... ... ••• ••■ ... ••• 7 

AnutUu-hate 12 

Artuhifiiku 69 

AroMOran 56 

Artakeno ••• 80 

Arimayama 56 

Amborake 81 

AtaboraJU-Uji 61 

Aaajifuf-no 89 

AMhibikino 8 

AuhoiO'no.., 44 

AwaJUhima 78 

Aware to mo 45 

C. Chihayalmru 17 

Chigirirokithi 75 

Chigirikina , 42 

F. fvkukarani 22 

H. Sana no iro wa 9 

ffanataaou 9G 

Barugugite 2 

Hdrunoyofie 67 

Biaakata no 88 

Hitomooihi 99 

HUowaim 85 

Hoiotogiau 81 

I. Imahonie f'^ 21 

Imawatada 68 

Inithie no 61 

K. Kaiutodani 51 

Kai(uag%no 6 

Kamtoifogu 98 

EamvoiUuni • 48 


JCimigaiame 50 

Riwti ga tamCf haru no 15 

Kirigirisu 91 

KoiwUfu 41 

Sjokoro 911 tno ... ... ... ••• ••• ••• 68 

Kohoro ate m 29 

Konoiabi wa 24 

K'muhUowo 97 

Kortyahmo • 10 

M. Meguri aile 67 

Miehinokuno 14 

Mikorno-hara ' 27 

MihaJdmari 49 

Minebayaiia r. 90 

Miyoshino no 94 

Momoahikiya 100 

Mcrotonio ni 66 

Murasameno 87 

N. yanishiouHxba 25 

Nagakaran ... 80 

Nagarcuba ... 84 

yageketote 86 

Nageki Uuim ... 53 

NanivDareno 88 

NaniwLgata 19 

Natmiioyowa 36 

O. Oeyoffira 60 

Ogurayama • 26 

Okenaku 95 

Okuyamani 5 

Omoi-wjibi 82 

Olonikiku 72 

S Sabishiaani 70 

Sevnhayami 77 

Skinoburedo 40 

Shiratwyu ni 87 

Svminoeno 18 

T. Toehiwakare 16 

Jagonoura ... • r»» ••• i 




Taki no do wa 


Tare wo ka mo 


Tsukubane no 

U. Dkarikvu 

Urami wabi 

W. WohinwAa 


Wadormo-hara, — Tamshlma 

Waga to wa 



Wasureji »o 

Y. lamuffvra 


Tamazafo wa 


Yo no naka wa 




Yu woirtha 

Yxira TiO to ico 




!• Songs of Nature. 


A Famous Waterfall 


A Fancj in Autumn 


A Lonely Scene 


An Autumn Mood 


A Summtr Night'B Fancy 


At the Osaka Barrier 


Autumn at Tatta River 


Beauty made Perfect 


Gf aring Mist at Uji 


Kveninn Breeze in Autumn 


Frort's Magic 


Maples of Mount Ogura ... 


Moonlight Among Clouds 


Mount Ama-no-ksgu ; a Picture 


Mountain Cherry Bloom 


Mountain Village in Winter 




On Tamuke Yam;\ 


Scattered Gems 


Snow Fall at Yoshino 


The Beautiful World 


Twilight in Autumn 


River Tatta in Autumn 


View at Sea 


Winter Midnight in the Palace Couit... 


II. Songs of Sentiment. 

A Buddhist's Reflection 


A Cheerless Night-fall 


A Spirit Visitant 


A Thought of Home 


An Archbi shop's Meditation 

... 95 

An Attack Well Mot 


An Emperor's Lament 


An Emperor's Sympathy 


An Exile'i Farewell 





Angels on Earth 

CoDBtaDCj in Frieodship... 

Fallen Flowers 

Filial Lore 

Fleeting Life ot Flowers 

Friends in Solitude 

From the Old to the New ., 

Glory that Was 

Hope Deferred 

In Lone Poverty 

Moonlight Sadness ... 
Night at Soma's Gate ... 
No Escape from Sorrow 
Passing of Summer 
Remembered Happiness 
Sadness of Autnmn 

Solitude in Old Age 

Stag's Cry in Autumn . . . 
The Transfigured Past 
Vanity of Vanities 

LovK Pongs. 

A Lonely Vigil 

A Lover's Protest 

A Ix)ver's Beproach 

A Lover's Question 

Anguish under DeFortioii... 

A Vain Vigil 

Dread in Secret Love 

Faithful Waitbg 

Faith in BeuDion 

For Dame K amour's Sake 
Forewarned, Fore&rmed . . . 

For Secret Tryst 

Grief in Misery 

Hidden and Unhappy Love., 

In Doubt 

In my Misery , 

Love Afiama 

Love as aFlama 
Lotie a Tsll-talo ..« 

... 35 

... 15 

... 66 

... 100 

... 91 

... 78 

... 98 





LoTe beyond Telliog ... 51 

LdTe ia Absence 68 

Love in Despair 45 

Love in Perlpezitj 45 

Lovd is Lord 39 

Love Repelled 48 

Love'a Crnelty 30 

Love*8 Impatience 97 

Love's Jadgment 5i 

Love's Beproach 42 

Love's Stl^Betrayal 40 

Love's Solicitade 38 

Love*8 Gncertaintj 44 

Miictrried Prajer 74 

Perfected Love 18 

Prisoner of Lo7e 88 

Promise at Parting 16 

Parsoit and Possession 60 

Belinqnishment 68 

Besolve in Despair 30 

Secret Love 18 

Song of Longing 3 

Souvenir in Death 56 

The Bebel, Love 52 

Uncertain Becognition 67 

Waiting and Longing 85 

Warning 62 


The figurea. except where otherwise specified, refer to the numbers of 
the poems. 

Abe no Nasamaro ... 
A Biiddbist'a Reflection 
A Cheerless Night-fall ... 
A Clearing Mist at Uji 
A FamoQB Waterfall 

A Fancj in Autamn 


Akazome Emon 


Akisukb Tayu 


A Lonely Scene 

A Lonely Vigil 

A Lover's Protest 

A Lover's Qaention 

A Lover's Reproach 




An Archbishop's Meditation 

An Attack Well Met 

An Autaokn Mood 

An Emperor's Lament ... 

An Emperor's Sympathy 

An Evening Breeze in Aotomn.. 

An Exile's Farewell 

Angels on Earth 

Anguish ander Desertion ... 

A Night at Suma's Gkite 

A Prisoner of Love 


A Relinquishment 

ariake *• 




56, 59 

84, 79 






ariakenotmki 21 

Ariwara no Narthira AfiON 16, 17 

Ariwaba no Yukihira Ason 16 

oBaborake 31 

aaajifu 89 

ashi no maroi/a 71 

ashibikino 3 

Aaon 16 

A Song of LoQKing 3 

A Soayenir in Death 56 

A Spirit Visitant 81 

ArtOD, W. G Pref. p. 11, Int p XVI 

A Sammer Night's Fancy 36 

At the (^ka Barrier 10 

A Thought of Home 7 

AuRakanoSeki 62 

Auaahi {OmhO 10 

Autumn It Tatta River ... 17 

'* Autumn eve feeling" 70 

A Vain Vigil 59 

AVicwatSea 76 

Awajils'and 78 

A Warning 62 

B. bakan 30 

beki 45 

Betid ... 88 

Beauty made Perfect 4 

Brinkley. P. H Pref. p. 11. 


BuNYA NO Yasuhide 22, 35 

C. Chamberlain, R H Pref p. II, Int. p. XVI. 

Cherry Bloesoro, The 61 

chidori 78 

ehihayafuru 17 

chigirikino 42 

Chunagon Asatada 44 

Chunaqon Atsutada 43 

Chuvaoon Kanesuke 27 

Chunagon Sadayori 60 


Chunagon Yakamochi 6 

Chunagon Vukihira 16 

Constancy in Friendship 36 

*' Cry of the Stag" 83 

D. Daini no Pammi 68 

Daijodaijin 76, 91 

Damjb 66, 95 

Dainagon Fujiwaua no Kinto 66, 64 

Dainagon Tsunenobu 71 

Daikaooh Yukinari 62 

DaiNifumShi Int. p. X. 

daini 51 

JDciMaifu 24 

dt ... ... 46 

deBosny, L Pref. p II. 

Dickina, F. W Pref. p. I. 

Dom HoSHi 82 

Dread in Secret Love 89 

E. Ehmann, P Pref. p. II. 

EiKEi Hosui 47 

Emperor Daigo Int. p. VII, 26, 36, 37 

Emperor Go Shir A KAWA 77,89 

Emperor Go Toba 99, 100 

Efliperor Go Beizei 67 

Emperor HoBiKAWA 72 

Emperor IcHiJo 66,69,61 

Emperor J UNTOKU ... 100 

Emperor Konoye 77 

Fmperar Kwammu Int. p. XXI. 

Eoii^eror Mimmyo 12 

Emperor MoMMU 3 

Emperor Nij5 12 

Emp?ror Beizec 66 

Emperor Saga 55 

Emperor Sanjo 68 

EnperorSHiJo Int. p. X. 

Emj-eror SuTOKU 77 

Empe.or Tenchi 1 

Emperor Toba 77 


Emperor Uda 

19, 26 

Emperor Yozei 


Faithfal Waiting 


Faith in BeunioD 

... 77 

'' Feast of the Light of PienI y » 


For Dame Rumour's Suke 


For Glory that Was 


Forewirned, Forearmed 


For Secret Tryat 


Four Aa^n, TLe 


Friends in Solitude 


From the Old to Ihe New 


Frost's Mag?c... 


FuHokoro no Suzari 


FujiWABA femily 


FujiwARA and Minamoto families ... 




FujnvARi NO Go-Kanb^uke 



































76, 95 














fumi 60 

fumi-mike 5 

furn'take m\ra 7 

furiyvhi 1)0 

furUy (fwu) 9 

fushinoma 19 

Ct. ga ... ••• ••• ... ••• ... ..• ••• 15 

ga=ka 25 

gaia 19 

Genji Mumgaiari 56,57 

" Genrohi, Age of" Iiit p. XII. 


Grief in Misery 65 

"Goddess of Meny" 74 

Go Kyoooku no Sessho Daijodauin 91 

Gon-Chunaoon 97 

GonChunagon Masafusa 73 

Gon-Chunagon Sai>aie 97 

GonChunagon Sadayori 64 

G(t-Kn-8ful Int. p. IX. 

Gihshui-shu Int. p. VJII. 

Go ToBA NO In 99 

GoTokudai.iino Sadaliix 81 

II. Hachi-dai-ahu Iiit p. VIII. 

h(ittw no Tdhmhi 72 

Harumichi no Tsukayuki ... 8i3 

Hase Kwaimon 74 

Hasimuma, Iwao Pref, p. L 

hdaarime ... (> 

hidsuahimo 29 

Heian Age, character of latter half of. Int. p. XXII. 

Heiji Iniarrection 92 

Henj5 (Bishop) 21 

HiddeD and Unhappy Love 92 

hisaJtata no 33, 76 

HiTOMARO Int. p. VII. 

hitoi/0 88 

Hyakimin-issliu 97 


HpakwUnUahu, representatiyc character of, Int p V. 

JiyoMunnwriishUf by whom cumpiled, Int p X* 

Hyakuninmku^ how here iieatcd, lut. p. XXII. 

Hyakuninrwlhu^ how made a gaae at cards, ... lat p XI. 

Byakunin'mhUy low may be groui«dy lot. p. XXIII. 

ByakuninrisahUf when gathered Int p. VI. 

Hyakuninrisshu, wriUrs, tlivir sjcial eiiviro m nt Iiit p. XX. 

liogen Insorrection 75 

hokku Int. p. XIV. 

Hojofdmly 99 

Hojoki • 5, 81 

HoBiKAwA, (Lidy) 80 

Ho-o 26 

UoeHoJI 710 Nyudoj aaki no Kuamfiikvj laijodaijin 76 

Hope Deferred 75 

htiUAogim 81 

I. Ibuki, {iubekO ... 61 

ide tS 

Ietake 98 

Imperial Guard, ren^r, play of lot. p. XII. 

Jmpu MoN-iK noTaiu 90 

In 13, 77 

Jmihaf {imiba') 16 

In Doubt 80 

In my Mlaery 81 

iniahie 61 

In Lone Poverty 91 

IsE, (Lady) ]9 

Iw, profince of 63 

/«e Monogafari 16 


IsenoTaiu 56 

fahiyatna 6 

itaxura ni naru 45 

<«al 36 

isumi^ (iisu mi) 27 

JzuMi Shikibu. 66 

Izumi Shikibu Monogalari ... 55 

J. Jakuren Hoshi 87 

Japaneae poetry, in general Int. p. XI 1 1. 



Japanese poetry, cadence of 

Japanese pietrj, content or snbject matter 

Japanese poetry, foroa of 

Japanese poetry, *' iotrodnotions * 
Japanese poetry, " pillow-words" 

Japanese poetry, ** pivot words " 

Japamw poetry, a polite accomplisbment 
Japanese poetry, rhetorical oildities 


Jno Tknno 

JozAioa Kabyu 

Jnndaijin < 



K. Kaibara Yekken 

hanashi,,, ••• ••• ••• ... 

Kanda, Saichiro 

Kanhokuhwan, ttoty of 


kakeji ya 



Kamakuba ko Udaijik 

Kamo CnoiOBi 

kana ... ,,, ... .,, ,,, ... 



Kane-IE (Regent) 



kara kurenaini 





Kawaba no^Sadaijix 



kcru ••• ,,, ,,, ,^^ ,^^ 

. Int. p. XV. 

...Int p. XVIIL 

. Int p XIII. 

... Int. p. XVI. 

lot p. XVII. 

...Int. p. xviir. 

Int. p. XXI. 

... Int. p. XVI. 

... 39, 62 


... vO 


... 98 

Int. p. xri. 

Pref. p. III. 

Int. p. VII, 3 

... .S2 
... U 

.. 5 

... 21 

... 6:j 

... 23 


... 8S 


... vO 

... 14 

... Int p. 51 

... 47 


kiml wo oklie 42 


Ki NO TsuBA^-uKi Int p VII, 35 


Kinyoshu Int. p VIII. 



Kojlk'i Int. p. VI. 

KoKEN' (Empress) Int p. VII. 

Kokinshu Int p. Vn. 35 

Kokinahuf prehoB iOy Int. p. XIX. 

Kokonoe 61 

kokoro ate 29 

KokS Tenno 15 

hyromohttafihihi ... 91 


1i(m. 41,47 

KuGYo 93 

kurokaminn. 80 

kuru 25 

Kwampahi 59,76 

KwoKA MONiN NO Betto 88 

Kwoka, (Empress Dowager) 88 

Kwotfd as 


Kyoto Int. p. XXI, 61 

Kyoto, cWen capital when ... Int p. XXI. 

L. love Aflame 43 

Love as a Fiame 49 

Love, a Tell Ule 40 

Love Beyon 1 Telling 61 

Love in Absence £8 

Love in Difficalty 46 

Love in Despair 45 

Love is Lord 39 

Love Repelled 48 

Love's Cruelty 30 

Love's Impatience 97 

Ijore's Judgment 64 

Love's Reproach 42 


Loye*8 Self-betrayal 40 

Love's Solicitnde 38 

M. Mabuchi 76 

madaki 41 

nuidafumiwj mizu dO 

**lifagpie Bridge" 6 

maki 87 

Makura no 8oshl 56 

nmnirmani ... 24 

Manyoshu Int. p. VII 

Maples of Mt Ogura J6 

Masako, (PriDcess) 63 

Masaobune 94 

matsu ... 16,97 

maimo 97 

Meirgetsurki Tnt p. X. 

MiBU (NiBu) NO Tad AMINE 30 

MibunoTadami 41 

mlchinaga kwampakit 59 

Michinoku.,, 14 



midarde 80 

mieiie 47 

mika,{mga)... 27 

MiNAMOTO family 92, 93 

MiNAMOTo NO Kanemasa 78 


MiNAMOTO HO Sanbtomo 93 







wiTiaTio river 18 

" Minister of Kamakura " 9.3 

miftoffi 98 

Miscarried Prayer 74 

mi wo tsukiuihiie ... ., 20,88 


mo 8, 7 

moffana 60 

mogvsa 51 

mamiji , T) 

Mom&shiki 100 

Mim-in ... 80 

mono wo koso omou 49 

Mountain Cherrj Bloom 73 

Mountain Village in Winter 28 

Mount Ama-no-Kogn 2 

Mount ilnWr 58 

Mount iiiei 95 

Monnt Mimuro 69 

Mount Oe CO 

Monnt ^mt 5 

** Mount of Gloom" 8 

"Mount of Offering" 24 

*' Mount of Shunning" 8 

Mount Ogum 26 

Mount Uji J^ 

Monnt Yoahinn 94 

Moonlight among Clouds 79 

Moonlight Sn'lness 86 

inosJiio 97 

MoseoKU 62 


MoTOYAsu NO Tachibana 69 

MoToYOSHi Shtnno 20 

MuRASAKi Shtkiuit 56,57,62 

muroKftme 87 

N. M 25 

nagaamej (jnag<ime) 9 

nagornagashi 3 

naga via Int. p. XIV. 

Naqayasu no Tachibana 69 

nagaxuki 21 

Nagon 62 

nakn•^^(\h\ ni 44 

nan 20 

Naiahi 60, 67 


Nabhinno 89 

Nsiniwa-e , , 88 

Nara 61,98 

Nana age Int. p. XXL 

yar<inoog(iwa 98 

iiaru luiku „ ... 14 

Narehiba 16 

ncwinuru 13 

NihonShoki Int. p. VI. 

Nijo-no-In ko Sanuki 92 

Niinanie-maisuri 12 

iiishi ... , 57 

no, (ju) golokiO 48 


No Escape from Sorrow , 83 

NoiN HoSHi 69 

mtnty (^iieru) 53 

nusa ... , 24 

^fudo 76 


O. ObnoChisato 23 

Ohara yama 6 

Ogura Hyakunin-hnhii Int. p. XI. 

Ogura in Saga Int p.X. 

Ogurayama Int p. XI. 

Oki islands 11, 99 

Oki madowasiireru 29 

Chnine 66 

omohoede ... ... 45 

rmol'iru 88 

omowa 43 

Onakatomino Yosbi>ohu Ason 49 

On Fallen Flowers 96 

Onna Daigaku Int. p. VII. 

On Tannke yama 21 

(nwe 73 

Ono no Komaciii 9 

Osaka 10 

OisHIKrjC'llI NO MrisUNK 29 • 

Otomo NO Yakamocjii Int. p. VII. 


P. Pathways of A ugels 12 

Perfected Love 18 

Promise at PkrtiDg ... 16 

Pursuit and PoagessioD 60 

K vftn 54 

msht 2 

Remembered Happiness 68 

RenshO Int. p. XI. 

iiesolve in Despair 20 

RiNGO (Tameie) Int. p. X. 

Ryozen Hosiri 70 

S Sadate CTeikakyo) Int.p. X, 97 

Sddfiijin 81, 14 

Sado island 100 

8A(4AMI, (Lady) 66 

Sagnromo Monngakiri 57 

Sakanoue no Korenori ni 

Paioyo Hoshi 86 

Saikoku 70 

Soionjt ... ... 96 

Saki no DalsoJu Jien 95 

Saki yo DAisivio GYrsoN 66 

Sakyo 79,63 

Sakyo NO Tayi- Akisiki: 79 

Sakyo no Tayi: Muiiimi^a 6,3 

Scimtni 58 

mmiuahiro 91 

8ane-k(fzura 25 

Sanetomo Int. p. IX, 93, 99 

8ANC41 HiTosiii ;^9 

vSangi Masat.vlnk 94 

Hanoi Takamuba Jl 

Sanj6no-In 68 

iSANJu Udauin 25 

Ranuki, (lady) 92 

Sarumaru TayIj 5 

Mshi 51 

Satow, Sir Ernest, Pref. p. 11. 

{Scattered (iems v 35 

iSicret Lovo 18 


SeiShonagon £6,62 

Seii-Taishoguh 93 

Semimabu 5, 10 

Sensai'SJm lot. p. VIII. 

seshi 9 

Sestiho 91 

shi 16 

ski 44 

Shikieo 89 

ShikiJbvMho 57 

Shihoashu Int. p. VIII. 

Shinkokinsfdi Int. p. VIII. 

Shinkokiiiahuf qusiliiy off Int. p. VIII. 

shiorvreba 22 

shiiio 39 

shiiiobu 14t 100 

shinoburedo 40 

shirotae ... 2 

Shotiagon 62 

Shogun 93 

Shokushi Naishinno ... 89 

^mirshu Iht. p.VIII. 

Shunye Hobbi 86 

Shukzei 88 

s^eeye, (act of spreading) 95 

sleeve, ^black-dyed) 96 

sleeye, (emblem of love) ... 92 

sleevei TtearEtaiDed) 90 

Snow fall at Yofihino ol 

SojoHenjo 12 

Solitude in Old Age 34 

aonieniahi 14 


SosEi fioem... 21 

"wmnd of beating cloth" 94 

aoyo-aorewo 68 

au 41 

Sue-no-maisu yama 42 

Suma 78 

Sumi-no-e 18 



SJimiyoshi 18 

SusA-NO-o*8-song Int. p. XIII. 

SuTOKU In 77 

Suwo NO Naishi 67 

iachi 1() 

Tachiijana no Moroe Int p. VIII. 

Iadaie (i7 

TjLjyAMiCiii {KvkmpnlaO 75.77 

iae 40 

taete 44 

Taguchi 76 


Taira and Minamoto families 8:J 

Taika no Kakemoki 40 

TAlliA NO TSUOUNAK-V... ... 67 

Taka (no T<(hiHhiinii no m<ihi((> NariOtdiO ... 54 

"Takatago pines" 34,73 

t(UlVMlU-i) ... ... ... ... ... ... 89 

itimukcru 24 

Vnndshii ... ... ... ... ... ... 89 

lanuke ynriM ... 24 

tnnka Jnt. p. XIII. 

tdUizu, mo araiud ... ... ... ... ... ... 73 

Tatta cr(//?«/(() 17,69 

Toyu 5,68, 99 

Teikakyo ... 97 

Teishin Ko 26 

Tencui Tenno 1 

te^nigii-u ... 42 

'J'enjin Sama 24 

The Beautiful World 93 

The Fleeting Life of Floweis 33 

The Mountain Wind 22 

The Pasainp; of Summer 98 

The Rebel, Lovo 52 

The River Tatta in Autumn ... 69 

The Sadness of Autumn 23 

The Slag's Cry iu Autumn 5 

The Transfigured Past 84 


to 16 

Tokaldo 10 

TosaNikki .... 35 

TosHiNABi Tayu 94 

toyama 73 

Twilight in Autumn 70 

tm 12 

tsuim 1 

Tmihiba iie 13 

tsitranukl tomenu — 37 

(surl'bune 11 


TsuRAYUKi, (Ono no Komacht) 9 

TsURAYUKI, (HeNJo) 12 


TsuRAYUKi, (Narihira) 16, 17 

TsuRAYUKi, (Yasuhide) 22 

Tmre-m^re gum Int. p. XIX. 

U. uchi 4 

Udaisho Michttsuna no haha 63 

l^i river 64 

Ukox (Lady) 88 

Uhjo 68 

Uncertain Recognition 57 

ushl 8 

Utsunomiya Yasabitro Int. p. X. 

V. Vanity of Vanites ... 9 

W. wci 52 

Waiting and Longing 85 

vxiga mi 9 

wataru 88 

"Wind rustling leaves" 98 

Winter Midnight in the Palace Court 6 

ICO If 45, 48 

Y. ya • 51 

yaegakura 61 

yae mugura 47 

Yamabe no Akahito c. ... Int. p. VII, 4 



yo .*• ••• ••• ... ••• At* •#• ••• "> li. 


iffirUj (yoni) 18 

ymhi 26 

YosHiDA Eenko Iiitp.XIX. 



YOThino 31 



yitwohomete 62 

YoZEi In 13 

yuku€ ... 46 

YrsHi Naishinno-ke xo Kii 72 

/. ziiru=-:u firii i.. 43 

»> 5,13,35 


The obvious derivation of this word is that which it 
suggested by the Chioese characters with which it is usually 
written, viz, A^ or KM, meaning bird-rest or bird-perch — in 
plain English, d hen-roost. Scholars, however, have been 
struck with the incongruity of applying this homely term to 
the stately portals which adoin the approaches to the templet 
of the old national religion of Japan. Various other deriva* 
tions have therefore been suggested. We may summarily 
dismiss the conjecture which would associate this word with the 
verb iority to pass through. More consideration is due to the 
contention of Mr. B. H. Chamberlain* that the word ioriwi, 
like the thing which it represents, is of foreign origin. Sir 
Ernest Satow,t writing in February, 1874, retains the ordi- 
nary derivation, but adds, probably from some native author- 
ity, that it was* originally a perch for the fowls offered up to 
the Gods, not as food, but to give warning of day-break. 

The considerations urged in favour of tbe view that tori- 
wi id of foreign extraction would have much weight if this 
word stood alone. But it is only one of a group of four 
vocables all of which contain tbe same element vn, root of 
vnru or woru, to dwell, to rest, to abide, and all of which relate 
to a door or gateway. Besides tori wi we have kamoioi VIA or 
" wild-duck-rest," a term applied to the lintel of a door and 
to the upper of tbe two beams in which the shoji slide. Kam<h 
wi is no doubt a corruption of kamo-wi ie. "upper-rest" 
Then we have tsitchi-wi ±S or ** earth rest," a name for the 
threshold better known at the present time as shiki-td ttA or 

* See " Things Japanese " 3rd edition. Art : Tori4 ; alFO an article 
ooDtributed to the proceedinfjis of the Anthropological Institute. 

t See "Tlie Shrines of Ise," in Vol. II. of thes^ Transactions. 


** laid-down-rest." Nobody will contend that (tU these words 
are foreign. Yet how is it possible to dissociate (art-tot from 
-the others 7 

The word tori-wi does not occar in the EojUcU Nihongi, 
Kiujiki^ Noriio, Kogojii^ nor, to the best of my knowledge, in 
ihe ManydMyu Hirata| says that in ancient times the tort-tot 
was called simply n (mon or leade). It has nevertheless a 
very respectable antiquity. In a Government notification of 
A.D. 771 the inner and outer torUjoi (of the Shrines of Ise?) 
are mentioned. The Wamidshd,% a Chinese-Japanese vocabu- 
lary of the 10th century includes the iori-wi in the category of 
** gates and doors " though without any indication that it was 
restricted to Shinto or to sacred purposes at all. The same 
authority quotes an older work in which the character M (i.e. 
kwannoki or bar) is defined as the toriwi of a gate, showing 
that to the mind of this author the ^ort-tot was only part of the 
structure which we know by that name. The WamioBho itself, 
on the next page, defines the same character fl as to kami t.e. 
"door upper" or "lintel." Tari-un, therefore, at one time 
meant lintel as well as gate. Hirata is of opinion that the 
former is the earlier meaning of the word. He cites another 
case in which torirwi and kamowi are used indiscriminately 
for the same thing, viz., lintel, and refers to a work cillcd 
Etiijin taUvyo which gives a drawing of a clothes-horse, the 
hanagi or rail of which is labelled tori-wigi, i.e. iori-wi stick. 
Hirata further quotes from ihe Wamwsho a passago (which I 
am unable to find in that work) (o the cficct that " Mon ke 
<RB) or *' gate-cock " is itorixvL It has this name on account 
of its resemblanca to a hcu-roost {togurd)J* He concludes 
that toriwi and kasagi were at first identical in meaning, tho 
former term being subsequently applied to " an unroofed gate. 

Tori-wi is possibly not the original form of this word. 

t Zoku-Shinto-tai-i II. 28. 
i Chap. X. p. 12. 


The wi (perch or rest) does not qaite so well fit the other 
compounds above noted. The Wamioshd writes not kanuhwi 
but kam<he (WPf), ie, meaning handle, shaft, or branch. 
Tori-wi may therefore have been originally tori e. 

Of course the above does not afifect the contention that 
these honorary gateways themselves had a foreign origin. 
The reader will find this thesis maintained in a convincing 
manner in an admirable paper by Mr. Samuel Tuke con- 
tributed to the Japan Society's Transactions, 18961897. — 
Part II. 

-iQu/i^X/^ ' 


Minutes of Meetings I 

Report of the Council 26 

List of Members 32 

Constitution and By-Laws 41 


A (uinral McctiiiL; «»/ ilu- A>ialic Society of Jai>an \va> held at ihe 
Paii^li IJuiklini;^, No. 54. 1 >ukiji, on Wednesday, the 8lh J-'ebman', at 3 
p. m., the I're.sident of the Society, Sir Eniest Satow, being in the 
( "liair. 

Tlu inimilr^ of ilu: j)ivvi«ni> nKvliii<; havint; l)cen lakcii a^ irad, the 
('luiirman called uimmi l>r. I'loien/. lo read hi.s pajwr on 

.\n<:ii:nt jai\\ni;sk kiitaks. 

1 M. Moiciv ..I).^<.ived thai fhc i;reat Icntjth of hi.-^ pa|>cr did not admit 
of its bciii^ lead in trhmo- moreover, a laryc portion of it consisted of 
critical noti's which were jiot adapted for reading, lie would, therefore, 
read only certain ])assages which lie had selected for this pur|x>sc as 
beini^ likely to have mo^^t interest for the meeting. The following is a 
brief abstract of what was read : — 

Dr. lloixn/ e\plainc<I that hi> pajK-r was strictly s|)eaking a con- 
liiiualion of j)a|hr> on the smie subject written many years ago l)y Sir 
l'.rMe>t Natow, and published in \'ols. \\\. and IX. of the Transactions of 
ilie Society. Sir I'.rnesi Satow had traublated <) out of the 2S Rituals. 
The ]>re^ent paper dealt with Ivitual Xo. 10, entitled *^ Jfinodzulci l^su 
(fomovi no Oho H'irnhi\' or " Great Purification cclchnitcd on the last 
d.;y of the sixth month." The literature he had consulted in the course 
(,r his siu<lie> inclu(ie<l. in addition tt» tlu* older commentaries of 
Mai)uchi, Motowori Norinaga, an<l l''ujinii, the " Svi'ltn .Shilci-{-oi/'i'^ by 
llaruyam.i Tanomu, the *' Aiy it<i ^n'.^nnvh' by Shikida Toshiharu, Xotes 
of Lectures delivered by .Molowori Toyokahi in the Imj^Kirial University, 
and an interesting paper on the Oho Ivnahtt or Great Ihirification, con- 
tributed by Dr. H. Weipert * to the Transactions of the German Asiatic 

Tlie Great' I^u'rificatibri "was one of' the most* important and solemn 
ccrCnnhiCs of thc^S/l//i^^VeHgion, its objecl lx:ing' the purificatibn of the 
whole nation, from PrinCes and Ministers down to the common people, 
from >iMs, polhaionr, and ealamilies. In early limes it apiHMred to have 

2 MINI IKS ov Mi:i«rriN(;s. 

Imjcu cclcbratcil iiol at tixtd inti.'rvals, but only when special reasons 
ofTc'io'l. riic cliicf ccivniony was jx^rformod in the Capital, near the 
South (Jatc of tlic lnii>crial Palace, and might be styled the Purification 
»>t" the Court. But a siniih\r ceremony was conducted at every important 
slirinc t]iroUL;hout the country, wlicncc the expression •' (Ircat Purification 
of the Provinces," in contradistinction to the Orcat Purification of the 
Court. The Great Purification consisted of certain ceremonial acts, chief 
of Nvljich was the tlnowint; away into the water of the so-called knrfthc 
tsfnnon:^ or purification oft'erings, and the reading of a ritual. 

The Great Purification was to l)c distinguished from : — 

I. — The simple Unvahiy or purification of an individual from the 
jx)lIution contracted by some olTence, in which case the guilty jxirsijn 
himself had to provide certain ofterings to the gods. 'i'his was originally 
a mere religious ceremony, the ofterings ])rovided by the offender lx:ing 
in the beginning probably only such articles of his jx^rsonal pro|K'rty as 
were considered to have Injen jwlluted. 'J'hese were thrown away into 
the water. But out of this developed in the course of time the idea of a 
penalty. It was interesting to notice for what reasons, in what way, and 
to what extent in ancient times jxmaltie.s came to be exacted under the 
name of a /wia//t'. 13oth the A'o/TA: and iV,A»m(;j' (passages from which 
were quoted by the lecturer), furnished much information on this point. 

2 — Another kind of llnrahe, generally called " Mixagi^' or "Ablu- 
tion," which w;vs the purification of an individual or a place from 
j)ollution contracted by contact with something ceremonially impure, as, 
for instance, dead Ixxlies. 

3 — A third S|K'cies of Jfornhr, which preceded every imj^ortant 
fe>tival of a S'lunfo shrine, and by means of which the priesls antl 
<»thers taking |)arl in the festival were purilietl. This ceremony t(K)k 
place in a hall or h\k'\\ place specially |)repared for the ])urjH)se, and 
c<jnsisted in the *' Kami urudfti*' i»i " bringing down of the spirits <jf the 
purifying deities,'' the recitatit^n of the purification prayer, the |)erformance 
of various symlx)lic acts, and the ** Katniin/f\" or " Sending back of the 
gotls." The festival could then l)cgin. 

4 — A kind o( privn'r U'l-nhf, mentioned by I'ujii in hi> '* Uug"- 
shaktty' which, like the OhC'Jiii<th:, ^^;l> pirfonned on the la^t day uf the 
bixth month. 

The lecturer then dealt with the questions of the age of the 
nil It ruril'icitipu ccrtni'jir . .!n<i ihjt "f the Kitujl it-tlf, quoliiii; 
extensively froui Jipine^e juthontie^- , dwelt on the recitaticu of the 
Kitual, and described the details of the ceremony as conducted both in 
ancient and modern times. 1 le also explained the legendary' origin of the 
e<r«-mon\'. ;)n<l lend n Irniislntion of the Kiinnl now u^^ed. 


Tn the course of tlic discussion wliich ensued Dr. I'lurenz ^ave some 
further explanations in reply to questions which were put to him on 
various points connected with Shinto ceremonies. 

The Chairman thanked Dr. Florcnz in the name of the Society for the 
valuable and learned paper which he had contributed to the Society's 

The meeting then adjourned. 

A L^cnernl meeting of ihc Asiatic Society of Japan was held at llic 
Tarish lUiildinijs, N'o. 54 Tsukiji, on Wednesday, the 29th March 1S99, 
at 3 J), ni., the \'ico IVesidcni of llic Society, I^r. D. C Circcnc, Ivin^' in 
llie chair. 

The minutes of the previous mcetini; iiaving l)een taken as read, the 
Cliairman called ujion !^ir Kniest Satnw lo read Ids paper on 


Sir K. Salow t;ave a short accoimt of two works pritiled at the JcMiit 
Mission Tress in Jai)an between the end of the l6th and the Ixiginninj^ of 
the ijlh centuries. One of iliese, entitled " Epitome of the Tai-hei-ki," 
was printed willi moval)le types in Chinese characters and huoganQy an<l 
consisted of six vohunes, without date or place. l*'rom the imprimatur 
of tlie missionary, Manuel I»arreto, and the Bishop of Japan, which 
apjK\ared on tlie first jiage of five out of the six volumes, it have Uvn 
printed between 159S and 1610. i){ lids book no otlier copy was known 
to exist in Japan. Tlie second was a summar)' of Christian Doctrine, 
also in the Jaj)anese lani^uaijje but ])rinted in Roman tyiH.*, and Ikhc on 
the title pai^e the date 1600. This latter work the Society had under- 
taken to reproduce in facsimile in a forthcoming; number of its Transac- 
tions. It was the same work as the catechism in the IJibliotheca 
Casanalense at Rome, printed at Nagasaki in that year, which he had 
described some year*^ a'^n» in n pamphlet entitled "The Jesuit .Mission 
Press in Japan.'' The copy, which had been lent to him by the owner, 
had suffered greatly from Ixxjk-worms and was iii a very bad stale of 
])reser\\aiion, many words being mi.ssing and others undecipherable; but 
his acquaintance with the Chinese edition had fortunately enabled him to 
supply the mi.ssing portions of the text. The existence of two copies, one 
in Chinese and the other in Romaji, was probably explained by the fact 
that the one was intended for the use of native converts, while the llomaji 
copy was for the of missionaries who were not familiar with Japanese 
writing. A ]K'rusal of the catechisnv showed that the language in which 


it was written dirfcrcd in many rcs|x:cls from thai of to-day. lor the 
information of readers he had therefore prepared a j^lossary which would 
be published as an apjHndix to the woik. It w;i«> interesting; to observe 
that 300 years a^o a l)ei;innint; of roMKinl/iivj; ilie lan};iiai;c had Ijoen 
made, though without success, just .1- had luvp|K:iK'd ai;ain about twenty 
years back with a similar result. 

Dr. Divers congratulated the Society t)n having pa|>er^ iVom such 
old and di.stiniruished memlK-r^ a> Sir Kriio>t Satow and Prof. B. II. 
Chaml)erlain, and on the Iari;e attendaiue at it^ nieetini; which this had 
brought about. < >ne fact «»f intere>i, ahead) n«»tovI by the autht»r (»f the 
paper, was that tin- attenij)i lu replace |ap;Mi> -c eliaracter^ l»y Koinan 
letters was a very «>Ul alVair iii««lead olhaviiii^ Uin «»idy alteinpte«l in ihi' 
present jxritMl of Ja[)an's ilevehipment. It liad failed then a^. it had 
failed apparently now, and he did not retjret the fact. Another jwint 
of interest was ihc ix)ssibility afforded by the old romanised text of 
comparing the pronunciation of the time with that which prevails at 
present. It was rare to find such an <>|>p<»rlunity in the hi^^tory of 

The Chainnaii. on risini; at the cl(»e of the di.^cu.ssion, callcfl 
attention to the ini)K)rtaiiec of this cnnivibution to the lii.story of the early 
Clirisiian>s of laj)an, which the honoured Pie-idenl of the Society 
had ma<le in liis iiueresiin<^ j)aix'r. It was much to Iw rei;retled that 
information upon this subject was, and appaiently nuist remain, so 
meagre. The movement with which that pres> was ass<»ciaied had left a 
fiir dee])er an<l more jK-rmanenl impression ujkui Japanese lil'e and 
thought than was conunonly .supi)osed. \\ hile men of ahnost every 
social stage shared in that movement, owing to the greater inertia of the 
lower classes it was natural to exixict to hn<l clearer and more distinct 
traces of its influence among them. That such traces do exist, he thought 
a careful study of ahn«»'«l any of the irregidar Shinto sects wt>uld show. 
He lH:lieved thai a canful analysis of the teaching of these .sects would 
some day be made ;ind would convince the worKl that Xavicr with 
his ass(x:iales and .-.uecessor-, l)ad not only inir<Khiced a beneticenl, but 
also a strong an<l jK-inianeiU force, into the life of lapan — a force which 
had materially nuKlifud tin: general altitude of mind toward ethical 
and religious (jueslions. In conclusion he again emphasized the 
indebtedness of the Society to the President, Sir ICrnest Satow, for 
the pains he had taken to reproduce this valuable l>ook for its 

He then called ujxm the Kcv, A, Lloyd to read on behalf of the 
author, who was absent, a paper by Mr. U. II. ChamU'rlain entitled 



It was Staled in this paper that the origin of the breed in question 
was not known hut was believed to be at least loo years old, and that 
the general term — Shhiowa^a to — ^by which these fowls were known, was 
derived from the villai;e of Shinowara some three rl to the east of the 
town of Kochi. The different varieties of the ]>reed were described and 
details were given as U) the length of the tail feathers, and their rate of 
growth, and regarding the methods of keeping, feeding, and transjwrting 
the birds. 

Thi' ( hairinan nb>erve<l that the Society were glad to receive the 
information contained in Mr. Chamberlain's pajUT on the subject of this 
i.uv brcvtl f»f fowl>. and requested the Corresjxmding Secretary to convey 
ihc Society's thanks to the author. 

1 he meeting adjourned nt 4.;p. p. m. 

A ( leneral Meeting of tlie .Vsiatic Society of Japan was lield at the 
l>rilish Ix'galion, Tokio, on \Vednes<lay the 2lst June, at 4 i).m.. Dr. 
I'M ward Divers, I'.K.S., being in tlic ciiair. 

Tlie Chairman having called on .^ir Krnest Satow to read his paper 


Sir ICrnest Satow said that the main jM^rtion of his payxir was too 
hmg and in some resjiecls too technical to lie well adapted for reading. 
He would therefore read only the Introduction, of which the following is 
a pr<>cis. 

The writer commenced by observing that it was only in recent 
years that the bamboo had been cultivated in England in the oinm air. 
f'or a long time it had lieen supposed that the climate of Great Britain 
was too raw and cold for such delicate plants. Ai present, however, it 
had become ratlier the fashion to grow bamlxws, and horticulturists 
seeking for hardy sixjcies had naturally turned to Japan because its 
climate, though jwssessing on the whole a higher temperature than 
(ireat Britain, was subject to corresixnidingly greater cold and more 
frequent frosts in winter. The result had lx:en very successful. In one. 
instance, that of a garden in the Midlands, a locality noted for the 
severity of its climate, some fifty s^K-cies had Ijeen found to flourish 
exceedingly well, though of course not reaching the dimensions they 
attaiiied elsewhere. .\ large numlxir of these had l)cen imported from 
Japan, and it might interest |)eople to know that a considerable 

() MINI IKS ol M Kin I .N( ;s. 

Imsincss in the cxjiortatiDn i>f banilK)<)s to Kuropc* was now Ix^iiig 
carried on in Tokio and Yokohama. 

The writer's object in preparing this pa|x.T had not been to give an 
account of the uses to whicli the dry cane might be turned but rather 
to encourage the cuhivation of the living plant, and to assist in deter- 
mining the right nomenclature of the various kinds of bamboos already 
introiluced into the gardens and i)arks of Cireat Hrilain. 

The l)ody of the pajxir consisted mainly of a tran.^latiou of the 
♦• Nihon Chiku-Fu," or " Manual of Japanese Haml)oos,*' a book published 
in 1S85 by the late Katayama Nawohito. A Dutch traaslation of this 
work had been prepared some years ago by Monsieur Ixon van der 
I'older, Secretary to the Xelherlands Ixigation in Tokio, and the same 
gentleman had also maile a I'rench translation which still remained in 
manuscript. A new version in the Knglish language might not, it 
seemed to the writer of the pajx'r, be regarded as su|x.»rfluous. In the 
pre[)arall()n of this, care had l)een taken to follow the original text as 
closely a> iK»s>il)Ie, but it had appeare«l advisable to omit some un- 
important matter, sueli as the MilVerenl methcxls of prejiaring bamlxio 
s|)routs for the market, and the chemical analysis of bamlxxi seed. The 
author, or to sjK'ak more correctly, the compiler, of the work in question 
having evidently l)een indebtetl to an earlier and more elalxjrate book, 
the Kciyen Chiku-Fu, written by an anonymous author, the latter had 
been comjwrcd throughout and extracts had lieen given where necessary. 

The writer had l>ecn leil U) undertake the lalnnir involved in the 
j>reparation of the pajx?r by the recent publication of '♦ The l»amlKK> 
(iarden" by Mr. A. IJ. Freeman-Mitford. That work contained descrip- 
tions of many of the s]x*cies mentione<l by Katayama as they had l>cen 
grown by him in central J*!ngland. It was well known that differences 
of soil and climate when supplemente<l by care Ixjstowed in cultivation 
resulted in considerable variations in many |)laMts, cs])ecially so far a^ 
si/e wa> concerned. The JinHd lujOmt, the oleander, and the Berbt^rtK 
Thnnlnijii were all instances of the changes which occurred and the 
I'amlMMj was no exception to the rule. It was therefore no matter for 
NUrprise that gardeners an<l cultivators should find it difticult to determine 
the plants which they obtained in Japan. They usually arrived in poor 
condition and it was necosary for three or four years to elapse Ijcfore 
they develo|x?d sufficiently to admit of accurate identification. In the 
meantime, however, they had \yecn nametl by the dealers, and sometimes 
in a manner which led to great confusion. .Vnother cause of error lay in 
the fiict that labels became illegible in transit and becoming detached 
were aflcr^v.lrds assigned to the wnmg plants. Hence, as the reader who 
consulted Mr. >Titfonrs Inx^k would learn, there existed a considerable 


amount of unccrtaiuty as to the proper scientitic equivalents of the 
Japanese names of BamlxK>s, which was increased by tlie nmUiplicity 
of synonyms ^ivcn to ihcm in Japan. 

Various instances illustralinj; the uncertainty which existed were 
given liy the writer, who proceeded to refer to the great merits of the 
list of Japaiiesc plants compiled hy Professor Matsumura of the Im- 
})erial University of Tokio, wliich gave the names of all the botanical 
species known in this countr}', and not projx:rly to l)c included as exotics, 
distinguishing as far as jwssible the indigenous sjK'cies from those which 
had lx,'en cultivated for so long a time as to be fairly regarded as 
naturalized. IVofcssor Malsumura's scientific names disagreed in some 
instances with those given in the list at the end of Mr. Mitford's book, 
and therefore whenever in liie authors ])a|)er the Japanese name of a 
bamUx) aj)j)earcd as the heading of a section Ixjth the sjxicitic nanies 
distinguished by initials had been given. In the cases where no Latin 
names had yet l)een aJ^signed it might Ik: fovmd that the Japaiiese nanies 
merely represented ganlen varieties. 

After referring to the practical difficuhy in identification caused by 
the fact that mast bamboos flower very rarely, the author of the paper 
discussed the nucstion of the classification of certain sixicies of Bamboo, 
drew attention to the |)ermanent characteristics of all bamboo, and tiie 
essential diflference which cxisteil between certain varieties, and examined 
generally the question iy( genuS identification. 

Professor Matsunmra, it was pointed out, enumerated in his list 22 
sj>ecies of bamluM) known in Ja))an, only seven of which he apparently 
regarded as exotic. Katayama, on the other hand, mentioned 51 sorts, 
but of theso at Ka>( two dozen were either doubtful s|>eeies or mere 
" sj)orls." 

Of the l»aiulKM».> grown in Jai>aii three only, as a rule, attained any 
great si/o. '1 hese were the Afo*/, the M^ulnki' and the Jtfachi/iu, all of 
which were valuable for economic purposes. The lirst supplied the 
bamlxx) shoots usetl as a vegetable ; the second was commonly employed 
for water pipes, scaffolding |)oles, roofing jwles and many other purjwses, 
being i)erhaps the conunoncst of all ; the thirtl, lliough less common, was 
adaptable to tfie same uses as the second. Hie first was what was 
commonly known to foreign residents as " the feathery bamboo," from 
the manner in which the plumes bent over, and the yellow stem and 
yellowish-green foliage rendered it a i>ictures(iue object in the landscape. 
(.)f the larger sixrcies it was certainly the most decorative, the next to it in 
point of beauty being one of the smaller species, the Tal-iniii-cJiihut which 
had also a drooping habit. 

After he had finislu'd the rea<ling «>f the lntro<luction to his pajH^r, th<' 

8 MINI n.S ol .MKKTIN<;% 

concluding i>orliun o( which dealt with the cultivation of the l>;nnlM.H) in 
Japanese gardens, Sir J'>nest Satow made the folluwing addiliiMial 
ohservationb : 

The origin of the word bainhuo, lie explained was obscure. CV)lonel 
Vule, in his delightful "(I]us>ar\' of Anglo-Indian words," thought we 
got it through the Portuguese from a Canaroe word fmnwU' The 
earliest Portuguese writer called it hnimfAt, and its tirst occurrence in 
ICnglish was in llakluyt'.s Voyages (1586^ in the form Hambo. Uy the 
lime of Purchas, in 162 1, it had assumed its present form llamlKX). 

The Banibumccat^ according to Munro, (juoled in Mitford's ** l?amlxK> 
darden," were divided into three sections, TrUjhtmf^ having three 
stamens, the True JiamlK)os, having six, and liacclj'erm^ having six 
stamens and a l)erry-.sha|K'd fruit. The first of these contained three 
sulKscctions, of which the first, Arvndinnrincy contained three gvnerni 
two of which, namely Anmdinaria and Phyllostachys, he had already 
described by their main characteristics. 

If we tlug u)> a bamlxx) we found thut il consisted in many 
instances of an under-ground stem v ith knots like those on the over- 
ground stem but closer together. In the si^cimcn of Itakl c'tiku 
which he showed it would be seen that each knot lior* a bud. Some 
of these buds develojxid and thrust themselves alx)ve-ground in the 
form of a shoot. This shout he comj)ared to a closed telescoi)e which gradually <lrawn (»ut as the stem gained in height. The stem 
never grew in thickness after it was once formed and it attained il> 
full height in the rM>t \enr «»f its life, the only apparent exception 
being in the terminal leaf wiru:h sonulimes diil not unfold till the 
second year. The branches develojH'd in the ^ame manner as the 

stem, and Urn* the leaves. Hoth main stem and branches jyore buds 

M the kni»t>. or no<le^, which in many c;js«'- di<l not «le\elc»ii during 
the lirst year ol life. 

I'he joint or portion between two nodes was called the inter-node. 
It was enveloped in a sheath, tenninatcd on the lower part of the stem 
by a leaf-like apixindage styled Hnibus, or pseudo-phyll. It had no 
midrib, but at the top of the stem the last four or five assumed the 
form of a true leaf. These leaves were borne on sheaths which covered 
each other almost entirely, so that they seemed to grow close log<*lher ; 
but if their sheaths were carefully stripix;<l off it would 1)C sc6n tliAt 
each sheath rose from the lower end of an inter-node which it tightly 
embraced. Only the tenninal leaf had no sheath and sprang directly 
from the top of the last node of all. In one species, the Hungc-zafn 
(Bambvat rwcift/fia), the branches were vcr\' short, and each lK>re only 
one leaf. It would Ik- seen therefore that the unit out of which a 

.mim:ti.>> (»K MKKTrN<;N. 9 

l)amlxx> was built up consislcd of a single inlcr-oodc with its accompanying; 
sheath and pseudo-phyll, or true leaf, as the case might be. 

Various si^ecics of bamljoos were exhibited in the course of the 
lecture and the ditVcrences in their sheatlis as to colour and hairiness 
were jx^inted out. The ligule, which was explained to he a small 
membranaceous |X)rtion of the sheath adhering closely to the stem an<l 
prevcntitig rain-water from running down and ItKlging between the sheath 
and tlie inler-notlc, w;is also >hown, and the lecture cf)nchuk'«l with the 
exhibition of a small collection of variegated bamboos. 

Hie C'hairman thanke<l Sir Krnest Satow in the name of the Society 
for his valuable and interesting lecture. 
The meeting adjourned at 5.^0 p. m. 


(IJv Mk. W. Cm. AS'IMS.) 

The following paper was read at a meeting of the Asiatic Society, 
holtl at the l*arish Imildings, Tsukiji, on Wechicsday Xov, 14th at 4 p. m. : 
Dr. Greene was in the Chair. 

The obvious derivation of this word is that which is suggested by the 
Chinese characters with which it is usually written, vi/. «f&JS' ^^ Slli'it 
meaning bird-rest or bird-perch — in plain English, a hen-roosl.- 
Scholars, however, have been struck with the incongruity of applying 
this homely term to the stately jxjrtals which adorn the approaches to 
ihc temples of the old national religion of Japan. Various other deriva- 
tions have therefore been suggested. We may summarily dismiss the 
conjecture which would associate this word with the verb foniy to pass 
through. More consideration is due to the contention of Mr. P.. II. 
Chamberlain-* that (he word tori-i'L like the thing which it represents, is 
of foreign origin. Sir Krnest Satow,t writing in Febniary, 1874, retains 
the ordinary derivation, but adds, ])rol)ably from some native authority, 
that it was originally a perch for the fowls offered up to the Crods, not as 
food, but to give warning of day-break. 

*••' See ** Things Japanese'* 3rd edition. Art. 7or/-/; also an article 
ctmtributed to the proceedings of the Anthroix>logical Institute. 
t See " 'ITie Shrines of Ise '* in Vol. Tl. Transactions, 


The considerations urged in farour of the \*iew that l<fnm b of 
fort'i^ extraction would ha>'e much weight if this wofd stood akne. 
I^at it is only one of a group of foar vocables all of which oootain the 
hontc element vi, root r>f wirm or Wfrir, to <Iu-ell, ti» re<t, to aliide, and all 
of which relate to a door or ipiteway. Decides tnri-wi we ha^^e kmrn^wi 
f|lgC' '^f ** wild-duck-rc*!,** a term applied to the lintel of a door and to 
the upper of the two lieams in which the Mji ^lide. Kamcnm is no 
dfiuU a corruptifin of hami-mi i. e. " upper-rest.'' Then we ha\-e ttrntki^i 
J^Jg or "earth-rest,'' a name for the threshold hetter kno\Tn at the 
I*c^^«nt time as >hiki-ui Jt® <"" " laid-down-rest." Nobody will con" 
tend that all these words are foreign, ^'ct how ix it po?-ihle to dis- 
vxriate t^/ri-mi frr^m the fathers ? 

'ITic word //W-iTi docs not f>ccur in the Kojiki. SikoMgi^ KmLiJi^ 
yor'irf, Kog^jiit nf>r to the W< of my ki>owledge, in the M<\n}/ZAiu' 
llirata; say- that in ancient times the iori-wi ^-as calleil simply p) (mou 
f/t tfido). It ha?> ncvcrtlicless a verj* respectalile antiquity. In a 
f>A'enimenl iKAification of A.I>. 771 the inner and outer /or/-iti (of the 
Shrine-* ff( Ise?) are mentioned. The WamvM^ a Chinese-Japanese 
Vixrabulary of the loth ccnturj- includes the totiwi in the catcgt>rj- of 
" g:ile^ and dtif/ry* " tlKHi;;]i without any indication that it was rcstrictc<l 
to Sliifilo iff lo >acre<i puq>i-es at all. 'Hie >ame authority quotes an 
oliler work in which the character f^ (i. e. kwanmtki or l>ar1 is defined as 
the tori tci of a gale, showing that to the mind of this author the /or '-m* 
wa«» <»nly jart of the >tructure which we know by that name. The 
Wnnnonh^' itself on the next j>age detmes the same character fH as to tami 
i. /'. " iVfCtT ujjjier " or " lintel." Tori ir/, therefore, at one time meant 
lintel as well a* gale. Ilirata i'* of opinion that the former is the earlier 
meaning of the wonl. lie cites another ca>c in which Mn-iri and 
komoni nrc u«>ed in<li«'Criminatcly for the sanic thing vi/., lintel, ami 
refer'* to a wr>rk called Kui-jin zatsuyo which gives a drawing of a 
rlr»thevhorse, the kn$'igi or rail of which Is Ial)elled loriwigi, i.e. tnri-Mi 
Mick. Ilirata further quotes from the WamiTntho a i)as*gc (which I am 
unable to ihul in that work) to the effect that ** Mon kr (P^SI) or 
" gate-a)ck *' i> itori-wi. Il has this name on account of its resemblance 
to a hen-n>ost (liffjurti)'' He concludes that (on'-ic/ and hitagi were at 
first identical in meaning, the fonner term being subsequently applied Ut 
" an unrrxifed gate." 

Tori-wi Ls possibly not the original form of this word. The vi 
(l)erch or rest) dfX!s not rpiite .so well fit the other compounds above 

X Zoku.Shinto tai-i H. 28. 

? Vol. Tir. c:hap. X. p. 12. 


noted. The WainioJtu writes, not hmio-wi but kamo-t (f|H) '•^* "^^aiiing 
handle, shaft« or branch. Tori wi may therefore have been originally 

Of course tlie above does not aflect the contention that these 
honorary gateways themselves had a foreign origin. 'Hie reader will find 
this thesis maintained in a convincing manner in an admirable pajxir by 
Mr. Samuel Tuke contributed to the Japan Society's Transact ions, 
1896- 1897.— Part II. 


A resume of Professor MacCauley's paper read at the meeting of the 
Asiatic Society held at the Parish Buildings, Tsukiji, on Wednesday 
November 14 is given belotv : — 

Japanese poetrj- regarded as part of the world's literature is individual 
and uni([ue. Tl had ils origin in a i)rehistoric age ; its form and content 
were of its own kind and were practically Hxed at the time it furst 
api^eared in written sjxiech ; and reached its culminating excellence nearly 
a thousand years ago. At the present day, when the Japanese people 
have been released from their long-held seclusion from the other ixioples 
of the world, ihcre is llic probability that their ix)etry will come under 
the same stimulus that has vivified and started forward their sciences and 
llieir other mo<lcs of mental energy, but so far tliere has ai)i)earcd little 
sign of ]m>mise for any noteworthy |X)etic development. A study of 
Japanese {xxilry therefore carries one far l)ack in the centuries and into a 
literary realm that lies as isolated in the world of letters as the empire of 
Japan has lain \n the world of nations. 

With a wish to make a contribution to the study of the jKXitry of 
Jai)an, I invite you to turn to the collection of jx^ems known as the 
Jfifukunin tsshv. This collection may fairly Ije accepted as representative 
of that which is characteristic as a whole of the uniiiue jxxitry of this 
people. It is not the largest single collection of Japanese jxxims ; it did 
not originate, as was true of most other collections, under Jmi^rial 
direction, nor does it contain any of the few longer poems that once 
promised inuch for the future of Japanese jxxitr}' ; but in these single 
songs of one measure, taken from the works of a hundred writers, there 
have l)een gathered many that are of the very highest excellence. All of 

12 mini: IRS (H MKKHNt;s. 

ihcm arc distinclivc in furui and in >ubjc'ct matter, and nearly all of them 
were produced in that ixiriod in Jaj)an*s history whose literature has been 
tonnnended as " classic.*' IJesidcs, this collection of ]xx.Mns as a whole is 
comprised within an easily managed nmnd numl)er. And, moreover, 
whatevtr may l)e its worll) ihroui^lunit, it is at present, and has for a 
loni; lime been, in Iarj;est part the liousehold i^tx'try of the Japane>e, in 
the form of a j;ame of card>, in which man, woman, and cliild rcjKrai 
<»\vr an<l over again in their play llie measures and thouj^lus of the versi's. 
Jii brief there is no other gallierint; of Japanese jwems so manay;eable fi>r 
a single course of study. I'or all ordinary investigation, it is >uriiciently 
iristructive concerning the |>eculiar characteristics of the ixietry of Japan, 
;nid for rea<lers in Kuroix,* and America it will serve to >]iow well the 
kind of iKH:tic production and j>leasure thai has the largest jiojmlar favour 
with this |)eoi)le. 

'Hiese "Single S<jng> o( a Hundred I'oets '' were not gathered 
together in this form until towards the middle of the thirteenth century. 
At that time there were existing many comprehensive and accepted 
compilations of verse. The jxxims that, according to tradition, had l)een 
sung by the goils and ancient heroes had l)een preserved in such aulhorizctl 
histories as the Knjihi (Record of < )ld Things) and the yihonshi.Jd 
(Hi.Nlory of Jai)an), which brought the traditions and records of the 
coujiliy down from the farthest past to alxjut the end of the seventh 
eentury of the ('hristian era. liut, near the middle <if the eighth century, 
during the reign «)f the Kmpress Koken, Tachibana no Moroe l»egan to 
colleel into one work all the |MM.nns then extant, which work, in ihe ninth 
<ciilur\, a-^ su])]»lemented by ( )tomi> no Wikamoehi, came into literature 
;ln tin- c<-lel)rated 3fiiiif/dt<hu I " ("ollectiijn of Myriad Leave>."j In the 
twenty volumes constituting this collecti(»n there are more than 4,jpo 
|;<K:ms, among which are gatheretl alnmt 250 of what are calletl ttc^n ii/a. 
" long >ong.s," because they are eoinjx)sed <»f more than the live lines to 
whieli the slandanl Japanese i)oem is limited. The *' long st>ngs,'* or 
ntiffft uitt. of the 3/<r/////o«A?( are s]M»ken of as e>])ecially admirable. They 
liave berii ust:d for centuries as m<xlels of their kind by Japan's |Kxt>. 
Among the many writer.^ di.stingui>hed in the Aftinifoshu nre Kakinomoto 
MO Ilit'Muaro, (3), Numabi: no Akahilo (j) and (.)tonu» no \akamochi 
(0), spcfinujis of wlu.tMt ver-e a|»pear in thi^ IJiiakuiiiwi^^V' bi tli<' 
«<.nth «xntur^', after the Imperial capital had been fully established m 
Kioto and a hundred years and more of the dominion of Chinese in- 
fluences in Japanese literature had passed, a revival of literature 
distinctively Uxjik place. Hy order of the EmiHiror I-)aigo 
between the years 905 and 922 a.d. Ki no Tsurayuki (35), a iK>et of the 
rank of the earlier Mitomaro, made a new compilation *>( verse called 


llie Koldnnhu (Ancient and Modem Songs). Tliis work is now 
esteemed tlic finest, and it is the most studied, collection of [XKims in 
Japanese literature. It contains more than 1100 "songs," i/Ar, only five 
of wliich are miga iihi. Tins work, divided into twenty parts, has 
among its treasures (juite a number of ufdy or " .songs," of the .standard 
measure, commonly known as taii/M, that are repeated in the Hyakunin- 
isaku. \[ was at tliis {H^riod in tlie Empire's history that poetry l^egan 
to have a language [wculiarly its own, <listinctly marked off from that of 
ordinary speech. Fifty years later than the compilation of the Kukinshv, 
aI)out 970 a.d.,a school of jxxitry was established in the Imi)erial Talace, 
ipul jxHilic comixjsition became, and for a long time remained, one of 
the cliief accomplishments of the members of the C'ourt and of tlie 
nobility. \arious compilations of verse, supplementary to the ^ftmifoshu 
ami the KoklmliU, were then made under Imixirial command. Between 
liic time of the completion of the KoHnshUf (922 A. i>.) and the 
gathering of the Hyakunin issku (1235 A. i)."), no less than seven 
authorized and distinguished collections of poems were made. These 
were the 1. Oo »m shu (After Collection^, 2. Shuishu (Gathered 
Remnants , 3. (/o shuishu (Past Gathered Remnants), 4. Kinyonhu 
(Golden leaves), 5. S'hikwaishu ^.Word Flowers^, 6. tScnxaisha (Im- 
mortal Songs), and 7. Shin-Kokinsliu (New KokinshiO. These works, 
together with the Eokinshtiy are known in literature as the lliichi dui 
shu (C'oUections of Eight Dynasties). They are all ix)ssesscd of much 
merit. It is said tliat the ShiiiKokinshu "contains stanzas constructed 
with remarkable skill, the phraseology subtle and elegant, the rhytliu» 
easy an<l graceful, tlie style refined, and the ideas pn)found.'' It 
" stands at the head of all collections of jx)ems published under lmi)erial 
auspices." In tiiese seven compilalicms may l)e found some of the \>c>i 
tnnht re])roduced in tlie Jfjfukunin-itt.^hu. The Shin- ^nkinshu was in a 
large measure only a re-editmg of the i)oetical collections made sub- 
sequent to the Kokinshu itself. 

With this store of jKjetic treasures at connnand, some one, aljoul 
the year 1235 A. d., brought together these "Songs of a Hundred 
Poets" as one anthology. Just by whom, and how, the J Iff ukun in- isahu 
came to be gathered is no longer known, C'ertainly, in its i)rescnt form 
i ts editorship is doubtful, The author of the Dai Nihonshi (History of 
Great Japan) was satisfied, upon the authority of tlic Meigel'mki (Records 
of Brilliant Months) that the colketion : was made by. Teikakyo^ whose 
family name was Fujiwara no Sadaie (97). Sadaie held high ofllce. 
He was an Imperial Vice Counsellor ))rior to, and under, the reign of 
the Emjxiror Shijo, (1233-1242 A. D.). He was also one of the leading 
poets of his day. Under his direction the Shin-KokinsIiU wa^ compiled- 

14 mini; IKS OK MKp:riNr.s, 

The Mdyelmiki was originally a daily record kept by 'leikakyo. ITie 
original manuscript has almost wholly perished. Indeed, some of the 
authorized authentic sheets of the work are doubtful. And there is 
much question whether the present form of the Uyakunin-vnlm i* that 
which it had at the first. Among the traditions connected with the 
c<>mf)ilalion of the anthohjgy is this; — ^'J'cikakyo was a skilful writer of 
• he kana syllabary. He also held a iK)sition that might be called the 
[j<jct-laureateship of the time. Among his friends or relatives was a 
noble named IJtsunomiya "Nasaburo, who became a lay priest, niudo, and 
lived in a cottage in the village of Ogura in Saga. In the " Record of 
IJrilliant Months," it is said, " I wrote for the shdji of the Middle house 
i){ Saga coloured papers and sent them. At night I sent Ihcm to 
Kingo." Kingo, whose name is generally known as 'J'ame ie, was 
Teikakyo's son, and was married to Utsunomiya Vasabun>'s daughter. 
IJy some, the supi)osition is that the latter, Rensho, who was a jxjct also, 
had requested Sadaie, through the son, to write down with his skilled 
I)en a hundred jx^ems which he, Rensho, had selected for the decoration 
of nhTtJi m his new country house in C)gura. Sadaie obligingly complied 
with the re< Were this storj' true, Rensho, not Sadaie, would have 
whatever reputation Inilongs to the compilation of the hundretl songs. 
Afterwards, wlien Tame ie, as it is said, copied the jxxims from the 
xhikishiy or thick fanc}'-coloured paper used for the writing of jKHims, he 
arranged tliem in an aj^proximate chronological order. Another tradition 
locates the ixxitic ornamentation of the s^o/i in the }x)et's own country 
home at 0(/trr//omf/, whither the ix)et had retired after resignation of his 
office in the Imixrrial Court. Sadaie's choice of the poems, according to 
this story, was made without sixicial forethought and without .system. 
I Ie wrote down the verses at random, just as they hapjiened to come 
into memory, while he had brush in hand. Strict literary judgment did 
not guide him. For this reason the songs .show an unequal merit ; some 
displaying the very finest (juality appearing side by side with much that 
is of inferior worth. The mcxle of production of the collection, however, 
is a matter of comparative indifference. This "Century of Songs" 
exists, aiKl by the fortune of circumstances, in time it became known 
everywhere as the Offura Byakumn-isshu. 

How the hundred poems happened to come into use for a householil 
game at cards is not known. Tlic first deci<led notice of the game is 
found after the time of the fourth Shogunate, or in the age of Genroku 
(1688- 1 703, A. D.) It was in this jHiriod that Kaibara Yekken wrote the 
" CIrcat Lcaming for Women ' {Omm Uaigalcit)y and other l>ooks for 
l]»e education of women. Much attention was paid to the education of 
ILjirls then. (lirls' jjooks were much in demand. At that lime the 


Hyahmin-iBshu l^ecame useful as a text book for private female 
education. During the Shogunate, when the jxiems had \yetn transferred 
to seixirate cards, a package of the Hyakanin-unhu was looked upon as 
a part of a bride's household outfit. At that time, many mmurnl in 
Kyoto, skilled in calligraphy, aided in the financial support of their 
households by writing the hundred cards for the market. Some of these 
cards ^aTitten by well-known noblemcA have now great financial value. 
A storj' is handed down that alwut six hundred years ago, the Imperial 
Court guards had a habit in night watches of writing with bits of 
charcoal inside their porcelain plates, each, one of the " parts " of 
extemiKire poems, rengut and of seeing how one part would fit with 
another. This verse play, it is supjxDsed by some, suggested a similar 
use of the hundred songs. But, as said l^efore, the origin of the 
utfigaruta, or " song cards," is unknown. One must l)c satisfied with 
the fact that two centuries or more ago the poems somehow had gained 
place in the homes of the Japanese i)eople in the form of a game at 
cards, whereby they have l>ecome the common proixirty of old and 
young, and are to-day as household words. 

Mr. MacCauley continued his essay by a characterization at length, in 
general and specifically, of Japanese i)oetry, and then said: — In carrying 
on our study it is desirable that wc should have in mind, further, some- 
what the circle of men and women in which devotion to iwelic comjxisi- 
lion was dominant, and also the social envin>nment of the writers. The 
Jfyakunin-isshu is a collection of verse whose parts date from the latter 
part of the seventh to the Ivginning of the thirteenth centuries. Most of 
the songs were written in the ninth and tenth centuries. Throughout 
most of the period covered by this anthology the production of poetry 
was one of the chief pastimes of the Imi)erial Court and of the members 
of the higher aristocracy. This fact, one readily sees, explains mucli 
that is characteristic of the compositions. Poetry was a polite accom- 
plishment, and it varied with the varying fortunes of its exalted source. 
Before the eighth centurj', that is, the age of Nara, the Imperial 
capital was changed almost as often as the Kmperors were changed. 
Court life then was consecpiently comparatively l>arren and common- 
place. Pomp and grandeur were almost unknown, antl luxury' did not 
tempt to indolence and vice. At Nara, however, through the larger pari 
of the eighth century, seven Emperors reigned in succession, and, on 
account of a growing intercourse with China, Court life then became 
increasingly ceremonious and ornate. Towards the end of the eighth 
century, under the Emperor Kwammu, the site of Kyoto was chosen 
for the Imi)erial capital. Then the Imperial residence became fixed, to 
remain so nearly eleven hundred years. At that time, too, and for the 

l6 MINI Ti:s OF MKFrnNCS. 

iicxl four hundred years ilic career of the Jaixinese aristocracy was one 
of increasing wealth and hixur)'. The comparatively unpolished, frugal, 
and industrious habits of the Xara age by degrees disapjxiared. The 
ruling classes entered ujion a career of high culture, refinement, and 
elegance of life, that passed, however, in the end into an excess of 
Uixury, debilitating efl'eminacy, ami dissipation. It was during the l)esi 
part of these meuioral)le ceniurieit lliat Japanese literature as bfU^s-hitn'K 
culminated, leaving to after times, even to the present day, models of 
pure Japanese diction, 'i'he Court nobles (»f tlie tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth centuries had abundant leisure f(»r the culture of letters, an<l 
they devoted their time to that, and to the pursuit of whatever other 
refined or luxurious pleasures imagination couhl devise. I'or instance, 
among the many notable intellectual dissipations of the age were reimions 
at daybreak among the spring flowei-s, ami ]K>at rides during 
mamlight nights, by aristocratic devotees of music and verse who 
vied with «me another in exhibits of their skill with these arts. 
Narihira (17), it is said, "the celebrated beau .and dilettante of the 
times of the I-!mperors Montoku and Seiwa," was a typical sixM:imcn of 
these dev(»tees of refinement and of sensuous gratification. In much 
of the verse of this " Century of Song." the sentimentality, the refinement, 
and the laxity of m(n':ils of the pleasuiv-loving courtiers and aristocrats 
of the Ifeian Age are exhibited. The jMK-ms are in giKKl part an 
instructive connnenl of the life of the high clashes of the times. 

The treatment of the 7A»//»ihi/*///-/Wiu oiVered in these ])ages is to be 
accepted as a literary rather than as a scholastic work. Here results 
rallier than ])rocesses have been given. ( )nly such technical exegetical 
notes as are needed to make exceptionally obscure words and passages 
more intelligible have U'en attached to the translations. The translations 
themselves are, as strictly as is jwssible for an I'^nglish rcndering, made 
literal, lx)th in pros^^ and in metrical form. The metrical renderings 
have l)een attempted as exact reproductions »)f the original mca.sure of 
the fnnia and, where |)ossible with fidelity to literalness, have I)cen 
clothed in ixxitic terms. Some biographical informatif>n and some 
ilhustrative comments ujxmi the writers' meanings have been attached to 
tach |>oem. 'lliese last-named notes it i< h»»j>e<l will be found helpful 
and of special interest to readers gemrally. An attempt has also been 
made to give appropriate lilies to the metrical translations. 

Now, taking tlu>e "Single S>ng>ofa J fund red IVk'Is," as a whole, 
the rea<ler will find that, i)roadly judged, they can W gathered, in 
accordance with their >ubject-matter, into three groups. Let us name 
these groups, i, y<ftun\ or contemplation and tlescription of scenes in 
the outer worhl ; 2, St'ntimrnf, or nuxnls associated with the milder 


human emotions, such xs Melancholy, I'ensiveness, Regret, Sympathy. 
Contentment, Gratitude, Friendship, Filial Love, Loyalty, and the like. 
3. A third group belonging to the deej^er ranges of emotion, hut 
distinctive enough to be regarded separately, is composed of tliosc 
poems which are outbursts of the passion Jjove. I/)ve-poems are in a 
high degree characteristic of Japanese as of all other poetrj-. In this 
collection, forty-six of the tmika, nearly half of the songs, have for 
their motive some phase of this great human passion. Twenty-nine 
of the tanka are given to the more ordinary sentiments, and twenty-six 
to the scenes of nature. It will be well, however, in reading all these 
songs to remember that they need not be taken as transcripts of per- 
sonal experiences. Most of them were creations for use in poetical 
contests and as exhibits of artistic skill. Often they may have had no 
other basis than the writer's fine fancies drawn frrjni his imaginalion's 

We shall not now try to pass all these songs in review. Readers 
can examine them at their leisure in the following pages. But, to 
illustrate the judgment just made, attention is called to a few songs 
which show some special skill in form and word, considered as utterances 
of the Japanese muse. The fourth tankny for instance, is a delicate bit 
of suggestion and impressionism concerning a scene in nature. We will 
name it, " Beauty made Perfect." On the coast of Tago is one of 
Japan's very best sea and landscapes. Rising, as its centre and crown, 
is the " peerless mountain," Fuji. The scene is at any time one of 
supreme beauty. But the Japanese poet would add one touch to make 
it perfect. 

When to Tago's coast 

1 my way have ta'en, and see 
Perfect whiteness laid 

On Mount ?'uji's lofty peak 

By the drift of falling snow. 
So, also, in song seventeen, where the poet celebrates the delight he 
felt at seeing the scarlet leaves of antumn floating ujx)n the blue 
waters of the river Tatta. He recalls the wonderful age of the past 
when the gods, so it was said, bore sway in the world and all marvels 
were seen and done. 

I have never heard 

That, e'en when the gods held sway 
• In the ancient days. 

E'er was water bound with red 

Such as here in Tatta's stream. 
In ttvnhd twenty-two there is a punning word-play that docs not iU 


A peculiar chann pervades the seventy-eighth song, ** A Night at Suma's 
Gate," to one who has seen tlie jxinsive and exquisite l^eauty of the 
scenery near there. In ancient times there was an Imperial Ixirrier at tlic 
place : — 

( iuard of Suma's Crate, 

From your slee]) how many nights 
Have you waked, at cries 

Of the plaintive sandcrlings 
Migrant from Awaji's isle ? 

There is a note of hojx: in the eighty-fourth song that is an agreeable 
departure from the general .sadness of these ixx:ms of Sentiment, — '* The 
Transfigured Past." 

If 1 long should live, 

Then, perchance, the present days 
May l)c dear to me : — 

Just as past time fraught with grief. 
Now comes fondly back in thought. 

Many others of these iK)ems of Sentiment arc worth repeating as iilustrat- 
ing our theme, but it will be well now to turn to the third group,— that 
which is gathered about the mighty power moving in all human life, 

Tanhi thirteen tells of love perfected. The jXHit uses the figure 
of a mountain rill becoming a full, serene river. 

I'rom Tsukuba's peak 

i'alling waters have lu.cunic 
Mina's still, full flow. 

S>, my love has gn)wn to be : — 

hike the river's quiet ileeps. 

Ill (fi)iht sixteen, by means of two word plays,— one, u\x>\\ the word 
Inaba, meaning a mountain or district to which the \k>A was going, and 
also the phrase ** if I go ; " the other upon the word mnttsftn meaning " a 
pine tree," and*** to wait," as one pining for another may wait, — an 
assurance of faithful love is well given. 

Though we parted l>e. 

If on Mount Inaba's j^^ak 
I should hear the sound 

Of the pinr. trees growing Ihcro, 
Hack at once I'll makr my way. 
In the eighteenth song, one of the distinctive devices of Japanese 
poetry, the "preface" and euphonic '* introduct«>ry wonl " appear. In 


the English rendering ih j wonl " gathered " reproduces approximately 
this device. The first two lines of the stanza are to l)e regartled as 
introductory. 'Hie theme is " Secret I xDve." 

Ix)I the gathered waves 

On the shores of Sumi's bay ! 
Iven in gathered night, 

When in dreams I go to thee, 

I must shun the eyes of men. 
The solicitude of a woman for the safety of a man who has deserted her, 
showing thereby the self-effacement that love at time effects, is well 
expressed in the thirty-eighth htitka. The lover had sworn to the gods 
that he wouhl never desert his mistress. The wronged woman therefore 
feared that the gculs might execute vengeance. 

Though forgotten n(jw 

For myself I ilo not care, — 
He, by oath, was pledged. 

And his life that is forsworn, 

Such a thing of pity Ls. 

Unconfessed love, that betrays itself, is the theme of the fortieth song : — 
Though I would conceal, 

In my face it yet ap^xiars, — 
My fond, secret love :-- 

So much that he asks of me 
" Does not something trouble you ? " 
Love perplexed is pictured in the forty -sixth song under the simile of a 
mariner at sea, with rudder lost. 
Like a mariner 

Sailing over ^'ura^s strait, 
With his rudder gone ; — 

Whither o'er the deep of love 
Lies the goal, I do not know. 
The recklessness that accompanies pursuit in love, and the longing for 
continued life that comes with successful possession, arc thus shown :— 
lor thy precious sake 

Once my eager life itself 
Was not dear to me. 

But, 'tis now my heart's desire, 
It may long, long years endure. 
Tearfulness concerning the future faithfulnc.^'S <»r a lover just pledged i> 
shown in these anxious verso of the song number fifty -four, '* A XN'onian'^ 
Judgment "; — 


If " not lo forget " 

Will for you in future years 
r>e loo difficult. 

It. wore well this very day 

'j'hat my life, ah me I shouhl close. 

Distrust of one who has a reputation for inMiicerity and unfaithfulness 
lin<ls place in tanku >evenlylwi», under the i;uise of dread of the waves 
»)f the beach of TaJ^ashi : — 

Well I km»w the fame 

Of the tickle waves that beat 
< )n Takashi's strand. 

Should 1 e'er j;o near that shore 

I should only wet my >leevc. 

Struggle to conceal a love that may not Ik- >hown to the one beloved is 
admirably exhibited in the eiyhty-ninth ianhif in an ajwstrophc lo self. 
The poet wrote : — 

Life ! Thou strini; of j;ems I 

If thou art to end, break now. 
I'or, if yet I live. 

All I do to hide my love, 
May nl la^^t i;row weak and fnil. 
ThtM" are but a few nf the many songs of which love, in some of its 
phases, is the theme. 

T will quote but one more of them. It is the one written by the 
compiler of the ITihikuuin-mhu, the poet Sa<laie. Tt is a vi^nd picture of 
a conunon scene on Awaji island, used in simile here for the jxiet -lover's 
impatience in waitini;. 

Like the salt sea- weed 

Burning in the evening calm, 
( )n Malsuo's shore, 

.\11 my iK'ing is aglow. 

Waiting one who does not come. 
Here the intrcHluction to this " Centurj- of Song*' may end and the 
way among the songs themselves be entered. No one knows Ktler than 
the present writer thir dilliculties one meets with in n)aking the venture 
here made or how unsatisfactory the results gained. The real charm of 
these dainty bits of verse will for ever elude the (piest of one who, 
foreign to llu' Ja]>anes^' jK'ople an<l their language, seeks to <liscover it 
to the world, l^ut I have done faithful service in my search, ami I hoi>e 
I hat some measure of attainment has l)een secure<l. 

MTNi'TRs OK MKi:riN(;s. 23 


The annual meeting of the Asiatic Society of Japan was held at the 
Parish Buildings No. 54. Tsukiji, on Wednesday, December 13th, 1899, 
at 3.30 p.m. The Rev. I). C. Greene, D. I)., Vice-President of the Society, 
was in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were taken as read. 

It was decided to dispose of the l)usincss of the annual meeting 
before proceeding with Mr. Lloyd's lecture on " Buddhist Aiilhro- 
IKjlogy." 'Hie Recording Secretary read the Reix)rt of the Council for the 
past year, and the Hon. Treasurer read the Treasurer's Report, both l>eing 


Tlie following gentlemen were elected members of the Committee for 
the ensuing year : — 

IVesident : Sir Ernp>>t Satow, K. C. M. (I. 

Vice-President Rev. D. C. Greene, 1). D. 

„ J. F. I.(nvDER, Ksq. (Yokohama) 

Treasurer : J. McD. Gardiner, Es*}., 

Librarian : Prof. K. \V. Ci.kmknt, 

Record : Sec : Arthur Hyde Lav, Esq., 

Rev. EuciKNK B«K)TH, (N'okohama) 

Memljcrs of Council : 

Prof. Clay McCalli v, 

Rev. A. Lloyd, 

R.\NSFORD S. Miller, Esq., 

W. B. Mason, Esc|., 

B. IT. Chamberlain, Esq., 

R. J. Kirby, Esq., 

R. Masujima, Esq., 

Dr. H. Wkipkrt, 

H. G. PARLi-rr, Esq., 

Rev. W. J. White. 

The Chainnan reported that the delays in the printing of the 
S>ciety's Transactions, which had caused so much complaint in the past 


no lonp;er occurred, and that ilie work of printing was well up to date. 

The Rev. A. Lloyd then gave an interesting lecture on " Buddhist 
Anthropology," which was the substance of a paper prepared by hiin for 
the German Asiatic Society. 

The lecture was mainly an analysis of a book entitled Sukhfo Jin^ei 
roily published in book form by Mr. Takada Doen, a priest of the So o 
Sect, about the end of 1898, though it had appeared some years before, 
as a series of magazine articles, in a journal entitled 2*8ttioAt( livkkyo. 
The book is ^^Titten throughout in the popular language, with a very 
plentiful use of kuna ; it is catechetical in form, though toward the end 
the answers extend themselves into verj' long sermons. It is based 
almost entirely on the Buddhist Scriptures, quotations being found on 
every page, and a great ]mrt of the book consisting of commentaries 
from these quotations which are extracted from 121 books. 

Buddhism, says the writer, is almost entirely taken up with the 
doctrine of the life of man. Man is the centre of the Universe to 
Buddhism — man, not as he was or will be, but man as be is. Buddhism 
does not trouble itself much with Gods. It is neither monotheistic, 
polytheistic, pantheistic nor atheistic. It knows of a great mind behind 
all theological speculations, but it is not practical wisdom to discuss 
these points. 

Buddhism claims therefore to he a religion of man, — but the very 
term religion implies the supernatural. Has Buddhism, the religion of 
man, nothing of the suj)crnatural ? 'W'S, but not as Christianity. In the 
latter miracles are relative— the ojxirations of certain laws beyond our ken 
for the time being, which cease to be miraculous as knowledge grows. 
In Buddhism, the miracle is absolute— the whole thing is one great 
miracle, and the knowledge by which we reach to the miraculous is in 
itself miraculous. 

It has been objected to Buddhism thai it is i)essiniistic. 'Hie 
writer asserts that not only is Buddhism pessimistic, but that pessimism is 
the necessar)' basis of all religion or progress. We must feel that things 
are very bad before we want salvation or improvement, or care to 
enquire about means of salvation. 

In working out for us a scheme of the means of salvation, Buddhism 
presents us with two forms of teaching— the aelccn-kyo or cosmology and 
the gJiussekenki/d or soteriolog)-. 

'llie former establishes the^fact of tlie three worlds — the world of 
desire (or mq ^er), the_^'orld_Q£_form j[or thought), and the formless 
world which lies in the abstract region beyond our thought. Of this 
third world we can affirm nothing, but of the two lower worlds we know 
that the one is the abode of pure beings who are free from desire, and 

MIMTKS ni" .Mr.KTINrN. 25 

thai the latter is ix.*«>])kMl \vilh hoini^s more or less mnlerial \vh<» are all 
of them under the intluence of desire. 

This lower world is divi<le<l iiit«» six s])heres, i Heaven, 2 Man, 
3. \'ii>lcnt devils, 4. Iluntiry devils, 5. r>easls, 6. Hell. None of these 
are i)crmanenl slates, and the soul (if the term is allowable) may si)cnd 
one existenee in the highest heaven, and he after a few more existences 
a deni/cn of the lowest hoU. There arc some very unscientific passages 
in some of the Huddhisl Scriptures — passatijes which s|)eak of men who 
reach to the heiLjht of 75 feel, and attain lo an avera«;e ai!;e of 200 
years,— and the writer has to tread softly in eonnnenlin^ on these 

Throut:;h all these sj)heres of existence, life is always risini; and fallin<^ 
in tin* slru«;i;le for existence. Nolhint; is at rest, exci'pt the fs-.^hla, the 
one ij^reat mind, which is al the l»ack of all thoui^hl and all exisicnee. As 
we consider ihis *»/<»• iiiln(f we sec that it too is capal)le of jlivisi«in. 
It i^resents ilself to us as thou*;!!!, emotion, synthesis, and analysis. 
Creation heijjins at the other end: — first analysis, then synthesis, then 
emotion, then thoui^ht ; and these four comiMise existence. 

The rise and fall of the individual soul is regulated by the law j»f 
Karma. Karma is a " resultant of forces " ; all the acts of former 
existences, modified by the acts (»f the life that is, form the Karma 
which regulates the life of the world to come. Death is analysis : 
when a man dies he is analysed into his component )>arls. Life is 
synthesis: when a man comes to birth, it is a puttini; toLjether of the 
disintei^rated fiiculties. lietwcen life and »leath, and attain between death 
and life are two intermediale stales, which are really states of transition. 

In these intermediate states, the soul in which desire is extinct 
])asses from the world of desire into the world of ihout^ht, and thus 
comes no more amoncjst men : the soul in which desire reii^ns yearns for a 
new birth and seeks for itself a parent and a lM)dy. As scxm as it unites 
itself with llesh in the womb of its mother, the soul loses its fi)rmer 
likeness, the llesh acts as a veil which shuts out all remembrance of the 
past, as well as all fore-kncmled^e of the future. As soon as the child 
comes to the birth life is consummated, but in that moment death bei;ins 
to work ; disease, «S:c., make their apix'arance from the moment of birth 
and sj»ecial mention is made (»f a passaj^e from the Nehankyo which 
sjK'aks of the c«)untle>s insects (',/<?/ sAt — bacteria?) that infest the human 

In the meantime the soul in which desire lias ceased passes into 
what is known as Nirvana. Is Nirvana a state of eonsciousness t»r not ? 
The author does not decide. Nirvana is a state about which nothini^ can 
be atVirmcd, not even the fact that noihint; can be aflinncd. 

26 MINI II. s »»| M 1.1.1 fN<;<. 

Jlic praciical valiu- of tin- l»«M»k Wo in tho mithui-'> i'\liaii>live 
ircatiucnl of Karma. \Viih(»ut a careful consideration of Karma education 
is valueless; a ju I oliiiialc of character is im|).>ssible. Karma is not 
heredity, lhou«^h heredity i> a part of Karma. \Vc do inherit from our 
parents, In-'Causc- their Karma mu>t have litted them to have us a.s their 
children. J»ut at the >ame lime <nir Kanna littctl us to have them as 
our parents, and thi- Karma is <juiie inde|Kndenl of heredity. Many 
pai;es are divoted to detcrihiii'^ the sii;iis hy wliich we may know what 
this Karma has lK.en in any j>articular man. •* If you see a ]>air of 
turtle doves c(K)inij, you may know, says the lKK»k, that in a former 
existence tl»ey were married |)eoj)lc whose conjugal relations were not 
very harmonious I *' 

I)r. (iKKKNi; thanked Mr. Lloyd for his instructive lecture and 
rei;rette<l the ahsence of the Pri>i<lent who wouUl lu) douht have iK'cn 
■,\\t\v. ill contrihute ^nne vahiahlc- remarks on the suhject of " Kuddhist 
Anlhro|)oloi;y.*' It wouhl U- interestint; if the lecturer could make up 
his mind hr»w far the " Jinseiron ** of Mr. Takada Doen was influenced 
hy \\V>tern thout;ht. lie (the Chairman i was increasin<jly impressCil 
witli the we-^terni/jni; iiilluence •)i)eratin^ ujxni the jK-'ople of japan. It 
was a very threat mistake to imai;ine that the Japanese were merely 
sniHTlitially inllueneed l»y Western methinl^ *>( tlioUi;ht as casual 
«»hsi*iv('r> U'lievi-d. The (Urj) seated ehani^e which ha<l taken place was 
impressed ii|M>n Wi> mind every day. 

\N\r\i Ki.i-oKi oi I m. i<»i N«!i. or mm; \si \ri<: .s«rtii;rv. 

lite |>asl <cssi»)M compares favoiirahly with many <»f its predecessors. 
An increaM(l inlen'^l lias Ikvh shown in llie proceedini^s and the numl»er 
of pajK-rs (ontrilmled to llie .Siuiely ha•^ lieeii nuich hiri^er than durini; 
the previous M-^-.ion. i!ii;lu pajiers were read at {general meelinijs, two (»f 
them heiiit; t;iven by the Tresident, Sir I'.rnest Salow. < )lher paper> were 
rnnlrihuled hy Me>«-r>. ( hanilierlain, M;u( aiiley, A>l(»ii, Clement, 
( iul)hin> and ll«»ren/. 

20 new names ha\e heen added to the li•^t of members; .j. members 
have roij^ned ; and 2 have diet!. 

Tin- tinanees of tiie Societv are in a ll«)Uri-Nhini; condition a> will he 
seen from the ^|•l•aslwe^"•^ rejM»rt. In the lihrarv, 'rraM>action>, in Slock 
number 9,75s vols., ( km. Index Uk?;. 

Ri:h»Ki «»i uii: (orNni,. 27 


I,ISr n|- I'VI'I.KS DIRINC TJIK SlvSSlON « H- 1S99. 

1. AiiciciU JajKincsc Kiluals, by Dr. Fl.oKKNZ. 

2. I'hc Jcsuil Mission IVcss in japan,. ..l)y Sir Kknksi Saiow, K.CM.G. 
V N<>lo'<)n a Lonij-tailod l)reo(l of Kowls in Tosa, 

hy r>. II. Cii AMUKRiviN Ivsq. ' 

4 TIk! (iuUivation of lJaml)<M)s in Japan, 

l)y .Sir hKMisr S.\i<»\v, K.C.M.Ci. 

5. Toriwi, — it> derivation, \\\ W . ( i. Asios Ks<|., C.M.O. 

6. The 1 lyakunin-is.shiu, I'.y IVofcssor (lay MacC'.MI.KV. 

In addition a lecture on *' Huddhist .\nlhrt)|M>lo<;y ** was given by 

the Kcv. .\rlhur Llovd. 


Tin: 1I<»N. TKKAsrKKR in A<ri. wmi riir, AsiArj< 
Skikiv of 1ap\n. 

Dec. 12, jS»>«). Dr. 

To I5al. Hue fioni la>l year ... .1 

,, I".Mtrance fees .i5-^^ 

„ .Vinnial .Subscriptions^ 

„ Life Subscrij)lions 2S8.r)0 

„ Sale of 'J^•ansaclion>^ ( throui;]i Librarian) ... 3.>9-54 

„ Interest at IJank«^ LU-74 95^5.S(S 

.^234. 50 


r.y IVintin;^ XW 

\\\ I 

xxvn pt. 2 

„ Librarian's .Vccount, Lor LkmjUs 

.\ssistant in Library 

I'ost.T^e, etc 

,, ( 'orre>^ponding .See., I'o.>tai;e, etc. 

Adverti>inL; nieetini^s, ;nid I )irect<My. 

,, liensmer, Lostn'^^*- .si;nnp> an<.l blank 

., Kent .Mi'l ( 














26 MINI ri:.s nl MKr.lINfS. 

'\\\c piactual valiu- t.f ihr lnM)k lii-s in tlio autlnir's e\ljaii>livc» 
trcalinenl of Karma. Without a careful consideration of Karma education 
is valuek'Ns; a in- 1 o>tinialo t»f character is inn>t>ssil>lc. Kanna is not 
lieredity, thoui^li lieredity i-^ a part (»f Kavma. We do inherit from «»ur 
])arent>, because tiieir Karma mu>t iiave lilted them to liave us as their 
children. I»ut at llie >ame time our Karma fitted us to have them as 
our ])arents, ami this Karma is jjuile indeiK-ndent of lieredity. >hiny 
]>ai;es are dev(»ted lo de>cril)inLj the sii^ns l»y which we may kn<nv wliat 
this Karma ha^ been in any jxirticular man. •* If you see a ])air of 
turtle doves C(K)intj, you may know, says the Inwik, that in a fonncr 
existence they were married [KVjple whose conjugal relations were not 
very harmonious I ' 

Dr. (Irlim; thanked Mr. Lloyd for his instructive lecture antl 
rei^retted the absence of the rre>i«lent who would nt> doubt have been 
abh' in contribute >ome valuable remarks on tlie subject of " lUuldhist 
.\.nthroi>olo^y."' It would U' interesting if the lecturer could make up 
his mind how far llie " lin>eiron " of Mr. 'I'akada Doen was influonce<l 
by Western tlioui;lil. lie i the Chairman) was increasintjly imi)re.s.s<.*d 
with tlie we>terni/.iui^ influence o|>eratini; ujxui the |KM»ple of Japan. It 
was a very i^real mistake to imai^ine that the Japanese were merely 
Miperlicially inlluence<l by We-^tern methods of thought as casual 
observiTS believvtl. The deep seated eliaMi;e which had taken i)lace was 
impressed up<»n his mind every »lay. 

\\\r\i ui:i'«»Ki oi iii|., rtHMii, .»i ini; vsi\rn" s«kii.iv. 

The past session compares favourably with ntany of its predecessors. 
An increased interest has l)een shown in the proceedini;s an«l the number 
of ))ai>ers eontribuled to the Siciety has been nnuh lari^er than durini^ 
the previous session, l]ii;ht papers were read at ^ineral meetings, twf> <»f 
them beini; i;iven by the President, Sir l!rnest Satow. ( )ther pajK-rs wen- 
eontributi-d by Messrs. ( hamberlain. .\!:u< ';iule\ , Aston, Clement, 
( lubbins and I'loren/. 

20 new natnes ha\e been a(l<le<l to the list ^>( niemU-rs; 4 members 
have resigned ; and 2 have died. 

The finances of the Sucietv are in a llourislijn'.^ condition as will \)o 
<een from the Treasurt-r's re|>«trt. In the library. Transactions in Stock 
nmnber 9,75s vols., (ien. Indix liiO'. 

RKl'ORl «)!• TIIK ('(HNCII.. 27 


Lisi- «»|- I*\ri;Ks ht'RiNc ini; Sivssion of 1.S99. 

1. Ancicul Japanese RiUials, l)y Dr. l''l.(»RKN/. 

2. I'hc jcMiil Mission Press in Japan,. ..hy Sir I''rm:si- Saiow, K.C.M.C.i. 
y Nolo 'on a l^oni^-tailed breed of Fowls in lo^a, 

^ hy I>. H. Cll \MI5I.RI.\IN Jvsq. ' 

4 The Ciiltivalion of l>anil)oos in Japan 

hy Sir Krm^si S\I(»\\, K.C'.M.d. 

5. ioriwi, — ils derivation \\y \V. (1. AsioN Ks<|., ('.M.(i. 

6. Tlie llyakunin-isshiu, Hy I'rofessor (lay MacC.mi.kv. 

hi addition a lecture on 'MUiddhisl Anl]irt)iM»lo^y '" was given hy 

the Rev. Arthur Llovd. 

AiM'KNniX 1;. 

rui: Ih'N. rRKAsrRKR in Acri. wijii rnK Asiaik 
Socii/rv (>] Japan. 
Dec. 12, 1.S99. i)r. 

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„ Interest at Ranlo i.U-74 95S.SS 


< 'r. 

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XXVIl pi. 2 162.91 758.27 

„ Librarian's Account, I'or iJooks ... 4.80 

.\ssistanl in Library 77-^^ 

l'o>ta^e, ele loi.'>3 18^.7; 

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,, lieasiner, IV^lai^e stamps and l)Iank 

receipts '7-5<' 

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„ lu-^ur.incc loo.oo 223.50 I.1S4.7S 

„ Tulancc, M. 11.(1. K.aiul SjK'cic Hank 2.049.72 

1:. \ ( ). 1:. 
J. Mc. I). (laidiiKT, lion, rrcasunr. 
lAamiiK'd and annpare*! with vouchers ami found correct. 

Run \Kh J. KiKisv. 
.A. ^\ . riii»Nnsi»N. 

Al'l'KNDIX C. 

L1SI «)i- 1!\< II \N«;i> 01 INK .\si.\in- S.Mii;rv ui Jvrw. 

.Vcadoniy of Sciences, Lincoln Park, Chicago, 111., l'. S. .\. 
.\nicrican (leoi^raphical Society, New ^'ork City, T. S. .\. 

( )nental Society, New Haven, Conn.. C S. A. 

IMiiloloLjical Society, New Haven, Conn., C S. A. 

riiilosophical Society, riiiladclpliia, I'a., C. S. .\. 
Anlliro[)oloi];ical In>titiite of Creal Uritain and Ireian«l. 
Vntbropoloi^ische Cie>ellschaft in N\ ien, .\ustria. 
Asiatic Society of Ueni^al, Calcutta. 

.\uslralian .V^^^ocialion for the Advancement of Science, .Sydney. 
I»alavia<ih ( lenool>cluip, I'alavia, Java. 
I>uddhi>t Text .Society, Calcutta. 
lUireau of I'.tbnoloi^y, \Va>liini;ton, I). C. 
lUireau tif I'ducation. ,, 

Canadian Institute, ron)nto. 
China Review, lloni^koni^. 
Chinese Recorder, Shanghai. 

Cosnio-^ do (luido Cora, 2, \ia Coito, Rnnu-, llalv. 
hculM-he (le>elKchafl fiir Natur uiid \oIkerkuntU- ( Kla>irM«>, IVikio. 
l>eut>^chen Mor^enlandisclien (li^elUchafl, Leipzig. 
Cienhj^ical and Natural I li>tory Survev of ( 'anada. < >iia\va. 
Harvard l/niver^ily. Museum «)f Coniparalive /ooIol^v, Canihridm- 

Ma^-.., C. S. .\. 
Inipi'rial Ru•^•<ian ( ieo^raphical Sm-ioly, St. reter^InnL;. 
Imperial l.ilnary, I eno P;uk, Tokio. 
Imjxri.d I niver-ily of J.ipan, ioKio. 
Japan i.^uciclj-. lA-ndun. 

RICrORT t»l< TMK (OfNClI.. 


Japan Weekly Mail, Tokio. 

Johns Hopkins University I'ublicalions, IJallinunv, Md., U. S. A. 

Journal Asiati<}ue, Paris. 

Musee Guiniet, I'aris. 

Pekin Oriental Society, Pekin. 

Royal Asiatic Society of (Ireat P>ritain, London. 

„ „ „ nom])ay Uranch. 

„ „ „ Ceylon Branch, Colombo. 

„ „ ,, C'hina Prancli, .Sliani;hai. 

„ „ „ Straits Branch, Sini;apore. 

Royal Dublin Society, Kildare St., Dublin. 
Royal ( ieoi^raphical Society, I^)n(lon. 
Royal Society, I^ondon. 

,, „ of Kdinbur^li, l'!dinburi;li, Sc«)lhnid. 

„ „ Sydney, New .*-^oulli Wale.s. 

„ „ Adelaide, South .Vustraba. 

Smillisonian Institute, NVashini^ton, D. ('. 
Sociedad Cieograllca de Madrid, Madrid. 
Sociedad dc Geo<;raphia de Li.sbon, PortUL;al. 
Societe d'Anthropoloj^ic, Paris. 
Societe de (icographie, I'aris. 
State Historical S<jciety, Madi.son, Wis., V. S. A. 
United States Geological Survey, Washingt(jn, D. U. 

„ Dept. of Agriculture, ,, „ 

Vereins fiir Krdkunde /u Leipzig. 


Noveinl)cr i, iS<)(). 

\"ol. I single part 
" II single part 
" HI Part I 

'* ApjKMidix 
I\* single part 
Vol. V part 1 










<Kh>Kr <»r nil. r«)i ncii.. 

(»1. Vr Pari 

VII „ I 

„ „ 4 

IX „ 1 

„Supj)lcnicnt . 

XI Tart 1 

XII „ ,. I 

XII „ 4 . 

XIII ,. I 

,, , 2 

XIV „ I 
XV „ 1 

XVI „ 1 . 


XVII „ 1 . 


X\ III „ I . 
XIX ,. 1 . 

X\ „ I . 

; ^Mipi'lLiPtiil ]Mrl I 























\'ol. XX Supplement part 2 ... 222 

„ ^ 266 

5 ^s:^ 

„ XXI ;.ini;U' |)arl 226 

„ XXII i)art I 217 

2 206 

.? 250 

,. xxiri 273 

„ ,, Supplement 314 

„ XXI \' sin«;le part 147 

„ „ Siip|)loment 250 

., XXV 284 

„ XX\ I 263 

Total 9J5«^ 

(ioneral Index 1/107 


]>«H)K> AM) rAMlMir.K'IS Rk«KI\ KD. 

" (leographical Notes,'' by (1. Schlet^el, Txiyden. 

'* Constitution of China," hy J. Wickersham, Tacoma, Wash. V. S. A. 
" Kachin Crannnar,' hy Rev. ( ). Hanson, IJhamo, Hurmah. 
" An answer to Major rowell's Incpiiry, 'Whence came tlie .Ajiierican 
Indian^,'" hv f. WickerNham, Tacoma, Wa>h. V. S, A. 


Arnold, K.c. s. I., Sir Kdwiii, I )ail y 'Iclcj^raj^li OlVicc, Ixnidon, Kn^jland. 

Aslon, c. M.<;., \V. (',., Vhc ISliifV, IVor, I!. Devon, Kni^land. 

Day, IVof. (W'tK K, Vale ('..lIo|^c, New Ihivcn, Conn., T. S. A. 

i'Mkins, n. I)., Ivcv. Joseph, Sbani^liai, China. 

Ilephurn, M. D., I.. I.. D., J. ( '. 71, ( ilenwood Avenue, Ma^l Orancjo, New 

Jersey, V. S. A. 
Nordenskj«"ld, Uaron A., Stoekholin, Sweden. 

l\)\vell. Major J. W,, Sniilhsonian Infinite. Wavhini^lon, D. ('., l'. S. A. 
!\ein, Prof. J. J., IJonn-ani Rhein, (lennany. 
Salow, K.c. M.<;., Sir l'rnc>i M., llrilish Li-^ation, Tokio. 
Severini, IVof. .\ntelino, I'ia/./a, San Marco, j-'lorenee, llaly. 

I. in: Mkmiikks. 

Alexander, Kev. R. I*., Tlirosaki. 

Anierman, l». n., Rev. James K., 25 I'ast 22nd .St., New Vork, I'. S. A. 

.\ndcrson, K. K.c. s., W., 2, Ilarley .Street, Cavendish !^'iuare, London. 

Arrivei, J. H., i^;;, ilaramachi, Koishikawa, 'r«')kio. 

Atkinson, R. >. c., R. W., 44, I.<»ntlon .Sq., ('ardilV, Wales. 

JJii^elow, Dr. W. S., Roston, Mass, T. S. A. 

I'.issct, r. 1. s., J., e'o Messrs. .V. J. Maepherson \ Co., 5, ICa^l India 

Avenue, I^»ndon. I'. C., I'.ni;land. 
I'.lanchet, Rev. C. 'i'., I'hilniont, N. V., C. S. .\. 
Iknuh, Rev. K. S., 17S, lUutV, \'okohama. 
liritikley, K. A., Caj)l. I'\, 'I oki<». 

Rrown, Capt. .\. R., Dhuhill Mouse, llelen>l»uri;h. .\r«;yll, Scotland. 
(ary, Rev. Otis, Karasuniaru, Kioto. 
Carsen, T. Ci., Rannlield, Coleraine, Ireland. 
Center, .\lex., I'acilic Mail ( )Hice, San l'Van>eisCi>. 
( 'hainherlain, I». II., Miyano^hila, I lakone. 
Cheon, .\., I lanoi. Tonkin. 
Clarke-'rh(>rnhill, V. !>., RunIuoii Hall, Kellerini;, NorlhaniiMonshire, 

Clement, M. \\'., ;<), Nic1ii»m<', lujimicho, Kojiniachi, Tokij*. 
(.'•Mider, I., 13, Nishi l\«»nva-cho, Kiohashi, Ti'kio, 

1.1 KK MF.MHKRS. 33 

Ci>oi)cr, L. I.. I)., C. J., Mundford, Norfolk, England. 

Dautremer, J. Hankow, China. 

Deas, 1'. \V., 12, Magdala Place, Edinburgh. 

l)c Hunscn, M., Abbey Ixxlge, Regent's Park, rx)ndon. 

Dickins, V. \'., I'liiversity of IxMidon, Burlington Ciardens, IxMidon, \V. 

Dillon, K., 13, rj)per i'hillimore (hardens, Kensington, London, S, W. 

J>ivers, M. i>., i\ K. s., Edward, c o Pere Evrard, 35, Tsukiji, Tokio. 

Dixon, \\ R. s. i:., J. M., 5886, X'on Verein Ave., St. Louis, Mo., U. S. A. 

Dixon, M. A., Kcv. William (iray, Warrnambool, X'icloria, .Vustralia. 

Duer, \'., Shiba K<.)enchi, 'iokio. 

Du liois, M.i)., Lrancis, 27, Kue de la Ixipiniere, Paris. 

leaves. Rev. Cleo., Posle Restante, Denver, Colorado. 

lOby, I >.!)., Rev. C. S.j Vancouver, P. C. 

I'enriiii;, D., NcwiH)rl, Rhode Island, U. S. A. 

IKniniitli, ( ). ( '., Alluu JlnUMe, Roehampton, i'.iii;lnnd. 

(iay, A. ( >., 2, \ ()kolinm;i. 

CIiu^^a^i, C"., 224 \, PluH, \okohaina. 

Clover, r. P., Shilxi Koenehi, i'okio. 

Ciootlrich, J. King. Kolu (iakko, Kioto. 

Cowland, \\ ., 13, Rus>ell Road, l^ondon. 

(ireene, D, D., Rev. D. C, 22, .Nakano-clu), Ichi'j^nya, Tokio. 

(iril)l)k', Henry, Siiani;hai, China. 

(irilliN I.. I)., Rev. W. E., Ithaca, N. V., L'. S. A. 

(;riHith>, E. .\., II. P. M. Cunsulale, Kol,e. 

(ir(M>ni, A. IL, KoI)l\ 

(nibbins, C. M. (.'., J. H., H. P. M. Legation, Soul, Corea. 

Hall, Erank, Elniira, Chemung Co., N. V., U. S. A. 

Hall, M. A., John Caroy, H. )5. M. Consul, K«.be. 

Ilallori, 1., .\h>rioka. 

Hellyer, r. W., Knbe. 

Holme, I. I. s., C., TIk Re<l IIou.«,e, Pixlcy Heath, Kent, i:ni;land. 

Hope, R. C., ( ;raML;eliehb .VarlM)roiigli, Englaiul. 

Hunt, H. I., Hunt iV Co.. Yokohama. 

James, I". S., lU), Plulf, W.kohama. 

Ritich, lOdward, .\i;ricultural College, Cirencester, England. 

l\irkw(K»d, .M., iokio. (absent j. 

Knott, I), s. c, |.. K. s. 1:., Cargill (i.. Royal Society, Edinburgh. 

Uiy, Arthur Hyde, H. 15. M. Legation, I V.kio. 

Liberty, La/.enby, ]. P., The Manor House, The ix;e, Cr. Missenden, 

Pucks, I-jigland. 
bMiglor.l, J. IL, H. 1;. M. Consul, Nagasaki, 
low, C. W., Stowmarkel, Sullolk. England. 

II MM-. mi-Mi;i;r>. 

I^)\vcll, I'crcival, 5^^, Stale St., U>sl(»ii, ^la^s., l'. S. A. 

Lyman, IJcnjamiii Smilli, 708, I/)Ciist St., riiiladclpliin, I'a., I'. S. A. 

I.yall, Sir J., c/o Messrs. II. S. Kini;, Cornliill, l^)iulnn. 

McDonald, M. !>., Rev. \)., 4, I'sukiji, Tokin. 

Maclaj;an, R(>l)ert, Cadui^aii JMace, r»elL;ravc S<|uare, I.omlon. 

Mar.sliall, i>. D., Rev. '1'., 48. McCormick lUuck, Cliica-io, 111., I'. S. A. 

.Marshall, M. a., i. r. >. i.., Prof. 1 ). II., (^hieen's liiiver^ity. Kiii^sloii, 

( "aiia<Ia. 
Masiijinia, R., 3, Ilchonie, l'chi>ai\vaiehn. Tnkio. 
Miller, Rev. K. Rothesay, Morioka. 
.Milne, I-. <:. s.. i. u. s., John, 14, Shide Hill I louse, Ne\v])orl, Isle (»f 

\Vij;ht, Kngland. 
Mori;an, ( ieo. 1)., 6, I'.a^t 4otl» .St.. New York, T. .S. A. 
Morse, ('. J., 1825, Ashmy \v., Kvanston, 111., T. S. .\. 
Morse, \V. 11., c/o Messrs Smith, lUker cS: Co., 176, Vokt>hama. 
Napier, II. W., Milton IIoii>e, I Jowlini;, Scotland. 
( )lcott. Colonel Henry S., .Vdj^ar, .Madras, India. 
Parker, K. li., 18, Camhier Terrace, Liverpool. 
I'ettee, Rev. j. II., ()kayama. 

I'ii^gott, I''. T., .Attorney ( leneral. Port l.oui.s, .Mauriliu.s. 
Pole, Rev. (;. II., 26, Morland Rd., Croydon. 
Putnam, Harrington, 45. William Street, New \'ork. 
Robertson, M. D., Argyll. 18, (."harlotte .S(juare, Ldinl)urL;h. 
Satow, I". .\., ( "airo. 

Severance, Rev. C. M., 2nd Church, IIoj>e.St., N. .Vve., I>altimore. 
Serrurier, Dr. L., Ilatavia, Java. 

Shand, \V. J. S., c/o .\. .V. .Hiand, Pari> Rank, I/.mhard St., I/jnilon, K. C. 
Shaw, Ven : .Vrchdeacon, 41, Imaicho, .\/,al)U, Tokio. 
Shortall, J. ( i., 108, I)earlM)rn St., c:hica^(., C. S. .\. 
Spencer, Vh. D., J'rof. J. ( )., .Xoyama, Tokio. 
SjMjncer, Rev. I). S., .\oyama, Tokio. 
Stei)henson, M. I)., r. s. N., A. A. s., etc., I". P., C S, Navy \ ar«l, P»o>ton, 

V. S. A. 
Stokes, J., 49, Ce<lar St., New N'ork. 
Stone, W. IL, ^^, .\oi-cho, Akasaka, 'Tokio. 

'Todd, Rev. C. J., Wentworth House, 'The (irecn, Richmond, Surrev. 
'Tomkinson, M., Tranche Hall, near Kidderminster, KnL;land. 
'Thompson, A. NV., 18, 'Tsukiji, 'Tokio. 
'Trevithick, \'. II., Pen/ance, Cornwall, Kn'^land. 
'T rower, II. Seymour, «.), IJryanston Sjuare, London, \\ . 
'Tsuda, Sen, 217, Honnnura-machi, .\/al)U, 'Tokio. 
'Tuke, S., New Univ. C lub, St. James St., London, S. \\ . 


Vail, Ko\. MiltoM ( '., Niii^asaki. 

\'on Wcnckstorn, 1 )r. A., l*Vic'(lricli''trasse, 49-.\, lU'ilin, ( Icrmany. 

\\V>sclli<ifi, Dr. Win. P., 176, (ojnmoiiwcalth Avciuic, IJostoii. Mass., 

I'.S. A. 
Whitney, M. I)., Willis Norton, 17, 1 Tikawa-cho, Akasaka, Tokio. 
Wii^MUoiv, Tiof. J. II., l-lvanston. 111., U. S, A. 

Wilkinson, Mr. Justice II. S., II. 15. M.'s Supreme C'ourl, Shanghai. 
Williams, \\ Wells, Vale L'niversity, Newhaven, ( 'otin., U. S. .\. 
Wilson, J. A., Hakodate. 

Winstanlcy, A., Thalched House Club, St. James St., I^)n(lon, S. W. 
Wollanl, (i. (le, Russian Let^ation, Washin«;ton, ['. S. A. 
Wood, Arnold, CO W«)od .\: Co., ruhlisheis. \. V. Citv. 

( )KI>IN.\K\ Ml\lllKK>. 

Andre\v«<, Rev. Walter. Hako»late. 

Awdry, d. d., Rt. Rev. Ilislm]). St. Andre\v*> Cl»>se, Sakae-cho, Shiba, 

IJaelz, M. I)., Iv, 7, Nai;ata-eho Niehome, 'i'okio. 
Hatchelor, Rev. J., Sapj)oro. 
Uorden, Rev. A. C., .V/.nbu, Tokio. 
llrandram, Rev. J. !>,, Kumamoto. 
liuck, Hon. Alfred K.. V. S. Minister, Tokio. 

IJackley, I>r. K.. L'niversity ofChica'^), Chiea;;o, Illinois, C. S. .\. 
Carlwrii^ht, S. II., l-\iku.sliima. 
Clarke, ll 15., 421;. IJhilV, Vokoliama. 
Comes, I'". II., 7, Kobe, (absent). 

Coarant, Maurice, 3, Chemin du Chancelier Kcully (Lyon). 
Cruickshank. W. J., c/o Mourilyan 1 leimann .S: (.'0., 35, Vokohama. (absent). 
D'Anethan, IJaron, Ikds^ian Le'^^alion, Nai^ata-cho, Tokio. 
DavidM)!!. J;i>. W., C. S. Consul, Tamsui, I'ormosa. 
1 )aviis, l\(.'V. Cr. IL. Kobe. 

1 )iMriii'j;, Rev. J. I ,,.66, lUulf, \'okohama. (alisent). 
I K-iiiiiL^, W ., Sendai. 
1 )oonian, Ri'V. I., Kobe. 

I»ro|)|Kr^. Trof. Carrett, XCnnillion, So. Dak. C. S. A. 
DiiUK'liii, A., <)?)-\, \'oko]i.una. 
liv.ins, Rvv. ( ■. 11., 54, T^uKiji, Tokio. 
I!\'in^ton, Rl. Rev. irishop, Na'^a.^aki. 
I'avrc-Iirandt, J., 145, lUulV, \\»kohania. 


FIsIrt, (lak'ii M., 22, Nakaiioclio, Ichii;ayn, 'IV.kin. 

Florcn/, Dr. Karl, 102, llara-macbi, Koisliikawa, Tokin. 

roxwcll, K., St. John's ('<»lK'i^i", (^aml>ri<lt^c, Kn^laiid. 

I'raiuis, I). ]).^ Rt. Rev. J, M., 1501, (Vntral AveniH*, IinlianaiMilis, link, 

r. S. A. 
(lardincr, J. McD., 40, 'rsukiji, Tokio. 

Crookin, V. \V., c o North West National Bank, (.'liioai^o, Illinois. 
(rrifVm, ('. .S., Imperial I'nivorsity, Tokio. 
(Uiy, Rev. II. II., Myo^adani, Koishikawa, Tokio. 
Ilerod, J. R., United States Lepjation, Tokio. 
Ilind, Rev. J., Kokina, I'ukuoka Ken. 
Irwin, K. W., 7, Tsuna -maehi, Mila, Sliiha, 'I\»kio. 
Isawa, S., IliLjher Nr»nnal Sch(M>l, Toki<». 
Jameson, C. M. (t., (1.. c 'o Koreii^n Olfiee, Ijiijlanck 
Kano, J., 1 1 ic;]ier Normal Seh(M)l, Tokio. 
Kenny, \V. J., H. 15. M. Consul, lainan, l-ormo^p.. 
Kerne, Rev. (I. J., Minami-maelii, I'shi^omi', T«»kio. 
Key, I.t. A. l!., l'. S. l.ei^alion, Tokio. 
Kinix, Rev. A. !'. II, Sakae-elio, Shiha, T<.kio. ial»ent.i 
Kirl.y, R. J. S, TMikiji, lokid. 

Knov, l>. |)., (1. Rev. W.. I'nion Theological Seminary, l'. S. .\. 
Kayard, R. de R., II. Ik M. Consul, 'i'amsui, I'ormosa. 
Lcavitt, Rev. K., 32, Tsukiji, Tokio. 

T^hmann, Rudolph, 30 Doshin-machi, Koishikawa Tokio. 
Tloyd, Rev. A., 56, Tsukiji, 'lokio. • 

Lonliolm, Dr. J., 8, Kai^a Vashiki, Tokio. 
Lowder, J. I'., 75, \'okohama. 
Lowther, (ierard, British I'mhassy. Washington. 
Mac( auley. Clay, 25, Beacon St., I^oston. 
MacNair, Rev. 'i\ M., 2, Nishi-tnachi, Nihon-enoki, Tokio. 
Madelcy, Rev. W. I., IIir()saki. 
McKim, Rt. Rev. Bishop, 3S, 'I'sukiji, Tokio. 
Mason, W. B., Shiha Kocnehi, Tokio, 
Meriwether, C., l?ox 65, Wasliini^ton, I ). C., C S. A. 
Miyal)e, Dr. K., .\i;ricultural College, Sapi)oro. 
Miller, R. .S., United States i, citation, Tokio. 
Morrison, James S., 2cx), Ran<lolph St., Chicaj^o, Illinois. 
Mor>e, V. S., Kobe. 
I'ai^et, R. S. r.ritish Agency, Cairo. 
Rarlett, 11. ( I., II. B. M. Lej^ation, Tokio. 
Bar>hley, Rev. W. Ik, GO, Bluff, \'okohama. 
Ballon, Rev. 1. L., Kara>umarudori, Kioto. 


Taul, i)r. M. V„ Nat;asaki. • 

Periii, Rev. G. 1.., lk).slon, Mass, U. S. A. 

I'crry, 'J\ 1',, Sakiirada-machi, Azabu, Tokio. 

Pielcrs, Rev. A., Kap[osbima. 

PigoU, II. C, 35, Yokohama. 

]*olianovsky, M., Russian Legation, Tokio. 

I'oole, Otis A., 178, Yokohama. 

Priiett, Rev. R. L., 3, Kawaguchi-maclii, Osaka. 

Rentiers, J. Ix, II. R. M. C'ousiilalc, N.r^asaki. 

Rcvon, Michel, Sorbonnc, Paris. 

Riess, Dr. I.iuhvig, Tm|)€rial University, Tnkid. 

Ivyde, Rev. I'. I.., 89 St. Helen's (hardens, Xortli Ken>ini;ton, London, W. 

Schedel, Jos., X'illa Kdel, Wildensorijerwe^', No. 3, Bamberg, JJavaria. 

Schercr, Rev. J. .\. R. (absent). 

Scriba, M. ])., J., 19, Hirakawa-clio Sanchonie, Tokio. 

Scott, Rev. Jolni, 5, Tsukiji. Tt>ki<». 

Soper, Rev, Jubiis, .\nyama, Tokio. 

Slfuil)b, 'i'lieodore, Zuricli II, Switzerland. 

Sweet, Rev. ( ". I'\, Tsukiji, Tokio. 

Takai^i, Dr. Raron, 10, Ni?»hi-konya-cho, Kiobashi, 'iV»kio. 

Terry, II. ']'., 13, Reinanzaka, Akasaka, Tokio. 

Thomson, Kev. R. .\., 39, Nichome, Kitano-machi, KoV)e. 

Tison, A. M., 1.. I.. II., A., 66, 15roadway, New York, L'. S. A. 

Topping, Rev. Henry, 30-A, Tsukiji, Tokio. 

Troup, James, Shedtield (Jrange, Botley, Hampshire, England. 

Tyng, Rev. T. S., Nara. 

\"an de Polder, L., Netherlands Legation, Tokio. 

Yickers, Enoch Howard, 71, Isarago-machi, Shiba, Tokio. 

\Yalford, A. P., 10, Yokohama, (absent) 

Walne, Rev. E. X., Nagasaki. 

\Yalsh, T., Yilla Monte Konte, 12, l*oggio Imperiale, Florence, Italy. 

Walter, W. B., c/o Jardine Matheson ^S: Co., Yokohama. 

Walkin, R. C, Hotel Miitropole, Tokio. 

\Veiix?rt, Dr. IL, Cierman Consul, Soul, Corea. 

Weston, Rev. Walter, c/o Rev. C. (1. (Gardner, Kobe. 

White, Rev. W. J.. 6, Tsukiji, Tokio. 

Whitehead, J. Pieethom, H. B. M. Legation, Tokio. 

Wileman, A. E., H. I>. M. \'ice-(onsul, Kobe. 

Wood, IVof. F. E., Xara. 

Woodd, C TL B., 11, Sakae-cho, Shiba, Tokio. (absent). 

Wyckoir, M. \., Meiji ( ;aku-in, .Shirokane, 'lokiO. 





Jievitscd March, 13U7. 

42 • »NSmi T1«)N. 

6. At any time afterwards within a period of twenty 
years by payinj; the sum of fifty i/«»ii, less yen 2.50 
for each year of membership ; 
c. After the expiration of twenty years on application lo 

t'te 'rrea>urer without furllier jjayment. 
( )r<linary meml)ers not resident in Japan may become life 
member^ : — 

o. < >n election by payiti^ the entrance fee and the sum 

of thirty »/»•« ; 
6. At any lime afterwariU within a jx;rio<l of twenty years 
by paying the sum of iliirty i/rw, less !/<•« 1.50 for 
each year of meml)ership ; 
C. After the expiration of twetity years on application to 

tlie Treasurer without further i)ayment, 
MemlK'rs hitherto resitlent in Japan who leave it with the 
intention of re^i<lini; i>ermanenlly abroad shall for the pur- 
pose of their >ubse(iuent sab'icriptions, or life-memljership, 
be reganle<l as meml)ers not resident in jaixui, providetl the 
Treasurer is nolilietl of their cliange of residence. 
Aki. \'II. 'Hie Aimual Subscription sliall be payable in advance, on 

the 1st of Januar\- in each year. 

Any Memlx-r failing to i>ay hiN subscription for the current 
year by the ^otli of June sliall be reminded of his omission 
by the Treasurer. If his subscription still remains un]>aid 
on the 3i>t of I )eceml)er of that year, he sliall l>e considered 
to have resigned his Meml)er>hip. 
Art. \'1II. ICvery Menil)er shall Ixi entitled to receive the publications 

of the Society during the pjri«> I of liis Membership. 

< )I'fic:i:ks. 

Art. IX. 'The < >M! :ers of the Society ^h:dl be • — 

.V President. 
Two Vice-Presidents. 
.\ ("(»rresj)onding Secretary. 
'Two Recording Secretaries. 
.V 'Treasurer. 
.V Librarian. 

Art. X. 'The alVairN of the Society shall 1) J managetl by a Council 

coinix)sed of the ( )rticers for the current year and ten 
ordinarv MenilKTs. 

CDNSTiriTlON. 43 


Art. XI. General Meetings of the Si)ciety and Meetings of the 

Council shall be held as the Council shall have appointed 
and announced. 

Art. XII. The Annual Meeting of the Society shall be held in 

December, at which the Council shall present its Annual 
Reix^rt and the Treasurer's Statements of Accounts, duly 
audited by two Meml)ers nominated by the President. 

Art. XIII. Nine Members shall form a quorum at an Annual 
Meeting, and Eive Memljers at a Council Meeting. At 
all Meetings of the Society and Council, in the absence 
of the President and Vice-President, a Chainnan shall be 
elected by the Meeting. The Chairman shall not have a 
vote unless there is an e<}uality of votes. 

Art. XIV. Visitors (including representatives of the Press) maybe 

admitted to the General Meetings by Members of the 
Society, but shall not l)e ])ermitted to address the Meeting 
except by invitation of the Chairman. 

Art. XV. All Members of the S<^)ciety shall be elected by the 

Council. They shall be prpix)sed at one Meeting of the 
Council, and balloted for at the next, one black ball in five 
to exclude ; and their Elecli(m shall l^ announced at the 
General Meeting following. 

Ar t . XVI. The Officers and other Meml)ers of Council shall be elected 

by ballot at the Annual Meeting, and shall hold office for 
one year. 

Ari. XVII. The Council shall fill up all Vacancies in its Membership 
which occur l^tween Aimual Meetings. 


Ar r. XVHI. The published 'I'ransactions of the Society shall contain: — 

(1) Such pa])ers and notes read before the Societ}' as the 

Council shall have selected, and an abstract of the 
discussion thereon : 

(2) The Minutes of the (ieneral Meetings : 

(3) And at the end of each annual volume, the Rc|K)rts 

and Accounts presented to the last Annual Meeting, 

the Constitution and I5y-Eaws of the Society and a 

List of Members. 

Art. XIX. Twenty-five separate co|Mes of each published paj^r shall 

be placed at the disposal of the author and the same number 

44 <.«)NSTmilnN. 

shall l)e rescrvetl l)y the Council to Ix: <lis|x>sed of as it 

sees fit. 
Ari". XX. The Council shall have |M)\ver to distribute copies of the 

Transactions at its discretion. 
Ari. XXI. The Council sliall have jxnver to pul)lish, in separate 

form, pajxjrs or documents which it considers of sufficient 

interest or inijiortance. 
Ari. XXII. Papers accepted by the Council shall Ijecome the proi>erty 

of the Society and cannot lie published anywhere without 

consent of the Council. 
AccejHance of a pajxT for reading at a General Meeting 

of the Society does not bind the Society to its ])ublication 

after^\'ards. liut when the Council has decided not to 

l)ublish any pajier accepted for reading, that paj^er shall l)e 

restored to ilic author wiiliout any restriction as to its 

further use. 

Arf. XXIII. 'ITie Council shall have iH>\ver to make and amend By- 
laws for its own and the S)ciety*s guidance provided that 
these are not inconsistent with the Constitution; and a 
General Meeting, by a majority vote, may suspend the 
operation of any Hy-Law. 


Art. XXIV. None of the foregoing Articles of the Constitution can 
be amended except at a ( ioncral Meeting by a vote of two- 
thirds of the Members present, and only if due notice of the 
proposed Amendment shall have been given at a previous 
General Meeting. 




Aut. I. The Session of the Society shall coincide with the 

Calendar \'ear, the Annual Meeting taking place in 
I )ecember. 

Arp. II. Ordinarily the Session shall consist of nine monthly 

Creneral Meetings; but it may include a less or greater 
number when the Council finds reason for such a change. 

Aki". III. The place and time of Meeting shall be fixed by the 

Council, preference being given, when the Meeting is held 
in Tokio, to 4 p.m. on the Second Wednesday of each 
montli. The place of meeting may be in Yokohama when 
the occasion is favourable. 

Ar r. IV. Timely notice of every General Meeting shall 1)6 sent 

by jxist lo the address of every Member resident in Tokio 
or \'okohama. 


Ari. V. The Order of Business at General Meetings shall be : — 

(i) Action on the Minutes of the last Meetmg ; 

(2) Communication from the Council ; 

(3) Miscellaneous Business; 

(4) The Reading and Discussion of papers. 

The above order shall be observed except when the 

Chairman shall rule otherwise. 
At Annual Meetings the Order of Business shall include, 

in addition to the foregoing matters:— 

(5) The Reading of the Council's Annual Report and 
Treasurer's account, and submission of these for the 
action of the Meeting upon them ; 

(6) The Election of Officers and Council as directed by 

Article XVI. of the Constitution. 


Ari . VI. The Council shall appoint its own Meetings, preference 

as to time being given to 4. p.m. on the First Wednesday 
of each month. 

V, iL mki:tin(;s. 

,,.;K!cil Mccliiij;> shall l»i- : 
..t.sof la-st Meeting; 


shall 1)C rescnt-d liy the <- ,,->liall K- sontl.y 

sees fit. «'f llie Council, ami 

Akt. XX. The Council shall ■ . ..r.i. ordinary buMnc^ to 

Tranwictions at it> 
Ari. XXI. The Council 

fomiy papers 

interest or i 

Ari. XXII. Piaper= 

of tl^ .,,.,,. .iMlin- Sc-CFctaiy, 

^^^^^ . ..(/..M (■•MinnitlcL- 


, ^'K-ci.iI < Villi 111 iltivs ; 
■ . .. ,,•; I if MciiiIk.'i>; 
■ \,,i,i.;:.iti">i ''f ^ i>i»«l'«liili^"^ for Mi'inlHT-iliij) (»f till 

^/i-ivllii »'■""" Ui:>iiK>.^; 

livif'"'"^' «'t" pa|n.'r<* tn JK' rcail lK'fi>ri- llu- Society: 
.) .Vrniiii;'-"-'"^''^ "' '^'^" I •ii>i"«.'<'* «tf tlif m:M ( iL-ru'ral 


j'l r.i n Aii()\ coMMnTKi:. 

'Iliorc sli;:ii I«v a -I. imliiii; ( (luiniittcc entitled llu- I'liMi 
cali«>» <'«»iinnilliL- aiul v«'nii»<i««0(l «»f the Secret ari cs, the 
Librarian, ami jiiy Mcnjl-i-r-^ iipjMiinted l>y the <*(»uncil. It 
;,hall »>nlina:ily i'l.- piv^iih-d hmt I»\ thi ( imiv-jm unlink 

It shall cairy MirniiL^ii ilie ]>ulili« .uii»M tif the Tran-nciiuii- 
of the SKMety. .iiui the re-i-^NUc uf I'arls »»iil (tf print. 

ft shall reiwr; [>erii'dically In the ( mincil aii«i act uiuUt 
il^ aiillujrity. 

It shall aiulil ihe :i'.v..>iMit- Utr printin<; the Transact ion >«. 

It shall lint ail«'\v niitlioi>' manuscript «« or ])rinter>' 
pnK)fs of thev i-. l;«' ni'i «.f it- cu-tiMly fiM" •.ther than the 
Society's pi:ri»< i<M ■•. 

i)i"i"ii:s (»]■■ ( < luuisr. ADiNc ^licKivrAin. 

Am. \. The (orre-iH.'-.Iii:^ ><.Mil.n\ -h.ill : 

1. i'lMKlac! ::i- < Mrie^jHiii'li'mv i if the Soiiily ; 

2. Arran^i- t.>r a!..| i-Mi»- ni>tiee of (oinieil Meetint:^. and 

j)rovi<lc liia' ;ii! ntrieial l)ii>iiu-«* l>e lirinii^ht iluh 
and ill <i:.I •■ 1 , f,,i,- ,;ii h Moetini;: 

HY-LAWS. 47 

3. Attend every G)uncil Meeting or give notice to the 
Recording Secretary that he will be absent ; 

4. Notify new officers and Members of Council of their 
apix)intment and send them each a copy of the 

I>y-Laws ; 

5. Xotify new Members of the Society of their election 

and send them copies of the Articles of Constitution 
and of the Library Catalogue ; 

6. Unite with the Recording Secretary, Treasurer and 

Librarian in drafting tlie Annual Report of the 
Council and in preparing for publication all matter 
as defined in Article XV'II I of the Constitution ; 

7. Act as Cliairman of the Publication Committee, and 

take first charge of authors' manuscripts and proofs 
struck ofT for use at Meetings. 


Ar I . XL ( )f the Recording Secretaries, one shall reside in T5ki5 

and one in \'okohama, each having ordinarily duties only 
in connection with Meetings of the Society or its Council 
held in the place where he resides. 


Aki. XII. The Recording Secretary shall ; — 

1. Keep Minutes of General Meetings; 

2. Make arrangements for (General Meetings as instructed 

by tlie Council, and notify Members resident in 
Tokio and \'okoharaa ; 

3. Inform the Corresjxjnding Secretary and Treasurer 

of the election of new Members. 

4. Attend every General Meeting of Council, or, in case 

of absence, dej)ute the Corresponding Secretary or 
some other Members of Cx^uncil to perform his duties 
and forward to him the Minute Book ; 

5. Act for tlie Cx)rresiK)nding Secretary in the latter's 

absence ; 

6. Act on the Publication Comr e ; 

7. Assist in drafti the Annual of ( 

and in p rmg for ] • 

(ieneral Meet t J □ 

of the Societv ; 

46 nv-i.wvs 

Art. \'II. Timely notice of every C'ouncil Meeting shall be sent by 

ix)st to the ad(he>s of every Meml^r of the Council, and 
shall contain a statement of any extraordinarj* business to 
he done. 


Ar'I". VIII. The Order of Ilusiness at Council Meetings shall be : 

(1) Action uix»n the Minutes of last Meeting; 

(2) Reports of the Corresix)nding Sccretar)*, 

of the Pul>licati<)n Connnittee, 

of the 'i'rcasurer, 

of the 1 librarian, 

and of Sjiecial Committees ; 

(3) The Election of Members ; 

(4) The Nomination of Candidates for Membership of the 

Society ; 

(5) Miscellaneous Uusiness; 

(6) Acceptance c)f j)ai)ers to l>e read before the Society; 

(7) Arrangement of the Uusiness of the next (lencral 



Ari. IX. There shall be a standing Committee entitled the Publi 

cation Committee and com]X)sed of the Secretaries, the 
Librarian, and any Menil)crs apjxjinted by the Council. It 
sliall ordinarily l>e presided over by the Corresix>nding 
Sccretar)'. « 

It shall carry tlirougli the ^>ul)lication of the Transactions 
of the Society, and the re-issue of Parts out of print. 

It shall rei)ort i)crifKlically to the Council and act under 
its authority. 

It shall audit the accounts for printing the Transactions. 

It shall not allow authors' manuscripts or i)rinter>* 
proofs of these to go out of its custody for other than the* 
Society's purj^ose.-. 


Art. X. The Corroixnidini; Secretary shall : — 

1. Conduct the ( 'orre>|K)ndence of the Society ; 

2. Arrange for and i^sue notice of Council Meetings, and 

provide that all official business l)e brought duly 
and in or<ler l)efore each Meeting; 

HY-LAWS. 47 

3. Attend every Council Meeting or give notice to the 

Recording Secretary that he will be absent ; 

4. Notify new officers and Members of Council of their 

apiwintment and send them each a copy of the 
IJy-I-iws ; 

5. Notify new Memlxjrs of the Society of their election 

and send them copies of the Articles of Constitution 
and of the Library Catalogue ; 

6. Cnile with the Recording Secretary, Treasurer and 

Lil)rarian in <lrafling the Annual Report of the 
(Council and in i>reixiring for publication all matter 
as defined in Article Will of the Constitution ; 

7. Act as Chairman of the Publication Committee, and 

take first charge of authors' manuscripts and i>roofs 
struck off for use at Meetings. 

Aki. XI. Of the Recording Secretaries, one shall reside in Tokid 

and one in \'()kohama, eacli having ordinarily duties only 
in connection with Meetings of the Society or its Cx>uncil 
lield in the jjlace where he resides. 


Ari. XII. The Recording Secretary shall ; — 

1. Keep Minutes ofCieneral Meetings; 

2. Make arrangements for (Jeneral Meetings as instructed 

by the Council, and notify Members resident in 
'1 okiu and Yokohama ; 

3. Infomi the Corresixjnding Secretary and Treasurer 

of the election of new Memljers. 

4. Attend every (General Meeting of Council, or, in case 

of absence, depute the C'orresiwnding Secretary or 
some other Meml>ers of (>)uncil to perform his duties 
and forward to him the Minute Ikx>k ; 

5. Act for the C^)rresponding Secretary in the latter's 

absence ; 

6. Act on the Publication Committee; 

7. Assist in drafting the Annual Reiwrt of the Council 

and in j)reparing for publication the Minutes of the 
( iencral Meetings aiul tlie Constitution and IJy-laws 
of llie StKietv ; 

46 i!V-i.\\\s 

Art. VII. Timely noticr of even' (.'ouncil Meeting shall be sent by 

ix)st to tlie aililrcss of every Meinl)cr of the C ouncil, and 
shall contain a statement <»f any extraordinary business to 
l)C done. 


Art. VIII. The Order of r>usine>s at Council Meetings shall l>e : 

(i) Action upon the Minutes of last Meeting : 

(2) Reports of the Corresjwnding Secretary, 

of the Publication Committee, 

of the Treasurer, 

of the I Jl>rarian, 

and of Sjxicial ( onnnittees ; 

(3) The K lection of Meml)ers; 

(4) The Nomination of Candi<lates for MemlK-rship of the 

Society ; 

(5) Miscellanrous r.u>incs> ; 

(6) Acceptance (>( pa])ers to W rea<l l)cforc the Society; 

(7) Arrangement of the T.usines.s of the next Oeneral 


rim.icAiioN' coMMriTKi:. 

Ar'I. IX. There shall be a standing Committee entitled the Publi 

cation Connnittie and comi)osed of the Secretaries, the 
Librarian, and any Meml)ers apjxmited by the Council. It 
shall ordinarily l>e presided over by tlic Corre^jHrnding 

It shall carry through llie ^)ui>lication of the Transactions 
of the S)ciety, and the re-issue of Parts out of print. 

It shall rei)ort i)criodically to the Council ami act under 
its authority. 

It shall auilil ihe account.^ for jmnting the Transactions. 

It shall not allow author.^' manuscripts or printers' 
])roofs of these t(» go out of it> custody for other than the* 
Society's pur|M»s(>. 


Art. X. The Corre>ix»ndiiig Secretary shall : — 

1. Conduct tho < nrre^iKHidence of the Society ; 

2. Arrange for and i«««.uo notice of Council Meetings, and 

pnivide thai all oflicial busuies> be brought duly 
and in ordi-r l»cf«»re each Meeting; 

HV-I.AWS. 47 

3. Attend every Council Meeting or give notice to the 

Recording Secretary that he will be absent ; 

4. Notify new officers and Members of Council of their 

apiK)intment and send them each a copy of the 
l> ; 

5. Notify new Members of the Society of their election 

and send them copies of the Articles of Constitution 
and of the Library Catalogue ; 

6. I'nite witli the Recording Secretary, Treasurer and 

Liljrarian in drafting the Annual Reiwrt of the 
C'ouncil and in preparing for publication all matter 
as delincd in Article XVIH of the Constitution ; 

7. Act as Chairman of tlie Publication Committee, and 

take first charge of authors' manuscripts and proofs 
struck ofT for use at Meetings. 

Ar r. XI. ( )f tlie Recording Secretaries, one shall reside in Tokio 

and one in \'okohama, each having ordinarily duties only 
in connection with Meetings of the Society or its Council 
held in the place where he resides. 


Ari. XII. 'i'he Recording Secretary shall ; — 

1. Keep Minutes ofC^neral Meetings; 

2. Make arrangements for General Meetings as instructed 

l)y tlie Council, and notify Members resident in 
Tokio and \'okohama ; 

3. Inform the Corrcsix)nding Secretary and Treasurer 

of the election of new Members. 

4. Attend every General Meeting of Council, or, in case 

of absence, depute tlie Corrcsixjnding Secretary or 
some otlier Members of Cx)uncil to perform his duties 
and forward to him the Minute Book ; 

5. Act for the Cx)rresix)nding Secretary in the latter's 

absence ; 

6. Act on the Publication Committee; 

7. Assist in drafting the Annual Rci^rt of the Council 

and in prej)aring for j)ublication the Minutes of the 
(General Meetings and tlie Constitution and liy-laws 
of the Societv ; 

48 I5V-I.AWS. 

8. Kuini>h abstracts of I*roceedings at General Meetings 
to newspajx^rs and public prints as directed by the 


Art, XIII. The Treasurer shall: — 

1. Take charge of the Society's Funds in accordance with 

the instructions of the Council. 

2. Apply to the President to apix)int Auditors, and 

present the Annual Balance sheet to the Council duly 
audited l)efore the date of the Annual Meeting ; 

3. Attend e^•ery Council Meeting and Re|x>rt when 

reciucsted u\Km the money affairs of the Society, or 
in case of absence depute some Menilnir of the 
Council to act for him, furnishing him with such 
information and documents as may ])e necessar)'; 

4. Notify new members of the amount of entrance fee 

and subscription then due ; 

5. Collect sul)Scriptions and notify Meml)ers of their 

un])ai(l sii])scri])tions once in or a]x)ut January' and 
again in or about June ; apply to Agents for the 
sale of the Society's Transactions in Japan and 
abroad for })ayment of sums owing to the Society; 

6. Pay out all Monies for the Society under tlie direction 

of tjie Council, making no single i)ayment in excess 
of Ten I>oIlars without special vote of the Council. 

7. Inform the Librarian when a new Meml)er has paid 

his entrance fee and first subscription ; 

8. Submit to the Council at its January Meeting the 

names of Mem]>ers who have not paid their subscrip- 
tion for the past year; and, after action has been 
taken by tlie Council, furnish the Librarian with the 
names of any Members to whom the sending of the 
Transactions is to be suspended or stopped. 

9. Prepare for jniblication the List of Mcml)ers of the 



XIV. 'llic Lil)rarian shall : — 

I. Take charge of the Society's Library and stock of 
Transactions, keep its lxx)ks and ix?riodicals in order, 

r.v-i.Aws. 49 

catalogue all additions to the Lihrar}*, and suj)erintend 
the hindinjj; and proenation of the l)0<)ks ; 

2. (.'arry out the Regulation of the Council for the use 

and lending of the S<»ciety*s lKK)ks ; 

3. Send copies of the Tran^^actions to all Honorary 

Menil)ers» Id all ( )rdinar)' Members not in arrears for 
dues according to the list furnished by the 'i'reasurer, 
and to all Societies and Journals, the names of which 
are on tlie list of Exchanges ; 

4. Arrange with booksellers and others for the sale of 

the 'transactions as directed by the Council, send the 
recjuired number of each issue to the apix)inted agents, 
and keep a record i»f all such businos. 

6. Draw up List of Exchanges of Journals andofaddi- 

ti(»ns to the Library for insertion in the ( ouncil's 
Annual Rej)ort : 

7. Make additions to the Library as instructed by the 

Council ; 
<S. IVesent to the Council at it> November Meeting a 

statement of the stock of Transactions iM)Ssessed by 

the Society ; 
i). Act on the Publication Committee; 
10. Attend even* ('ouncil Meeting and reiH)rt on Library 

matters, or if ab>ont. send to the Corres|H>nding 

Secretary a stateinent of any matter of immediate 


LinRARV AND MKITINc; k( )( )M. 

Ari. X\'. The Society's Rooms and Library shall Ik; in i'sukiji, , 

Tokio, to which may bo addressed all letters and 
j)arccls not sent to the j)rivate a<hlress of the Corres- 
ponding Secretary', Treasurer, or Librarian. 

Art. X\l. Tlie I,ibrar\' shall be open to Memi)ers for consultation 
during the day, the keys of the Ijook-cascs l)eing 
in the jxjssession of the Librarian or other Meml)er> 
of Council resident in the neighl)ourho(Kl : an<l lMK)ks 
may Ixi lx>rrowed on applying to the Librarian. 

.sail: of TRANSACTIONS. 

Ar'i. X\'n. A MemlKT may obtain at half-price for his own use 
copies (»fany I'art of the Transact i(»ns. 

50 l!Y-l^V\VS. 

Art. XVIII. The Transactions shall l>e on sale by -Vgenls ajv 

])rove<l of hy the Council and shall l)e supplied to 
these Assents at discount {jrices fixed l)y the CoundL 









Chhoi- Chhung, a Korean MaTchen 

By W. G. Aston, Esq., C.M.G. 

Some Talcs from the Uji Shui Monogntari 

By Miss S. Ballard. 

Dazai on Japanese Music... 

By R. 
Minutes of Meetings 
Report of the Council 
List of Members 
Constitution and By-laws 

KiRBY, Esq. 










The following story is rendered freely and with some abridg- 
ment from a manuscript in my possession, but care has been taken 
to avoid any alteration which could injure its value as a document 
of Corean folk-lore. It has no author's or printer's name, and no 
date, but it belongs I should say, either to this century, or the last 

The folk-lore of Corea is to be regarded as a branch of that of 
China. The present story contains hardly anything that is special- 
ly characteristic of Corea, and the same may be said of nearly all 
the Corean literature which has fallen under my notice. The 
supernatural machinery of the Dragon King etc. is borrowed from 
the vulgar Chinese mythology known as Taoism, though it has 
nothing to d*) with Lao-tze or the remarkable classic with which 
his name is associated. 

The strong animus against China which pervades this tale 
tends to prove that the Coreans have not quite the reverent affec- 
tion for that country which some people would have us believe to 
• exist. 

A long time ago, in the days when Silla^ was an independent 
Kingdom, there lived in that part of Corea a very learned man 
named Chhoi-chhung. He was of good family, and had excellent 
abilities, but he had never been called to office, and led a life of 
retirement, until at last the King heard that he was descended 
from a fonner Miuister of State and appointed him Governor of 
the city of Munchhang. 

* Corea formerly consisted of three Kingdoms — Koryii (whence 
our Corea), Silla, and P6kch6, subsequently united into one, which 
since the end of the 14th century has borne the name of Choson. 


But this mark of the Eoyal favour seemed to give him little 
pleasure, much to the surprise of his wife, who asked him why he 
was dissatisfied. 'Strange things,' replied he, 'happen in this 
district of Munchhang. All the Governors who go there lose their 
wives and grown-up daughters in a mysterious way. The post is 
no doubt a good one, but yet it would be far better to get appoint- 
ed somewhere else than to go to such an unlucky place.' ' You 
are quite right,' said his wife. * Still you should remember that 
nothing takes place without a cause, and there is a divinity which 
presides over human affairs. If it is a man's fate to die young, 
he dies, and there is no help for it. And for my part, I have no 
faith in these stories of people being carried off mysteriously. 
Besides, this appointment will enable us to carry on the tradition 
of our ancestors, and reflect honour on our family, and we can 
hardly expect to have a second offer of the kind. What would 
you do if the Government refused you another post on the score 
that you have declined this one ? But if you like, refuse the Gov- 
ernorship. Your resignation will probably not be accepted, and, in 
that case, I have a plan which will do away with all anxiety.' 

It turned out as she expected. Chhoi chhung declined several 
times, but the Government would take no reftisal. He thought 
at first of leaving his wife behind, and proceeding to Munchhang 
alone, but as she was childless, and they were very dear to each 
other, they could not bear to be separated, and it was finally decid- 
ed that she should accompany him. 

A lucky day having been selected, they set out upon their 
journey. They arrived safely at their destination, and Chhoi- 
chhung was at once installed in office, while his wife's first care was 
to procure an infinity of skeins of red silk which she joined together 
and fastened one end to her body. 

<^De day while Chhoi-chhung was ifij;he public office attend- 
ing to his duties as Governor, clouds and i^ours closed in jFrom 


all aides, a gust of wind shook Heaven and Earth, and it became 
80 dark that a foot before his face he could see nothing. He had 
not recovered from his amazement at this sudden convulsion of 
nature when they sky cleared ap:ain and the slaves* came rushing 
from the inner apartments crying out with many tears that during 
the storm of wind and rain their lady had suddenly disappeared. 

Chhoi-cbhung was thunderstruck. He changed countenance, 
and hastily putting aside his work, hurried into the house. His 
wife was nowhere to be seen. The only trace of her tha*. he could 
discover was the red thread which stretched out into the court- 
yard. He promptly armed some of his bravest and most intelligent 
clerks and underlings and set out with them to follow up this 
clew. It led them to the top of a mountain hard by, where it en- 
tered a cleft in a great wall of rock. Chhoi-chhung was delighted. 
He found that there was a door in the cliff, closed by a great stone, 
which they soon removed and then all went in. After going a 
long way, they came at last to a new world where the sun and 
moon shone brightly. There was here a splendid palace with a 
grim-looking-gate leading to it, but no living creature, man, bird 
or beast was to be seen. 

Chhoi-chhung and his men entered by this gate. Quietly ap- 
proaching the palace, he peeped in by a window and saw numberg 
of women of rare beauty sitting in rows to right and left. Among 
them was his wife who was combing the hair of a Golden Pig 
which lay on her lap. His first feeling was of joy at finding his 
wife alive, but when he saw how she was employed, his anger and 
jealousy flamed up to heaven. He restrained himself, however ; 
and waited to see what would happen. 

* There are a number of slaves, male and female, attached to 
public offices in Corea. The lot of the latter, who are in many 
cases the wives or relatives of condemned political offenders, is a 
very miserable one. 


When Chhoi-Gbhnng's wife saw him at the window, she said 
to the Golden Pig — " I suppose there is nothing in the world that 
you are afraid of, and that you may live to the age of a thousand 

The Golden Pig replied. '' There is but one thing that I stand 
in fear of, and that is a deer-skin." 

" A deer-skin is but a dead hide/' said the lady, '' how can it 
do you any harm? " 

" Though it is but a dead thing," r^oined the Pig, " yet if any 
one were to spit on a piece of deer-skin and stick it on my fore- 
head, I should die instantly without uttering a word." 

The lady was r^oiced in her heart for she remembered that 
the thong of the bunch of keys which was fastened to the band of 
her skirt was of deerskin. So she waited till the Golden Pig was 
asleep, and there quietly loosing the thong, spat upon it and ap- 
plied it to the Golden Pig's forehead. When sure enough he died 
without even waking up from sleep. 

The lady, delighted to see that the Pig was really dead, flung 
down his body from her lap, and opened the window outside of 
which her husband was standing. Then they left the palace hand- 
in-hand followed by all the captive women. But their minds were 
not quite at rest till they reached the rock-door which led to the 
outer world. 

Six months after Chhoichhung's wife had the misfortune to 
be carried of by the Golden Pig, she gave birth to a child, a fine 
little fellow. But his father was far from pleased, for he most 
unreasonably suspected him to be the son of the Golden Pig. He 
ordered one of the official female slaves to take the infant and 
throw him away. She took the child in her arms and went out, 
but had not gone far when she came to a place where there was a 
worm lying outstretched on the road. The child pointed to it and 
exclaimed " There is the Chinese character for * one ' (— )." The 


slave was greatly surprised, and returned to tell the Goyemor, but 
he reproved her sharply, telling her she was a silly woman, and 
sent her out again. This time the child saw a dead frog lying on 
the road and called out, " There is the character for Heaven (5^)." 
The slave, hearing this, could not find it in her heart to abandon 
the child but carried it back and reported the matter to Chhoi- 
chhung, with the result that he was more enraged than ever, and 
repeated his order in the sternest tones. She was too much 
frightened to disobey, and taking up the child reluctantly, she wrap-* 
ped him in costly garments and laid him down in the middle of 
the highway. The horses and cattle which passed by avoided 
treading on him, and at night female genii came down from 
heaven, and suckled him. 

When Chhoichhung learnt that the child was still alive 
on the highway, he ordered his constables to go and throw him 
into a lotus pond. They did so, but the lotus leaves closed round 
him, and phoenixes and cranes drew their wings over him to pro- 
text him from the cold, while at night the female genii never fail* 
ed to come down from Heaven and give him suck. 

Two or three months passed in this way. The child g^ew so 
quickly that he now clambered on the rocks and went down to 
the sea-shore in his play. As he crept about, the imprints of his 
hands and feet became Chinese characters and when he cried, the 
sound of his weeping was like the chanting of Chinese poetry and 
so pathetic that none who heard him could refrain from tears. 

When Chhoi-chhung'fl wife heard these things she could no 
longer contain herself. ''If you will only consider/' said she to 


her husband, " that our child was born six months after your 
handmaiden was so unfortunate as to be carried off by the Grolden 
Pig, you will see how unfounded are your suspicious. And you 
must acknowledge that the Gods of Heaven and Earth have pre- 
served his life until now in a miraculous manner. I beseech you 


therefore let him be brought back/' Chhoi chbung was more than 
half oonvinced by his wife's pleading, but he feared to make hun- 
aelf a laughing-stock to his subordinates and people if he sent for 
the child and had him brought home after haying exposed him to 
perish as the sou of the Qolden Pig. 

But his wife had a plan for saying her husband's credit She 
advised him to retire to his room and pretend illnesB, and then 
went to a sorceress whom she bribed to spread the rumour that the 
illness of the Governor was a punishment from Heaven for having 
exposed his own flesh, blood and bones on the seashore to perish. 
" Tell everybody," said she, " that if the (Governor speedily seeks 
out the child and brings him back, he will recover, but if not, be 
will not only die himself, but the disease will become infectious, 
and of all the people of this district not one will be left alive. 

When the people of Munch hang heard this, they went in a 
body to the Governor and with tears and lamentations told him 
what the sorceress had said. He pretended to be greatly surprised. 
" My own deatli," he replied, " would matter little, but it would 
be a grievous matter if for the sake of this child, all the people 
were to nioet with such a calamity. Let him be brought back." 

Some of his officers at once took a boat and went to the place 
from which the sound of chanting verses came. There they saw 
the child sitting on the top of a lofty rock which they could not 
climb. So they called out to him from below. * Your father is very 
ill and wishes to see you. Make ready and come quickly.' The 
boy answered. " It is true that duty requires that a son should go 
at once to visit a sick father. But my father has refused to ac- 
knowledge me as his son, and has exposed me to perish. Go back 
and tell him this from me. ' In ancient times there was a merchant 
of Yangchai in China who gave the King of Tsin a beautiful wo- 
man. Six months latter she gave birth to a son. But this child 
was not disowned by the King of Tain, and he eventually became 


the Emperor of 10,000 chariots.'* But io my case there is no room 
at all for my father's suspicions that I am not his son. Look too at 
my ears and eyes. Have they any resemblance to those of a pig? 
But if my father has abandoned me, Heaven has granted me its 
protection. I will not go back with you." 

" What is the name of this island ? " asked the officers. " It is 
Pig leland/' replied the child. " Go away quickly, and come here 
no more." 

When the officers returned, they told all this to the Governor, 
to his infinite astonishment and sorrow. In remorse for his cruel 
behaviour, he set out himself for tbe island, escorted by numbers of 
his people, and called the boy who came and with tears made obei- 
sance before him. Taking him by the hand, he said 'How can a 
young child like you support yourself here all alone ? ' The boy 
again made obeisance and said ' It was doubtless by Heaven's will 
#that Your Excellency was unable to acknowledge me as your son 
and banished me to this distant spot and this is no reason for me 
to hate my parents. But Heaven has given me protection and has 
preserved my life until this day.' Chhoi*chhung replied, 'This 
was all my fault and I am now sorry for it I hope you will now 
come back with me.' 

The boy said, ' It is of course the duty of a child to obey his 
parents. But I would ask you to allow me for a while to be my 
own master and to let me see the world. My mother need have 
no anxiety on my account. And if you will, build me a dwelling 
in this place and let it be called the * Moonshine Terrace,' with a 
tower, to be named the ' Prcspect Tower.' 

Chhoi-chhung, seeing from the boy's appearance and language 
that he was no ordinary mortal, felt that it was Heaven's will that 
he should yield to his wishes. He ceased to urge him to return to 

* i. s. of China. 


Munchhang, and built him a dwelling and tower as he had de- 

At ibis time the child was three years of age. He continued 
to live in the ' Prospect Tower.' Days and months passed. He 
was given from Heaven a magic iron wand and numbers of 
heavenly officials came down from the sky daily and taught him 
to write the Chinese character as well as many magic arts.^ When 
he was taught one character he knew one hundred: when he was 
shown one magic art, he could practice a hundred. The iron wand 
became red hot from constant use. 

Every day the Heavenly officials chanted with him Chinese 
verses which they had composed with an entrancing sound which 
was diffused far beyond the rainbow-coloured clouds which gather- 
ed over the Tower, while a perfume spread abroad from it for one 
hundred U, All who saw or heard were lost in wonder and ad- 

Now the Emperor of China was one day in the garden behind 
his palace looking at the moon when suddenly there was borne to 
his ears on the wind from afar a noise as of some one chanting 

He inquired of his courtiers where this sound came from. 
* Since last year,* they replied * whenever the moon is at the full, 
a sound of chanting verses is heard faintly on the wind. It comes 
from the land of Silla.' The Emperor wondered greatly, and said, 
' How is it possible that in so small a Kingdom there should be so 
divinely strange a talent?' 

The next day he instructed his Ministers to select two or three 
of the wisest scholars in the Empire and send them to the land of 
Silla to see what talent might be found there. This mission was 

* This reminds us of the association of grammar with magic in 
the popular fancy in Europe during the middle ages. 


confided to some of the most celebrated pundits who at once took 
a ship, and set sail for Silla. 

On arriving off the coast of Munchhang, they saw there only 
a small boy who was sitting on a raised terrace chanting poetry. 
They brought their ship to land below the place where he sat, 
and said to him. 'You make verses very cleverly.' The boy 
answered 'Why should not I?' 'Can you also cap verses?' con- 
tinued the Chinese scholars. To this the boy replied, 'I will, if 
you will give me the first line.' Upon which the Chinese scholars 
composed the following, chanting it aloud :— 

' See I our oars transfix the moon beneath the waves.' 
The boy at once added, 

* While the ship bears down the sky amid the sea.* 

The Chinese pundits were lost in wonder, but further to try 
his talent, they composed this line. 

'Sea-birds to the surface rising, plunge again.' 

Whereupon the boy chanted in reply, 
' Hill-clouds in the distance severing, join once more.* 

The Chinese scholan finding that in verse he was not to be 
worsted, next tried him in prose. So they said — " Why do birds 
and rats say ' chak-chak ' ? " To which the child answered ' Why 
do pigs and dogs say * memg- meung ' ? At this, the Chinese scholars 
laughed loud and said — 'A dog says ' meung meung ' it is true.' 
But who ever heard the memg meung from a pig ? There you are 
wrong. The boy in his turn laughed and said—' It is true that a 
bird chirps chah-chai. But who ever heard the sound ehak-chak from 
a rat ? What you said was absurd, so I framed my question to 
match it.' 

The scholars thought this very wonderful. They inquired 
from him his age and name and were told that he was the son of 
Chhoi-chhung of Munchhang and that he was now eleven years 


old. He then diwniased tbem saying, '' Now that the sun has gone 
down, Jam going to remain here." 

The Chinese scholars looked at one another wonderingly. ' If 
even the small boys in this country are so accomplished/ thought 
they, ' what numbers of erudite literati there must be. We had 
better return to China without delay.' So they turned their ship's 
head homewards, and returning to China, made their report to the 
Emperor, who was greatly astonished and said to his Ministers, 
" This land of Silla is so productive of able men, that it must natu- 
rally have a contempt for the Great* Country. Now I have a 
plan by which I will try them and find a pretext for invading 
Silla.'' So he took a hen's egg, and wrapping it in cotton wool, 
enclosed it in a stone casket. This he placed in a copper case and 
filled the chinks with beeswax so that nobody could open it and 
find out what it contained. He then despatched it to the King of 
Silla with the following message :— 

" Your country, having ao many learned scholars, treats the 
Great Country with contempt and is deserving of the severest 
punishment. But so far we have treated you with indulgence, 
and you may be pardoned altogether if you can find any one who 
can reveal the contents of this stone casket. Otherwise condign 
punishment awaits you." 

Judge of the astonishment of the Eling of Silla when this 
message was delivered to him. He at once assembled all his Mini- 
sters and summoned to him all the most learned scholars in the 
land. The highest honours and a gifl of a thousand pieces of gold 
were promised to the mau who should compose a stanza on the 
contents of the stone casket. But none of them had the least idea 
of what it contained. 

Now Chhoi-chhung's son had by this time left his dwelling on 

* The Coreans speak commonly of China as the Great Coun- 
try, and of Corea as the small country. 


'Mooiteliine Terrace' and had come to the capital in the disguise 
of a mirror polisher.* One day while going his rounds, shouting 
the cry of his trade, he chanced to pass by the residence of Mini- 
ster Na, a loyal and upright man, and a wise gentleman. He was 
wealthy too, and had one daughter named Unyong (cloud-luxuri- 
ance) whose beauty was so radiant that when they saw her, the 
fishEauk to the bottom of the water, and wild geese fell from the 
sky, while the moon hid her face, and the stars blushed for shame. 

She happened to bear the cry ' Mirrors to poli«h,' and having 
a mirror which needed burnishing, she sent her nurse out with it 
The nurse called the boy to her And gaye him the mirror, but 
while he was poUshing it, he caught sight of Unydng who was 
peeping out by the half-open lattice, and fell deeply in lore with 
her. Then he purposely rubbed the mirror so hard that it broke 
into two pieces. " Oh I you boy I what is to be done now ? " ex- 
claimed the nurse. The boy pretended to cry, and said * I have 
spoilt the mirror, and can only beg tliat I may be allowed to 
redeem its value by entering this house as a slave.' 

When the Minister was told this, he came into the outer court 
and calling the boy to him asked him his name, whose son he was 
and where he lived. ** I lost my father and mother when a baby," 
he replied, " and I do not know their names nor where they lived. 
I myself have no name "? The Minister then said, " I agree to 
take you as my slave, but you mast have a name. I shall call you 
the Slave of the Broken Mirror." 

It was the business of the Slave of the Broken Mirror to feed 
and look after the horses. Every morning he got up at daybreak 
and taking the horses out of the stable, drew them up in a line on 
the road. Then he mounted the foremost one, and the rest all 

* Mirrors in the East are made of metal, and require Sequent 
polishing to maintain their brightness. 


followed to a broad meadow where they took their pasture. Under 
his charge the vicious horses were quiet, and the lean ones grew 
daily fatter. The neighbours, observing this, went to see how the 
Slave of the Mirror tended his beasts. He simply took them to the 
meadow and left them to graze while he sat down in a grove and 
composed verses. Meanwhile green-coated youths came down from 
Heaven, and in their play looked after the horses until the sun 
went down, when they all ascended again. Then the hoises 
assembled of themselves, and with their heads bent down came and 
stood before the Slave of the Mirror. This took place every day, 
to the wouder of those who witnessed it 

When Minister Na's lady heard these things, she admired 
greatly, and said to her husband. "This boy is surely no ordinary 
mortal. Take him from the drudgery of the stable and let him 
have some light duty in the house." The Minister agreed, and 
gave him charge of the flowers in the garden, a change with which 
the Slave of the Mirror was greatly pleased. At night divine 
youths came down from Heaven and transplanted into the Mini- 
ster's garden flowers from Paradise which they watered and tended 
carefully. Before ten days had passed, all the flowers wore 
brilliant colours and difiused an unwonted perfume, while phoenizs 
and cranes came and built their nests among them. 

Now Unyong wished to go into the garden to see the flowers 
but, while the Slave of the Mirrors was there, she was ashamed to 
do so. He knew this, and one day asked the Minister for three 
da3rs' leave to visit his native place which he had not seen for a 
long time. Having received permission to go, be concealed him- 
self in the garden. Unyong hearing that the Slave of the Mirror 
had gone away, went out into the garden and sauntered among 
the trees. Then she composed and sang this verse : — 

"The flowers are laughing before the balustrade, 
But their voice cannot be heard." 


No sooner had she finished than the Slaye of the Mirror 
chanted a couplet to match hers : — 

''The birds are lamenting within the grove 
But their tears may not be seen.'' 

Unyong blushing deeply, turned away and went into the house. 

Now many days passed without either the King of Silla, or his 
Ministers, or the learned men whom they had suounoned to their 
assistance being able to solve the riddle of the stone casket^ and 
the King was in sore distress of mind. At length one of his Minis- 
ters said : ''No ordinary man can discover this, but only some one 
of unusual genius, familiar with the operations of the Yin and 
Yang* throughout the four seasons of the year. But where is 
such a one to be found ? " Then another courtier said : "Minister 
Na is learned in astronoipy and geomancy, and he can surely find 
the answer." 

The King thereupon sent for Minister Na and said to him 
" You, who are a pillar of the State, are unquestionably able to 
ascertain the contents of this stone casket. Do so without delay 
and save the Kingdom from a great peril. But if you fail, ruin is 
in store for yourself and all your relations of the nine degrees." 

Minister Na took up the casket and returned home with it 
When he told his news, the whole household was thrown into 
despair, and all was confusion and alarm. Uny5ng refused food 
for several days and on her jewel countenance there was an ex- 
pression of one thousand griefs and ten thousand sorrows. She 
was standing before a Mirror near the windows of her chamber 
when the Slave of the Mirror passed outside saying as he passed : 
" He who has the bright flowers in his charge will release you from 
anxiety." Uny6ng looked out and seeing that it was the Slave of 
the Miiror, wondered greatly. 

* The male and female, or positive and negative principles of 
nature according to Chincsfi Philosophy. 


One day the Slave of the Mirror said to the none. *'Whj 
should our master be so distressed in mind ? I kuow what is in ihe 
stone casket." She xeplied : " Everybody In tlie houae is in the 
greatest despair. You are only a child, it is true, but you are old 
enough to have more sense than to make a jest of our grief." So 
she paid no attention to what he said. After this, jBvery time that 
he met her, he said : "You despise me and will not oondeaoend to 
ask me what is in the casket, but you will never learn in any other 
way." The nurse at last told the Miuis^vOr, but he put no £euth in 
the boy's assertion and treated it as a childish jest His wA, 
however, persuaded him to send for the Slave of the Minor and to 
hear what he had to say. So he called him in, and making him 
stand before him, inquired whether it was tiue that he knew what 
was in the stone casket. '' It was only in jest that I said so," he re- 
plied, upon which the Minister told him to be gone. As he wjent 
out he muttered to himself in the hearing of the nurse * 'If he makes 
me his Fon-in-law I will tell him. But since he treats me with 
contempt and makes me stand outside while he asks his questions, 
why should I not mock him ? " The nurse, hearing this speech, 
reproved him. " You silly boy," said she, " why do you say things 
which may cost your head." " It is true " replied he, " that I am 
a slave and that he is my master. But I am not base-bom, and 
could not make a jest of so grave a matter.'' The nurae kept this 
to herself and did not report it to the Minister or his wife. But 
time passed, and the day at length approached when an answer 
must be given to the King. Every one was in despair and the 
nurse could remain silent no longer. She went to her mistrees 
and told her what the Slave of the Mirror had said. The Lady 
was silent^ but when she thought how urgent the matter was, 
she told her husband and advised him to send for the Slave of the 
Mirror and question him again, using pcrsuasiou, and inviting hiip 
to sit down. 

ckttot^cHHUMa. r$ 

The Minister did so, but he oould not bring himself to offer 
the Slave of the Mirror his daughter in marriage. The only reply 
he got was that tfai§ was an important secret which must not be 
revealed without saflScient cause When the Slave of the Mirror 
had withdrawn, Unyong came in, and throwing herself at her 
father's feet and weeping bitterly, said I, the small woman, have 
discovered that the Slave of the Mirror is not really of low birth, 
though for some reason he has seen fit to take service with us. Do 
not grieve, but give me to him, if this will avert a great calamity 
to all of us. I know that a young girl should not use such language, 
but at such a time, is modesty the only thing to be considered ? 
Why should I care for the censure of the world when my father's 
life is in danger ? K the Slave of the Mirror really knows what 
is in the caskety you will gain great honour and I, the small 
woman, will avoid the reproach of un filial conduct. I beseech 
you, &ther, consider well what you ought to do.'' 

The Minister was struck with the justice of his daughter's 
words. He patted her on the back, and praise i her, saying. 
'^ Ah, my child, though you are only a girl, you have the heart of 
a man." Then he sent again for the Slave of the Mirror, and made 
him sit down close beside him. "I see " said he, " that you can 
be no common person. Tell me truly who your parents were." 
The Slave of the Mirror at length told him the whole truth from 
first to last, to the Minister's great delight And now tell me, he 
continued, what is in the casket, and I will give you my daughter, 
and hand over to you all my property. Let me know quickly and 
relieve me from anxiety." "Of course I know what is in the 
casket, replied the Slave of the Mirror with a smile, but it would 
be imprudent of me to reveal it just at present" 

When he left the Minister, he went to the nurse, and said to her. 
" When he has given me his daughter to wife, I will tell. But if 
I were to inform him at once, he might not keep his word to me. 



It will prevent future trouble, if I refuse to speak until he does so." 
When this was reported to the Minister he consulted with his 
wife, and they agreed to celebrate the marriage at once. That 
same day a feast was prepared and the ceremony performed in 
presence of the assembled relations. Truly it was a Heaven-made 
union. The marriage salutations were exchanged, the wild goose 
was sent^ and the newly-married pair promised each other to live 
together in harmony for one hundred years. They were like two 
mandarin ducks disporting themselves on the green waters or a 
pair of kingfishers which had built their nest on a branch of lotus. 
That night Uny6ng had a dream, in which she saw two azure 
dragons coiled up over the stone casket while Mr. Chhoi^ stood by 
looking on. She started from sleep and finding that it was day- 
light, awoke her husband. Her father was already up, and was 
standing outside the window. Mr. Cbhoi put on his capf and 
dress and went out to join him. *' The day is getting on " said the 
Minister, "tell me quickly what is in the casket, and end my 
doubts and anxiety.'' Mr. Chhoi took a pen and inkstoue, and 
wrote these verses which he handed to the Minister vdth a smile. 

Bounded the sphere, 

This marble case doth hold : 
Half crystal clear. 

And half is yellow gold. 
The bird that knows 

The watches of the night : 
Life in it glows. 

Though now 'tis silent quite. 
The style of this composition, sublime as the couvolutions of a 
dragon, delighted the Minister and his wife, and indeed the whole 

* He is no longer a slave, but is called by his surname, 
t A slave goes bareheaded. 


household, both young and old. But the Minister still doubted. 
*• The verses are very beautiful," said he to his wife, " but how are 
we to know whether they truly describe the fact" Then Unyong 
said. *^ Last night I had a dream, when I saw my husband open 
the casket and look to see what it contained. I looked too, and 
saw a hen's egg which was just being hatched." The Minister was 
rejoiced to hear this confirmation of his son-in-law's verses. " In 
that case," said he, "there can be no more doubt about the 
matter." So he set off to the Palace at onoe, taking with him of 
course the casket and the verses. 

The King was much pleased, but could not feel sure that the 
verses, beautiful as they were, really told the truth. He wanted 
to open the casket, but his Ministers advised him that it must not 
be opened until it was sent back to the Emperor of China. An 
envoy was accordingly ap; ointed to take the casket to China with 
the answer which Mr. Chhoi had composed. 

When the Emperor of China read the verses, he was greatly 
incensed, and exclaimed, "The first stanza is correct But the 
second is false, for it can only mean a chicken. This is an insult 
to China and must be severely punished." On reflection, however, 
it occurred to him that many days having passed since the egg 
was placed in the casket^ it might have become hatched, if kept in 
a warm place. The casket was opend, and a live chicken hopped 
out, to the great wonder of the Emperor and his Court " In that 
small country," he exclaimed, " how can there be such celestial 
talent 7" Then he called his most learned men, and showed them 
the veises. " No such genius," said they with one voice, " has ap- 
peared either in ancient or in modern times. If the Small Country 
produces such talent, they will surely despise the Great Country. 
We would advise your Majesty, therefore, to command the King of 
Silla to send you the poet who has written them. You can then 


submit Inin to all msnner of trials, and retain him as a hostage fi>r 

hifl country's good behaviour/' 

When the King of Silla received this command, he was filled 
with anxiety. Summoning to him Minister Na, he told him that 
the Emperor had sent for the author of the verses, and that he 
must prepare to start for China immediately. The Minister ex. 
plained that it was not he who was the author of the verses but 
his son-in-law, a boy of thirteen years of age.* "But it is imponi^ 
ble to allow him to go,' added he, " I must go instead." 

When Minister Na went home, he told his wife all that had 
passed, and she agreed with him that so young a boy could not be 
sent on a voyage across the sea of ten thousand It, But Mr. Chh- 
of declared that be must go to China himsel£ " If the Minister 
goes," said he, " the Emperor will put him to all manner of trials 
and examinations, and if he did not answer rightly, calamity would 
surely befal him. But if I go, I shall come back safe." The 
Minister was still reluctant to let Mr. Chkoi encounter the dangers 
of so long a journey. "I am old," said lie, "and even if I lost my 
life there would be no great cause for sorrow. But if Mr. Chhoi 
went, how could I live with my daughter's grief constantly before 
my eyes ?" Then Unyong said, " My husband's ways are not the 
ways of common men. His learning and courage are extraordinary 
and I feel sure he will return safe. Put away anxiety and tell the 
King that he will go." 

The Minister reluctantly gave his consent and going to the 
Palace, told the King that Mr. Chhoi was ready to go to China. 
"He is young in years," said he; "but he will not disgrace his 
country." The King was pleased to hear this and ordered Mr. 
Chhoi to be introduced. "I should have already sent for your 
son- in -law" said the King, "had it not been for this threatened 
invasion, which has given me so much anxitey." 

* A very common age for marriage in Corea. 


Wl»n Mr. Ohhoi enienred the isoyal pmenoe, he i^OBiraied 
hinuBelf on the ground and thanked His Migesty for the himour 
of being admitted to his presenoe. '* What !• your name/' inquired 
the King, <'and what age are you.?'' <<My name is Chhoi Cbhi-wW 
wai the reply, " and I am thirteen yean of age.'' " Do you know " 
continued the King, " what questions will be put to you by the 
Emperor, and how to answer them." " Let not your Majesty be 
anxious," replied Mr. Ohhoi," ** I know that I shall be able to 
answer aoy questions that are put to me." 

Then the King came down from his throne and taking Bir. 
Chhoi by the hand, promised him that during iiis absence he 
would take care of his &mily. He also ordered an outfit to be 
provided him, but Mr. Chhoi refused to accept anything, and only 
asked that he might be furnished with an official cap ififty £Bet 
high, having at each side projecting horns of the same length. 

A lucky day for sailing having been chosen, Mr. Chhoi went 
to the Palace and took leave of the King. Then he went back to 
his house, and bade farewell to Minister Na and his lady, who were 
overcome with grief, and could only say, " Gk> in peace, and return 
to us soon." To his wife Mr. Chhoi gave a stanza he had com- 
posed for her, to which she also replied in verse. Pearly drops 
trickled down her lovely cheeks. " Be careful of yourself," said 
she, " may you have a favourable voyage to China, and may you 
return to me in safety. He tore himself away, and went down to 
the water's edge, where all the court officials had assembled to 
shake him by the hand and bid him farewell. He took leave of all 
the principal Ministers one by one and going on board his ship, set 
sail for China. 

As they sailed over the sea, tbey one day came to a place 
where their ship turned round and could not be made to go any 
further. Then Mr. Chhoi said to the sailors, ''The ship does 
pot ^0 on. What is to be done?" "Underneath that island," x^ 


plied they, "there lives a Dragon King*^ who by his magic power 
holds fast the ships which pass this way, and will not let them 
move UDtil sacrifice is done to him.''^ Mr. Chhoi then ordered 
the sailors to make the ship touch at the island, and landed all by 
himselC He had Dot gone far when a young man in scholar's 
garb came forward, and made obeisance to him with folded arms. 
Mr. Chhoi returned his salute and aeked him who he was. ** My 
name is Imok," replied be, ''and I am the second son of the Dragon 
King who guards these waters. My father, hearing that a scholar 
whose name is known all over the world was passing this way, has 
sent me to invite you to his Palace." Mr. Chhoi answered, " But 
the Dragon King dwells in a Palace under the sea, whereas I am 
a man of the filthy upper world ; how can I go to him V* Imok 
then said, "Elder brother, if you will only get on my back and 
close your eyes, we shall arrive there in the twinkling of an eye." 
Mr. Chhoi obeyed. There was a sound of rushing wind, but only 
for a moment. When Mr. Chhoi opened his eyes he saw before 
him a magnificent palace built of crystal, and the King standing 
at the gale to receive him. They all went in together and found a 
banquet ready prepared. The food and drink was such as is never 
seen among mortal men, and no words can describe the splendour 
of the table utensils. 

Mr. Chhoi thanked the King for his great kindness in inviting 
to the spirit land an idle scholar of the upper world. " I have a 
blockhead of a son," replied the King, " who needs instruction in 
writing; I hope yon will remain with us for a few days and give 
him some lessons in composition." Mr. Chhoi could not ref^ise. 
He staid for several days during which he taught Imok how he 
should study, and then asked leave to take his departure. The 

* 'J he Dragon King, the Jade Emperor and other supernatur- 
al machinery of this story belong to the Taoist mvthology which 
is only another name for llie popular mythology of China, 


Dragon King then ordered his son to accompany his elder brother 
Chhoi and to convey him safely past the dangen of his journey. 
They accordingly set out together. When they reached the place 
where Mr. Chhoi had left his ship, they found the sailors sitting 
on a rock weeping and lamenting, but when they saw him approach 
they ran joyfully to meet him. *' Where have yon been all this 
time V* they exclaimed. Lord * Chhoi told them he had gone to 
the Dragon Palace, and that the King had been so hospitable that 
he had not been able to get away sooner. *^o sooner had you gone 
up the mountain to sacrifice/' said they, ''than a furious wind sprang 
up, and the waves surged heaven-high. The h'ght of day was 
darkened, and it was not till a long time after that the weather be- 
came clear and the billows subsided. We felt sore that your 
sacrifice had miscarried, and that some dreadful calamity had be- 
fallen you. Mr. Chhoi explained to them that this convulsion of 
nature marked the time when he became changed into a spirit in 
order to enter the Dragon Palace. 

When they put to sea again, clouds of bright rainbow tints 
gathered over the mast, and for several days they had a fliir wind 
which made the ship fly on like an arrow. At length they came 
to Bull-ear Island where by reason of a very great drought all the 
trees and herbs had become withered up,and the inhabitants reduced 
to the last extremity. When they heard that an envoy from Siila 
had arrived, they all, old and young, came and knelt before Lord 
Chhoi, beseeching him, and saying, '' All the people of this island 
are in danger of death by starvation owing to the great drought 
We beg you, lilostrious Sir, to pray for rain,t and thereby preserve 

* At this point of the story the original author has thought 
fit to promote his hero, calling him by a title n\ore suited to his 
dignity as ambavador, and which correeponds very roughly to 

t Praying for rain in time of drought is one of the duties of ^ 
Ck^rean Gbveruor at the present time. 


our lives." And they all with one yoice broke into loud lamenta- 
tions, liord Chhoi was touched by the sight of their misery, and 
turning to Imok, said, '' Was there eyer anything so cmel? Gould 
you not, for my 9ake, make a sweet rain to fall for awhile?^ Imok 
replied, " Though I have not the Jade Emperor's * sanction, yet 
I will do so, since you request me." Accordingly he went ashore, 
and disappeared among the hills. Presently dark clouds began 
to gather, the earlh shook with thunder, and a great deluge of run 
came down, which in a short space of time flooded all the low-lying 
ground. But scarcely had Imok returned to the ship, when the 
sky became blacker and tlie thunder louder than ever. Imok, 
who was prepared for something of this kind, swiftly changed him- 
self into a serpent, and coiled himself up under Lord Chhoi's seat 
Then the ThuoderGod came down from the sky, and said to Lord 
Chhoi, " By order of the Jade Emperor, I have come to slay 
Imok. Be pleaned to get up, and stand aside for a little." "But for 
what offence has he incurred punishment from Heayen,'' inquired 
Lord Chhoi. " The people of this island,'' replied the Thunder- 
God, "have failed in their duty towards their parenls and in love 
for their brothers and sisters. They have neglected to pick up the 
grain which had fSedlen to the ground and flung away the residue 
from making chang f and rice-beer. For this Heaven visited them 
with a drought.^. But Imok has presumed, on his own authority, to 
give them rain." " Then the fault is mine, and not his," said I^ord 
Chhoi. "For it was I who persuaded him to pray for lain when 
I saw the people of this island perishing miserably. Slay me, then, 
and not him." " The Jade Emperor instructed me," said the Thun- 
der-God, "not to slay Imok if the rain had been caused by hia com- 
panion Chhoi Chhi-w5n." And he disappeared from sight, upon 

* The Jade Emperor Ls the Supreme Being of the Taoitjta. 
t A kind of condiment made by fermentatiou of a bean, in 
universal use throughout the Far East 


which the weather became fine as before. 

Imok then resumed his original form, and thanked Lord 
'Ohhoi for saving his life. '' You can be no mere mortal" he added, 
* what crime did you commit when in Heaven that you were pu- 
nished by banishment to earth V " I was a chamberlain," answeif- 
ed Lord Chhoi, "in attendance on the Jade Emperor, and I falsely 
reported that some floweis in the Moon -Palace had blossomed, when 
they had not For this I was exiled to earth. But you are of 
Dragon race and can transform yourself at will. May I see an 
example of you art?" "I would do so willingly," replied Imok, 
"but I fear to terrify you." "Why should I fear to see your 
change of shape," said Lord Chhoi, "when I was not frightened by 
the dreadful Majesty of the Thtmder-Qod ?" Imok according went 
away in among the hills and straight-way returning in the form of 
a yellow Dragon, hovered in the air over Lord Chhoi and called 
to him with a loud voice. Lord Chhoi had need of all his courage 
when he saw so fbarful and dangerous a creature. 

Here Imok took his leave. In his form of a yellow dragon, 
he spread out his folds and spoke to the winds and clouds in a 
thunderous voice which made Heaven and Earth to tremble. On 
his path, all the leaves of the trees were shaken to the ground. 

Lord Chhoi, Laving parted with Imok, proceeded alone on his 
way to China. He ordered his sailors to make haste with their 
oarS; and so ere long they an-ived at West River. Here an old 
woman appeared all of a sudden at the ship's bow, and said to Lord 
Chhoi, "I have been expecting you for a long time. Drink 
this rice-beer." She also gave him some cotton wool steeped in 
chang.* " This may seem a trifle," said she, " but you will find it 
usefUL Be careful not to waste or lose it" So saying, she dis- 
appeared from sight 

Day after day they pursued their voyage, and at length came 

* See above, page 22. 

i4 CllHUl-CllHUNGi. 

to the Island of NeuDg-won where they fouDd an old man sitting 
on the river-bank. He called to Lord Chhoi, and said, " Where 
are you bound for, learned 6ir7" ''To China," replied Lord 
Chhoi, ''If you go to China," continued the old man, "you will be 
exposed to great danger, and will hardly return in safety." Lord 
Chhoi bowed low, and asked him how that mightbe. " When you 
haye gone on for five days more," said the old man, " you will see 
a beautiful woman sitting by the river-side holding a mirror in her 
left hand, and in her right a jewel. Address her with the greatest 
respect and she will reveal to you all that is to befidl you." Hard- 
ly had he said these words, when he vanished from sight, to Lord 
Chhoi's no small wonder. 

For five days more they went on without stop or stay, and 
then, as they had been told, saw a beautiM damsel sitting on the 
river's bank. Lord Chhoi went up to her, and saluted her courte- 
ously. " Where are you going," said she, " and what is your busi- 
ness." Lord Chhoi told her, and she then said to him, " When 
you go to China, the Emperor will want to do you a mischief. At 
each of the eight palace gates you will be put to strange trials, and 
you must not be ofi* your guard for a single moment." Then, tak- 
ing some talismans from a brocade pouch, she added, "When you 
come to the first gate, throw down the green talisman, at tlie 
second throw down the red talisman, at the third, the white talis- 
man, at the fourth, the black talisman, and at the fifth, the yellew 
tilismau. At the other gates, questions will be put to you hard to 
answer, but if you answer them aright the dangers which threaten 
you will be averted." Before she had finishing speaking, she be- 
came invisible. 

When Lord Chhoi arrived at the capital, he was met by a man 
in scholar's garb, who said to him. " The Sun and Moon are sus- 
pended from Heaven, but from what is Heaven 8U»])ended ?" 
l^rd Chhoi replied, " The mountains and waters rest upon the 


Earth, but on what does the Earth rest?" To this the scholar 
was unable to give any answer. Seeing that he had to do with a 
man of great talent he inquired who he was, and went and report- 
ed his arriyal to the Emperor. 

Then at each of the gates of the Imperial Palace, extra- 
ordinary preparations were made for Lord Chhoi's destruction. 
At the first gate, a deep pit-fall was dug : at the second there was 
to be a terrific crash of discordant music : at the third, an elephant 
was concealed behind a screen of rich embroidery. Lord Ohhoi 
was then invited to come in. He put on his fifty feet official cap, 
and presented himself at the gate, where the projecting horns 
caught so that he could not enter. Looking up to Heaven with a 
smile, he said. "In our Small Country, the Palace Oates are high 
enough to admit me, how is it that the Palace Gkite of the Great 
Country is so low ? " When the Emperor heard this, he was 
ashamed, and ordered the gate to be pulled down so that Lord 
Chhoi might be admitted. Lord Chhoi then entered, and flung 
down the talismans one after another, as the maiden had told 
him. When he flung down the third talisman, it suddenly be- 
came transformed into a serpent, which futened itself to the ele- 
phants trunk, so that he could not open his mouth. 

All the dangers of these gates having been surmounted, Lord 
Chhoi came to a place where there were several tens of learned 
pundits standing in line to right and left who vied with one 
another who should put him the most difficult questions. But he 
answered them all in vene, fi:eely as flowing water, without the 
smallest hesitation or delay. Then they looked at him in amaze- 
ment and vied with one another who should pay him the most 
elaborate compliments. 

Now when the Emperor heard that he had entered safely, he 
wondered greatly, and ordered Lord Chhoi to be admitted to his 
presence. L rd Chhoi prostrated himself a long way from the 

26 CHHOI<»HUN0. 

Emperor, but he was invited to come forward and to take a Mat 
on the raised dais beside him. " Are you really the person who 
discoYered the contents of the stone easket ? " nsked the Empecor. 
Lord Chhoi answered that he was. "What noises and what 
strange sights did you observe," further inquired the Emperor, 
*'as you passed through the palace gates? " Lord Ohhoi replied 
that he had noticed nothing unusual. The Emperor then sent 
for the musicians and asked them why they had played no music 
when Lord Chhoi entered the Palace. The guardians of the gates 
then said that they had prepared discordant music and fearful 
sights, as directed, but that a number of men in red garmasts with 
iron staves in their hands had told them to desist, as an honour- 
able guest was expected, and they must Bot make a disreqiiectftil 

The Emperor then proposed to Chhi*w5n* all manner of dif- 
ficult subjects for composition in verse and he replied on the qpot 
by making hundreds of suitable stanzas. Each letter was gold 
and embroidery, each line was jade and precious stones. The 
style of composition, vast as the ocean, extorted the admiration of 
the Emperor and his Court 

To try him farther, the Emperor next placed in a bowl some 
poisoned rice on the top of which he laid four grains of unbailed 
paddy. For condiment, oil was set before him. 

When Lord Chhoi saw the ' four grains of unhuUed rioe^' he 
knew at once that they stood for ' who are you/ the Corean words 
for these two phrases bdng the same. So he raised his voice to its 
highest pitch, and shouted, " I am a scholar of the Land of Silla, 
and my name is Chhoi Chhi-won," to the Emperor's great amuse- 
ment and admiration. 'But what a pity,' continued Lord Chhoi, 

* Chhi-wSn is the personal (our Christian) name by which 
the Emperor would address Chhoi as an Inferior. 


" that in the Great Oouutry you have no chang to eat with your 
rioe." In the Small Country, we use chang as a oondiment, and 

The Emperor, seeing that Lord Ghhoi left untasted the rice 
which had been set before him inquired the reason. Lord Chhoi 
replied, " Your servanf b country is only a Small Country, but it is 
ruled by law. If I were guilty of an offence, I should deserte 
punishment, more or less severe, according to its heinousnen. In 
our country we do not put to death innocent subjects of another 
State by secret treachery." *' What do you mean ? " said the Em* 
peror. Upon which Lord Chhoi answered " A bird, sitting on the 
roo( has told your servant that this rice is poisoned and would be 
death to any one who partook of it." The Emperor smiled, 
** You are really a Heavenly Spirit," said he, and ordtted a rich 
banquet to be set before him. 

After this the pundits of the Emperor's Court all a«embled, 
and challenged him to a competition in writing venes. But there 
was none of them who could at all compare with him. This made 
the Emperor very angry and he banished Lord Chhoi to an uoin- 
habited island, where no food of any kind was to be had« But 
Ix)rd Chhoi sucked the cotton wool dipped in chang which the 
old woman had given him and felt no need of more substantial 

Many days passed, and at length a scholar who had been sent 
by the Emperor to see what had become of him came and called 
* Lord ChhoL' Lord Chhoi knew what he had come for, so he 
made answer in a feeble voice, bringing out his words with dif« 
ficulty. The messenger then departed, and on his return to Court 
informed the Emperor that Chhi-w5n was nearly dead, for he had 
hardly replied to him in a feeble voice. " In that case he cannot 
long survive," said the Emperor, and he and his Court were 
delighted at the news. 


Now at this time Enyoys from the barbarians of the South, 
on their way with tribute to China, touched at the island where 
Lord Chhoi had been abandoned. Here they saw a crowd of 
scholar with Lord Chhoi in their midst^ chanting verses. A 
cloud of all the colours of the rainbow had gathered over them. 
Lord Chhoi gave the Envoys a vene which he had composed and 
asked them to present it to the Emperor when they arrived in 
China. When the Emperor saw it> he exclaimed, ''This is beyond 
a doubt the writing of Chhoi Chhi-wdn. It is now three years 
since he wai left on that island. How can he have been kept 
alive all this time ? " Wondering greatly how this could be, he 
sent another messenger to see Lord Chhoi and make report how 
he was. When the messenger arrived at the island, he saw him 
under a firtree taking his ease in company with a number of 
youths in green garments. A white deer was standing beside him. 
The messenger called out in a loud voice * Chhi-wdn. * " What 
man are you," replied Lord Chhoi, " who dares to call me by my 
name? Of what crime, have I, the Envoy of a foreign state, been 
guilty that I should be abandoned on a desert island, and treated 
with such contumely ? Go back and say so to your Emperor." 

The Emperor was greatly astonished, and said, ** Truly he 
must be a Spirit from Heaven. Qo again and invite him cour- 
teously to come to me." 

Thii time the messenger delivered to Lord Chhoi a written 
invitation from the Emperor. He bowed repeatedly on receiving 
it, and said, " The great officials of China enjoy high rank but 
they do not practice learning; they are small men who use 
flattery to their sovereign. How can they last long." So say- 
ing, he flung a talisman to the ground, which became straight- 
way changed into an azure dragon which took Lord Chhoi on 
its back, and springing into the air, soared across the sky. The 


messenger took to his ship in terror, and hastened away with all 
the speed of his oars. 

Lord Chhoi were courteously received by the Emperor, who 
inquired after his welfare and said to him, '* All the land under 
tiie sun belongs to me, and you are therefore one of my subjects. 
Will you not stay in China, and serve me?" Lord Chhoi drew a 
talisman from his sleeve and flung it into the air. It immediately 
became changed into a raiobow, on which Lord Chhoi took his 
seat and said, ''Does this place too belong to your Majesty? 
Your Majesty's Ministers and servants," continued he, "are all 
small men, whose service is flattery and there is not a single loyal 
true hearted man among them. How should I become one of 
them ? " The Emperor blushed for shame, and the faces of his 
Courtiers turned to an earthy pallor as they looked at one another. 
After this lime, he was treated with invariable respect and court- 

One day Lord Chhoi said to the Emperor, '* It is a long time 
since I left my own country, and 1 would now ask leave to take 
my departure." The Emperor was loath to let him go, but could 
think of no excuse for detaining him longer. So Lord Chhoi bade 
him farewell, and taking a talisman from his sleeve, threw it on 
the ground. It was at once turned into a green lion, which took 
Lord Chhoi on its back and soared away through the air while the 
Emperor and his Court looked on in the greatest amazement 

Uny5ng's joy was great at the return of her husband, but it 
was clouded by the news she bad to give him of the death of her 
father and mother whom they both lamented deeply. She herself 
had changed greatly during his absence. Her hair was white, and 
she had become an old woman. But Lord Chhoi gave her an elijiir 
from the Spirit Land which in the space of one night made her a 
blooming girl again with a complexion like the peach-blossom. 

Now Lord Chhoi said one day to his wife, " The things of 


this world are always changing, and it is a filthy plaoe, unfit for as 
to dwell in. Let us give np all our worldly possessions and go 
away from here." So they sent for the Minister's relations, and 
gave over to them all their property, and the charge of the sacrifi- 
ces to their ancestors. Then going out from the hcus •, they sud- 
denly vanished from sight to the wonder of all beholdem. They 
went to Mount Kaya and returned no more. 

In the years Chong«t5k (1506-1621), however, a woodcutter 
went up this mountain driving an ox before him and carrying his 
hatchet in his hand. There he fell in with a scholar who was 
sitting under a firtree playing gobang with a number of priests who 
were assembled round him. He stood for a while leaning on his 
axe and watching their game, until the handle of the axe, eaten 
by worms, gave way. He looked up startled and saw that it was 
already morniug. Then the scholar ofiered him some cotton wool 
steeped in chang which he put to his lips and tasted but did not 
swallow. ** If you will not eat it," said the scholar, ** depart from 
here at once." 

The woodman went to the place were he had tied up his ox, 
but there was nothing left of it, but some white bones. All the 
flesh had rotted away, and become earth. Surprised and bewilder- 
ed, he made his way home where he was told that the master of the 
house was dead and that the three years' mourning for him was just 

The woodman then knew that the scholar whom he had met 
on Mt Kaya could be none other than Chhoi Chi-w6n. He after- 
wards went up the mountain and sacrificed to him, when his 
face appeared for a moment like a shadow and he was no more 


About the time that England was being torn in pieces by the 
rivalries of the Saxons and Nonnans, that is to say more than eight 
hundred years ago, there lived at the court of the Mikado, an official 
of an enquiring turn of mind, named Minamoto no TakakunL 
This man was in the habit of retiring from the court during the 
summer and spending the hot months in the rooma attached to 
the temple of Uji near Kioto. ' 

There, we are told, he was to be found dressed in a n^lig^e 
style, lying on the mats, watching the passers by whom he would 
frequently call in, requesting them to tell him a story. And as 
the passers by were of varied ranks of life so the stories also varied, 
"some are noble, some are sad, some are dirty, some true, some 
made up." Tales from India and China are to be found. 

The tales thus gathered were formed into a book, but some, it 
appears, were omitted, and these were afterwards collected, added 
to and published under the title of the Uji 8hai Monogatari, or 
the Tales omitted from the IJQi Collection. The exact date of 
publication is unknown. 

A vivid picture of life more than eight hundred yean ago 
must be of interest to every student of national characteristic^ 
and there is one point in which they form a curious contrast t» 
the tales of other countries, such as the Arabian Nights or Grimm's 
Fairy Tales^ and that is that the moti^ so to speak, of love does 
not enter into these tales. It is difficult for Europeans to imagine 
a book containing about two hundred short stories, in none of 
which there is a love plot, but the peculiarly complicated sensation 


known as "love** does not appear ever to have had very much 
attraction for the Japanese mind. 

My attention was fiist called to the TJQi Shui Monogatari by 
an arlicle in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society* in which the 
writer asserted that one of the stories was unmistakably the same 
as an Irish legend and therefore one of the oldest traditions of 
the human race, belonging to the " most ancient cycle of Turanian 
legend, which may have existed all over Asia and Europe in times 
long antecedent to the dawn of history." 

The writers of the article was apparently not well acquainted 
with the Japanese language and suggested that a translation of 
the Uji stories would be of interest Without wishing to enter 
into the question as to whether there is a world embracing cycle of 
legend I still thought it worth while to get the book. It was quite 
beyond my powers of reading Japanese, but during the oonforoed 
leisure of a homeward voyage, a highly educated Japanese lady 
who was with nie kindly dictated some of the tales. There are a 
few ambiguous sentinces but I have as far as possible made a 
fJEUthful translation. 



In India there lived a deer whose skin was of the five coloun 
and whose horns were white. He dwelt in the recesses of the 
mountains and no one knew of his existence. Near the mountains 
flowed a great river. A crow also lived on the mountains who 
was very friendly with the deer. It happened that a man fell into 
the river and as he was drowning be called out—" Save me I " The 

* Volume m. Page 62. 

t The number refers to the number of the tale in the original* 


deer hearing him was filled with pity and swimming out into the 
river saved him. 

The man rejoiced in being saved and rubbed his hands to- 
gather saying, " How can I show my gratitude ?" 

The deer answered, "I only ask that you will never tell 
anyone of my existence in these mountains. As I am of the five 
colours if any one knew of my existence they would cross the 
river and I should be killed : it is my fear that makes me live in 
the recesses of these mountains. No one knows of me, but when 
I heard your cry, forgetting where I was going, I went to your 
help." The man seeing this was true, promised, again and yet 
again, never to tell any one. And he returned to his village and 
though days and months passed he told no one. 

Now the Queen of the country dreamt a dream in which she 
saw a deer of the five colours with white burns. Waking from 
her sleep she told the King that she had dreamt such and such a 
dream, and she said to him — *' Now this deer must exist. Oh, 
King I make search for it and give it to me.'' 

Then the King issued an order that if any one found the deer 
of the five colours, gold, silver and precious stones, with land, 
should be given to him. 

Now when the man, who had been saved, heard the King's 
command he went to the Court and said, 

''The coloured deer for whom you seek lives in the recesses 
of the mountains: send huntsmen with me for I know the place." 
The King greatly pleased went forth to the mountaias himself 
taking many huntsmen with him and the man went as guide. 

The deer was lying in a oave and knew nothing of this : but 
the friendly crow, seeing what was happening, called out and 
pecked his ear, and said, 

" The King of the country is coming with many huntsmen to 
kill you : he has surrounded the mountains there is no escape. 


What is to be done I " and weeping he flew away. 

The startled deer walked up to the place where the King was 
with his huntsmen ; they fixed their arrows and prepared to 
shoot But the King said, ''There must be some reason for the 
deer coming thus unfrightened. Do not shoot 1" 

The deer drew near and knelt down in front of the king's 
palanquin, and said, '' Because of the colour of my skin I hare 
lived thus in the mountains: Oh, King I how came you to know 
my dwelling place?" 

Then the King answered, *' The man with the q>ot on his 
face, who stands beside my carriage, told me." 

The deer seeing the man who stood beside the carriage knew 
that it was he whom he had saved, and said to him, 

" When I saved your life you said that you could not repay 
me, then I asked you not to tell any one of my existence; and you 
swore again and again not to do so. Now forgetting your obliga- 
tion you come to kill me. When you were drowning in the water 
I swam across to save you, taking no thought of my own life : Do 
you remember your boundless joy? So saying the deer wept 
tears of anger. Then the King also weeping, said, *' You are 
only an animal yet you showed mercy and saved this man : he 
froui desire of gain forgets his obligation : therefore we must call 
him an animal. It is the duty of a man to show gratitude." 

Seizing the man they cut off his head in the presence of the 
deer. Then the King said, 

"From now it is forbidden to hunt deer : and if anyone kills a 
single deer, disobeying this command, he shall suffer capital 
punishment" And there was peace and prosperity in the land. 



LoDg ago, as a pilgrim was on his way to Tsu, darkness came 
on and he took refuge in the large old temple of Ryu-sen-ji. 

There was do one in it for it was not, like most temples, a 
place for people to stay in, but there was no other refuge near. 
'"It cannot be helped" thought the pilgrim and taking his 
bundle from his back he entered, saying the customary prayer to 
Fudo. Just about midnight he heard the sound of many voices 
and, behold 1 a hundred demons each holding a light, entered the 
temple. Looking closely one saw that they were of various 
kinds ; some had but one eye; they were indeed not mortals but 
terrible creatures. Some were indescribable monsters with horns 
sticking out of their heads. They were indeed terrible but 
there was no escape. They all sat down excepting one, for whom 
there was no room. [Here the narrative changes into the first 
person and the pilgrim says] — '^ The demon looked at me care- 
fully and said— You new Mr Fudo, who are occupying my plac^ 
just for this evening go outside I and lifting me carefully 
by one hand he placed me under the eaves of the temple. 
When dawn broke the demons shouting at each other went away. 
It was truly terrible. 

When the wished for dawn at length came, on looking round 
there was no temple visible: only a wide pathless plain with 
nothing to point out the direction I wished *o take. I saw a 
number of men coming along on horsebadk. On asking them 
"Where does this road lead to?" they said '* Why do you ask? 
This is Hizen." Was not this a terrible thing T [He thought he 
was in quite a different part of the country]. On the pilgrim telling 
it to the horsemen they also thought it very marvellous. They 


said, " This is the depth of the country in Hizen. We are now 
golDg to the castle/' 

And the pilgrim said to them, much delighted, " As I do not 
know the road I will go with you." 

They directed him how to get to Kioto, and hiring a boat he 
arrived there. 

Now did ever such a dreadful thing happen to a man before : 

to take refuge in the Byu-sen-ji of I^u, there to meet with demons 

to be told, because the place was too small to hold them all, 

" Now Mr Fudo just sit under the eave^ for a little" and to be 

picked up and put outside. Then to find himself in an out of the 

way part of Hizen I 

When he arrived at Kioto he told what had happened to him. 


The foUovdng story has the same mixture of the marvelloua 
and the humorous. The scene is laid in China where the legend 
teUs, a long time ago there was a mountaiu on the top of which 
stood a name-tablet That is the ancestral tablet used in Ohineue 
worship and known in Japanese as Sotoba. 

Long ago in China, there was a high mountain, on the top of 
which was a large name tablet. 

In a village at the foot of the mountain there lived an old 
woman of eighty who every day without &il went up the mountain 
to where the tablet stood. As it was a great high mountain, the 
road from the foot to the summit was long and steep : yet, in spite 
of snow and wind, thunder, ice and wet, through the trying heat 
of summer, without mi&siiig one day, up she climbed. The people 

* In Japanese Sotoba. 


knew nothing about this, except the young men and boys wha 
climbed the mountain to enjoy the breese that blew on the top^ 
they could see the old woman wiping the sweat from her brow aa 
she toiled upwards, with bent back, leaning on her stick. 

" She has come to worship '* they said. 

But, not once but often, they saw her walk round the tablet 
and ^0 away without having worshipped. 

"What can she be taking such pains about? To-day if w» 
meet her we will ask her." 

And so when the old woman came crawling up as usual they 
said to her, ''Why do you come up heref We come up this 
dreadful road to seek for coolness but it is not for that you come 
up : nor yet for anything in particular and yet you climb up every 
day. It is a strange thing for a woman to do 1 Tell us why do 
you do it f ' " Well to be sure I '* said the old woman, " You must 
be surprised ! My coming up to the tablet is not a thing of yester- 
day. I have come up to see it every day since I was of an age 
to understand anything, during more than seventy years." 

''But why do you do this strange thing?'' they asked. 

She answered them. "My parents died at a hundred and 
twenty and my grandparents lived to more than two hundred— 
they told me that when bl<y>d was seen on the tablet this mountain 
would crumble away and become a deep sea. 80 my father told 
me. And as I live at the foot of the mountain I shall certainly 
be smothered if it crumbles away : so every day I come up to see it 
there is blood on it, in order that I may flee in good time." 

Hearing this the young men laughed and cried out-*- 

"What a dreadful thing I Be sure and tell us when the 
mountain is going to &\\ I ^ 

The old woman then said, not understanding that they 

I laughing at her, 

"Of coune I should never think of e8capingalone,Ishould tell 


tyervone," and the went down tfie mountain. 

uaughing the young men said, ** She won't come op again 
to-day : tomorrow we will make her fly astonished." And they 
daubed the tablet with blood Then returning to the village they 
said to the people, "As it is very odd that the old womsn should 
go up every day to the name-tablet on the mountain -top, we 
asked her about it and she told us that when the tablet was cover- 
ed with bU.od the mouotain would crumble away and become a 
deep sea. So we, to give her a fright, have put blood on th« 
tablet'' And the villagers laughed and thought it all nonsense. 

So when the old woman went up next day she found blood 
on the tablet Turning pale she fell on the ground with fright 
Then she ran back calling — 

''Villagers I Escape I Escape quickly I Save your liveil 
The mountain is going to crumble and become a deep sea." 

After telling the news to every one she returned to her own 
house and making her children and grandchildren take theii 
household goods on their backs, she also helping, they escaped to 
another village. The men who had smeared the tablet with blood 
clapped their iiauds; laughing and jeering they cried, ''Now 
what is to htkppeu 7 Will the wind blow ? Will the thunder 
come f " Stxange to say as they spok^^the sky became black and 
lowering and the mountain shook. 

" What is happening I What is happening I " they cried out 
as the mountain began to tremble. 

" The old woman is right I " they cried and they fled groan- 
ing and weeping. Some escaped but some lost their parents and 
ot)>ei8 their children, and all lost their household goods. 

'^n\j the old wc^man with her children and grand ddldren 
escaped quietly and lost nothing. And the mountain fell and 
became a deep sea ; and those who had jeered and laughed all 
perished. Truly they had done a foolish thing. 



Long ago in the time of Engi there was a drought, so, the 
Mikado sending for axtj priests caused them to read prayers. 
The priests, cansing clouds of incense to rise prayed for a sign, 
but there was no break in the weather, the sun burnt fiercely, 
and from the Mikado downwards, the highest officials, the farmen 
and the common people, all were in great distress. 

Calling for the head official of the household the Mikado 
ordered him to send for Jokau Sojo and to tell him how the 
prayers of the other priests had been in yain. Jokan retiiing, 
stood by the wall and prayed. 

Now as there were three grades of priests above Jokan, to be 
thus summoned was a great honour for him. Coming df iwa the 
steps of the south palace he stood facing the north and it was 
painful to the onlookera to see him raise the incense burner to his 
forehead. Being a hot day the incense did not at first kindle but 
as he wept and prayed it rose to the sky in a black cloud. The 
Emperor's personal attendants were assembled in the stubh palace; 
the nobles looked on from the Yuba palace; the lords wa ching 
from the Bifuku gate. As they watched, the cloud gradually 
covered the sky, thunder and lightning filled the universe, and 
heavy rain descending, the earth at once became wet There was 
a good crop of the five grains and all the trees bore fruit So 
every one believed in Jokan and there was a general rejoidog. 
Jokan was raised to a higher rank. 

As it waa a strange thing 1 write it down for the benefit of 
fntare genezationa. 



In Tamba, there lived an old nun who heaid that the Buddha 
Jizo walked abroad at dawn. Hoping to see him she rose at break 
of day and wandered to and &o. It so happened that a disrepu- 
table looking gambler met her and asked her. — "Sister, what ai« 
you doing out in the cold T " 

She' answered,^'' Hearing that Jls> walfai at dawn I haT6 
come to meet him." 

*'I know where he walks," said the man, " come with mt 
and I will show you." 

" How joyful," cried the nun, *' take me to the place." 

"Giye me something? " said the man, ''and I will show yoa 
the place where he is to be found." 

"I will give you the dress I wear," the nun replied. 

^ Glome then," said the man, and he lead her to a plaot near 

Now the gambler knew the parents of a child called Jisoio 
he took her to their house, and he asked, " Where is Jizo T " 

The parents of the child said — ** He is not here. He has goat 
out to play. He will soon return." 

** This is where Jizo walks," said the man to the nun : jo3rftill7 
she took off her silk dress and gave it to the gambler who hurried 
off with it 

'' I have come to see Jizo " said the nun to the parents, who 
were astonished at any one thus wishing to nee their child. 

At that moment a boy of about ten years of age came to tht 
door. " This is Jizo " said the parents. The nun immediately fbil 
on her knees, bowing her head to the ground. 

The boy held in his hand some gra^s with which he had cut 


himself straight down his forehead, and from the gushing wound 
the unspeakably blissful face of Jizo appeared. 

The nun gazing, worshipped more and more and with tears in 
her eyes she continued to adore him and then dying she went 
straight to Paradise. We must believe that to those who earnestly 
pray the Buddha does appear. 


" Long ago, in the country of Sanyoda b ordering on the in- 
land sea of Japan, the gods Chusan and Koya were worshipped by 
the people. Koya was a snake and Ohu^an was a monkey. At 
the yearly festival held in honour of these gods a human sacrifice 
was offered up. And always a maiden of fine form, with long 
hair, and a white skin, and of pleasing deportment was chosen. 

Now it happened, as in ancient times without fail, such a 
maiden was chosen much to the sorrow of her parents. 

** We must submit " said they, " yet the relationship of pareLt 
an 1 child has been ordained in a former state. One does not dis- 
like even an unsatisfactory child, while one that is perfectly praise- 
w(n'thy is dearer than life itself. Yet we must submit I '' The 
8 >rrowful days passed away one by one, and the lime the parents 
and the child had together became shorter and shorter. 

While they wept and counted the days there came wandering- 
into the neighbourhood a man from Azuma. He was a hunter oT 
greut strength and valiant of heart He could kill even the wild 
hog when it is maddened with anger. Arriving at the abode of 
the father he talked with him, and the father said — 

" I spend my days in perpetual grie^ for ray only daughter 
has been chosen for the saoiiiice. What sin can I have committed 


in a former state that I now should meet with sach adversity and 
my daughter have to undergo an unexpected and terrible death ? 
It is most sad and lamentable I Moreover, unlike me, my daughter 
ia very charming/^ The man from Azuma made answer — 

* There is nothing one values more than life, therefore we fear 
theGrods. Do not give the sacrifice: give the girl to ma To 
offer her up before the gods would be as dreadful as to see an only 
daughter chopped to pieces before one's eyes. Give her to me " — 
he earnestly pleaded. 

" Truly I " the father replied, " I would rather give her to you 
than see her die a painful death." 

Then the Knight of Azuma went to where the mail I en sat; 
and he saw that she was beautiful. Bending pensively she studied 
the art of writing, while the tears dropped on her sleeve. She 
seemed ashamed that anyone should see her with her hair hanging 
down and wet^ as was also her face, with tears. As she looked 
round it was evident that she was indeed an elegant woman, dig- 
nified and lovely, unlike a country child. 

The Knight firom Azuma when he looked upon her was filled 
with sorrow. 

Then he said to the parents — " One thing alone troubles me, 
that IB, it would grieve me if yon were to come to harm on her 
account." And the parents answered, ''Even if we should die 
in order that she might live it is no matter : our lives are of no 
value : do not consider us but act as you think best." 

" Let the sacrifice be made," said the Knight, and strictly he 
charged them to let no one enter the house : he also forbade them 
to let it be known that he was there. 

And as he lived there hidden with the maiden, he chose from 
among the dogs, that for years had lived in the mountains, the 
two wisest^ these he taught every day to catch and eat a monkey. 


Even without training, the dog and the monkey are enemies, so 
that if a dog sees a monkey he flies at it and catches it and de- 
vours it. 

Morning and evening the Knight sharpened his sword and 
talked with the maiden. 

" What lay between us in a former life? " he asked, " that I 
should thus die for you. But what care I for life if it can be 
given up for you ! Ouly it gives me pain to think that we shall 
be parted.'' 

Then mournfully the maiden answered, "Alas that I should 
give you such anxiety." 

And so the time went by until the day of the festival arrived. 
Then came the priests (Shinto) to the house of the maiden bearing 
a long new box : and a crowd ol people came with them making 
a great noise. 

" Place the sacrifice in the box according to custom/' cried 
the priests. 

*' Do exactly as I tell you," whispered the Knight to the 
maiden. And secretly he and the two hounds hid themselves in 
the box. Patting the dogs as they crouched beside him he whis- 
pered to them, '* I have caressed and fed you from day to day 
now yon must save my life.'' 

The sword which he had daily sharpened was placed in his 
l\^nd : the lid of the box was shut down and a cloth was sewn 
round it : then the box was given back to the priests as if the 
maiden was in it And they set forth from the house carrying 
■pears and mirrors, waving branches of the sakaki, and ringing 
bells, as is ordained by the priests, and there was much ado. 

But the maiden wept when she saw the Knight carried thus 
away in her place: and with sorrow she thought of the fate, as 
yet unknown, that would fall upon her parents. 

But they said to her. '* We care not whether we live or die." 


The sacrifice was brought to the door of the temple, the priesti 
chanting prayers. And the door leading into the place of the 
gods was opened and the box put in : then the door was shut 
Outeide stood the chief -priest and others in a row. 

Meanwhile the Knight, with the point of his sword, cut a 
hole in the box, and looking through it he saw indescribably 
great monkeys with red faces and white hair, sitting all round the 
room. There were at least two hundred sitting in rows, to the 
right and to the left, with fierce eye-browa and red faces : and in 
the midst oi them stood a great chopping- board and on it lay a 
long knife; and all round it stood bottles which apparently con- 
tained yinegar, sauce and iaiL 

The other monkeys crowded round while the greatest of them 
all untied the cords and opened the box. 

Then the Kuight shouted, *' At them, hounds!" And the 
dogs dashed out and seized the big monkey and would hare 
killed him ; but the Knight sprang out of fhe box waving his 
sword which was as sharp as ice, an i dashed the great monkey on 
to the chopping-board, crying, *^ This is the £&te of all those who 
have killed and eaten human beings : I will cut off your head 
and give it to the dogs.'' The monkey gnashed its teeth and 
blinked its eyes and prayed for mercy ; but the Knight took no 
heed. Again he shouted, " For many years you have eaten the 
childrea of men, so now I cut off your head I '' 

Then the other monkeys fled in crowds to the trees, scream- 
ing, and followed by the dogs. There was such an up-roar even 
the earth was up-set and the mountains echoed. 

Then the god spoke by the mouth of the chief-priest and 
said, *' From to-day I will not demand this sacrifice : I do not 
think it right to take away human life, so from hence-forth I 
shall not accept of it. As for the relations oi the victim I shall 
do them no harm, on the contrary, I shall become the protector of 


their descendants. All I ask is, hear mj prayer, grant me life, I 
truly repent Spare me I " 

Then the priests followed by the people crowded into the 
temple : they were all greatly surprised and there was a great 
tumult " Only pardon the god, he has spoken well," cried the 
priests. But the Koight answered, ^* Don't be deceived, he is a 
rogue I This god who has taken the lives of the people, I shall 
make him repent I" and he prepared to cut ofi the monkey's head 

But again the priests came forward and prayed that the god 
might be pardoned and declared that henceforth no human being 
should be sacrificed, and at last the Knight relented. 

From that time no sacrifices were offered in the land but 
those of wild hog aud deer. 

The Knight married the maiden and took her with liim to his 
own country; where, being a man of good position, they lived in 
^reat comfort 


I propose to gire you a few extracts from the Keicai Boko, a 
work on Political Economy written by Dazai Jon. 

This work was one among two or three suggested at a Oooncil 
Meeting of this Society as a suitable subject for a paper to read ut 
one of its meetings, by our Chairman Sir Ernest Satow, KC.M.G. 
It was pointed out to liim by one of the ooundl that such a 
subject as Political Economy should be tteated by a member with 
a special knowledge of the subject, but as Sir Ernest did not con- 
sider that the Political Economy of Dazai's time required as an 
exponent, a student oi John Stuart Mill, or any other authority 
on the Modem Science, I have yentured to undertake the work 
mysell ^ 

The Prefiice states that Dazai came from lida in Shinshiu, 
and in his youth with his father visited Yeddo on a pleasure trip. 
When nearly fUll grovra he took service with the Daimyo of 
Idzushi. For many years he was ill, and thrice begged to be 
excused from further service, but as his request was not granted^ 
he left without permission, and in punishment was condemned to 
confinement^ that is to say he was prohibited from taking sarrice 
elsewhere, upon which he went to Kyoto. . 

^or about ten years or so he drifted aboac the five provinces^ 
.<ntii the ban was taken off, when he returned to Yeddo, and 
studied under the funous Sorai, until his teacher's death. His 
chief studies were the works of Confucius, and other Chinese 
sages. He in turn became a teacher himself with Daimyos and 
people of all ranks as pupils who it is said were as much afraid of 
liiiii as if he were the Tycoon. But though mingliag with the 
lii^ihest of the land he never sought for personal aggrandizements 


The following story is related of him, when he was tutor to 
the son of the Daimyo I^amura. On Dazai's first risit to his 
pupil the young man did not come to meet or see him off. Dazai 
was vexed and said " A lowly samurai ought to have no pride 
in connection with a high personage, but I teach the learning of 
the Sages. If a person, even though he be a king or Daimyo, 
honours the teachings he must not neglect the ceremonies. Your 
reception of me was very casual. This is not treating me uncere- 
moniously, but it is dishonouring the teaching. I have no wish 
to see any one who does not honour the teaching." 

Dazai was born 220 years ago, and died when 68 years old. 
He was author of a very large number of books. His Keizai K )ku 
might perhaps be better called "Social" than *Tolitical Economy." 
It treats of Music ; Etiquette ; Public Office ; Astronomy ; Calen- 
dars ; G^eography; Food and Riches; Worship; Learning; Cere- 
monial Dress ; Ceremonial Processions ; The Army ; Law ; Punish- 
ment; Divination, etc. To give some idea of the author and his 
writings I have translated part of the Essay on Music. 

Music originated in man's pleasure. Music is called pleasure 
because it causes pleasure in man's heart. Music and pleasure are 
the same Chinese character. As men are living things they need 
something with which to pass the time. If they have nothing to 
do for even a short time they are sure to become selfish and bad. 
If men have any occupation for passing the time they will use it 
and be pleased in their hearts. But if it is difficult to pass the time 
in an ordinary way then the heart becomes sad and lonely. 
According to the occupation of the heart it is dull or otherwisei 
Then (at that time) to sing and lift up the voice eases the mind. 
To sound strings or reeds drives away dullness and causes joy. 
This is the ordinary state of man's mind. Again at banquets and 
such like if there is only eating and drinking while day turns to 


dark and night to light this is not enough to cause rejoicing. 
There must be songs, dances and music to please the host and 
guest and to pass the time pleasantly. This trait in man's heart 
always exists. 

Music calms the heart of man. Etiquette originates in severe 
respect If etiquette is pure then the relations of mankind be- 
tween lord and retainer, parent and child, husband and wife, 
brothers and friends are only severe and respectful, and kindli 
ness of heart is easily lost Music has its origin in peace. Its use 
causes peace in lord and retainer, high and low, parent and 
children, and among relations. In ancient times because music 
was always used in ceremonies peace was honoured. It was 
because in music etiquette was always considered that respect was 
upheld. Some times again in entertaining a guest ceremonial bow 
shooting was performed, or perhaps the pastime of throwing 
arrows into a jar. Here again music was used to increase the 
pleasure and balance the etiquette. To balance etiquette is to beat 
time. In grand ceremonies the advancing, receding, slowness or 
quickness were all according to time, and this beating of time was 
all to the sound of music The same as for instance if in a priest's 
house a rite of Buddhism is being performed the time for advancing, 
standing up, and stopping is set by the striking of gongs or drums. 
Therefore in all important ceremonies music must be used. 
Mankind generally must have some kind of amusement By 
amusement gloom is driven away and the spirit moved. For this 
purpose nothing equals music. In all heaven and earth, from the 
Middle Kingdom to every foreign country there is no country 
without music' ^But barbarians are influenced by their local 
environment In all places where man's mind is not quite upright 
the majority of the songs and music is not good. Even in the 
middle kingdom in Teii ; Eii ; Sdkan and Bokujo the music is of 
a very vulgar type. Only from the refined music of the former 


kings has come the pure music of heaven and earth. This is the 
true note of peace. Music generally affects the heart of man in a 
peculiar way. For instancf*, hearing vulgar music makes the heart 
of man fall and become lazy and wicked. 

If refined music is used then the heart will become good and 
in accord with the centre of peace. This is a mystery of heaven. 
In the works of Confucius we find " In the change of customs, for 
making a change from the vulgar nothing is better than music." 
To-day it is just the same as in ancient times. 

Vulgar music makes vulvar people, refined music makes the 
customs of the people pure. Music changes customs and music 
guards and retains them. Therefore when establishing a govemr 
ment it is first necessary to create good music and have it per- 
formed at large, stop vulgar music and not let the people use it. 
Confucius in his advice to Oanyea about governing a country 
said '* the refined Sho dance is most important Prohibit the vulgar 
music TeiseL" Though in the Jin dynasty books of the sage 4 were 
burnt, Confucians and disciples of the sages killed, and all music 
and ceremonies stopped, yet in the Kan dynasty scholars were or- 
dered by Imperial decree to study the old books and revert to the 
ancient learning, and music and ceremonies once more flourished. 
Though it has never reached the excellence of the three ancient 
dynasties (Ea, In and Shiu) yet from the time of Kan every emper- 
or encouraged music and ceremonies, and music has been used bj 
the people. If there is ceremony there is sure to be music In 
worshipping the gods of heaven and earth, and the country and 
family shrines, music is always used. This is because it is 
impoesible to govern the world without music and ceremony. 
Though the music of the times subsequent to the K:in dynasty it 
not equal to that of ancient times it is the music of suburban 
temples and palaces, and vulgar music is not to be mentioned in 
the same breath. 


In Japan Shotokn Taishi, haying acquired the music of the 
middle kiugdom, had it tanght to several musicians and through 
its use in the palace, it has come down to the present time. The 
m\mc used in this country now is that of the dynasties of Kan to 
To. The Biwa ; Yokofuye ; So ; Tosho ; Shakuhachi, and Eakuko 
are all musical instruments of a later date than the Ean dynasty, 
but of the string instruments the Koto, and of the wind instru- 
ments the Sh5 are the most ancient of instruments which have 
come to this country. 

The So is used at Festivals, and has been in use since the Ean 
dynasty. It is evolved from the Koto, which has 25 strings while 
the So has half the number, or 18. The Wagoto is a very old instru- 
ment and said to date from the Kami no Yo, or time of the Goda 
It is something like the Chiku of the Middle Kingdom. In the mid- 
dle Kingdom up to the time of the To dynasty music was after the 
ancient Ktyle, but with the So dynasty there was a great change. 
The music of our country came from the people of To, therefore it 
is said to be mostly ancient and not to exist at present in the 
Middle Kingdom. We have also Korean music, but it is said there 
is no ancient Korean music in Korea itself, or Chosen as it k 
now called. 

In all countries throughout every generation music and 
ceremonies have been connected with G )veriinierit, therefore when 
any changes in Government arise the old luuf^ic is overthrown and 
lost and the new comes into ezistance. In Japan there is no 
new music 

At the time of Shotoku Taishi musicians were chosen who 
made music their profeesion, and guarded it, therefore for over 
1000 years music has come down to us undisturbed, and has been 
neither changed nor lost This is truly a wond erful and important 

In the Gonji MoDOgatari is found \he statement that in 


ancient times the Koto was chiefly used. At some period this 
teaching was lost, and' has never been recovered. The teaching 
of the Biwa, So, t.nd Japanese Koto have come to us. The 
Shakuhachi was a great favorite of the Emperor Genso of To. It 
was entirely used in dassical music. At some time this was 
changed and it now is the music of the lower classes. In the 
Horiuji at Nara there is said to be the Shakuhachi upon which 
Shotoku Taishi played. The length is one foot and eight bu. It 
was because it is of these dimensions that it was called Shaku- 
hachi, but it is now called Issetsudan, because it includes one 
knot of bamboO), The instrument used by the begging priests of 
to-day is wrongly called a ShakuhachL It is really a kind of 
Dosho called a Sansettsudan and includes three knots. The 
Dosho was formerly used for classic music The way of making 
it has come down through musicians, but no one of to-day can 
play upon it. The musical instruments of to-day are the three 
string instruments, Biwa, So and Japanese Koto, the three pipes ; 
Sho, Hichiriki, and Yokofuye, and the three drums ; Kakko, Taiko 
and Shoka 

Amongst the ancient songs are the Lnayo and BoyeL Though 
the Imayo is a song used by the people its language is almost 
classical. The Wakakan Eoyei is a collection of songs made by 
the Dainagon Kinto. It goes with both Pipes and Striugs, and is 
used by the highest and lowest classes of people. The vulgar 
sang and composed songs and even the daughters of hotel-keepera 
played and sang to these instruments. -^ 

When Shiga Hira of the Taira was a prisoner at Kamakura 
the (Geisha Seoju came and played the Gojoraku and the Doso- 
kosho music to him on the S5 for at that time there was no other 
music. High and low alike amused themselves with classical music 
But only songs and dances of Japanese origin named Shirabyoshi 
were liked by Kiyomori of the Taira. If this music be examined 


it will be iound different from the music of to-day and to have a 
classical foundation. The dance known as the Daito and used by 
the people at present is similar to the ancient Shirabyoehi, but the 
music now used is not the original. 

The Sarugaku and Dengaku music followed that of the Hojo 
period. It was vulgar music written by the musicians of the time, 
but not performed by people of rank. The upper ten of that time 
took pleasure in classical music only. Nitta Yoshisada played the 
flute, Ashikaga Takauji the Sho, Kusunoki Masashige the Biwa 
and all were far from mean players. 

When the Muromachi house came to an end the Sarugnku 
flourished. It was used at banquets in the palace and was the 
niu'^ic of the Shogons and its reign lasted within the seas of Japan 
for over 200 years. 

The Sarugaku was the kind of music used by the actors of the 
Middle Kingdom. Its tones were the ancient war cries of the 
northern barbarians, not at all peaceful or quiet 

Nearly every kind of music harmonizes with either strings or 
bamboos, but the songs of the Sarugaku do not. The notes of the 
flute used in the Sarugaku do not agree with rules, nor harmonize 
with strings. The shouts of the singer accompanying the Tsuzumi 
resemble the cries of criminals. All music is for creating a peace- 
ful mind, bat the Sarugaku is not of this nature, it is the yell of 
the fighter, and people who find pleasure in it unknowingly in- 
jure the peacefulness of their minds. There is also a dance called 
Sachiwaka which was composed by a man named Sachiwaka. It 
Is not known when it was first publbhed, but it is said to be 
modern. Although called a dance it is really not one, but consists 
in holding a fan and striking the hand with it to time and singing 
of the deeds of the ancients. This like the Sarugaka does not 
harmonize with music, and b not peaceful but warlike. 

In the Monogatari of the Biwahoshi the story of the house of 


Taira is sung to the playing of the Biwa. Yukinaga, a former 
lord of Shiuano, taught this to a blind man named Shobutsu and 
made him sing it. This is said to be the origin of the song. It is 
older and though the music cannot be said to be peaceful, it is 
quieter thftn the Saru^aku. 

With regard to the Sekkyo (that is the exposition of Buddhist 
Scriptures) its teachers were amongst the followers of Shakka, and 
the history of the rise of Buddhism was added to the Shomyonem- 
butsn. It was composed for the purpose of persuading people to 
join the Buddhist sect. Later on it told the stories of the loves 
and sorrows of the ancients of this and foreign countries. Again 
to incline people to Buddha it took the story of some famous 
priest to show the shortness of man's life. The language used is 
for the most part that of the people, but there are parts which do 
not belong to the vulgar music of this time. At one time it was 
accompanied by the beating of gongs but now uneducated 
musicians use the samisen. The Sekkyo has grief and pity as its 
subject, and honours man's tears. Too much pity in music is the 
beginning of lewdness, though the Sekkyo cannot be called lewd. 

^Jorori is very similar to Sekkyo. Its origin is not quite clear, 
people say that it originated in the daughter of one named Ono 
who lived in modern times. It is said to have been at first a 
piece of music called Jorori, consisting of an account of ancient 
history in 12 chapters made and sung by the daughter of a former 
headman of Yahagi, a post town of the province of Mikawa. This 
music after a time became very popular, and to it was added an 
account of the doings of ancient foreigners and Japanese. It was 
not the same all over the country. I'he tunes differed in the east 
and west It was sung chiefly by low class musicians and the 
blind. At first, as it contained an account of the famous ancients, 
its language was classic, but as it became popular with the people 
it told the stories of their loves, their jealousies, and loss of lives or 


property through profligate living. Hence its language became 
commonplace. Though the ancient language of the Jorori came 
from a poor Tillage it was the amusemeut of the governing class. 
It was not a very long piece of music, and it is no more used by 
the governing classes. 

Ill all countries where evil music Ls not prohibited the people 
compose all kinds of low songs, and men's hearts are made evil. 

In the ''Duties of a King'' as written in the Reiki it is said 
that in the times of the Former Kings any person making an 
immoral song was punished by death. Though the tunes of the 
people used always to be bad their words were for the most part 
classical. At present they are very low, provincial and noisy, and 
it is better for the hearers to cover their ears. The So was ori- 
ginally only used in classical music, but now it is not so and a 
different kind of music has been made for it, which is mostly used 
by the people. 

It was first used in Tsukushi which is the old name for Kiu- 
shiu, and is called Tsukushiso. The music for this came down to 
us as an adaptation of the classical Yettengaku. It is now used 
with all kinds of songs. Though it Ls not classical it has very few 
bad tones in it The Samisen and Kokiu are musical instruments 
used by the people. It is said that both of these have come 
over in modern times from the Loochoo islands, where they are 
iLsed for classical music, but in .Tai>an for the vulgar music of 
the people. The Samisen is very like the Kokiu of the Middle 
Kingdom. The Kokiu is similar to the Kuko. ^ Though the 
time of the Kokiu is slightly provincial, yet it has classical 
parts. The Samisen is extremely pleasing to the evil. The 
slightest tone from the Samisen immediately sets the evil heart 
in motion, in a way which no other musical instrument can 
In shape it is something like the Biwn, but the playing of the 
Biwa is simple, while Samisen playing is very quick and com- 


plez, and it accords with the voice of man better than any other 
musical instrument, and for making men joyful is much thought 
of by the people. Therefore unless the Sekkyo, Jorori and other 
songs used by the people are played to the music of Samisen, their 
beauties cannot be fully shewn. 

All the evil music ef the people is played by quick move- 
ments of the hands. This is specially noticed in the Samisen and 
thus are the ears of the people made glad and their hearts rejoice. 

At first the Samisen was only used by the blind, and low 
class musicians but now even the best classes learn it and of course 
amongst the samurai and other classes there are a large number of 
skilled players. Were the language pure, both the Samisen and 
Eokiu could be used with classical music, and become classic, but 
they are lued with only bad tunes and vulgar music, and are 
therefore altogether bad, just as such instruments as the So and 
Shakuhachi if they were used for evil music^ would give out 
vulgar tones. Thus the evil tonei are not the crimes of the 
instrument, but of the player. 

Nearly all music is based upon the voice of man. If the voice 
of man be pure then the tones of strings and bamboos will be pure 
too, but if his voice be evil so will be the tones of the pipes and 
cords. All music is the heart set to the tones of songs and played, 
unless the evil tones of the songs of the people are stopped, evil 
music cannot be put down. The songs of the vulgar do not tell 
of good, but of evil and profligate things. 

It is because the people have been accustomed to profligate 
tones from childhood that they please the heart of man. In the 
Middle Kingdom there are the Haiyu (actos) which aie the same aa 
the Kyogenshi (a kind of actor) of this countiy. The Zatsugeki 
(theatrical play) of the Middle Kingdom is the same as the 
Kabuki (opera ?) of this country. In the Middle Kingdom there 
is a law for the Haiyu which compels them to perform plays on 


filial piety and the doings of loyal retainers, no evil or onlawfiil 
matter being permitted. This is because of the fear of evil 
destroying the customs of the people. The Kabuki and Eyogen 
of to-day panders to the present public taste, and act the profligate 
doings of the public of the present times. Nothing exceeds this 
for breaking the customs of the people. It is all evil which is 
sung to the people. When the customs become depraved it is a 
calamity for the country. The harm that eyO music does to 
government is very far reaching. 

In ancient times Classical Music was spread all over the 
world, and all people took their pleasure therefrom, because there 
was no vulgar music for the people. But later all kinds of vulgar 
music were made, which pie ised the ears and eyes of the people 
and they seeing that it represented the vulgar heart of their times 
were amused and thought it funny, and thinking the Classical 
Music not so amusing Anally would have it no more. Though 
the Siirugaka is provincial and vulgar, and is only the voice of 
fighters and killers and does not harmooite with pipes and strings 
yet there are no lewd tones in it, and therefore it does not move 
men's hearts to evil. All other vulgar music is of lewd tonei^ and 
starts the evil heart of man: 

Of the popular tones there' is a difference between the ancient 
and modern. Though the ancient music were bad, the claasic 
language of Japan was used but it wfjs easy language, then as the 
earth advanced in age the customs changed and the music became 
too lew and disorderly to be allowed in people's houses or amongst 
relations. This is what is known as customs getting depraved. 
If classical music is not used by the state, and bad music is not 
prohibited, this is what happens. The saying that by hearing a 
person's music his virtues will be known originated from the 
belief that music comes from virtue. We can judge of the «rood 
or bad of the ancient world, by examining its music. As the 


poptilar music is from the people, from it the morals of the people 
of that age can be judged. Just as vulgar music breaks down 
customs, so by a miracle of heaven classical music must make 
customs pure. The reason that it is said that there is nothing 
which equals music in causing change is that the power of classical 
music changes the impure into the pure, and the deterioration oi 
the pure to the impure is the result of vulgar music The reason 
that the sages made music to amuse the people was to uphold the 
ancient customs without change for ever. 

It is truly a deep conception that the state is built up upon 
the fouiidalion of miisic and ceremoDy placed side by side. The 
Military Laws of Sonbu and Goki, the plan of Rotan and Soshi oi 
leaving everything to fate, the Punishments of Shiufugai and 
Kanpi, the Laws of Shoo and Bishi, and the hundreds of others, 
their principles of government were good, but because they dis- 
pensed with Ma^ic and Ceremony, though they might have kept 
the world governed in peace for a time, could not govern and 
civilize it for long. The two Emperors (Giyo and Shun) and three 
King«(of Ka, In, and Shu dynasties) employed the Music and Cere- 
monies of the sages and therefore governed the world in peace. 

Therefore in later times did any wish to learn from the go- 
vernment of former kings, they must uphold music and ceremony. 
Fortunately in Japan the ancient music has come down to us, 
and if used by the Emperor, the Samurai and others it will be a 
foundation to work upon, but the vulgar music and dances of the 
present must be put down, as much as possible, so a law ought to 
be made that the Sekkyo and Jorori shall only tell of the filial 
piety, brotherly love and duty of the ancients, and not of their 
depravity and disorder, and that all which hurts the life of man 
in the way of dances and theatricals shall be abolished. If all 
evil and disorder be banished from provincial songs and dances 
evil can be kept from men, and pure customs and long life to the 


state can be established. This is the teaching of tho Mndo and 
Ceremonies of the former kings. 

In my attempt to translate an Essay from one of the writen 
suggested to this Society by Sir Ernest Satow I have not only to 
plead a very slight knowledge of Political Economy, but in 
choosing the Essay oq Music, I have further to crave your pardon 
because of my absolute ignorance of the subject. The difficulty of 
putting into suitable English the equivalents of Dazai's technical 
t3rms has also been too much for me, as the words which I have 
translated Vulgar and Classica